Here's a great tip:
Enter your email address and we'll send you our weekly magazine by email with fresh, exciting and thoughtful content that will enrich your inbox and your life, week after week. And it's free.
Oh, and don't forget to like our facebook page too!
Printed from chabad.org
All Departments
Jewish Holidays
TheRebbe.org
Jewish.TV - Video
Jewish Audio
News
Kabbalah Online
JewishWoman.org
Kids Zone
Contact Us
Visit us on Facebook

Torah Reading for Behar-Bechukotai

Torah Reading for Behar-Bechukotai

Leviticus 25:1-27:34

E-mail
Select a portion:

1st Portion

Chapter 25

1. And the Lord spoke to Moses on Mount Sinai, saying,   א. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהֹוָה אֶל משֶׁה בְּהַר סִינַי לֵאמֹר:
on Mount Sinai: What [special relevance] does the subject of Shemittah [the “release” of fields in the seventh year] have with Mount Sinai? Were not all the commandments stated from Sinai? However, [this teaches us that] just as with Shemittah, its general principles and its finer details were all stated from Sinai, likewise, all of them were stated-their general principles [together with] their finer details-from Sinai. This is what is taught in Torath Kohanim (25:1). [And why is Shemittah used as the example to prove this rule, especially since the very fine details are not even specified here (Sefer Hazikkaron)?] It appears to me that its explanation is as follows: [At the plains of Moab, Moses reiterated the majority of the laws of the Torah to the Israelites before their entry into the land of Israel, this reiteration comprising most of the Book of Deuteronomy. Now,] since we do not find the laws of Shemittah [“release”] of land reiterated on the plains of Moab in Deuteronomy, we learn that its general principles, finer details, and explanations were all stated at Sinai. Scripture states this [phrase] here to teach us that [just as in the case of Shemittah,] every statement [i.e., every commandment] that was conveyed to Moses came from Sinai, [including] their general principles and finer details [and that the commandments delineated in Deuteronomy were merely] repeated and reviewed on the plains of Moab [not originally given there].   בהר סיני: מה ענין שמיטה אצל הר סיני, והלא כל המצות נאמרו מסיני, אלא מה שמיטה נאמרו כללותיה ופרטותיה ודקדוקיה מסיני, אף כולן נאמרו כללותיהן ודקדוקיהן מסיני, כך שנויה בתורת כהנים. ונראה לי שכך פירושה לפי שלא מצינו שמיטת קרקעות שנשנית בערבות מואב במשנה תורה, למדנו שכללותיה ופרטותיה כולן נאמרו מסיני, ובא הכתוב ולמד כאן על כל דבור שנדבר למשה שמסיני היו כולם כללותיהן ודקדוקיהן, וחזרו ונשנו בערבות מואב:
2. Speak to the children of Israel and you shall say to them: When you come to the land that I am giving you, the land shall rest a Sabbath to the Lord.   ב. דַּבֵּר אֶל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם כִּי תָבֹאוּ אֶל הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי נֹתֵן לָכֶם וְשָׁבְתָה הָאָרֶץ שַׁבָּת לַיהֹוָה:
a Sabbath to the Lord: For the sake of the Lord, just as is stated of the Sabbath of Creation (see Exod. 20:10) [i.e., just as every seventh day is a holy Sabbath day, acclaiming that God Himself rested on the seventh day and thus acclaiming that God is the Supreme Creator of all existence, likewise, man must rest from working the land on the seventh year, for the sake of God, not for the sake of the land, so that it should gain fertility by lying fallow for a year]. — [Sifthei Chachamim ; Torath Kohanim 25:7]   שבת לה': לשם ה', כשם שנאמר בשבת בראשית:
3. You may sow your field for six years, and for six years you may prune your vineyard, and gather in its produce,   ג. שֵׁשׁ שָׁנִים תִּזְרַע שָׂדֶךָ וְשֵׁשׁ שָׁנִים תִּזְמֹר כַּרְמֶךָ וְאָסַפְתָּ אֶת תְּבוּאָתָהּ:
4. But in the seventh year, the land shall have a complete rest a Sabbath to the Lord; you shall not sow your field, nor shall you prune your vineyard.   ד. וּבַשָּׁנָה הַשְּׁבִיעִת שַׁבַּת שַׁבָּתוֹן יִהְיֶה לָאָרֶץ שַׁבָּת לַיהֹוָה שָׂדְךָ לֹא תִזְרָע וְכַרְמְךָ לֹא תִזְמֹר:
the land shall have [a complete rest]: for fields and vineyards [but you may dig holes in your land]. — [Sifthei Chachamim]   יהיה לארץ: לשדות ולכרמים:
nor shall you prune: Heb. לֹא תִזְמֹר. [This refers to the procedure in which] they cut off the [excessive] vine-branches (זְמוֹרוֹת) [and this expression] is rendered [by Onkelos] as לָא תִכְסָח, you shall not cut off, and similar to it is “as thorns cut down (כְּסוּחִים) [that are burned in fire]” (Isa. 33:12), and "it is burned with fire, it is cut (כְּסוּחָה) down.   לא תזמר: שקוצצין זמורותיה. ותרגומו לא תכסח, ודומה לו (ישעיה לג יב) קוצים כסוחים, (תהלים פ יז) שרופה באש כסוחה:
5. You shall not reap the aftergrowth of your harvest, and you shall not pick the grapes you had set aside [for yourself], [for] it shall be a year of rest for the land.   ה. אֵת סְפִיחַ קְצִירְךָ לֹא תִקְצוֹר וְאֶת עִנְּבֵי נְזִירֶךָ לֹא תִבְצֹר שְׁנַת שַׁבָּתוֹן יִהְיֶה לָאָרֶץ:
the aftergrowth of your harvest: although you did not sow it, but it grew by itself from seeds that [inadvertently] had dropped on [the ground] at the time of harvesting. This is called סְפִיחַ.   את ספיח קצירך: אפילו לא זרעתה והיא צמחה מן הזרע שנפל בה בעת הקציר, הוא קרוי ספיח:
You shall not reap: to keep it like a regular harvest, but it must be rendered ownerless, [and available] for everyone [to take at will]. — [Be’er Basadeh]   לא תקצור: להיות מחזיק בו כשאר קציר, אלא הפקר יהיה לכל:
the grapes you had set aside [for yourself]: [i.e., those grapes] that you set aside (הִנְזַרְתָּ) and kept people away from them and did not declare them ownerless.   נזירך: שהנזרת והפרשת בני אדם מהם ולא הפקרתם:
you shall not pick: Those, you shall not pick, but [you may pick] from crops declared ownerless. — [Torath Kohanim 25:8]   לא תבצר: אותם אינך בוצר, אלא מן המופקר:
6. And [the produce of] the Sabbath of the land shall be yours to eat for you, for your male and female slaves, and for your hired worker and resident who live with you,   ו. וְהָיְתָה שַׁבַּת הָאָרֶץ לָכֶם לְאָכְלָה לְךָ וּלְעַבְדְּךָ וְלַאֲמָתֶךָ וְלִשְׂכִירְךָ וּלְתוֹשָׁבְךָ הַגָּרִים עִמָּךְ:
And [the produce of] the Sabbath of the land, shall be [yours to eat]: Although I have prohibited the produce [of the Shemittah year] to you, I did not prohibit you to eat it or to derive benefit from it, only that you should not treat it as if you were its owner. Rather, everyone is deemed equal [regarding the use of the Shemittah year’s produce]-you, [your slaves,] and your hired worker and resident.   והיתה שבת הארץ וגו': אף על פי שאסרתים עליך, לא באכילה ולא בהנאה אסרתים, אלא שלא תנהוג בהם כבעל הבית, אלא הכל יהיו שוים בה, אתה ושכירך ותושבך:
And the produce of the Sabbath of the land... yours to eat: שַׁבַּת הָאָרֶץ. You may eat from what you treated as ownerless (שָׁבוּת), [see Sifthei Chachamim], but from that [produce] which is stored away, you shall not eat. — [Torath Kohanim 25:10]   שבת הארץ לכם לאכלה: מן השבות אתה אוכל, ואי אתה אוכל מן השמור:
for you, for your male and female slaves: Since Scripture says [regarding Shemittah], “and the poor of your people shall eat [it]” (Exod. 23:11), one might think that it [the produce of the Shemittah year] is prohibited to be eaten by wealthy people. Scripture, therefore, says here, “for you, for your male and female slaves,”-we see that the [wealthy] owners and the male and female slaves are included here [to permit them also to eat of the Shemittah year produce]. — [Torath Kohanim 25:12 and see Sefer Hazikkaron]   לך ולעבדך ולאמתך: לפי שנאמר (שמות כג יא) ואכלו אביוני עמך, יכול יהיו אסורים באכילה לעשירים, תלמוד לומר לך ולעבדך ולאמתך, הרי בעלים ועבדים ושפחות אמורים כאן:
and for your hired worker and resident [who live with you]: Even non-Jews. — [Torath Kohanim 25:14] [Hired worker is one hired by the day. Resident is one hired by the year (Bechor Shor).]   ולשכירך ולתושבך: אף הגוים:
7. And all of its produce may be eaten [also] by your domestic animals and by the beasts that are in your land.   ז. וְלִבְהֶמְתְּךָ וְלַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר בְּאַרְצֶךָ תִּהְיֶה כָל תְּבוּאָתָהּ לֶאֱכֹל:
by your domestic animals and by the beasts: But if a beast may eat [Shemittah produce], how much more so are domestic animals [allowed to eat it], since you are obliged to feed them! So why does Scripture mention “by your domestic animals”? [The answer is that Scripture] compares the domestic animal to the beast. As long as beasts [have a particular food available for them to] eat in the field, you may feed your domestic animals from your house. However, once that [particular food] has been consumed by the beasts in the field, you must remove what you had [stored] in your house for your domestic animals [and make that food freely available to everyone]. — [Torath Kohanim 25:15]   ולבהמתך ולחיה: אם חיה אוכלת בהמה לא כל שכן, שמזונותיה עליך, מה תלמוד לומר ולבהמתך, מקיש בהמה לחיה, כל זמן שחיה אוכלת מן השדה האכל לבהמתך מן הבית, כלה לחיה מן השדה כלה לבהמתך מן הבית:
8. And you shall count for yourself seven sabbatical years, seven years seven times. And the days of these seven sabbatical years shall amount to forty nine years for you.   ח. וְסָפַרְתָּ לְךָ שֶׁבַע שַׁבְּתֹת שָׁנִים שֶׁבַע שָׁנִים שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים וְהָיוּ לְךָ יְמֵי שֶׁבַע שַׁבְּתֹת הַשָּׁנִים תֵּשַׁע וְאַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה:
sabbatical years: Heb. שַׁבְּתֹת שָׁנִים, sabbatical years. Now, [since our verse therefore tells us to count “seven sabbatical years,”] one might think that we should observe seven consecutive sabbatical years, and then make a Jubilee year after them. Scripture, therefore, continues here, “seven years seven times,” thus showing us that every Shemittah year occurs in its own time [namely, every seventh year]. — [Torath Kohanim 25:13]   שבתת שנים: שמטות שנים. יכול יעשה שבע שנים רצופות שמטה ויעשה יובל אחריהם, תלמוד לומר שבע שנים שבע פעמים, הוי אומר כל שמטה ושמטה בזמנה:
And the days of these seven [sabbatical years will amount to forty-nine years]: [But is it not already clear that seven years seven times equals forty-nine? However, this] comes to tell us that even though you have not observed the Shemittah years [throughout that period], nevertheless, make a Jubilee at the end of forty-nine years. — [Torath Kohanim 25:14] [This is a Midrashic explanation, linking the end of our verse with the next, to read, “And the days of these seven sabbatical years will amount to forty-nine years for you (and) Then…you shall proclaim with shofar blasts.”] The simple meaning of our verse is, however, that the calculation of the years of the Shemittah cycles will amount to the number forty-nine.   והיו לך ימי שבע וגו': מגיד לך שאף על פי שלא עשית שמטות עשה יובל לסוף מ"ט שנה. ופשוטו של מקרא יעלה לך חשבון שנות השמטות למספר מ"ט:
9. You shall proclaim [with] the shofar blasts, in the seventh month, on the tenth of the month; on the Day of Atonement, you shall sound the shofar throughout your land.   ט. וְהַעֲבַרְתָּ שׁוֹפַר תְּרוּעָה בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִעִי בֶּעָשׂוֹר לַחֹדֶשׁ בְּיוֹם הַכִּפֻּרִים תַּעֲבִירוּ שׁוֹפָר בְּכָל אַרְצְכֶם:
You shall proclaim: Heb. וַהַעֲבַרְתָּ, [lit., “you shall pass” something from one place to another. But here, this term] stems from [the similar expression in the verse], “and they proclaimed (וַיַּעֲבִירוּ קוֹל) throughout the camp” (Exod. 36:6), an expression of proclamation. — [R.H. 34a]   והעברת: לשון (שמות לו ו) ויעבירו קול במחנה, לשון הכרזה:
[On the tenth of the month,] on the Day of Atonement: But since it says, “on the Day of Atonement,” do I not already know that this occurs “on the tenth of the month”? So why does Scripture need to state, “on the tenth of the month”? However, [it does so,] in order to teach you the following: [The obligation] to sound the shofar on the tenth of the month [i.e., on the Yom Kippur of the Jubilee year] overrides the [prohibition of sounding the shofar on the] Sabbath “throughout your entire land,” whereas [the obligation] to sound the shofar on Rosh Hashanah does not override the [prohibition of sounding the shofar on] Sabbath “throughout your entire land,” except in the court of law [where this prohibition does not apply (see Ramban on our verse)]. — [Torath Kohanim 25:16]   ביום הכפורים: ממשמע שנאמר ביום הכפורים איני יודע שהוא בעשור לחדש, אם כן למה נאמר בעשור לחדש, אלא לומר לך תקיעת עשור לחדש דוחה שבת בכל ארצכם, ואין תקיעת ראש השנה דוחה שבת בכל ארצכם, אלא בבית דין בלבד:
10. And you shall sanctify the fiftieth year, and proclaim freedom [for slaves] throughout the land for all who live on it. It shall be a Jubilee for you, and you shall return, each man to his property,_ and you shall return, each man to his family.   י. וְקִדַּשְׁתֶּם אֵת שְׁנַת הַחֲמִשִּׁים שָׁנָה וּקְרָאתֶם דְּרוֹר בָּאָרֶץ לְכָל ישְׁבֶיהָ יוֹבֵל הִוא תִּהְיֶה לָכֶם וְשַׁבְתֶּם אִישׁ אֶל אֲחֻזָּתוֹ וְאִישׁ אֶל מִשְׁפַּחְתּוֹ תָּשֻׁבוּ:
And you shall sanctify [the fiftieth year]: [How?] At its commencement, [this Jubilee year] is sanctified in the court, [at which time] they declare: “This year is holy!”   וקדשתם: בכניסתה מקדשין אותה בבית דין ואומרים מקודשת השנה:
and proclaim freedom: for slaves, whether a נִרְצָע [a Jewish slave who chose to remain with his master even after his being permitted to go free at the end of six years and who therefore had to have his ear bored (see Exod. 21:16) or a slave] for whom his six-year period since having been sold has not yet elapsed. Said Rabbi Judah: What does this term דְּרוֹר mean? As one who dwells (כִּמְדַייֵר) in a dwelling (בֵּי דַייְרָא) etc., who dwells wherever he wishes, and is not under the domain of others [thus, the term דְּרוֹר denotes “freedom”]. — [Torath Kohanim 25:18, R.H. 9b and see Rashi there]   וקראתם דרור: לעבדים, בין נרצע, בין שלא כלו לו שש שנים משנמכר. אמר ר' יהודה מהו לשון דרור, כמדייר בי דיירא ומסחר בכל מדינה וכו', שדר בכל מקום שהוא רוצה ואינו ברשות אחרים:
It shall be a Jubilee: This year is distinguished from all other years, for only it has a special name. And what is that name? It is called יוֹבֵל [meaning “ram’s horn” (see Rashi on Exod. 19:13)], because of the shofar that is sounded [upon its commencement].   יובל הוא: שנה זאת מובדלת משאר שנים בנקיבת שם לה לבדה. ומה שמה, יובל שמה, על שם תקיעת שופר:
and you shall return, each man to his property: that the fields revert to their owners. [This verse does not mean that the owner must return to his field, but that the ownership of the field returns to the one who had sold it (Mesiach Illemim)].   ושבתם איש אל אחזתו: שהשדות חוזרות לבעליהן:
and you shall return, each man to his family: [This clause comes] to include the “bored one.” (See second Rashi on this verse.) - [Kid. 15a]   ואיש אל משפחתו תשבו: לרבות את הנרצע:
11. This fiftieth year shall be a Jubilee for you you shall not sow, nor shall you reap its aftergrowth or pick [its grapes] that you had set aside [for yourself].   יא. יוֹבֵל הִוא שְׁנַת הַחֲמִשִּׁים שָׁנָה תִּהְיֶה לָכֶם לֹא תִזְרָעוּ וְלֹא תִקְצְרוּ אֶת סְפִיחֶיהָ וְלֹא תִבְצְרוּ אֶת נְזִרֶיהָ:
This fiftieth year shall be a Jubilee for you: What does this come to teach us?“ Since Scripture says (preceding verse),”And you shall sanctify [the fiftieth year,“ one might think that just as, at the beginning of the year, it gains sanctity progressively, so should its sanctity extend after the year, as it is with other instances of sanctification of holy times, e.g., Sabbath or a holy Festival, with which some ordinary time is added on to the holy time, here, too, some of the year following the Jubilee must be added on to it. Scripture, therefore, says, ”This fiftieth year shall be a Jubilee for you" - only the fiftieth year, with no extensions. The above] is taught in Tractate R.H. (8b) and Torath Kohanim (25:23).   יובל הוא שנת החמשים שנה: מה תלמוד לומר, לפי שנאמר וקדשתם וגו', כדאיתא בראש השנה (ח ב) ובתורת כהנים:
its [grapes that] you had set aside: Heb. נְזִרֶיהָ, those grapes stored away, but you may harvest those that have been rendered ownerless. [For] just as with Shemittah [the term נְזִירֶךָ] is stated [specifically referring to grapes (see Rashi verse 5 above)], so with Jubilee, [this term נְזִרֶיהָ] is stated [and refers specifically to grapes, for Shemittah and Jubilee are equal in all matters. (Mesiach Illemim, Devek Tov, Sifthei Chachamim) See also Be’er Basadeh, Maskil L’David]. Thus, two holy years are found right next to each other-the forty-ninth year [in each cycle] is Shemittah and the fiftieth year is Jubilee.   את נזריה: את הענבים המשומרים. אבל בוצר אתה מן המופקרים, כשם שנאמר בשביעית כך נאמר ביובל, נמצאו שתי שנים קדושות סמוכות זו לזו, שנת מ"ט שמטה ושנת החמישים יובל:
12. For it is Jubilee. It shall be holy for you; you shall eat its produce from the field.   יב. כִּי יוֹבֵל הִוא קֹדֶשׁ תִּהְיֶה לָכֶם מִן הַשָּׂדֶה תֹּאכְלוּ אֶת תְּבוּאָתָהּ:
It shall be holy for you: [The produce of Jubilee] attaches its holiness onto the money [it is sold for] like items dedicated to the Holy Temple. However, one might think that [just like items dedicated to the Holy Temple, this produce] leaves [its holy status,] to become unholy-Scripture, therefore, says here “It shall be,” [as if to say,] they shall remain as they were. — [Suk. 40b]   קדש תהיה לכם: תופסת דמיה כהקדש. יכול תצא היא לחולין, תלמוד לומר תהיה, בהוויתה תהא:
You shall eat [its produce] from the field: You shall [gauge your] eating in the house, by way of the field. [That is to say,] once [a particular food] has been consumed by the beasts in the field, you must remove [what you had stored of that food] from your house [and make it freely available to all]. (See Rashi on verse 7 above; Torath Kohanim 25:26). Just as was stated regarding Shemittah, so it is stated regarding the Jubilee.   מן השדה תאכלו: על ידי השדה אתה אוכל מן הבית, שאם כלה לחיה מן השדה אתה צריך לבער מן הבית, כשם שנאמר בשביעית כך נאמר ביובל:
13. During this Jubilee year, you shall return, each man to his property.   יג. בִּשְׁנַת הַיּוֹבֵל הַזֹּאת תָּשֻׁבוּ אִישׁ אֶל אֲחֻזָּתוֹ:
you shall return, each man to his property: But has this not already been stated, [when Scripture says], “ and you shall return, each man to his property” (verse 10 above)? However, [this clause is stated here,] to include one who sold his field, and his son arose and redeemed it, that it reverts to his father in the Jubilee. — [Torath Kohanim 25:28]   תשבו איש אל אחזתו: והרי כבר נאמר (פסוק י) ושבתם איש אל אחזתו, אלא לרבות המוכר שדהו ועמד בנו וגאלה שחוזרת לאביו ביובל:
14. And when you make a sale to your fellow Jew or make a purchase from the hand of your fellow Jew, you shall not wrong one another.   יד. וְכִי תִמְכְּרוּ מִמְכָּר לַעֲמִיתֶךָ אוֹ קָנֹה מִיַּד עֲמִיתֶךָ אַל תּוֹנוּ אִישׁ אֶת אָחִיו:
And when you make a sale to your fellow-Jew or make a purchase from your fellow-Jew: Its simple meaning is obvious. The verse can also be expounded [to teach us the following lesson]: How do we know that when you wish to sell, you should sell to your fellow-Jew? For Scripture says, “ וְכִי תִמְכְּרוּ מִמְכָּר לַעֲמִיתֶךָ,” i.e., “And when you make a sale--sell to your fellow-Jew!” And how do we know that if you come to buy, you should buy from your fellow-Jew? For Scripture continues here: “אוֹ קָנֹה מִיַּד עֲמִיתֶךָ,” i.e., “or when you buy--buy from your fellow-Jew!” - [Torath Kohanim 25:29]   וכי תמכרו וגו': לפי פשוטו כמשמעו. ועוד יש דרשה מנין כשאתה מוכר, מכור לישראל חברך, תלמוד לומר וכי תמכרו ממכר לעמיתך מכור, ומנין שאם באת לקנות קנה מישראל חברך, תלמוד לומר או קנה מיד עמיתך:
you shall not wrong: This means wronging through money (see verse 17 below and Lev. 19:33). - [Torath Kohanim 25:31]   אל תונו: זו אונאת ממון:
15. According to the number of years after the Jubilee, you shall purchase from your fellow Jew; according to the number of years of crops, he shall sell to you.   טו. בְּמִסְפַּר שָׁנִים אַחַר הַיּוֹבֵל תִּקְנֶה מֵאֵת עֲמִיתֶךָ בְּמִסְפַּר שְׁנֵי תְבוּאֹת יִמְכָּר לָךְ:
According to the number of years after the Jubilee, you shall purchase: The following is its simple meaning, to explain the verse according to its context: [The text] comes to warn against wronging [by overcharging, thereby linking verses 14-16 together (Mizrachi)], [namely, that] when you sell or purchase land, you should be aware of how many years remain until the [next] Jubilee, and according to [that number of] years and the crops that it is fit to yield, the seller should sell and the buyer should buy. For indeed, he will eventually return it to him in the Jubilee year. Thus, if there are [only] a few years [left until the next Jubilee year], and this one sells it for a high price, the purchaser has been wronged. And if there are many years [left until the next Jubilee year], and he will eat many crops from it [until Jubilee-if the purchaser had purchased the land for a low price], the seller has been wronged. Therefore, it must be purchased according to the time [left until the next Jubilee]. And this is [the meaning of] what it says, תְבוּאֹת יִמְכָּרלָ בְּמִסְפַּר שְׁנֵי, “according to the number of years of crops, he shall sell to you.” “According to the number of years of crop yields that it will remain in the hands of the purchaser, you shall sell it to him.” Now, [the word שְׁנֵי can mean “years of” or can mean “two.” Thus,] our Rabbis have expounded from here (see end of this Rashi for clarification), that one who sells his field is not permitted to redeem it in less than two years, that it must remain in the purchaser’s possession for exactly two years to the day, even if there are three crops during those two years, for example, if he sold it to him with crop standing in it [and then the ensuing years brought two more yields of produce. In that case, the seller cannot redeem after one year, claiming that two years’ crops have been issued,] for the word שְׁנֵי [which could mean two, i.e., two yields] does not leave its simple meaning [that it means years,] referring to [the number of years that elapse and] specifically, years that elapse with a yield of crop, but not years of blight. [Now, if the word שְׁנֵי means “years” and not two, then how do our Rabbis expound it to mean “two years”?] Because [the term שְׁנֵי is plural, and] the minimum quantity implied by שָׁנִים is two. — [Arachin 29b; Mizrachi]   במספר שנים אחר היובל תקנה: זהו פשוטו ליישב מקרא על אופניו על האונאה בא להזהיר, כשתמכור או תקנה קרקע דע כמה שנים יש עד היובל. ולפי השנים ותבואות השדה שהיא ראויה לעשות ימכור המוכר ויקנה הקונה, שהרי סופו להחזירה לו בשנת היובל. ואם יש שנים מועטות וזה מוכרה בדמים יקרים הרי נתאנה לוקח, ואם יש שנים מרובות ואכל ממנה תבואות הרבה ולקחה בדמים מועטים הרי נתאנה מוכר, לפיכך צריך לקנותה לפי הזמן. וזהו שנאמר במספר שני תבואות ימכר לך, לפי מנין שני התבואות שתהא עומדת ביד הלוקח תמכור לו. ורבותינו דרשו מכאן, שהמוכר שדהו אינו רשאי לגאול פחות משתי שנים, שתעמוד שתי שנים ביד הלוקח מיום ליום, ואפילו יש שלש תבואות באותן שתי שנים, כגון שמכרה לו בקמותיה. ושני אינו יוצא מפשוטו, כלומר מספר שנים של תבואות, ולא של שדפון, ומעוט שנים שנים:
16. The more [the remaining] years, you shall increase its purchase [price], and the fewer the [remaining] years, you shall decrease its purchase [price], because he is selling you a number of crops.   טז. לְפִי | רֹב הַשָּׁנִים תַּרְבֶּה מִקְנָתוֹ וּלְפִי מְעֹט הַשָּׁנִים תַּמְעִיט מִקְנָתוֹ כִּי מִסְפַּר תְּבוּאֹת הוּא מֹכֵר לָךְ:
you shall increase its purchase: You should sell it at a high price.   תרבה מקנתו: תמכרנה ביוקר:
you shall decrease its purchase: You should sell it for less money [than in the case in which many years are left until the Jubilee]. — [Mizrachi].   תמעיט מקנתו: תמעיט בדמיה:
17. And you shall not wrong, one man his fellow Jew, and you shall fear your God, for I am the Lord, your God.   יז. וְלֹא תוֹנוּ אִישׁ אֶת עֲמִיתוֹ וְיָרֵאתָ מֵאֱלֹהֶיךָ כִּי אֲנִי יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם:
And you shall not wrong, one man his fellow-Jew: Here, [as opposed to the same expression in verse 14 above (see Rashi there),] Scripture is warning against wronging verbally, namely, that one must not provoke his fellow [Jew], nor may one offer advice to him that is unsound for him but according to the mode of life or the benefit of the advisor. And if you say, “Who can tell whether I had evil intentions [when I talked to my fellow in an insulting manner? Perhaps I did so in order to make him feel remorseful and repent his ways].” (see Be’er Basadeh). Therefore, it says, “and you shall fear your God.”-The One Who knows all thoughts-He knows. Concerning anything held in the heart and known only to the one who bears this thought in his mind, it says “and you shall fear your God!” - [B.M. 58b]   ולא תונו איש את עמיתו: כאן הזהיר על אונאת דברים, שלא יקניט איש את חברו לא ישיאנו עצה שאינה הוגנת לו לפי דרכו והנאתו של יועץ. ואם תאמר, מי יודע אם נתכוונתי לרעה, לכך נאמר ויראת מאלהיך, היודע מחשבות הוא יודע. כל דבר המסור ללב, שאין מכיר אלא מי שהמחשבה בלבו, נאמר בו ויראת מאלהיך:
18. You shall perform My statutes, keep My ordinances and perform them then you will live on the land securely.   יח. וַעֲשִׂיתֶם אֶת חֻקֹּתַי וְאֶת מִשְׁפָּטַי תִּשְׁמְרוּ וַעֲשִׂיתֶם אֹתָם וִישַׁבְתֶּם עַל הָאָרֶץ לָבֶטַח:
Then you will live on the land securely: because it is through the transgression of [the laws of] Shemittah that the Israelites are exiled [from their land], as the verse says, “Then, the land will appease its Sabbaths. [All the days of desolation while you are in the land of your enemies -] the land will rest and appease its Sabbaths” (Lev. 26:34). And the seventy years of the Babylonian exile [when the land remained forcibly at rest], corresponded to the seventy years of Shemittah not observed by Israel, [and thus came to rectify and “appease” them]. [see Rashi Lev. 26:25 where the calculation is explained; Shab. 33a; and see II Chron. 36:21]   וישבתם על הארץ לבטח: שבעון שמטה ישראל גולים, שנאמר (ויקרא כו לד) אז תרצה הארץ את שבתותיה והרצת את שבתותיה, ושבעים שנה של גלות בבל, כנגד שבעים שמטות שבטלו היו:

2nd Portion

Chapter 25

19. And the land will then yield its fruit and you will eat to satiety, and live upon it securely.   יט. וְנָתְנָה הָאָרֶץ פִּרְיָהּ וַאֲכַלְתֶּם לָשׂבַע וִישַׁבְתֶּם לָבֶטַח עָלֶיהָ:
And the land will then yield [its fruit…and you will…] live upon it securely: i.e., you will have no worry about a year of drought.   ונתנה הארץ וגו' וישבתם לבטח עליה: שלא תדאגו משנת בצורת:
and you will eat to satiety: There will be a blessing in it even inside your innards.   ואכלתם לשבע: אף בתוך המעים תהא בו ברכה:
20. And if you should say, "What will we eat in the seventh year? We will not sow, and we will not gather in our produce!"   כ. וְכִי תֹאמְרוּ מַה נֹּאכַל בַּשָּׁנָה הַשְּׁבִיעִת הֵן לֹא נִזְרָע וְלֹא נֶאֱסֹף אֶת תְּבוּאָתֵנוּ:
and will not gather in: to the house [for storage (Sefer Hazikkaron)].   ולא נאסף: אל הבית:
our produce: for example, wine and fruit of the trees and aftergrowth that grew spontaneously [and that, therefore, was not sown by you]. — [Pes. 51b]   את תבואתנו: כגון יין ופירות האילן וספיחין הבאים מאליהם:
21. [Know then, that] I will command My blessing for you in the sixth year, and it will yield produce for three years.   כא. וְצִוִּיתִי אֶת בִּרְכָתִי לָכֶם בַּשָּׁנָה הַשִּׁשִּׁית וְעָשָׂת אֶת הַתְּבוּאָה לִשְׁלשׁ הַשָּׁנִים:
for three years: for part of the sixth year from Nissan [when the crop is reaped] until Rosh Hashanah, for the [entire] seventh [Shemittah] year, and for the eighth [year, namely,] for they will sow [a new crop] in Marcheshvan of the eighth year and reap [this new crop] in Nissan [while still eating of the sixth year’s crop].   לשלש השנים: למקצת הששית מניסן ועד ראש השנה, ולשביעית ולשמינית, שיזרעו בשמינית במרחשון ויקצרו בניסן:
22. And you will sow in the eighth year, while [still] eating from the old crops until the ninth year; until the arrival of its crop, you will eat the old [crop].   כב. וּזְרַעְתֶּם אֵת הַשָּׁנָה הַשְּׁמִינִת וַאֲכַלְתֶּם מִן הַתְּבוּאָה יָשָׁן עַד | הַשָּׁנָה הַתְּשִׁיעִת עַד בּוֹא תְּבוּאָתָהּ תֹּאכְלוּ יָשָׁן:
until the ninth year: Until the Festival of Succoth in the ninth year, the time the crop of the eighth year is brought into the house, for throughout the summer season, it was kept in granaries in the field. In Tishrei-that is the time the crop is gathered into the house. Now, there were occasions when it would need to yield for four years, namely: in the sixth year preceding the seventh Shemittah, when they would refrain from doing work on the land for two consecutive years, the seventh year and the Jubilee year. Our verse, however, refers to all the other Shemittah years [i.e., the first through sixth cycles of Shemittah]. — [see Ned. 61a]   עד השנה התשיעת: עד חג הסכות של תשיעית, שהיא עת בוא תבואתה של שמינית לתוך הבית, שכל ימות הקיץ היו בשדה בגרנות, ובתשרי הוא עת האסיף לבית. ופעמים שהיתה צריכה לעשות לארבע שנים, בששית שלפני השמטה השביעית, שהן בטלין מעבודת קרקע שתי שנים רצופות השביעית והיובל, ומקרא זה נאמר בשאר השמטות כולן:
23. The land shall not be sold permanently, for the land belongs to Me, for you are strangers and [temporary] residents with Me.   כג. וְהָאָרֶץ לֹא תִמָּכֵר לִצְמִתֻת כִּי לִי הָאָרֶץ כִּי גֵרִים וְתוֹשָׁבִים אַתֶּם עִמָּדִי:
The land shall not be sold [permanently]: [Although this is already understood from the earlier verses in our passage (10 and 13), it is stated here] to impose a negative commandment regarding the reversion of fields to their [original] owners in Jubilee, that the purchaser must not seize [the land] forcibly [in an effort to keep it as a “permanent” sale].   והארץ לא תמכר: ליתן לאו על חזרת שדות לבעלים ביובל, שלא יהא הלוקח כובשה:
permanently: לִצְמִתֻת, irreversibly. [Thus, the לֹא תִמָּכֵר לִצְמִתֻת, has the meaning of] a permanent, irreversible sale.   לצמתת: לפסיקה, למכירה פסוקה עולמית:
for the land belongs to Me: [Says God:] Do not be selfish about the land [hesitating to return it to its rightful owner at Jubilee], because the land does not belong to you. - [Torath Kohanim 25:39]   כי לי הארץ: אל תרע עינך בה שאינה שלך:
24. Therefore, throughout the land of your possession, you shall give redemption for the land.   כד. וּבְכֹל אֶרֶץ אֲחֻזַּתְכֶם גְּאֻלָּה תִּתְּנוּ לָאָרֶץ:
throughout the land of your possession: [The seemingly superfluous word here, “throughout,”] comes to include [the right of relatives to redeem] houses [of walled cities (Sifthei Chachamim , Rashi on Kid. 21a)] and a Hebrew slave. This matter is explained in the first chapter of Tractate Kid. (21a). And according to its simple meaning, [this] is connected to the passage that follows, that one who sells his property is permitted to redeem it after two years-either he or his relative, and that the purchaser cannot impede [this redemption].   ובכל ארץ אחזתכם: לרבות בתים ועבד עברי, ודבר זה מפורש בקידושין בפרק ראשון (דף כא א). ולפי פשוטו סמוך לפרשה שלאחריו, שהמוכר אחוזתו רשאי לגאלה לאחר שתי שנים או הוא או קרובו, ואין הלוקח יכול לעכב:
25. If your brother becomes destitute and sells some of his inherited property, his redeemer who is related to him shall come forth and redeem his brother's sale.   כה. כִּי יָמוּךְ אָחִיךָ וּמָכַר מֵאֲחֻזָּתוֹ וּבָא גֹאֲלוֹ הַקָּרֹב אֵלָיו וְגָאַל אֵת מִמְכַּר אָחִיו:
If your brother becomes destitute and sells: [This] teaches [us] that a person may not sell his field except when under the pressure of poverty. - [Torath Kohanim 25:41]   כי ימוך אחיך ומכר: מלמד שאין אדם רשאי למכור שדהו אלא מחמת דוחק עוני:
some of his inherited property: But not all of it. [Scripture] teaches [us] proper conduct, namely, that he should leave one field for himself. — [Torath Kohanim 25:41]   מאחזתו: ולא כולה, למד דרך ארץ שישייר שדה לעצמו:
and redeem his brother’s sale: and the purchaser cannot impede [the redemption].   וגאל את ממכר אחיו: ואין הלוקח יכול לעכב:
26. And if a man does not have a redeemer, but he gains enough means to afford its redemption,   כו. וְאִישׁ כִּי לֹא יִהְיֶה לּוֹ גֹּאֵל וְהִשִּׂיגָה יָדוֹ וּמָצָא כְּדֵי גְאֻלָּתוֹ:
And if a man does not have a redeemer: But is there a man in Israel who has no [relative] to redeem [his sale]? However, [Scripture means] a redeemer who is [financially] able to redeem his sale. — [Kid. 21a]   ואיש כי לא יהיה לו גאל: וכי יש לך אדם בישראל שאין לו גואלים, אלא גואל שיוכל לגאול ממכרו:
27. he shall calculate the years for which the land has been sold, and return the remainder to the man to whom he sold it, and [then] he may return to his inheritance.   כז. וְחִשַּׁב אֶת שְׁנֵי מִמְכָּרוֹ וְהֵשִׁיב אֶת הָעֹדֵף לָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר מָכַר לוֹ וְשָׁב לַאֲחֻזָּתוֹ:
he shall calculate the years of his sale: [The original owner asks the purchaser:] “How many years were left until the [next] Jubilee?” [He answers:] “Such-and-such [a number of years].” [The owner continues:] “And how much did I sell it to you for?” [He answers:] “For such-and-such [an amount of money].” [Continues the original owner:] “You would have eventually had to return the field to me at Jubilee.” Hence, [rather than buying actual land,] in effect, you bought [from me] a number of produce yields, according to the total for every year [remaining until Jubilee]. Now, you have eaten from it for three or four years [or whatever the amount may be]. Therefore, subtract their value from the total [i.e., from the original sale price], and take the remainder [until Jubilee].“ And this is the meaning of ”and return the remainder" of the purchase price over the crops he had eaten, and he shall give it to the purchaser.   וחשב את שני ממכרו: כמה שנים היו עד היובל, כך וכך. ובכמה מכרתיה לך בכך וכך. עתיד היית להחזירה ביובל, נמצאת קונה מספר התבואות כפי חשבון של כל שנה. אכלת אותה שלש שנים או ארבע הוצא את דמיהן מן החשבון וטול את השאר, וזהו והשיב את העדף - בדמי המקח על האכילה שאכלה, ויתנם ללוקח:
the man to whom he had sold [it]: [i.e., “the man to whom he-] this seller who is coming to redeem it- [had sold it.” If the first purchaser had sold it to another person for a higher price, the original owner makes the above calculation only with the first purchaser to whom he sold the field and not with the subsequent purchaser]. — [Arachin 30a; Mizrachi]   לאיש אשר מכר לו: המוכר הזה שבא לגאלה:
28. But if he cannot afford enough to repay him, his sale shall remain in the possession of the one who has purchased it, until the Jubilee year. And then, in the Jubilee year, it shall go out and revert to his inheritance.   כח. וְאִם לֹא מָצְאָה יָדוֹ דֵּי הָשִׁיב לוֹ וְהָיָה מִמְכָּרוֹ בְּיַד הַקֹּנֶה אֹתוֹ עַד שְׁנַת הַיּוֹבֵל וְיָצָא בַּיֹּבֵל וְשָׁב לַאֲחֻזָּתוֹ:
enough to repay him: From here, [we learn] that he cannot redeem part [of a field but either all or nothing]. — [Torath Kohanim 25:48, Arachin 30a, Kid. 20b; Sifthei Chachamim]   די השיב לו: מכאן שאינו גואל לחצאין:
until the Jubilee year: [i.e., until, but not including the Jubilee year (Torath Kohanim 25:50; Mizrachi), and hence the purchaser] must not at all enter the Jubilee year [while in possession of the field,] because the Jubilee year releases [the field from his possession] at its very onset. — [Arachin 28b and Rashi there]   עד שנת היובל: שלא יכנס לתוך אותה שנה כלום, שהיובל משמט בתחלתו:

3rd Portion

Chapter 25

29. And when a man sells a residential house in a walled city, its redemption may take place until the completion of the year of its sale. Its [period of] redemption shall be a full year.   כט. וְאִישׁ כִּי יִמְכֹּר בֵּית מוֹשַׁב עִיר חוֹמָה וְהָיְתָה גְּאֻלָּתוֹ עַד תֹּם שְׁנַת מִמְכָּרוֹ יָמִים תִּהְיֶה גְאֻלָּתוֹ:
a residential house in a walled city: A house (בֵּית) within a city (עִיר) surrounded by a wall (חוֹמָה) since the days of Joshua the son of Nun. — [Sifthei Chachamim ; Torath Kohanim 25:53, Arachin 32a, b]   בית מושב עיר חומה: בית בתוך עיר המוקפת חומה מימות יהושע בן נון:
its redemption may take place [until the completion of the year of its sale]: Since regarding a field, Scripture states that one may redeem it whenever one wishes after two years have elapsed [since the date of sale] and onwards [until Jubilee] and that within the first two years [following the sale] one may not redeem it, [Scripture found] it necessary to specify that in this case, the opposite applies, namely, that if one wishes to redeem it within the first year [following the sale], one may redeem it, while after that, one may not redeem it.   והיתה גאלתו: לפי שנאמר בשדה שיכול לגאלה משתי שנים ואילך כל זמן שירצה ובתוך שתי שנים הראשונים אינו יכול לגאלה, הוצרך לפרש בזה שהוא חלוף, שאם רצה לגאול בשנה ראשונה גואלה, ולאחר מכאן אינו גואלה:
its [period of] redemption shall be: [I.e., the redemption] of the house, [not the redemption of the sale or the redemption of the seller.] - [Mizrachi, Sefer Hazikkaron]   והיתה גאלתו: של בית:
a full year: Heb. יָמִים, [lit., “days,”]. The days of a full year, are called יָמִים. Likewise, “Let the maiden stay with us a year (יָמִים)” (Gen. 24:55).   ימים: ימי שנה שלימה קרויים ימים, וכן (בראשית כד נה) תשב הנערה אתנו ימים:
30. But if it is not redeemed by the end of a complete year, then that house which is in the city that has a wall, shall remain permanently [the property] of the one who purchased it throughout his generations. It will not leave [his possession] in the Jubilee.   ל. וְאִם לֹא יִגָּאֵל עַד מְלֹאת לוֹ שָׁנָה תְמִימָה וְקָם הַבַּיִת אֲשֶׁר בָּעִיר אֲשֶׁר לוֹ חֹמָה לַצְּמִיתֻת לַקֹּנֶה אֹתוֹ לְדֹרֹתָיו לֹא יֵצֵא בַּיֹּבֵל:
then that house…shall remain permanently: It shall leave the jurisdiction of the seller, and remain under the jurisdiction of the purchaser.   וקם הבית וגו' לצמיתת: יצא מכחו של מוכר ועומד בכחו של קונה:
that has a wall: Heb. אֲשֶׁר לֹא חֹמָה, [meaning “which has no wall”]. [However, Oral Tradition teaches us that] we read לוֹ, [meaning “to him” or “to it,” [hence, “a city that has a wall”]. Our Rabbis of blessed memory said: [The written version of this phrase namely, בָּעִיר אֲשֶׁר לֹא חֹמָה teaches us that] even if [the city] does not (לֹא) have a wall now, since it had one before [from the days of Joshua, the laws of our passage still apply to it]. — [Arachin 32a] [Since the word] עִיר is grammatically feminine, Scripture should have written בָּעִיר אֲשֶׁר לָהּ חֹמָה, [לָהּ being the feminine form of “to it”]. However, since לֹא had to be written inside [i.e., in the written text of the Torah, our Rabbis] set this word to be read according to the Oral Tradition as לוֹ, because they match [in pronunciation, unlike לָהּ].   אשר לא חמה: לו קרינן, אמרו רז"ל אף על פי שאין לו עכשיו, הואיל והיתה לו קודם לכן. ועיר נקבה היא והוצרך לכתוב לה, אלא מתוך שצריך לכתוב לא בפנים, תקנו לו במסורת, זה נופל על זה:
It shall not leave [his possession] in the Jubilee: [What does this phrase teach us? It has already stated that the house becomes the permanent property of the purchaser.] Said Rabbi Safra: [Even] if the Jubilee year occurs within the first year [of the sale,] it shall not leave [his possession without redemption]. — [Arachin 31b]   לא יצא ביבל: אמר רב ספרא אם פגע בו יובל בתוך שנתו לא יצא:
31. But houses in open cities, which do not have a wall surrounding them, are to be considered as the field of the land. It may have redemption and shall leave [the purchaser's possession] in the Jubilee.   לא. וּבָתֵּי הַחֲצֵרִים אֲשֶׁר אֵין לָהֶם חֹמָה סָבִיב עַל שְׂדֵה הָאָרֶץ יֵחָשֵׁב גְּאֻלָּה תִּהְיֶה לּוֹ וּבַיֹּבֵל יֵצֵא:
But houses in open cities: Heb. הַחֲצֵרִים, [to be understood] as it is rendered by the Targum [Onkelos, namely]: פַצִיחַיָא, meaning open towns, without a wall. There are many [instances of this term] in the Book of Joshua, [for example in the verse] (13:28),“the cities and their open towns (וְחַצְרֵיהֶם) ”; [likewise in the verse], “in their open cities (בְּחַצְרֵיהֶם) and in their walled cities” (Gen. 25:16).   ובתי החצרים: כתרגומו פצחין, עיירות פתוחות מאין חומה. ויש הרבה בספר יהושע (יהושע יג כח) הערים וחצריהם, (בראשית כה טז) בחצריהם ובטירותם:
[But houses in open cities…] are to be considered as the field of the land: They are like fields, which may be redeemed until the Jubilee and leave [the possession of the purchaser, reverting] to the [original] owners in the Jubilee if they had not been redeemed [until then].   על שדה הארץ יחשב: הרי הן כשדות הנגאלים עד היובל ויוצאין ביובל לבעלים אם לא נגאלו:
It may have redemption: immediately, if one wishes [to redeem it]. And by virtue of this element, they have a greater advantage [to the original owner] than do fields, since fields may not be redeemed until two years have elapsed [since the sale (see Rashi on verse 15 above)]. — [Arachin 33a]   גאלה תהיה לו: מיד אם ירצה. ובזה יפה כחו מכח שדות, שהשדות אין נגאלות עד שתי שנים:
and shall leave [the purchaser’s possession] inthe Jubilee: without payment [for regarding fields, which are required to remain with the purchaser for two years (see Rashi on verse 15 above), if the Jubilee occurs after only one year has elapsed from the sale, then the field reverts to the owner for the Jubilee year, but the purchaser takes it back for one more year afterwards (Arachin 29b). In the case of houses in open cities, however, even if the Jubilee occurs after only one year, the house reverts to the original owner, without any payment.] - [Sifthei Chachamim].   וביבל יצא: בחנם:
32. And, [regarding] the cities of the Levites, the houses of their inherited cities shall forever have a [right of] redemption for the Levites.   לב. וְעָרֵי הַלְוִיִּם בָּתֵּי עָרֵי אֲחֻזָּתָם גְּאֻלַּת עוֹלָם תִּהְיֶה לַלְוִיִּם:
And [regarding] the cities of the Levites: [namely,] the forty-eight cities that were given to the Levites (see Num. 35:7).   וערי הלוים: ארבעים ושמנה עיר שנתנו להם:
shall forever have a [right of] redemption: [If a Levite] sells a field of one of their fields that were given to them in the two-thousand cubits surrounding the cities (see Num. 35:45), he may redeem it immediately, even before two years have elapsed [since the sale]. And if he sells a house in a walled city, he may always redeem it, and the house is not transferred permanently [to the purchaser] at the end of the [first] year [after the sale, as opposed to the case of a non-Levite owner]. — [Arachin 33b]   גאלת עולם: גואל מיד אפילו לפני שתי שנים, אם מכרו שדה משדותיהם הנתונות להם באלפים אמה סביבות הערים, או אם מכרו בית בעיר חומה, גואלין לעולם, ואינו חלוט לסוף שנה:
33. And if one purchases from the Levites, whether a house or an inherited city, will leave [the possession of the purchaser] in the Jubilee, because the houses of the cities of the Levites, are their inherited property amidst the children of Israel.   לג. וַאֲשֶׁר יִגְאַל מִן הַלְוִיִּם וְיָצָא מִמְכַּר בַּיִת וְעִיר אֲחֻזָּתוֹ בַּיֹּבֵל כִּי בָתֵּי עָרֵי הַלְוִיִּם הִוא אֲחֻזָּתָם בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל:
And if one purchases from the Levites: And if someone buys (יִגְאַל) a house or a city from them.   ואשר יגאל מן הלוים: ואם יקנה בית או עיר מהם:
shall leave [the possession of the purchaser] in the Jubilee: It will leave in Jubilee, i.e., the sale of that house or city [will leave the possession of that purchaser], and will revert to the Levite who sold it. And it will not be transferred permanently [to the purchaser] like other houses in a walled city owned by an Israelite. Thus, this expression of גְּאֻלָּה [usually meaning “redemption”], here means “purchase.” Another explanation: [keeping the usual meaning of גְּאֻלָּה, namely, “redemption”]: Since it is said, “the Levites will forever have a [right of] redemption,” one might assume that Scripture is speaking only of a non-Levite who purchased a house in the Levitic cities [and that the Levite owner may always redeem this house], but if a Levite purchased from another Levite, it would be transferred permanently, Therefore, Scripture says here, “And if one redeems (יִגְאַל) from the Levites”-i.e., even when a Levite redeems from a Levite, [still the owner,] “will forever have a [right of] redemption.” - [Torath Kohanim 25:66]   ויצא ביבל: אותו ממכר של בית או של עיר וישוב ללוי שמכרו, ולא יהיה חלוט כשאר בתי ערי חומה של ישראל. וגאולה זו לשון מכירה. דבר אחר לפי שנאמר גאולת עולם תהיה ללוים (פסוק לב), יכול לא דבר הכתוב אלא בלוקח ישראל שקנה בית בערי הלוים, אבל לוי שקנה מלוי יהיה חלוט, תלמוד לומר ואשר יגאל מן הלוים, אף [לוי] הגואל מיד לוי גואל גאולת עולם:
the house... shall leave [the possession of the purchaser] in the Jubilee: [According to Rashi’s first explanation of וַאֲשֶׁר יִגְאַל מִן הַלְוִיִּם, the verse continues to state that the house purchased by a non-Levite “will leave (the possession of the purchaser) in the Jubilee,” as above. However, according to the alternative explanation, where this first phrase וַאֲשֶׁר יִגְאַל מִן הַלְוִיִּם independently teaches us about a Levite purchaser, the second phrase here, namely, “will leave (the possession of the purchaser) in the Jubilee”] this is a separate commandment, namely, that if the Levite owner] did not redeem the house, it leaves [the possession of the purchaser] in Jubilee and does not transfer permanently [to the purchaser] at the end of a year, like the house of an Israelite.   ויצא ממכר בית: הרי זו מצוה אחרת, ואם לא גאלה יוצאה ביובל, ואינו נחלט לסוף שנה כבית של ישראל:
because the houses of the cities of the Levites are their inherited property: They did not have an inheritance of fields and vineyards, but cities to live in and their open areas (see Num. 35:18). Therefore, these [cities and their open areas,] are to be considered for them [as their inheritance] in place of fields. Consequently, they have the same redemption [rights] as do fields [of non-Levites and also, this property reverts to them in Jubilee (Sifthei Chachamim). All this,] so that their inheritance never be removed from them.   כי בתי ערי הלוים הוא אחזתם: לא היה להם נחלת שדות וכרמים אלא ערים לשבת ומגרשיהם, לפיכך הם להם במקום שדות, ויש להם גאולה כשדות, כדי שלא תופקע נחלתם מהם:
34. And a field in the open areas of their cities cannot be sold, because it is their eternal inheritance.   לד. וּשֲׂדֵה מִגְרַשׁ עָרֵיהֶם לֹא יִמָּכֵר כִּי אֲחֻזַּת עוֹלָם הוּא לָהֶם:
And a field in the open areas of their cities cannot be sold: by the [Temple] treasurer. I.e., if a Levite consecrated his field and did not redeem it, and the treasurer sold it, in the Jubilee, the field does not leave [the possession of the purchaser] and [“revert”] to the kohanim, as it is said concerning [a field originally owned by] an Israelite, “and if he sold the field to another man-it may no longer be redeemed.” (Lev. 27:20). But a Levite may always redeem [his field]. - [Torath Kohanim 25:70]   ושדה מגרש עריהם לא ימכר: מכר גזבר, שאם הקדיש בן לוי את שדהו ולא גאלה ומכרה גזבר, אינה יוצאה לכהנים ביובל, כמו שנאמר בישראל (ויק' כז כ) ואם מכר את השדה לאיש אחר לא יגאל עוד, אבל בן לוי גואל לעולם:
35. If your brother becomes destitute and his hand falters beside you, you shall support him [whether] a convert or a resident, so that he can live with you.   לה. וְכִי יָמוּךְ אָחִיךָ וּמָטָה יָדוֹ עִמָּךְ וְהֶחֱזַקְתָּ בּוֹ גֵּר וְתוֹשָׁב וָחַי עִמָּךְ:
you shall support him: Do not allow him to fall down and collapse altogether, in which case it would be difficult to pick him up again [from his dire poverty]. Rather, “support him” while his hand is still faltering [for then it is easier to help him out of his trouble]. To what can this be compared? To a load on a donkey-while it is still on the donkey, one person can grasp it and hold it in place. Once it falls to the ground, however, [even] five people cannot pick it up. - [Torath Kohanim 25:71]   והחזקת בו: אל תניחהו שירד ויפול ויהיה קשה להקימו, אלא חזקהו משעת מוטת היד. למה זה דומה, למשאוי שעל החמור, עודהו על החמור אחד תופס בו ומעמידו, נפל לארץ, חמשה אין מעמידין אותו:
a convert or a resident: Even if he is a convert (גֵּר) or a “resident (תוֹשָׁב).” And what is a “resident”? Any [non-Jew] who has accepted upon himself not to worship idols, but eats carrion. - [Torath Kohanim 25:72; and compare Rashi verse 47] [These people are called “residents,” as they are permitted to reside permanently in the land of Israel (Rambam A.Z. 10:6).]   גר ותושב: אף אם הוא גר או תושב, ואיזהו תושב, כל שקבל עליו שלא לעבוד עבודה זרה, ואוכל נבלות:
36. You shall not take from him interest or increase, and you shall fear your God, and let your brother live with you.   לו. אַל תִּקַּח מֵאִתּוֹ נֶשֶׁךְ וְתַרְבִּית וְיָרֵאתָ מֵאֱלֹהֶיךָ וְחֵי אָחִיךָ עִמָּךְ:
interest or increase: The Rabbis regard these as one, [but the Torah uses two terms so that one who takes interest transgresses thereby two negative commandments. — [B.M. 60b]   נשך ותרבית: חד שווינהו רבנן, ולעבור עליו בשני לאוין:
and you shall fear your God: A person’s desire is naturally attracted to [taking] interest, and it is difficult to stay away from it, for he [rationalizes and] grants himself [false] permission because of his money which was lying idle while in his [the debtor’s] hands. [Therefore, Scripture] found it necessary to state here “and you shall fear your God.” Or if someone ascribes his money to a non-Jew in order to lend it to a Jew with interest. This is a matter held [secretly] in a man’s heart and thought. Therefore, Scripture deems it necessary to state, “and you shall fear your God” [Who is privy to all inner thoughts]. — [B.M. 61b]   ויראת מאלהיך: לפי שדעתו של אדם נמשכת אחר הרבית וקשה לפרוש הימנו ומורה לעצמו היתר בשביל מעותיו שהיו בטלות אצלו, הוצרך לומר ויראת מאלהיך. או התולה מעותיו בנכרי, כדי להלוותם לישראל ברבית, הרי זה דבר המסור ללבו של אדם ומחשבתו, לכך הוצרך לומר ויראת מאלהיך:
37. You shall not give him your money with interest, nor shall you give your food with increase.   לז. אֶת כַּסְפְּךָ לֹא תִתֵּן לוֹ בְּנֶשֶׁךְ וּבְמַרְבִּית לֹא תִתֵּן אָכְלֶךָ:
38. I am the Lord, your God, Who took you out of the land of Egypt, to give you the land of Canaan, to be a God to you.   לח. אֲנִי יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִי אֶתְכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם לָתֵת לָכֶם אֶת אֶרֶץ כְּנַעַן לִהְיוֹת לָכֶם לֵאלֹהִים:
Who took [you] out [of the land of Egypt]: and I distinguished between a firstborn [Egyptian] and a non-firstborn [in the plague of the firstborn, which preceded Israel’s Exodus (see Exod. 12:29-42)]I am also capable of discerning and exacting punishment from someone who lends money to his fellow Jew with interest and says, “It belongs to a non-Jew!” - [B.M. 61b] Another explanation: [In effect, God is saying, “I am the Lord, your God] Who took you out from the land of Egypt” on the condition that you keep My commandments-even if they are difficult for you. - [see Rashi on verse 36 above; see Torath Kohanim 25:77]   אשר הוצאתי וגו': והבחנתי בין בכור לשאינו בכור, אף אני יודע ונפרע מן המלוה מעות לישראל ברבית ואומר של נכרי הם. דבר אחר אשר הוצאתי אתכם מארץ מצרים על מנת שתקבלו עליכם מצותי אפילו הן כבדות עליכם:
to give you the land of Canaan: As a reward for accepting My commandments.   לתת לכם את ארץ כנען: בשכר שתקבלו מצותי:
[To give you the land of Canaan,] to be a God to you: for I am a God to anyone who lives in the land of Israel, but anyone who leaves it [without halachic permission] is like one who worships idols. — [Torath Kohanim 25:77; Keth. 110b]   להיות לכם לא-להים: שכל הדר בארץ ישראל אני לו לא-להים, וכל היוצא ממנה כעובד עבודה זרה:

4th Portion

Chapter 25

39. And if your brother becomes destitute with you, and is sold to you, do not work him with slave labor.   לט. וְכִי יָמוּךְ אָחִיךָ עִמָּךְ וְנִמְכַּר לָךְ לֹא תַעֲבֹד בּוֹ עֲבֹדַת עָבֶד:
slave labor: Degrading work, through which he is made to look like a slave (עֶבֶד), e.g., he must not carry his clothes after him to the bathhouse, or put on his shoes for him. — [Torath Kohanim 25:80]   עבדת עבד: עבודה של גנאי, שיהא ניכר בה כעבד, שלא יוליך כליו אחריו לבית המרחץ ולא ינעול לו מנעליו:
40. As an employee or a [hired] resident, he shall be with you; until the Jubilee year he shall work with you.   מ. כְּשָׂכִיר כְּתוֹשָׁב יִהְיֶה עִמָּךְ עַד שְׁנַת הַיֹּבֵל יַעֲבֹד עִמָּךְ:
As an employee or a [hired] resident: [Give him dignified jobs, e.g.,] work in agriculture and craftsmanship; treat him like other employees.   כשכיר כתושב: עבודת קרקע ומלאכת אומנות כשאר שכירים התנהג בו:
until the Jubilee year: i.e., if the Jubilee year occurs before the six years [of his servitude have elapsed (see Exod. 21:2)], the Jubilee [immediately] takes him out [of servitude].   עד שנת היבל: אם פגע בו יובל לפני שש שנים, היובל מוציאו:
41. Then, he shall leave you he, and his children with him, and he shall return to his family and resume the status of his fathers.   מא. וְיָצָא מֵעִמָּךְ הוּא וּבָנָיו עִמּוֹ וְשָׁב אֶל מִשְׁפַּחְתּוֹ וְאֶל אֲחֻזַּת אֲבֹתָיו יָשׁוּב:
he, and his children with him: Says Rabbi Simeon: If he was sold, who sold his children [that Scripture states that his children go free with him]? However, from here, [we learn] that his master is obligated to provide food for his children [and, in this sense, they are released with their father]. — [Kid. 22a]   הוא ובניו עמו: אמר רבי שמעון אם הוא נמכר בניו מי מכרן, אלא מכאן שרבו חייב במזונות בניו:
the status of his fathers: To his fathers’ [former] honor, and he must not be degraded for it [i.e., for having been a servant]. - [Mak. 13a and Rashi there] [Thus,] אֲחֻזַּת - [means here:] “The status of.” - [Mak. 13a and Rashi there]   ואל אחזת אבתיו: אל כבוד אבותיו, ואין לזלזלו בכך:
42. For they are My servants, whom I brought out of the land of Egypt they shall not be sold as a slave is sold.   מב. כִּי עֲבָדַי הֵם אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִי אֹתָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם לֹא יִמָּכְרוּ מִמְכֶּרֶת עָבֶד:
For they are My servants: My contract came first. - [Torath Kohanim 25:85]   כי עבדי הם: שטרי קודם:
They shall not be sold in the way a slave is sold: namely, by public announcement, saying: “Here is a slave for sale!” Neither may they stand him up on an auctioning block [for public sale]. — [Torath Kohanim 25:85]   לא ימכרו ממכרת עבד: בהכרזה כאן יש עבד למכור, ולא יעמידנו על אבן הלקח:
43. You shall not work him with rigor, and you shall fear your God.   מג. לֹא תִרְדֶּה בוֹ בְּפָרֶךְ וְיָרֵאתָ מֵאֱלֹהֶיךָ:
You shall not enslave him through rigor: Unnecessary jobs, for the purpose of tormenting him. E.g., do not say to him: “Warm up this drink for me,” when you do not need it; or “Hoe under this vine until I come back” [and you may never come back there (Sifthei Chachamim on verse 53)]. Perhaps you will say, “No one really knows whether it is necessary or not, and I say that it is necessary!” This matter is held [secretly] in a man’s heart [for no one knows his true intentions]. Therefore, Scripture states, “and you shall fear [your God” for He is privy to all inner thoughts]. — [Torath Kohanim 25: 86]   לא תרדה בו בפרך: מלאכה שלא לצורך, כדי לענותו. אל תאמר לו החם לי את הכוס הזה, והוא אינו צריך, עדור תחת הגפן עד שאבוא. שמא תאמר אין מכיר בדבר אם לצורך אם לאו, ואומר אני לו שהוא לצורך, הרי הדבר הזה מסור ללב, לכך נאמר ויראת:
44. Your male slave or female slave whom you may have from the nations that are around you, from them you may acquire a male slave or a female slave.   מד. וְעַבְדְּךָ וַאֲמָתְךָ אֲשֶׁר יִהְיוּ לָךְ מֵאֵת הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר סְבִיבֹתֵיכֶם מֵהֶם תִּקְנוּ עֶבֶד וְאָמָה:
Your male slave or female slave that you have: If you say, “If so [that I may give my Jewish servant only skilled labor to do,] by whom shall I be served? Over my [Jewish] servants I do not have real power [as I must treat them like hired employees (see verse 40 above)]. Of the seven nations I am not allowed to possess [a slave], for You have warned me, ‘you shall not allow any soul to live’ (Deut. 20:16), So who will serve me [as a slave]?” [To this, God answers:]   ועבדך ואמתך אשר יהיו לך: אם תאמר אם כן במה אשתמש. בעבדי איני מושל, באומות איני נוחל, שהרי הזהרתני (דברים כ טז) לא תחיה כל נשמה, אלא מי ישמשני:
from the nations: They will be slaves for you.   מאת הגוים: הם יהיו לך לעבדים:
that are around you: But not from those [seven Canaanite nations] that are within the borders of your land, for indeed, regarding them, I said, “you shall not allow any soul to live” (Deut. 20:16).   אשר סביבתיכם: ולא שבתוך גבול ארצכם, שהרי בהם אמרתי לא תחיה כל נשמה:
45. And also from the children of the residents that live among you, from them you may acquire [slaves] and from their family that is with you whom they begot in your land, and they shall become your inheritance.   מה. וְגַם מִבְּנֵי הַתּוֹשָׁבִים הַגָּרִים עִמָּכֶם מֵהֶם תִּקְנוּ וּמִמִּשְׁפַּחְתָּם אֲשֶׁר עִמָּכֶם אֲשֶׁר הוֹלִידוּ בְּאַרְצְכֶם וְהָיוּ לָכֶם לַאֲחֻזָּה:
And also from the children of the residents: who came from surrounding lands to marry women in your land, who subsequently bore children to them. [In these cases,] the [lineage of the] child follows the father and thus, does not fall under [the commandment of], “ you shall not allow any soul to live” (Deut. 20:16). But, you are permitted to acquire him as a slave. — [Kid. 67b]   וגם מבני התושבים: שבאו מסביבותיכם לישא נשים בארצכם וילדו להם, הבן הולך אחר האב, ואינו בכלל לא תחיה, אלא אתה מותר לקנותו כעבד:
from them you may acquire: [This might mean that we may acquire slaves by buying from their slaves. However, the true meaning is:] You may acquire them [i.e., the residents’ children, as slaves]. — [Sifthei Chachamim; Torath Kohanim 25:87]   מהם תקנו: אותם תקנו:
46. You shall hold onto them as an inheritance for your children after you, as acquired property, and may thus have them serve you forever. But as for your brethren, the children of Israel, a man shall not work his brother with rigor.   מו. וְהִתְנַחַלְתֶּם אֹתָם לִבְנֵיכֶם אַחֲרֵיכֶם לָרֶשֶׁת אֲחֻזָּה לְעֹלָם בָּהֶם תַּעֲבֹדוּ וּבְאַחֵיכֶם בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אִישׁ בְּאָחִיו לֹא תִרְדֶּה בוֹ בְּפָרֶךְ:
You shall hold onto them as an inheritance for your children: You shall hold onto them as an inheritance for your children after you.“ But it would be incorrect to explain וְהִתְנַחַלְתֶּם אֹתָם לִבְנֵיכֶם as ”Bequeath them to your children“ [interpreting וְהִתְנַחַלְתֶּם as a causative,] for if so, then Scripture would have had to write וְהִנְחַלְתֶּם אֹתָם לִבְנֵיכֶם [Instead, Scripture writes:] וְהִתְנַחַלְתֶּם - [with the verb in the reflexive conjugation,] just like [the word] וְהִתְחַזַּקְתֶּם [and similarly, just as וְהִתְחַזַּקְתֶּם (in Num. 13:20) is an intransitive verb, so too, here, our verb וְהִתְנַחַלְתֶּם must be considered not to be causative but rather, reflexive (see preceding Rashi) and means ”You should keep them as an inheritance"]. — [Sefer Hazikkaron]   והתנחלתם אתם לבניכם: החזיקו בהם לנחלה לצורך בניכם אחריכם. ולא יתכן לפרש הנחילום לבניכם, שאם כן היה לו לכתוב והנחלתם אותם לבניכם. והתנחלתם כמו והתחזקתם:
[But as for… children of Israel,] a man [shall not work] his brother [with rigor]: [But has this prohibition regarding a Jewish servant not already been stated in verse 43 above?- [Mizrachi] It is repeated here,] to include [in the prohibition] a leader over his people and a king over his attendants, i.e., that these [rulers] must not work with rigor. — see Be’er Basadeh]   איש באחיו: להביא נשיא בעמיו ומלך במשרתיו שלא לרדות בפרך:
47. If a resident non Jew gains wealth with you, and your brother becomes destitute with him and is sold to a resident non Jew among you or to an idol of the family of a non Jew.   מז. וְכִי תַשִּׂיג יַד גֵּר וְתוֹשָׁב עִמָּךְ וּמָךְ אָחִיךָ עִמּוֹ וְנִמְכַּר לְגֵר תּוֹשָׁב עִמָּךְ אוֹ לְעֵקֶר מִשְׁפַּחַת גֵּר:
a resident non-Jew: Heb. גֵּר וְתוֹשָׁב. A stranger (גֵּר) who is a resident (תּוֹשָׁב),“ [stranger here meaning non-Jew,] just as the Targum [Onkelos] renders: עֲרַל תּוֹתָב, an uncircumcised resident. And the end [of the verse] proves [that it is one person, when it continues:] וְנִמְכַּר לְגֵר תּוֹשָׁב [without a "vav"].   יד גר ותושב: גר והוא תושב, כתרגומו ערל תותב, וסופו מוכיח ונמכר לגר תושב:
If a resident non-Jew gains wealth with you: What caused him to become wealthy? His connection with you. [He gained wealth through the blessing of the Jewish people]. — [Torath Kohanim 25:93]   וכי תשיג יד גר ותושב עמך: מי גרם לו שיעשיר, דבוקו עמך:
and your brother becomes destitute with him: What caused his destitution? His connection with him, because he learned from his deeds. — [Torath Kohanim 25:93]   ומך אחיך עמו: מי גרם לו שימוך, דבוקו עמו, על ידי שלמד ממעשיו:
the family of a non-Jew: [Without the word לְעֵקֶר,] this [expression] means [the Jew is sold to] an idolater; but when Scripture says לְעֵקֶר [literally “to uproot,” making it לְעֵקֶר מִשְׁפַּחַת גֵּר], it refers to [a Jew] who is sold to the idol itself [לְעֵקֶר meaning “that which is to be uprooted”] - i.e., he becomes an attendant to it. He does not worship it as a deity, but to chop wood and draw water. — [Torath Kohanim 25:94]   משפחת גר: זהו הגוי. כשהוא אומר לעקר זה הנמכר לעבודה זרה עצמה להיות לה שמש, ולא לאלהות, אלא לחטוב עצים ולשאוב מים:
48. After he is sold, he shall have redemption; one of his brothers shall redeem him.   מח. אַחֲרֵי נִמְכַּר גְּאֻלָּה תִּהְיֶה לּוֹ אֶחָד מֵאֶחָיו יִגְאָלֶנּוּ:
he shall have redemption: immediately. Do not allow him to become assimilated [Sifthei Chachamim ; Torath Kohanim 25:95] until the Jubilee year. For the purchaser’s sole purpose here was to acquire this man so that he would serve him until the Jubilee, for [the servant] goes free in the Jubilee, as is stated below, “[And if he has not been redeemed…] he shall go out in the Jubilee year” (verse 54). [Obviously], Scripture is speaking of a non-Jew who is under the jurisdiction of Israel [and therefore obeys the law to free his slave in the Jubilee year]. Nevertheless, you shall not cheat him, because [this may cause] a desecration of God’s Name, but, when [the servant] is to be redeemed, he must be meticulous in his calculation, according to what is due for each year, and the non-Jew should then deduct this amount from his price. If there were twenty years since he was sold, until the Jubilee, and he had purchased him for twenty manehs -it turns out that the non-Jew had purchased each year’s work for a maneh . Now, if this [Jewish servant] had already spent five years with him, and he comes to be redeemed, he [the non-Jew] must deduct five manehs, and the servant must give him fifteen manehs. This, then, is the meaning of: “then, the purchase price shall be divided by the number of years” [in order to determine the annual hiring rate, as above]. — [Torath Kohanim 25:103; B.K. 113b]   גאלה תהיה לו: מיד, אל תניחהו שיטמע עד שנת היובל, שהרי כל עצמו לא קנאו אלא לעובדו עד היובל, שהרי ביובל יצא, כמו שנאמר למטה (פסוק נד) ויצא בשנת היובל. ובגוי שתחת ידך הכתוב מדבר ואף על פי כן לא תבא עליו בעקיפין, מפני חלול השם, אלא כשבא ליגאל ידקדק בחשבון לפי המגיע בכל שנה ושנה ינכה לו הגוי מן דמיו, אם היו עשרים שנה משנמכר עד היובל וקנאו בעשרים מנה, נמצא שקנה הגוי עבודת שנה במנה, ואם שהה זה אצלו חמש שנים ובא ליגאל, ינכה לו חמשה מנים ויתן לו העבד ט"ו מנים, וזהו והיה כסף ממכרו במספר שנים:
49. Or his uncle or his cousin shall redeem him, or the closest [other] relative from his family shall redeem him; or, if he becomes able to afford it, he can be redeemed [on his own].   מט. אוֹ דֹדוֹ אוֹ בֶן דֹּדוֹ יִגְאָלֶנּוּ אוֹ מִשְּׁאֵר בְּשָׂרוֹ מִמִּשְׁפַּחְתּוֹ יִגְאָלֶנּוּ אוֹ הִשִּׂיגָה יָדוֹ וְנִגְאָל:
50. He shall calculate with his purchaser [the number of years] from the year of his being sold to him until the Jubilee year; then, the purchase price shall be [divided] by the number of years; as the days of a hired worker, he shall be with him.   נ. וְחִשַּׁב עִם קֹנֵהוּ מִשְּׁנַת הִמָּכְרוֹ לוֹ עַד שְׁנַת הַיֹּבֵל וְהָיָה כֶּסֶף מִמְכָּרוֹ בְּמִסְפַּר שָׁנִים כִּימֵי שָׂכִיר יִהְיֶה עִמּוֹ:
as the days of a hired worker, he shall be with him: He shall calculate the amount [of money] resulting for each year, “as if he had been employed by him for a maneh annually,” and he [the non-Jew] should then deduct it for him, [as explained in the preceding Rashi].   כימי שכיר יהיה עמו: חשבון המגיע לכל שנה ושנה יחשב כאלו נשכר עמו כל שנה במנה וינכה לו:
51. If there are still many years, according to them, he shall return his redemption [money] out of the money for which he was purchased.   נא. אִם עוֹד רַבּוֹת בַּשָּׁנִים לְפִיהֶן יָשִׁיב גְּאֻלָּתוֹ מִכֶּסֶף מִקְנָתוֹ:
If there are still many years: until the Jubilee.   אם עוד רבות בשנים: עד היובל:
according to them: Everything as I have explained.   לפיהן: הכל כמו שפירשתי:
52. But if only a few years remain until the Jubilee year, he shall make the [same] calculation; according to his years [that remain until Jubilee], he shall return the redemption [money]._   נב. וְאִם מְעַט נִשְׁאַר בַּשָּׁנִים עַד שְׁנַת הַיֹּבֵל וְחִשַּׁב לוֹ כְּפִי שָׁנָיו יָשִׁיב אֶת גְּאֻלָּתוֹ:
53. He shall be with him as an employee hired year by year; he shall not enslave him with rigor in your sight.   נג. כִּשְׂכִיר שָׁנָה בְּשָׁנָה יִהְיֶה עִמּוֹ לֹא יִרְדֶּנּוּ בְּפֶרֶךְ לְעֵינֶיךָ:
he shall not enslave him with rigor in your sight: That is to say, while you see this [i.e., a Jew must not see a non-Jew forcing this type of labor upon his Jewish servant without doing anything, but this is not a warning to the non-Jew (Gur Aryeh)]. — [Torath Kohanim 25:101]   לא ירדנו בפרך לעיניך: כלומר ואתה רואה:
54. And if he is not redeemed through [any of] these [ways], he shall go out in the Jubilee year he and his children with him.   נד. וְאִם לֹא יִגָּאֵל בְּאֵלֶּה וְיָצָא בִּשְׁנַת הַיֹּבֵל הוּא וּבָנָיו עִמּוֹ:
And if he is not redeemed through [any of] these [ways]: This [Jewish servant of a non-Jew] may be redeemed [only] through “these ways” [described in the verses here], but he may not be redeemed [i.e., released] through six [years]. — [see Exod. 21:2; Kid. 15b]   ואם לא יגאל באלה: באלה הוא נגאל, ואינו נגאל בשש:
he, and his children with him: [But are his children also sold, that Scripture finds it necessary to state here that his children go free together with him? However, we learn from here that just like a Jewish master, so too], the non-Jewish [master] is obligated to provide food for the [servant’s] children, just as an Israelite is obligated [and in this sense, they are released, along with their father]. — [Kid. 22a; see Rashi verse 41 above]   הוא ובניו עמו: הנכרי חייב במזונות בניו כישראל:
55. For the children of Israel are servants to Me; they are My servants, whom I took out of the land of Egypt. I am the Lord, your God.   נה. כִּי לִי בְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל עֲבָדִים עֲבָדַי הֵם אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִי אוֹתָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם אֲנִי יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם:
For the children of Israel are servants to Me: “My contract came before.” [And thus, when the Jubilee arrives, the servant must be released and revert to being God’s servant rather than man’s.]- [Torath Kohanim 25:85; see Rashi verse 42 above]   כי לי בני ישראל עבדים: שטרי קודם:
I am the Lord, your God: Whoever subjugates them below [on this earth,] is as if he subjugates [them] above [in heaven, for as long as a Jew is enslaved to another human being, he is not free to do the holy service of God Above (Be’er Basadeh)]. — [Torath Kohanim 25:104]   אני ה' אלהיכם: כל המשעבדן מלמטה כאלו משעבדן מלמעלה:

Chapter 26

1. You shall not make idols for yourselves, nor shall you set up a statue or a monument for yourselves. And in your land you shall not place a pavement stone on which to prostrate yourselves, for I am the Lord, your God.   א. לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ לָכֶם אֱלִילִם וּפֶסֶל וּמַצֵּבָה לֹא תָקִימוּ לָכֶם וְאֶבֶן מַשְׂכִּית לֹא תִתְּנוּ בְּאַרְצְכֶם לְהִשְׁתַּחֲוֹת עָלֶיהָ כִּי אֲנִי יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם:
You shall not make idols for yourselves: [This] is addressed to the one who has been sold [as a servant] to a non-Jew, that he should not say, “Since my master has illicit relations, I will also be like him! Since my master worships idols, I will also be like him! Since my master desecrates the Sabbath, I will also be like him!” This is why these verses are stated here. - [Torath Kohanim 25:106]. Also, the passages [in this whole section (namely, from the beginning of Chapter 25 until the end of Behar),] are written in a meaningful order, [as follows]: At first, Scripture admonishes us to observe [the laws of] Shemittah [and Jubilee (25: 124)]; then, if one covets money and becomes suspect of [unlawfully doing business with produce of] Shemittah (Nachalath Ya’akov), he will eventually [become destitute and] have to sell his personal belongingstherefore, Scripture juxtaposes to it, “And when you make a sale [to your fellow-Jew]” (25:14) (What is written therein? “or make a purchase from the hand…,” something that is transferred from hand to hand). If he still does not repent, he will eventually have to sell his ineritance (25:25). If he even then does not repent, he will eventually have to sell his home, and if even then, he does not repent, he will eventually have to borrow money with interest (verses 25:35-38). Now, the later the scenario in this passage, the more severe it is [i.e., first he sells his belongings, then his property, then his home and then even borrowing with interest which is more severe than selling one’s property; (Nachalath Ya’akov) thus, the passage continues accordingly, for] if he still does not repent, he will eventually have to sell himself [to his fellow Jew as a servant] (verses 25:39-46); and [finally,] if he has still not repented, not enough that he had to be sold to his fellow Jew - but he will [be forced to sell himself] even to a non-Jew!- [25:47-55; Kidd. 20a]   לא תעשו לכם אלילם: כנגד זה הנמכר לגוי, שלא יאמר הואיל ורבי מגלה עריות אף אני כמותו, הואיל ורבי עובד עבודה זרה אף אני כמותו, הואיל ורבי מחלל שבת אף אני כמותו, לכך נאמרו מקראות הללו. ואף הפרשיות הללו נאמרו על הסדר בתחלה הזהיר על השביעית, ואם חמד ממון ונחשד על השביעית סופו למכור מטלטליו, לכך סמך לה וכי תמכרו ממכר (ויק' כה יד), מה כתיב ביה או קנה מיד עמיתך (שם), דבר הנקנה מיד ליד. לא חזר בו, סוף מוכר אחוזתו. לא חזר בו, סוף מוכר את ביתו. לא חזר בו, סוף לוה ברבית. כל אלו האחרונות קשות מן הראשונות. לא חזר בו, סוף מוכר את עצמו. לא חזר בו, לא דיו לישראל אלא אפילו לגוי:
a pavement stone: אֶבֶן מַשְׂכִּית, an expression denoting a covering, as in “And I shall cover (וְשַׂכֹּתִי) [you with] My hand.” (Exod. 33:22). [And the meaning of “covering” is relevant here,] as people use a stone floor to make a covering over the ground.   ואבן משכית: לשון כסוי, כמו (שמות לג כב) ושכותי כפי, שמכסין הקרקע ברצפת אבנים:
on which to prostrate yourselves: even to Heaven, for the expression הִשְׁתַּחֲוָאָה, prostration, denotes stretching one’s hands and feet out [on the ground], and the Torah prohibits one to do this outside the Holy Temple [where prostration on a stone floor is permitted]. — [Meg. 22b and see Rashi there]   להשתחות עליה: אפילו לשמים, לפי שהשתחואה בפשוט ידים ורגלים היא, ואסרה תורה לעשות כן חוץ מן המקדש:
2. You shall keep My Sabbaths and fear My Sanctuary. I am the Lord.   ב. אֶת שַׁבְּתֹתַי תִּשְׁמֹרוּ וּמִקְדָּשִׁי תִּירָאוּ אֲנִי יְהֹוָה:
I am the Lord: Who is faithful to give reward [to those who fulfill My Torah].   אני ה': נאמן לשלם שכר:
3. If you follow My statutes and observe My commandments and perform them,   ג. אִם בְּחֻקֹּתַי בחוקותי תֵּלֵכוּ וְאֶת מִצְו‍ֹתַי תִּשְׁמְרוּ וַעֲשִׂיתֶם אֹתָם:
If you follow My statutes: I might think that this refers to the fulfillment of the commandments. However, when Scripture says, “and observe My commandments,” the fulfillment of the commandments is [already] stated. So what is the meaning of “If you follow My statutes”? It means that you must toil in the study of Torah [for the word for “follow” here, תֵּלֵכוּ, literally means “walk,” which is a strenuous activity (Gur Aryeh)]. — [Torath Kohanim 26:2]   אם בחקתי תלכו: יכול זה קיום המצות, כשהוא אומר ואת מצותי תשמרו, הרי קיום המצות אמור, הא מה אני מקיים אם בחקתי תלכו, שתהיו עמלים בתורה:
and observe My commandments: You shall toil in the study of Torah in order to observe and fulfill [the commandments (Torath Kohanim 26:2). This is similar to, “[Hear, O Israel, the statutes and ordinances…] and learn them, and keep in mind to do them” (Deut. 5:1) [i.e., learn the Torah in order to keep them in your heart and perform them]. — [Sifthei Chachamim]   ואת מצותי תשמרו: הוו עמלים בתורה על מנת לשמור ולקיים, כמו שנאמר (דברים ה א) ולמדתם אותם ושמרתם לעשותם:
4. I will give your rains in their time, the Land will yield its produce, and the tree of the field will give forth its fruit.   ד. וְנָתַתִּי גִשְׁמֵיכֶם בְּעִתָּם וְנָתְנָה הָאָרֶץ יְבוּלָהּ וְעֵץ הַשָּׂדֶה יִתֵּן פִּרְיוֹ:
[I will give your rains] in their time: at a time when people do not usually go out, for example, on Sabbath Eve. — [Ta’anith 23a]   בעתם: בשעה שאין דרך בני אדם לצאת, כגון בלילי שבתות ובלילי ימים טובים:
the tree of the field: This refers to trees [planted in the field, as opposed to the orchard,] that do not bear fruit, but are destined to bear fruit in the future. — [Torath Kohanim 26:5]   ועץ השדה: הן אילני סרק, ועתידין לעשות פירות:
5. Your threshing will last until the vintage, and the vintage will last until the sowing; you will eat your food to satiety, and you will live in security in your land.   ה. וְהִשִּׂיג לָכֶם דַּיִשׁ אֶת בָּצִיר וּבָצִיר יַשִּׂיג אֶת זָרַע וַאֲכַלְתֶּם לַחְמְכֶם לָשׂבַע וִישַׁבְתֶּם לָבֶטַח בְּאַרְצְכֶם:
Your threshing will last until the vintage [and the vintage will last until the sowing]: For the threshing will be so plentiful that you will be occupied with it until the vintage, and you will be occupied with the vintage until the sowing season. — [Torath Kohanim 26:6]   והשיג לכם דיש את בציר: שיהא הדיש מרובה ואתם עסוקים בו עד הבציר, ובבציר תעסקו עד שעת הזרע:
you will eat your food to satiety: One will eat only a little [food], but it will become blessed in one’s innards. — [Torath Kohanim 26:6]   ואכלתם לחמכם לשבע: אוכל קמעא והוא מתברך במעיו:
6. And I will grant peace in the Land, and you will lie down with no one to frighten [you]; I will remove wild beasts from the Land, and no army will pass through your land;   ו. וְנָתַתִּי שָׁלוֹם בָּאָרֶץ וּשְׁכַבְתֶּם וְאֵין מַחֲרִיד וְהִשְׁבַּתִּי חַיָּה רָעָה מִן הָאָרֶץ וְחֶרֶב לֹא תַעֲבֹר בְּאַרְצְכֶם:
And I will grant peace: You might say, “Here is food, and here is drink, but if there is no peace, there is nothing!” Scripture, therefore, states, after all this [blessing], “I will grant peace in the Land.” From here, [we learn] that peace is equal to everything else. And so, [this is illustrated in our morning prayers,] when we say: “[Blessed are You, O Lord…] Who… makes peace and creates everything” [a paraphrase of the verse] (Isaiah 45:7). - [see Ber. 11b; Torath Kohanim 26:7]   ונתתי שלום: שמא תאמרו הרי מאכל והרי משתה, אם אין שלום אין כלום, תלמוד לומר אחר כל זאת ונתתי שלום בארץ, מכאן שהשלום שקול כנגד הכל. וכן הוא אומר עושה שלום ובורא את הכל:
and no army will pass through your land: It is unnecessary to state that they will not come to wage war, but [they will not come] even to pass through your land from one country to another. — [Torath Kohanim 26:9]   וחרב לא תעבר בארצכם: אין צריך לומר שלא יבאו למלחמה, אלא אפילו לעבור דרך ארצכם ממדינה למדינה:
7. You will pursue your enemies, and they will fall by the sword before you;   ז. וּרְדַפְתֶּם אֶת אֹיְבֵיכֶם וְנָפְלוּ לִפְנֵיכֶם לֶחָרֶב:
[And they will fall] by the sword before you: each man [falling] by the sword of his fellow. — [Torath Kohanim 26:9]   לפניכם לחרב: איש בחרב רעהו:
8. Five of you will pursue a hundred, and a hundred of you will pursue ten thousand, and your enemies will fall by the sword before you.   ח. וְרָדְפוּ מִכֶּם חֲמִשָּׁה מֵאָה וּמֵאָה מִכֶּם רְבָבָה יִרְדֹּפוּ וְנָפְלוּ אֹיְבֵיכֶם לִפְנֵיכֶם לֶחָרֶב:
of you will pursue: [It will require only five] of your weakest [to pursue a hundred enemies], and not of your strongest [i.e., מִכֶּם means “the weakest (מָ) of you.”]- [Sifthei Chachamim; Torath Kohanim 26:10]   ורדפו מכם: מן החלשים שבכם, ולא מן הגבורים שבכם:
Five… will pursue a hundred, and a hundred of you will pursue ten thousand: But is this calculation correct? [Since five will pursue a hundred, this means that each Jew will pursue twenty enemies;] therefore, should Scripture not have written here: “and a hundred of you will pursue two thousand”? But, [the Torah teaches us that] there is no comparison between a few who fulfill the Torah and many who fulfill the Torah [and thus, here, the larger the group of pursuers, the higher proportionately is the number pursued]. — [Torath Kohanim 26:10]   חמשה מאה ומאה מכם רבבה: וכי כך הוא החשבון, והלא לא היה צריך לומר אלא מאה מכם שני אלפים ירדופו, אלא אינו דומה מועטין העושין את התורה למרובין העושין את התורה:
and your enemies will fall [by the sword before you]: [This promise, already stated in verse 7, is repeated here to teach us (Torath Kohanim 26:10)] that the enemy will fall before you, not in the usual manner [i.e., that many of them will fall by the hand of only a few. — [Rash MiShantz ad loc.]   ונפלו איביכם וגו': שיהיו נופלין לפניכם שלא כדרך הארץ:
9. I will turn towards you, and I will make you fruitful and increase you, and I will set up My covenant with you.   ט. וּפָנִיתִי אֲלֵיכֶם וְהִפְרֵיתִי אֶתְכֶם וְהִרְבֵּיתִי אֶתְכֶם וַהֲקִימֹתִי אֶת בְּרִיתִי אִתְּכֶם:
I will turn towards you: “I will turn away (אֶפְנֶה) from all My affairs to pay your reward.” To what may this be compared? To a king who hired some workers [only one of whom worked for him for a long time, while all the others did not. When they presented themselves to receive payment, the king quickly paid the others a small amount, while to the one who had worked long, he said, “They worked merely a little for me, but with you, I must now turn my attention to calculate the substantial amount that I owe you.” Likewise, God will quickly pay the nations the small amount He owes them for their little good deeds, and then He will turn His attention, as it were, to the Jewish people, to calculate their great reward,] as is taught in Torath Kohanim 26:11.]   ופניתי אליכם: אפנה מכל עסקי לשלם שכרכם, משל למה הדבר דומה, למלך ששכר פועלים וכו', כדאיתא בתורת כהנים:
and I will make you fruitful: [Unlike the usual expression of פִּרְיָה וְרִבְיָה in Scripture, here, the two parts of this expression are separated by the word אֶתְכֶם (Sifthei Chachamim quoting Maharai). The first part, וְהִפְרֵיתִי אֶתְכֶם, refers to the blessing of] being fruitful and multiplying. — [Torath Kohanim 26:12]   והפריתי אתכם: בפריה ורביה:
and increase you: [while the second part,] וְהִרְבֵּיתִי אֶתְכֶם [refers to the blessing of having] dignity of stature [(הִתְרַבְרְבוּת) i.e., being able to hold one’s head up high due to dignity]. — [Mizrachi; Torath Kohanim 26:12]   והרביתי אתכם: בקומה זקופה:
and I will set up My covenant with you: a new covenant, not like the first covenant, which you broke, but a new covenant, which will not be broken, as it is said, “I will form a new covenant with the House of Israel and with the House of Judah-not like the covenant [that I formed with their forefathers… that they broke]” (Jer. 31:30-31). - [Torath Kohanim 26:12]   והקימתי את בריתי אתכם: ברית חדשה, לא כברית הראשונה שהפרתם אותה, אלא ברית חדשה שלא תופר, שנאמר (ירמיה לא ל) וכרתי את בית ישראל ואת בית יהודה ברית חדשה לא כברית הראשונה:

5th Portion

Chapter 26

10. You will eat very old [produce], and you will clear out the old from before the new.   י. וַאֲכַלְתֶּם יָשָׁן נוֹשָׁן וְיָשָׁן מִפְּנֵי חָדָשׁ תּוֹצִיאוּ:
You will eat very old [produce]: [But what blessing is it to eat old food? The Torah, means, however, that] the produce will remain well preserved, growing mellow with age, so that very old produce from three years ago will be better to eat than that of last year. — [B.B. 91b]   ואכלתם ישן נושן: הפירות יהיו משתמרין וטובים להתיישן, שיהא ישן הנושן של שלש שנים יפה לאכול משל אשתקד:
and you will clear out the old from before the new: The threshing floors will be full of new [grain, which would decay if left there, and, therefore, must be stored]. The storehouses, however, will be filled with the [abundant] old produce. Therefore, you will have to remove what is in the storehouses and take it elsewhere [in your house], in order to put the new produce into them. - [Sifthei Chachamim and see preceding Rashi; B.B. 91b]   וישן מפני חדש תוציאו: שיהיו הגרנות מלאות חדש והאוצרות מלאות ישן, וצריכים אתם לפנות האוצרות למקום אחר לתת החדש לתוכן:
11. And I will place My dwelling in your midst, and My Spirit will not reject you;   יא. וְנָתַתִּי מִשְׁכָּנִי בְּתוֹכְכֶם וְלֹא תִגְעַל נַפְשִׁי אֶתְכֶם:
And I will place My dwelling: This is the Holy Temple. — [see Er. 2a and Rashi there; Torath Kohanim 26:14]   ונתתי משכני: זה בית המקדש:
and My Spirit will not reject you: My Spirit will not be disgusted with you. Every [expression of] גְּעִילָה is an expression of the purging of something that had been absorbed by something else, as in the verse, “For there, the shield of the mighty was rejected (נִגְעֲל),” (II Sam. 1:21), it did not accept that anointment, that [warriors] used to anoint their leather shields with cooked fat, in order to have attacking arrows or spears glide off it, rather than pierce the leather.   ולא תגעל נפשי: אין רוחי קצה בכם. כל געילה לשון פליטת דבר הבלוע בדבר אחר, כמו (שמואל ב' א כא) כי שם נגעל מגן גבורים, לא קבל המשיחה שמושחין מגן של עור בחלב מבושל, כדי להחליק מעליו מכת חץ או חנית, שלא יקוב העור:
12. I will walk among you and be your God, and you will be My people.   יב. וְהִתְהַלַּכְתִּי בְּתוֹכְכֶם וְהָיִיתִי לָכֶם לֵאלֹהִים וְאַתֶּם תִּהְיוּ לִי לְעָם:
I will walk among you: [God promises a blessing of special spiritual quality, involving intimate knowledge of Him (Zeidah Laderech):] “I will stroll with you in the Garden of Eden, as if I were one of you, and you will not be terrified of Me.” Now, one might think that you will not fear Me [under such “familiar” circumstances]. Scripture, therefore, says here, “and be your God.” - [Torath Kohanim 26: 15]   והתהלכתי בתוככם: אטייל עמכם בגן עדן כאחד מכם, ולא תהיו מזדעזעים ממני. יכול לא תיראו ממני, תלמוד לומר והייתי לכם לא-להים:
13. I am the Lord, your God, Who took you out of the land of Egypt from being slaves to them; and I broke the pegs of your yoke and led you upright.   יג. אֲנִי יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִי אֶתְכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מִהְיֹת לָהֶם עֲבָדִים וָאֶשְׁבֹּר מֹטֹת עֻלְּכֶם וָאוֹלֵךְ אֶתְכֶם קוֹמְמִיּוּת:
I am the Lord, your God, [Who took you out of the land of Egypt]: It is worthwhile for you to believe Me that I can do all these things, for indeed “I took you out of the land of Egypt” and performed great miracles for you. — [Torath Kohanim 26:16]   אני ה' אלהיכם: כדאי אני שתאמינו בי שאני יכול לעשות כל אלה, שהרי הוצאתי אתכם מארץ מצרים ועשיתי לכם נסים גדולים:
the pegs: [A plowing yoke consists of a bar that is placed over the animal’s neck and reins that are placed under its neck and threaded through two holes at each end of the bar. This term מוֹט refers to] a type of peg, which is inserted into the two [holes at the] ends of the yoke. [These pegs therefore jam the reins tightly through the holes,] preventing the reins from coming off the ox’s head and [preventing the] undoing of the knot. [The term is] as [it appears] in the verse, “Make yourself reins and yoke-pegs (מֹטוֹת) ” (Jer. 27:2); cheville in French.   מטת: כמין יתד [התחובה] בשני ראשי העול המעכבים המוסרה שלא תצא מראש השור ויתיר הקשר, כמו (ירמיה כז ב) עשה לך מוסרות ומוטות קוניונגל"א בלע"ז [רצועת העול]:
upright: Erect in stature [due to relief from bondage]. — [Torath Kohanim 26:17]   קוממיות: בקומה זקופה:
14. But if you do not listen to Me and do not perform all these commandments,   יד. וְאִם לֹא תִשְׁמְעוּ לִי וְלֹא תַעֲשׂוּ אֵת כָּל הַמִּצְוֹת הָאֵלֶּה:
But if you do not listen to Me: to toil in [the study of] Torah in order to know the exposition of the Sages [corresponding to verse 3]. I might think that this refers to fulfilling the commandments. When Scripture says, “and you do not perform all these commandments,” the fulfillment of commandments is [already] stated. So what is the meaning of “if you do not listen to Me”? To toil in [the study of] Torah. And what is the meaning of “to Me”? This is speaking only about someone who knows his Master, and yet willfully rebels against Him (Sanh. 109a). Likewise, regarding Nimrod [whom Scripture calls], “a powerful hunter before the Lord ” (Gen. 10:9), [it means that] he recognized God but intentionally rebelled against Him; likewise, regarding the people of Sodom, [referred to as], “very evil and sinful against the Lord ” (Gen. 13:13)- [it means that] they recognized their Master but intentionally rebelled against Him. — [Torath Kohanim 26:18]   ואם לא תשמעו לי: להיות עמלים בתורה, לדעת מדרש חכמים. יכול לקיום המצות, כשהוא אומר ולא תעשו וגו', הרי קיום מצות אמור, הא מה אני מקיים ואם לא תשמעו לי, להיות עמלים בתורה. ומה תלמוד לומר לי, אין לי אלא זה המכיר את רבונו ומתכוין למרוד בו, וכן בנמרוד (בראשית י ט) גבור ציד לפני ה', שמכירו ומתכוין למרוד בו, וכן באנשי סדום (שם יג יג) רעים וחטאים לה' מאד, מכירים את רבונם ומתכוונים למרוד בו:
and do not perform: If you do not learn [the Torah], you will not perform. Scripture hereby enumerates two transgressions [namely, (a) not learning the Torah and therefore (b) not fulfilling its commandments properly]. — [Torath Kohanim 26:18]   ולא תעשו: משלא תלמדו לא תעשו הרי שתי עבירות:
15. and if you despise My statutes and reject My ordinances, not performing any of My commandments, thereby breaking My covenant   טו. וְאִם בְּחֻקֹּתַי תִּמְאָסוּ וְאִם אֶת מִשְׁפָּטַי תִּגְעַל נַפְשְׁכֶם לְבִלְתִּי עֲשׂוֹת אֶת כָּל מִצְו‍ֹתַי לְהַפְרְכֶם אֶת בְּרִיתִי:
and if you despise My statutes: [This refers to one who] despises others who perform [the commandments];- [Torath Kohanim 26:18]   ואם בחקתי תמאסו: מואס באחרים העושים:
and reject My ordinances: [refers to one who] hates the Sages - [Torath Kohanim 26:18]   משפטי תגעל נפשכם: שונא החכמים:
not performing: [refers to someone who] prevents others from fulfilling [the commandments];- [Torath Kohanim 26:18]   לבלתי עשות: מונע את אחרים מעשות:
any of my commandments: [refers to one who] denies that I [God,] commanded them. This is why the verse says “any of My commandments” and “not any of the commandments.” - [Torath Kohanim 26:18]   את כל מצותי: כופר המצוות שלא צויתים, לכך נאמר את כל מצותי, ולא נאמר את כל המצות:
thereby breaking My covenant: [This refers to one who] denies the main tenet [of Judaism, namely, that God is the Omnipotent Creator of all existence (Torath Kohanim 26:18).] Hence, [this verse has enumerated] seven sins, the first leading to the second, and so on, until the seventh, [and the process of degeneration is] as follows: [First, a person] does not learn [the Torah]; then, he [subsequently] does not fulfill [the commandments]; he then despises others who do [fulfill them]; then, he hates the Sages, prevents others from fulfilling [the commandments], denies the [authenticity of the] commandments and [finally] denies the very omnipotence of God.   להפרכם את בריתי: כופר בעיקר הרי שבע עבירות, הראשונה גוררת השניה, וכן עד השביעית ואלו הן לא למד, ולא עשה, מואס באחרים העושים, שונא את החכמים, מונע את האחרים, כופר במצות, כופר בעיקר:
16. then I too, will do the same to you; I will order upon you shock, consumption, fever, and diseases that cause hopeless longing and depression. You will sow your seed in vain, and your enemies will eat it.   טז. אַף אֲנִי אֶעֱשֶׂה זֹּאת לָכֶם וְהִפְקַדְתִּי עֲלֵיכֶם בֶּהָלָה אֶת הַשַּׁחֶפֶת וְאֶת הַקַּדַּחַת מְכַלּוֹת עֵינַיִם וּמְדִיבֹת נָפֶשׁ וּזְרַעְתֶּם לָרִיק זַרְעֲכֶם וַאֲכָלֻהוּ אֹיְבֵיכֶם:
I will order: I will order upon you.   והפקדתי עליכם: וצויתי עליכם:
consumption: This is a disease that consumes the flesh; anpoles in Old French, blisters. [The afflicted] appears like one who has had swellings and whose swellings have abated, thereby causing a sad appearance to his face [due to the stretched skin sagging after the swellings have abated].   שחפת: חולי שמשחף את הבשר, אנפולי"ש בלע"ז [בועות], דומה לנפוח שהוקלה נפיחתו ומראית פניו זעופה:
fever: Heb. קַדַּחַת, an illness that makes the body feverish, heating it up and making it burn, like, “For a fire blazed (קָדְחָה) in My wrath” (Deut. 32:22).   קדחת: חולי שמקדיח את הגוף ומחממו ומבעירו, כמו (דברים לב כב) כי אש קדחה באפי:
that cause hopeless longing and depression: Heb. מְכַלּות עֵינַיִם וּמְדִיבֹת נֶפֶשׁ. The eyes (עֵינַיִם) look with anticipation, longing (כָּלוֹת) to see that the illness will abate, and he will recover, but, he eventually does not recover, and depression (מְדִיבֹת נֶפֶשׁ) falls upon his family members when he dies. Any desire that is not realized or some prolonged yearning [for something], is termed כִּלְיוּן עֵינַיִם.   מכלות עינים ומדיבת נפש: העינים צופות וכלות לראות שיקל וירפא, וסוף שלא ירפא, וידאבו הנפשות של משפחתו במותו. כל תאוה שאינה באה ותוחלת ממושכה קרויה כליון עינים:
You will sow [your seed] in vain [and your enemies will eat it]: You will sow, but it will not grow, and if it does grow-“your enemies will eat it.”   וזרעתם לריק: תזרעו ולא תצמח, ואם תצמח ואכלוהו אויביכם:
17. I will set My attention against you, and you will be smitten before your enemies. Your enemies will rule over you; you will flee, but no one will be pursuing you.   יז. וְנָתַתִּי פָנַי בָּכֶם וְנִגַּפְתֶּם לִפְנֵי אֹיְבֵיכֶם וְרָדוּ בָכֶם שׂנְאֵיכֶם וְנַסְתֶּם וְאֵין רֹדֵף אֶתְכֶם:
I will set my attention: [The word here פָנַי, means] My leisure. [Thus, God is saying here:] “I will turn (פּוֹנֶה) away from all My affairs, to harm you.”   ונתתי פני: פנאי שלי, פונה אני מכל עסקי להרע לכם:
Your enemies will rule over you: Heb. וְרָדוּ. [This expression is to be understood] literally, namely, [that they] will rule over you. Now, the Aggadic explanation of this passage (beginning from verse 16), as taught in Torath Kohanim (26:19-24), is as follows: [16]   ורדו בכם שנאיכם: כמשמעו ישלטו בכם. אגדת תורת כהנים מפרשה זו:
Then I too, will do the same: Heb., אַף אֲנִי אֶעשֶׂה זֹּאת. I will speak only out of wrath (אַף). Likewise, וְהָלַכְתִּי אַף אֲנִי עִמָּכֶם בְּקֶרִי (verse 24 below);   אף אני אעשה זאת: איני מדבר אלא באף, וכן והלכתי אף אני עמכם בקרי (פסוק כד):
I will order upon you: Heb., וְהִפְקַדְתִּי עֲלֵיכֶם. The plagues will address (פּוֹקְדוֹת) you one immediately after the other; i.e., the first plague will not have even finished, when I will bring the next one upon you, right next to it.   והפקדתי עליכם: שיהיו המכות פוקדות אתכם מזו לזו, עד שהראשונה פקודה אצלכם אביא אחרת ואסמכנה לה:
shock: Heb., בֶּהָלָה. This is a plague that shocks (מַבְהֶלֶת) people. And what is this? A plague [whose cure is anxiously] awaited, [and when the afflicted dies suddenly, people are (נִבְהָלִים) shocked];   בהלה: מכה המבהלת את הבריות, ואיזו, זו מכת מותן:
Consumption…: Heb. אֶת הַשַּׁחֶפֶת וְאֶת הַקַּדַּחַת מְכַלּוֹת עֵינַיִם וּמְדִיבֹת נָפֶשׁ . Sometimes, a person is sick and lies in bed, but his flesh is well preserved on him-therefore, Scripture states, שַׁחֶפֶת, [a disease that] consumes the flesh. Or occasionally, a person may be worn away [from disease], but is comfortable in that he has no burning fever. Therefore, Scripture states, וְאֶת הַקַדַּחַת, which teaches us that [the afflicted] will be burning with fever. Or sometimes, a person may be burning with fever, but he himself believes that he will survive. Therefore, Scripture states, “[and diseases] that cause hopeless longing” [explained above in Rashi to mean that he will not recover]. Or, although he himself does not believe that he will survive, nevertheless, others may believe that he will. Therefore, Scripture states, מְדִיבוֹת נֶפֶשׁ [explained above in Rashi to mean that the family members of the afflicted will be depressed due to his death];   את השחפת: יש לך אדם שהוא חולה ומוטל במטה אבל בשרו שמור עליו, תלמוד לומר שחפת, שהוא נשחף. או עתים שהוא נשחף אבל נוח ואינו מקדיח, תלמוד לומר ואת הקדחת, מלמד שהוא מקדיח. או עתים שהוא מקדיח אבל סבור הוא בעצמו שיחיה, תלמוד לומר מכלות עינים. או הוא אינו סבור בעצמו שיחיה אבל אחרים סבורים שיחיה, תלמוד לומר ומדיבות נפש:
You will sow your seed in vain: You will sow your seed, but it will not grow. If this is the case, though, what would your enemies come and eat, that the verse should then state, “and your enemies will eat it”? What circumstance are we speaking about here? You will sow your seed one particular year, and it will not grow [then]; in the following year, however, it will grow, but then, your enemies will come and find the produce for the time of the siege. Thus, those inside [the besieged cities] will be dying of starvation, because they had not gathered in produce from the previous year. Another explanation of “You will sow your seed in vain” is that Scripture here is alluding to sons and daughters, namely, that you will invest hard work in your children, rearing them, but [the punishment of your] sin will come and consume them, as the verse says, “Those whom I have reared and brought up-my enemy has consumed” (Lam. 2:22). [17]   וזרעתם לריק זרעכם: זורעה ואינה מצמחת, ומעתה מה אויביכם באים ואוכלים, ומה תלמוד לומר ואכלוהו אויביכם, הא כיצד, זורעה שנה ראשונה ואינה מצמחת, שנה שניה מצמחת ואויבים באים ומוצאים תבואה לימי המצור, ושבפנים מתים ברעב, שלא לקטו תבואה אשתקד. דבר אחר וזרעתם לריק זרעכם, כנגד הבנים והבנות הכתוב מדבר, שאתה עמל בהם ומגדלן, והחטא בא ומכלה אותם, שנאמר (איכה ב כב) אשר טפחתי ורביתי אויבי כלם:
I will set My attention against you: Just as it is said regarding the good, “I will turn towards you” (verse 9), so it is said regarding the bad, “I will set My attention [against you.” Our Sages] drew a parable to a king, who said to his servants [when they had not obeyed him]: “I am now turning my attention away from all my affairs, and I am occupying myself with you, to do [you] harm!”   ונתתי פני בכם: כמו שנאמר בטובה ופניתי אליכם, כך נאמר ברעה ונתתי פני. משלו משל, למלך שאמר לעבדיו פונה אני מכל עסקי ועוסק אני עמכם [לרעה]:
and you will be smitten before your enemies: Heb. וְנִגַּפְתֶּם, [lit., “and you will fall by the plague before your enemies,”] that the deathly plague will kill you inside [the besieged cities] while your enemies surround you from the outside [and rejoice that you are dying off within, from the plague];- [Sifthei Chachamim]   ונגפתם לפני איביכם: שיהא המות הורג אתכם מבפנים ובעלי דבביכון מקיפין אתכם מבחוץ:
Your enemies will rule over you: Heb. וְרָדוּ בָכֶם. I will make your enemies stem from within your very own people. For at the time that the nations stand up against Israel, they seek out only what is visible, as it is said, “And it happened, when Israel sowed, that Midian, Amalek, and the children of the East came up… and they camped against them and destroyed the Land’s produce” (Jud. 6:3-4). However, when I will set up [enemies] against you from within your very own camp, they will seek out your hidden treasures [within]. Thus, says the verse, “who ate the flesh of My people and flayed their skin from upon them [and opened their bones and broke them” (Micah 3:3)-the metaphor of breaking the bone to get to the marrow within, alluding to the enemy seeking out the hidden treasure within (Yosef Hallel)].   ורדו בכם שנאיכם: שאיני מעמיד שונאים אלא מכם ובכם, שבשעה שאומות העולם עומדים על ישראל אינם מבקשים אלא מה שבגלוי, שנאמר (שופטים ו ג - ד) והיה אם זרע ישראל ועלה מדין ועמלק ובני קדם וגו' ויחנו עליהם וישחיתו את יבול הארץ, אבל בשעה שאעמיד עליכם מכם ובכם, הם מחפשים אחר המטמוניות שלכם, וכן הוא אומר (מיכה ג ג) ואשר אכלו שאר עמי ועורם מעליהם הפשיטו וגו':
you will flee: out of fright,   ונסתם: מפני אימה:
but no one will be pursuing you: for lack of strength [left to pursue you.] - [Torath Kohanim 26:24] [This is the end of the Aggadic explanation given by Torath Kohanim. Now Rashi resumes his commentary, although sometimes quoting Torath Kohanim.]   ואין רדף אתכם: מבלי כח:
18. And if, during these, you will not listen to Me, I will add another seven punishments for your sins:   יח. וְאִם עַד אֵלֶּה לֹא תִשְׁמְעוּ לִי וְיָסַפְתִּי לְיַסְּרָה אֶתְכֶם שֶׁבַע עַל חַטֹּאתֵיכֶם:
And if, during these: Heb. וְאִםעַדאֵלֶּה, [equivalent to:] וְאִםבְּעוֹדאֵלֶּה, lit., “and if, while (עוֹד) these [are transpiring], you [still] will not listen to Me.”   ואם עד אלה: ואם בעוד אלה המכות עמכם לא תשמעו:
I will add: more sufferings of a different [nature].   ויספתי: עוד יסורין אחרים:
another seven… for your sins: Seven retributions for your seven sins that have been enumerated earlier [not sevenfold for your sins]. — [see Rashi verse 15 above; Torath Kohanim 26:26]   שבע על חטאתיכם: שבע פורעניות על שבע העבירות האמורות למעלה:
19. I will break the pride of your strength and make your skies like iron and your land like copper.   יט. וְשָׁבַרְתִּי אֶת גְּאוֹן עֻזְּכֶם וְנָתַתִּי אֶת שְׁמֵיכֶם כַּבַּרְזֶל וְאֶת אַרְצְכֶם כַּנְּחֻשָׁה:
I will break the pride of your strength: This is the Temple, and so Scripture says, “Behold I profaning My Sanctuary, the pride of your strength” (Ezek. 24:21). - [Torath Kohanim 26:27]   ושברתי את גאון עזכם: זה בית המקדש, וכן הוא אומר (יחזקאל כד כא) הנני מחלל את מקדשי גאון עוזכם:
and make your skies like iron and your land like copper: This is more severe than that of Moses, for there he says, “And your sky above you will be [like] copper and the earth beneath you (like) iron” (Deut. 28:23), that the sky will sweat as copper sweats, and the earth will not sweat, just as iron does not sweat, and therefore, [the earth] will preserve [any of] its [existing] fruit. Here, however, [in this harsher curse, pronounced by God Himself,] the sky will not sweat, just as iron does not sweat, and therefore, there will be drought in the world, while the earth will sweat, just as copper sweats, thus causing its fruits to rot [through its dampness]. — [Torath Kohanim 26:28]   ונתתי את שמיכם כברזל ואת ארצכם כנחשה: זו קשה משל משה, ששם הוא אומר (דברים כח כג) והיו שמיך אשר על ראשך נחשת וגו', שיהיו השמים מזיעין כדרך שהנחשת מזיעה והארץ אינה מזיעה כדרך שאין הברזל מזיע והיא משמרת פירותיה, אבל כאן השמים לא יהיו מזיעין כדרך שאין הברזל מזיע ויהא חורב בעולם והארץ תהא מזיעה כדרך שהנחשת מזיעה והיא מאבדת פירותיה:
20. Your strength will be expended in vain; your land will not yield its produce, neither will the tree of the earth give forth its fruit.   כ. וְתַם לָרִיק כֹּחֲכֶם וְלֹא תִתֵּן אַרְצְכֶם אֶת יְבוּלָהּ וְעֵץ הָאָרֶץ לֹא יִתֵּן פִּרְיוֹ:
Your strength will be expended in vain: In the case of a man who did not toil, not having plowed, sown, weeded, cut off [the thorns], or hoed-at the time of harvest, if blight comes and ruins everything [that others worked on], it does not affect him at all. However, a man who did toil, who plowed, sowed, weeded, cut off [the thorns], and hoed-if blight comes and ruins everything, this man’s teeth become blunt [i.e., his spirit will surely be broken]! [Thus is the force of the retribution described here]. — [Torath Kohanim 26:28]   ותם לריק כחכם: הרי אדם שלא עמל שלא חרש שלא זרע שלא נכש שלא כסח שלא עדר ובשעת הקציר בא שדפון ומלקה אותו, אין בכך כלום, אבל אדם שעמל וחרש וזרע ונכש וכסח ועדר ובא שדפון ומלקה אותו, הרי שניו של זה קהות:
your land will not yield its produce: [Heb. יְבוּלָה. Even [that quantity of seed] that you “bring forth (מוֹבִיל) ” to [the field] at the time of sowing. — Torath Kohanim 26:29]   ולא תתן ארצכם את יבולה: אף מה שאתה מוביל לה בשעת הזרע:
and the tree of the earth [will not give forth its fruit]: [Why the expression “tree of the earth”? It means that] the trees will be smitten even from the earth, for they will not be able to put forth their fruits in the season when fruits sprout forth. [The production of fruit originates from the earth in which the tree is rooted. The tree will blossom, but the earth will have no power to bring forth fruit.] - [Sefer Hazikkaron; Torath Kohanim 26:29]   ועץ הארץ: אפילו מן הארץ יהא לקוי, שלא יחניט פירותיו בשעת החנטה:
will not give forth: [This phrase comes after “the tree of the land” and before “its fruit” and must be understood here to] refer to both that [phrase] which is before it and that which comes after it, the trees and the fruits [and therefore, there are two separate retributions specified here (see next Rashi)].   לא יתן: משמש למעלה ולמטה אעץ ואפרי:
will not give forth its fruit: i.e., if a tree will produce any fruit (Mizrachi), they will drop off (Torath Kohanim 26:29). Thus, this [clause, “the tree of the land will not give forth its fruit”] represents two separate curses and [by so identifying them as two separate curses here, Rashi has shown that verses 19-20 have] now enumerated seven retributions here (see Rashi on verse 18) [namely: (a) Breaking the pride of your strength, (b) making your skies like iron, and (c) your land like copper, (d) that your strength will be expended in vain, (e) your land will not yield its produce, (f) trees will not be able to give forth their fruits altogether (see preceding Rashi), and (g) any fruit produced will drop off the tree]. [Torath Kohanim]   לא יתן פריו: כשהוא מפרה משיר פירותיו, הרי שתי קללות, ויש כאן שבע פורעניות:
21. And if you treat Me as happenstance, and you do not wish to listen to Me, I will add seven punishments corresponding to your sins:   כא. וְאִם תֵּלְכוּ עִמִּי קֶרִי וְלֹא תֹאבוּ לִשְׁמֹעַ לִי וְיָסַפְתִּי עֲלֵיכֶם מַכָּה שֶׁבַע כְּחַטֹּאתֵיכֶם:
And if you treat me as happenstance: Heb. קֶרִי. Our Rabbis said that [this word means] temporary, by chance (מִקְרֶה), something that happens only sometimes. Thus, [our verse means:] “If you treat the commandments as happenstance, a temporary concern.” Menachem [Ben Saruk], (Machbereth, p. 1158) however, explains קֶרִי as refraining. Similar is, “hold back (הֹקֵר) your steps” (Prov. 25:17), and also, “he who keeps back (יְקַר) his breath” (Prov. 17:27). And this explanation [of לָלֶכֶת עִמִּי קֶרִי] resembles Onkelos’s translation, namely, denoting hardness (קשִׁי), i.e., [those who commit the sin of לָלֶכֶת עִמִּי קֶרִי] harden (מַקְשִׁין) their hearts to refrain from coming close to Me.   ואם תלכו עמי קרי: רבותינו אמרו עראי, במקרה, שאינו אלא לפרקים, כן תלכו עראי במצות. ומנחם פירש לשון מניעה, וכן (משלי כה יז) הוקר רגלך, וכן יקר רוח (משלי יז כז), וקרוב לשון זה לתרגומו של אונקלוס לשון קושי, שמקשים לבם להמנע מהתקרב אלי:
I will add seven punishments corresponding to your sins: Seven other punishments, with the number seven, corresponding to your sins. - [Torath Kohanim 26:30]   שבע כחטאתיכם: שבע פורעניות אחרים במספר שבע כחטאתיכם:
22. I will incite the wild beasts of the field against you, and they will bereave you, utterly destroy your livestock and diminish you, and your roads will become desolate.   כב. וְהִשְׁלַחְתִּי בָכֶם אֶת חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה וְשִׁכְּלָה אֶתְכֶם וְהִכְרִיתָה אֶת בְּהֶמְתְּכֶם וְהִמְעִיטָה אֶתְכֶם וְנָשַׁמּוּ דַּרְכֵיכֶם:
I will incite: Heb. הִשְׁלַחְתּי, an expression of inciting.   והשלחתי: לשון גירוי:
and they will bereave you: [From this verse,] I know only that wild beasts will bereave you, for this is their nature. How do I know that domestic animals, which are not accustomed [to kill people, that they too, will kill]? Therefore, Scripture says, “I will incite the teeth of livestock upon them” (Deut. 32:24). Thus, there are two [punishments-both wild beasts and domestic animals attacking people]. How do I know that they will kill through their bite? Because that verse continues, “with the venom of the creatures that slither in the dust”-just as those [snakes] kill through their bite, these also will kill through their bite, and indeed, there were years in the Land of Israel, when [domestic] donkeys used to bite and kill, wild donkeys bit and killed. — [see Rashi Deut. 32:24; Torath Kohanim 26:31] [Be’er Mayim Chayim writes that the wild donkey is basically a domestic animal, but, as Leket Bahir comments, it lives in the wilderness and is therefore considered a wild animal. See also Sefer Hazikkaron. Extant editions of Torath Kohanim read: Donkeys would bite and kill; oxen would bite and kill.]   ושכלה אתכם: אין לי אלא חיה משכלת שדרכה בכך, בהמה שאין דרכה בכך מנין, תלמוד לומר (דברים לב כד) ושן בהמות אשלח בם, הרי שתים. ומנין שתהא ממיתה בנשיכתה, תלמוד לומר (שם) עם חמת זוחלי עפר. מה אלו נושכין וממיתין, אף אלו נושכין וממיתין. כבר היו שנים בארץ ישראל חמור נושך וממית, ערוד נושך וממית:
and they will bereave you: these are the young children.   ושכלה אתכם: אלו הקטנים:
utterly destroy your livestock: from outside [your city].   והכריתה את בהמתכם: מבחוץ:
and diminish you: from within [your city].   והמעיטה אתכם: מבפנים:
and your roads will become desolate: The major trails and the minor trails. Here you have seven punishments: 1) the teeth of domestic animals, 2) the teeth of wild animals, 3) the venom of the crawling things of the dust, 4) and they will bereave [you], 5) utterly destroy [you], 6) and diminish [you], 7) and [your roads] will become desolate.   ונשמו דרכיכם: שבילים גדולים ושבילים קטנים, הרי שבע פורעניות שן בהמה, ושן חיה, חמת זוחלי עפר, ושכלה, והכריתה, והמעיטה, ונשמו:
23. And if, through these, you will still not be chastised [to return] to Me, and if you [continue to] treat Me happenstance,   כג. וְאִם בְּאֵלֶּה לֹא תִוָּסְרוּ לִי וַהֲלַכְתֶּם עִמִּי קֶרִי:
you will not be chastised to Me: to return to Me.   לא תוסרו לי: לשוב אלי:
24. Then I too, will treat you as happenstance. I will again add seven punishments for your sins:   כד. וְהָלַכְתִּי אַף אֲנִי עִמָּכֶם בְּקֶרִי וְהִכֵּיתִי אֶתְכֶם גַּם אָנִי שֶׁבַע עַל חַטֹּאתֵיכֶם:
25. I will bring upon you an army that avenges the avenging of a covenant, and you will gather into your cities. I will incite the plague in your midst, and you will be delivered into the enemy's hands,   כה. וְהֵבֵאתִי עֲלֵיכֶם חֶרֶב נֹקֶמֶת נְקַם בְּרִית וְנֶאֱסַפְתֶּם אֶל עָרֵיכֶם וְשִׁלַּחְתִּי דֶבֶר בְּתוֹכְכֶם וְנִתַּתֶּם בְּיַד אוֹיֵב:
the avenging of a covenant: [Since] there is also an avenging which is not of the covenant [i.e., not stated here in the Torah, such as those] in the manner of other avengings and this is the blinding of the eyes of Zedekiah (see II Kings, 25:7) [i.e., blinding is not one of the punishments enumerated here]. Another explanation of “the avenging of a covenant” : The avenging [here] will be because you broke My covenant [namely, the Torah] (Sifthei Chachamim and Onkelos; Shab. 33a). Wherever the expression of “bringing חֶרֶב ” appears in Scripture, it refers to a war of enemy armies.   נקם ברית: ויש נקם שאינו בברית כדרך שאר נקמות, וזהו סמוי עיניו של צדקיהו. דבר אחר נקם ברית נקמת בריתי אשר עברתם. כל הבאת חרב שבמקרא היא מלחמת חיילות אויבים:
and you will gather [into your cities]: from the outside, to the inside of the cities, due to the siege. — [Torath Kohanim 26:33]   ונאספתם: מן החוץ אל תוך הערים מפני המצור:
I will then incite the plague in your midst [and you will be delivered into the enemy’s hands]: Through this plague, you will be delivered over to the hands of your enemies who are besieging you (see preceding Rashi); because since one may not allow a dead person to remain [unburied] overnight in Jerusalem (B.K. 82b), when they bring out their dead for burial, they will then be “delivered into the enemy’s hands.” - [Torath Kohanim 26:33]   ושלחתי דבר בתוככם: ועל ידי הדבר ונתתם ביד האויבים הצרים עליכם, לפי שאין מלינים את המת בירושלים, וכשהם מוציאים את המת לקברו, נתנים ביד אויב:
26. when I break for you the staff of bread, and ten women will bake your bread in one oven, and they will bring back your bread by weight, and you will eat, yet not be satisfied.   כו. בְּשִׁבְרִי לָכֶם מַטֵּה לֶחֶם וְאָפוּ עֶשֶׂר נָשִׁים לַחְמְכֶם בְּתַנּוּר אֶחָד וְהֵשִׁיבוּ לַחְמְכֶם בַּמִּשְׁקָל וַאֲכַלְתֶּם וְלֹא תִשְׂבָּעוּ:
the staff of bread: Heb. מַטֵּה. [This expression] denotes [a source of] “support” [namely, food or bread, just as a staff (מַטֵּה) supports a person (Mizrachi)], similar to “staff (מַטֵּה) of strength” (Jer. 48:17).   מטה לחם: לשון משען, כמו (ירמיה מח יז) מטה עז:
When I break for you the staff of bread: I will break every support of bread that you have. — [Torath Kohanim 26:34] This refers to “the arrows of hunger” (see Ezek. 5:16 where both of these expressions appear, and Redak identifies the “arrows of hunger” as blight, mildew, and locusts, which destroy some or most of the grain).   בשברי לכם מטה לחם: אשבור לכם כל מסעד אוכל, והם חצי רעב:
and ten women will bake your bread in one oven: because of lack of wood. — [Torath Kohanim 26:34]   ואפו עשר נשים לחמכם בתנור אחד: מחוסר עצים:
and they will bring back your bread by weight: The grain will rot, and the bread will become crumbly, breaking apart inside the oven. The women, therefore, will sit and weigh the broken pieces, to divide them among themselves. — [Torath Kohanim 26:34]   והשיבו לחמכם במשקל: שתהא התבואה נרקבת ונעשית פת נפולה ומשתברת בתנור, והן יושבות ושוקלות את השברים לחלקם ביניהם:
and you will eat, yet not be satisfied: This describes a curse within the intestines. [Once again,] seven retributions [are enumerated here (verses 25-26) corresponding to the seven sins (see Rashi on verses 15, 18, 20 and 22 above)], namely: (a) the attacking armies, (b) the siege, (c) the plague, (d) the destruction of food supply, (e) a lack of wood, (f) crumbly bread and (g) a curse in the intestines. The clause, “you will be delivered [into the enemy’s hand]” (in verse 25), does not count [as a separate retribution because it] is [part of] the attacking armies.   ואכלתם ולא תשבעו: זה מארה בתוך המעים, הרי שבע פורעניות חרב, מצור, דבר, שבר מטה לחם, חוסר עצים, פת נפולה, מארה במעים. ונתתם (פסוק כה) אינה מן המנין, שהיא החרב:
27. And if, despite this, you still do not listen to Me, still treating Me as happenstance,   כז. וְאִם בְּזֹאת לֹא תִשְׁמְעוּ לִי וַהֲלַכְתֶּם עִמִּי בְּקֶרִי:
28. I will treat you with a fury of happenstance, adding again seven [chastisements] for your sins:   כח. וְהָלַכְתִּי עִמָּכֶם בַּחֲמַת קֶרִי וְיִסַּרְתִּי אֶתְכֶם אַף אָנִי שֶׁבַע עַל חַטֹּאתֵיכֶם:
29. You will eat the flesh of your sons, and the flesh of your daughters you will eat.   כט. וַאֲכַלְתֶּם בְּשַׂר בְּנֵיכֶם וּבְשַׂר בְּנֹתֵיכֶם תֹּאכֵלוּ:
30. I will demolish your edifices and cut down your sun idols; I will make your corpses [fall] upon the corpses of your idols, and My Spirit will reject you.   ל. וְהִשְׁמַדְתִּי אֶת בָּמֹתֵיכֶם וְהִכְרַתִּי אֶת חַמָּנֵיכֶם וְנָתַתִּי אֶת פִּגְרֵיכֶם עַל פִּגְרֵי גִּלּוּלֵיכֶם וְגָעֲלָה נַפְשִׁי אֶתְכֶם:
your edifices: Towers and castles.   במתיכם: מגדלים ובירניות:
your sun-idols: A type of idol that they would place upon the rooftops, and since they would stand in the sun (חַמָּה), they are called “sun idols.” (חַמָּנִים) - [Torath Kohanim 19:7]   חמניכם: מין עבודה זרה שמעמידין על הגגות. ועל שם שמעמידין בחמה קרויין חמנים:
I will make your corpses [fall] upon [the corpses of your idols]: [How so?] The people would be swollen from starvation; [and in a futile gesture of homage,] they would take out their idol from their bosom and kiss it; their bellies would burst open, and they would fall down [dead] on top of it. — [Torath Kohanim 26:36]   ונתתי את פגריכם: תפוחי רעב היו, ומוציאים יראתם מחיקם ומנשקים אותם, וכרסו נבקעת ונופל עליה:
and My Spirit will reject you: This is the departure of the Divine Presence. — [Torath Kohanim 26:36]   וגעלה נפשי אתכם: זה סילוק שכינה:
31. I will lay your cities waste and make your holy places desolate, and I will not partake of your pleasant fragrances.   לא. וְנָתַתִּי אֶת עָרֵיכֶם חָרְבָּה וַהֲשִׁמּוֹתִי אֶת מִקְדְּשֵׁיכֶם וְלֹא אָרִיחַ בְּרֵיחַ נִיחֹחֲכֶם:
I will lay your cities waste: I might think that this means [desolate] of people [who reside there (Mizrachi)]. When the [next verse] says, “I will make the Land desolate,” [desolation of] people [who reside there] is [already] stated. So what is the meaning of “waste”? [It means that the Land will be desolate] of any passerby. — [Torath Kohanim 26:2]   ונתתי את עריכם חרבה: יכול מאדם, כשהוא אומר והשימותי אני את הארץ (פסוק לב) הרי אדם אמור, הא מה אני מקיים חרבה מעובר ושב:
and make your holy places (מִקְדְּשֵׁיכֶם) desolate: I might think that this means [desolate] of sacrifices. [However,] when [Scripture] states, “and I will not partake [of your pleasant fragrances],” [desolation of] sacrifices is stated. So what is the meaning of “and make your holy places desolate”? It means [desolate] of throngs (Torath Kohanim 26: 4) - these are the caravans of Israelites who prepare themselves (מִתְקַדְּשׁוֹת) and gather to go there [to the Holy Temple in Jerusalem]. [Here also,] seven retributions [are enumerated here (verses 29-31) corresponding to the seven sins (see Rashi on verses 15, 18, 20 and 22 above)], namely: eating the flesh of sons and daughters, edifices being demolished; thus we have two [retributions enumerated]. The cutting down of sun-idols is not [counted as a separate] retribution, but rather, [part of this second one, for] as a consequence of the edifices being demolished, the sun-idols that had been erected on the rooftops (see Rashi verse 30 above) will fall off [these tall buildings] and be destroyed; I will make your corpses [(fall) upon the corpses of your idols]-that makes three; the departure of the Divine Presence-four; the cities being laid waste, the desolation of the holy places from throngs, and I will not partake [of the pleasant fragrances of] your sacrifices-in total, seven [even though the ensuing verses go on to mention several other additional hardships that are not actually part of these seven, but that Israel will have to endure if they sin (Mizrachi)].   והשמותי את מקדשיכם: יכול מן הקרבנות, כשהוא אומר ולא אריח הרי קרבנות אמורים, הא מה אני מקיים והשימותי את מקדשיכם, מן הגדודיות, שיירות של ישראל שהיו מתקדשות ונועדות לבא שם. הרי שבע פורעניות אכילת בשר בנים ובנות, והשמדת במות, הרי שתים. כריתת חמנים אין כאן פורענות אלא על ידי השמדת הבירניות יפלו החמנים שבראשי הגגות ויכרתו. ונתתי את פגריכם וגו' הרי שלש. סלוק שכינה ארבע. חרבן ערים, שממון מקדש מן הגדודיות, ולא אריח קרבנות, הרי שבע:
32. I will make the Land desolate, so that it will become desolate [also] of your enemies who live in it.   לב. וַהֲשִׁמֹּתִי אֲנִי אֶת הָאָרֶץ וְשָׁמְמוּ עָלֶיהָ אֹיְבֵיכֶם הַיּשְׁבִים בָּהּ:
I will make the Land desolate: This is actually a good thing for Israel, namely, that since the Land will be desolate of people living in it, the enemies will not find contentment in Israel’s Land [and will have to leave]. — [Sifthei Chachamim; Torath Kohanim 26:38]   והשמתי אני את הארץ: זו מדה טובה לישראל שלא ימצאו האויבים נחת רוח בארצם, שתהא שוממה מיושביה:
33. And I will scatter you among the nations, and I will unsheathe the sword after you. Your land will be desolate, and your cities will be laid waste.   לג. וְאֶתְכֶם אֱזָרֶה בַגּוֹיִם וַהֲרִיקֹתִי אַחֲרֵיכֶם חָרֶב וְהָיְתָה אַרְצְכֶם שְׁמָמָה וְעָרֵיכֶם יִהְיוּ חָרְבָּה:
And you, I will scatter among the nations: This [though,] is a harsh thing [for Israel], for when the people of a country are exiled to the same place, they see each other and find solace. However, Israel was scattered as if through a winnowing basket, just as a person who scatters barley through a sieve [so that] not one of them is attached to another. — [Torath Kohanim 26: 39]   ואתכם אזרה בגוים: זו מדה קשה, שבשעה שבני מדינה גולים למקום אחד רואים זה את זה ומתנחמין, וישראל נזרו כבמזרה, כאדם הזורה שעורים בנפה ואין אחת מהן דבוקה בחברתה:
and I will unsheathe: Heb. וַהֲרִיקֹתִי, [lit., “I will empty out,” which means here to unsheathe, because] when one unsheathes a sword, the sheath is emptied out (מִתְרוֹקֵֵן). And the Midrashic explanation [based on the term לְהָרִיק, often used to mean “to empty out water,” is as follows]: The sword that will be taken out against you will not return quickly [to its sheath]. This is like a person who empties out (מֵרִיק) [a pitcher of] water, which does not return [to the pitcher]. — [Torath Kohanim 26:39]   והריקתי: כששולף החרב מתרוקן הנדן. ומדרשו חרב הנשמטת אחריכם אינה חוזרת מהר, כאדם שמריק את המים ואין סופן לחזור:
Your land will be desolate: For you will not hasten to return into it, and subsequently, “your cities will be laid waste,” i.e., they will appear to you as having been [permanently] laid waste. For when a person is exiled from his house, from his vineyard, and from his city, but he [knows that he] that he will ultimately return, [in his eyes,] it is as though his vineyard and house are not laid waste [whereas here, since Israel will give up hope of returning to their Land, it will appear to them as having been laid waste]; thus is it taught in Torath Kohanim (26:40).   והיתה ארצכם שממה: שלא תמהרו לשוב לתוכה ומתוך כך עריכם יהיו חרבה, נראות לכם חרבות שבשעה שאדם גולה מביתו ומכרמו ומעירו וסופו לחזור כאלו אין כרמו וביתו חרבים, כך שנויה בתורת כהנים:
34. Then, the land will be appeased regarding its sabbaticals. During all the days that it remains desolate while you are in the land of your enemies, the Land will rest and thus appease its sabbaticals.   לד. אָז תִּרְצֶה הָאָרֶץ אֶת שַׁבְּתֹתֶיהָ כֹּל יְמֵי הָשַּׁמָּה וְאַתֶּם בְּאֶרֶץ אֹיְבֵיכֶם אָז תִּשְׁבַּת הָאָרֶץ וְהִרְצָת אֶת שַׁבְּתֹתֶיהָ:
Then, the Land will be appeased: [This verb is in the reflexive form and the meaning is: Then, the Land will be appeased, and in turn,] appease the anger of the Omnip resent, Who had been angry regarding the Land’s Shemittah years (Mizrachi) [and thus appease [God regarding them].   אז תרצה: תפייס את כעס המקום שכעס על שמטותיה:
and thus appease: [This verb is in the causative form, meaning: The Land will appease] the King regarding its sabbaticals (Mizrachi).   והרצת: למלך את שבתותיה:
35. It will rest during all the days that it remains desolate, whatever it had not rested on your sabbaticals, when you lived upon it.   לה. כָּל יְמֵי הָשַּׁמָּה תִּשְׁבֹּת אֵת אֲשֶׁר לֹא שָׁבְתָה בְּשַׁבְּתֹתֵיכֶם בְּשִׁבְתְּכֶם עָלֶיהָ:
all the days that it remains desolate: [This word הָשַּׁמָּה is in the passive form, just] like the word הֵעָשׂוֹת [and means “being desolate”]. The [root of the word, שׁמם, actually has two letters מ, and our word should therefore appear as הָשַּׁמָמָּה Since this is difficult to pronounce, however, the first] “mem” is vocalized with a dagesh, which replaces the [second, omitted “mem,” rather than having the full word with a] double [“mem” in it, as in the noun form,] שְׁמָמָה.   כל ימי השמה: לשון העשות ומ"ם דגש במקום כפל שממה:
whatever it had not rested on your sabbaticals: The seventy years of the Babylonian exile [i.e., between the destruction of the first Temple and the building of the second,] corresponded to the seventy years of Shemittah and Jubilee years that took place during the years that Israel angered the Omnipresent while in their Land, [a total of] 430 years. Three hundred and ninety years were the years of their sinning from when they entered the land until the Ten Tribes were exiled, and the people of Judah angered Him for forty more years from the time the Ten Tribes were exiled until the destruction of Jerusalem. This is what is referred to in Ezek. (4:4-5) [when God makes Ezekiel figuratively suffer one day for each year Israel sinned, in order to atone for their sins], “And you shall lie on your left side (symbolizing the house of Israel, i.e., the ten tribes)… [Now I have made for you the years of their iniquity by the number of days, three hundred and ninety days, and you shall bear the iniquity of the house of Israel]. And when you complete these, you shall lie on your right side a second time, and you shall bear the iniquity of the house of Judah: forty days [a day for a year, a day for a year, I have given it to you].” Now, this prophecy was stated to Ezekiel in the fifth year of King Jehoiachin’s exile. And [since the people of Judah] spent another six years [in the Land] until Zedekiah’s exile, totaling forty-six [sinful years of the house of Judah, and hence, of the 850 years the people of Israel spent from the time of their entry into the Land until their eventual exile from it after the destruction of the first Holy Temple, they sinned for a total of 436 years]. Now, you might object, saying that King Manasseh [who was born immediately after the ten tribes were exiled, and who] ruled for fifty-five years [and so, even without taking into account the sinful years during the reigns of all the other kings of Judah, fifty-five years alone is more than forty-six, so surely the calculation is incorrect]! [However,] Manasseh repented [his evil ways] for thirty-three [of the fifty-five] years [of his reign], and thus, his sinful years [amounted to] twenty-two years, as it is written, “and he made an asherah as Ahab, the king of Israel, had made” (II Kings 21:3), and Ahab ruled for twenty-two [sinful] years, [so did Manasseh sin for twenty-two of his fifty-five year reign,] as is taught in the Aggadah of [the eleventh chapter of Tractate Sanh. (103a), entitled] Cheilek. [Thus, the number of years that the house of Judah sinned was: 22 years during the reign of Manasseh,] two during [the reign of] Amon, eleven during [the reign of] Jehoiakim and the same [i.e., another eleven] during [the reign of] Zedekiah [making a total of 46 years. The other kings of Judah are not included in the calculation, because during the righteous Josiah’s reign, Israel did not sin, while Jehoachaz and Jehoiachin each ruled for only three months. Let us now] go and calculate, for the [period of] 436 years [of sin], how many Shemittah and Jubilee years transpired during the years, at a rate of sixteen in every hundred years: 14 Shemittah years and two Jubilee years [totaling 16 sabbatical years]. Therefore, for 400 years, we have 64, and for the remaining 36 years, there are five [cycles of seven years and thus five] Shemittah years, making a total of [64 and 5 =] seventy minus one [i.e., 69 unobserved sabbatical years in that total of 436 sinful years in that period]. And [we must add to this calculation] an extra year-this extra year was the [last sinful] year [of the 436,] which began another Shemittah cycle [and God exiled Israel then and did not wait for the completion of that cycle for them to desecrate the seventieth Shemittah year-out of mercy for them, so that they would not have to endure the punishment of utter destruction, God forbid.] - [see Deut. 4:25 and Rashi there; Sifthei Chachamim] [This extra year, nevertheless, is included in the calculation here, as though another sabbatical had gone by unobserved, thereby] completing the seventy [unobserved sabbatical years of that period]. And for these [unobserved sabbaticals], a full seventy years [of exile] were decreed. And thus is it stated in (II) Chron. (36: 21), “until the Land was appeased regarding its Sabbaths; [for all the days of its desolation it rested,] until the completion of seventy years.” - [See Sefer Hazikkaron for the explanation of this Rashi.]   את אשר לא שבתה: שבעים שנה של גלות בבל הן היו כנגד שבעים שנות השמטה ויובל שהיו בשנים שהכעיסו ישראל בארצם לפני המקום ארבע מאות ושלשים שנה. שלש מאות ותשעים היו שני עונם משנכנסו לארץ עד שגלו עשרת השבטים, ובני יהודה הכעיסו לפניו ארבעים שנה משגלו עשרת השבטים עד חרבות ירושלים, הוא שנאמר ביחזקאל (יחזקאל ד ד - ו) ואתה שכב על צדך השמאלי וגו' וכלית את אלה ושכבת על צדך הימני שנית ונשאת את עון בית יהודה ארבעים יום. ונבואה זו נאמרה ליחזקאל בשנה החמישית לגלות המלך יהויכין. ועוד עשו שש שנים עד גלות צדקיהו, הרי ארבעים ושש. ואם תאמר, שנות מנשה חמשים וחמש היו, מנשה עשה תשובה שלשים ושלש שנה וכל שנות רשעו עשרים ושתים שנה, דכתיב ויעש אשרה כאשר עשה אחאב (מלכים ב' כא ג) ואחאב מלך עשרים ושתים שנה, כמו שאמרו באגדת חלק (סנהדרין קג א) ושל אמון שתים, ואחת עשרה ליהויקים, וכנגדן לצדקיהו. צא וחשוב לארבע מאות ושלשים ושש שנה שמיטין ויובלות שבהם, והם שש עשרה למאה, י"ד שמיטין וב' יובלות, הרי לארבע מאות שנה ששים וארבע. לשלשים ושש שנה חמש שמיטות, הרי שבעים חסר אחת, ועוד שנה יתירה שנכנסה בשמטה המשלמת לשבעים. ועליהם נגזר שבעים שנה שלמים. וכן הוא אומר בדברי הימים (דה"ב לו כא) עד רצתה הארץ את שבתותיה למלאות שבעים שנה:
36. And those of you who survive I will bring fear in their hearts in the lands of their enemies, and the sound of a rustling leaf will pursue them; they will flee as one flees the sword, and they will fall, but there will be no pursuer.   לו. וְהַנִּשְׁאָרִים בָּכֶם וְהֵבֵאתִי מֹרֶךְ בִּלְבָבָם בְּאַרְצֹת אֹיְבֵיהֶם וְרָדַף אֹתָם קוֹל עָלֶה נִדָּף וְנָסוּ מְנֻסַת חֶרֶב וְנָפְלוּ וְאֵין רֹדֵף:
I will bring fear: Heb. מֹרֶךְ, fear and timidity (רֹךְ) of heart (see Torath Kohanim 26:43). The letter “mem” of מֹרֶךְ is [actually part of] the root [of the word, but occasionally] is omitted (see Rashi on Gen. 17:11 and 49:10) [and does not appear in other forms of the word, e.g., אַל יֵרַךְ לְבַבְכֶם (Deut. 20:3)], like the “mem” of מוֹעֵד and מוֹקֵשׁ [where the “mem” is also part of the root, but is omitted in different forms of these words, e.g., וְנוֹעַדְתּי שָׁמָה (Exod. 29:43) and, יָקוּשׁ (Hos. 9:8)]. — [Meira Dachya]   והבאתי מרך: פחד ורך לבב. מ"ם של מרך יסוד נופל הוא, כמו מ"ם של מועד ושל מוקש:
they will flee as one flees the sword: i. e., as if murderers are pursuing them [but only “as if,” because “there will be no pursuer.” - [Mizrachi]   ונסו מנסת חרב: כאילו רודפים הורגים אותם:
a rustling leaf: Heb., עָלֶה נִדָּף, lit., a “ pushed” leaf, that the wind “pushes,” striking it against another leaf, so that it knocks and makes a sound. And so does the Targum [Onkelos] render: קַל טַרְפָא דְשָׁקִיף, an expression of striking, like שְׁדוּפוֹת קָדִים, beaten by the east wind (Gen. 41:6), [which Onkelos renders:] שְׁקִיפָן קִדּוּם, [and it is like] the term מַשְׁקוֹף, lintel, the place where the door slams. Similar is [Onkelos’s] translation of חַבּוּרָה [“bruise” (Exod. 21:25), which he renders:], מַשְׁקוֹפֵי [which actually means “blow,” since the bruise is a result of a blow on the body (see Rashi there)]. [Although the word נִדָּף actually means “pushed,” Onkelos conveys the result of one leaf being pushed against another, namely, that it “strikes” its neighboring leaf. (Mizrachi).]   עלה נדף: שהרוח דוחפו ומכהו על עלה אחר ומקשקש ומוציא קול, וכן תרגומו קל טרפא דשקיף, לשון חבטה, שדופות קדים (בראשית מא ו) שקיפן קידום, לשון משקוף, מקום חבטת הדלת, וכן תרגומו של חבורה (שמות כא כה) משקופי:
37. Each man will stumble over his brother, [fleeing] as if from the sword, but without a pursuer. You will not be able to stand up against your enemies.   לז. וְכָשְׁלוּ אִישׁ בְּאָחִיו כְּמִפְּנֵי חֶרֶב וְרֹדֵף אָיִן וְלֹא תִהְיֶה לָכֶם תְּקוּמָה לִפְנֵי אֹיְבֵיכֶם:
Each man will stumble over his brother: When they run away to flee, they will stumble over each other, because they will flee in panic.   וכשלו איש באחיו: כשירוצו לנוס, יכשלו זה בזה, כי יבהלו לרוץ:
as if from the sword: i.e., as if fleeing from [people] who want to kill them, for they will have fear in their hearts, and every moment, they will think that someone is chasing them. And the Midrashic explanation of וְכָשְׁלוּ אִישׁ בְּאָחִיו is: “Each man will stumble because of his brother,” i.e., one person will stumble because of someone else’s sin, because all Jews are guarantors for one another. - [Torath Kohanim 26:45, Sanh. 27b]   כמפני חרב: כאילו בורחים מלפני הורגים, שיהא בלבבם פחד וכל שעה סבורים שאדם רודפם. ומדרשו וכשלו איש באחיו, זה נכשל בעונו של זה, שכל ישראל ערבין זה לזה:
38. You will become lost among the nations, and the land of your enemies will consume you.   לח. וַאֲבַדְתֶּם בַּגּוֹיִם וְאָכְלָה אֶתְכֶם אֶרֶץ אֹיְבֵיכֶם:
You will become lost among the nations: When you will be scattered, you will become lost from one another.   ואבדתם בגוים: כשתהיו פזורים תהיו אבודים זה מזה:
and the land of your enemies will consume you: This refers to those [Jews] who will die in the Diaspora.   ואכלה אתכם: אלו המתים בגולה:
39. And because of their iniquity, those of you who survive will rot away in the lands of your enemies; moreover, they will rot away because the iniquities of their fathers are still within them.   לט. וְהַנִּשְׁאָרִים בָּכֶם יִמַּקּוּ בַּעֲו‍ֹנָם בְּאַרְצֹת אֹיְבֵיכֶם וְאַף בַּעֲו‍ֹנֹת אֲבֹתָם אִתָּם יִמָּקּוּ:
because the iniquities of their fathers are still with them: If they hold onto the [evil] practices of their forefathers in their hands. — [Sanh. 27b]   בעונת אבתם אתם: כשאוחזים מעשה אבותיהם בידיהם:
they will rot away: Heb. יִמָּקּוּ, an expression of melting, and has the same meaning as יִמַּסּוּ, “they will melt.” Similar is, “their eyes will melt (תִּמַּקְנָה) in their sockets” (Zech. 14:12), and, “my bruises are… decayed (נָמַקּוּ) ” (Ps. 38:6).   ימקו: לשון המסה, כמו ימסו, וכמו (זכריה יד יב) תמקנה בחוריהן, (תהלי' לח ו) נמקו חבורותי:
40. They will then confess their iniquity and the iniquity of their fathers their betrayal that they dealt Me, and that they also treated Me as happenstance.   מ. וְהִתְוַדּוּ אֶת עֲו‍ֹנָם וְאֶת עֲוֹן אֲבֹתָם בְּמַעֲלָם אֲשֶׁר מָעֲלוּ בִי וְאַף אֲשֶׁר הָלְכוּ עִמִּי בְּקֶרִי:
41. Then I too, will treat them as happenstance and bring them [back while] in the land of their enemies. If then, their clogged heart becomes humbled, then, [their sufferings] will gain appeasement for their iniquity,   מא. אַף אֲנִי אֵלֵךְ עִמָּם בְּקֶרִי וְהֵבֵאתִי אֹתָם בְּאֶרֶץ אֹיְבֵיהֶם אוֹ אָז יִכָּנַע לְבָבָם הֶעָרֵל וְאָז יִרְצוּ אֶת עֲו‍ֹנָם:
Then I too, will… bring them [… (back while) in the land of their enemies]: “I Myself will bring them [back]!” This is a good thing for Israel, so that they should not say, “Since we have been exiled among the nations, we may as well behave like them!” [Says God in answer to this:] “I will not allow them [to do this]! Rather, I will set up My prophets, and bring them back [to Me] under My very wings!” as it is said, “But what enters your mind shall not come about, [what you say, 'Let us be like the nations, like the families of the lands, serving wood and stone’]. As I live, says the Lord God, surely with a strong hand and with an outstretched arm and with poured out fury, will I reign over you!” (Ezek. 20:32-33). - [Torath Kohanim 26:48]   והבאתי אתם: אני בעצמי אביאם, זו מדה טובה לישראל, שלא יהיו אומרים, הואיל וגלינו בין האומות נעשה כמעשיהם, אני איני מניחם, אלא מעמיד אני את נביאי ומחזירן לתחת כנפי, שנאמר (יחזקאל כ לב - לג) והעולה על רוחכם היו לא תהיה וגו' חי אני וגו' אם לא ביד חזקה וגו':
If then… becomes humbled: Heb. אוֹ אָז יִכָּנַע [This unusual expression, אוֹ אָז, is] similar to that in the verse, אוֹ נוֹדַע כִּי שׁוֹר נַגָּח הוּא, “If it was known that it was a [habitually] goring bull” (Exod. 21:36). [Thus, the meaning of this verse is: If they want to become like the nations, I will have to take them back to Me against their will] but, if (אוֹ) their clogged heart then (אָז) becomes humbled [without force, their sufferings will atone for them…] (Sifthei Chachamim). Another meaning [of אוֹ אָז is:] Perhaps. [Thus, the verse means:] “Perhaps then, their blocked heart will become humbled….”   או אז יכנע: כמו (שמות כא לו) או נודע כי שור נגח הוא, אם אז יכנע. לשון אחר אולי שמא אז יכנע לבבם וגו':
then, [their sufferings] will gain appeasement for their iniquity: [means that] they will gain atonement for their iniquity through their sufferings.   ואז ירצו את עונם: יכפרו על עונם ביסוריהם:
42. and I will remember My covenant [with] Jacob, and also My covenant [with] Isaac, and also My covenant [with] Abraham I will remember. And I will remember the Land,   מב. וְזָכַרְתִּי אֶת בְּרִיתִי יַעֲקוֹב וְאַף אֶת בְּרִיתִי יִצְחָק וְאַף אֶת בְּרִיתִי אַבְרָהָם אֶזְכֹּר וְהָאָרֶץ אֶזְכֹּר:
And I will remember My covenant [with] Jacob: Heb. יַעִקוֹב. [The name יַעִקוֹב is] written in full, [i.e., with a “vav,”] in five places [in Scripture], and [the name] אֵלִיָּהוּ is written defectively [without a “vav,” i.e., אֵלִיָּה also] in five places [in Scripture]. Jacob took a letter [“vav”] from the name of Elijah [the Prophet] as security-that he will come and herald the redemption of his [Jacob’s] children [and since this is Elijah’s mission in life, his name will remain “incomplete,” as it were, until he fulfills it, speedily, in our days. The five instances of the “vav” symbolize the five fingers of the hand; i.e., this security arrangement between Jacob and Elijah was sealed by a handshake (Gur Aryeh)].   וזכרתי את בריתי יעקוב: בחמשה מקומות נכתב מלא, ואליהו חסר בחמשה מקומות, יעקב נטל אות משמו של אליהו ערבון שיבוא ויבשר גאולת בניו:
I will remember My covenant [with] Jacob, and also… Isaac, and also… Abraham]: Why are the forefathers enumerated in reverse order? To inform [you that the youngest patriarch,] Jacob is [alone] worthy of this [i.e., that Israel be redeemed through his merit alone], but if this is not enough, then Isaac is together with him, and if this is not enough, then Abraham is with him, and [Abraham] is certainly worthy. And why is the expression “remembering” not used with Isaac? [Because] Isaac’s ashes (see Rashi on Gen. 22:13; Bereishith Rabbah 56:9; Tanchuma Shelach 14) [always] appear before Me, gathered up and placed upon the altar“ [and therefore, God does not have to ”remember" Isaac, for Isaac is never forgotten]. — [Hagahoth Ubiyurei Hagra on Torath Kohanim]   וזכרתי את בריתי יעקוב: למה נמנו אבות אחורנית, לומר כדאי הוא יעקב הקטן לכך, ואם אינו כדאי הרי יצחק עמו, ואם אינו כדאי, הרי אברהם עמו, שהוא כדאי. ולמה לא נאמרה זכירה ביצחק, אלא אפרו של יצחק נראה לפני צבור ומונח על המזבח:
43. [For] the Land will be bereft of them, appeasing its sabbaticals when it had been desolate of them, and they will gain appeasement for their iniquity. This was all in retribution for their having despised My ordinances and in retribution for their having rejected My statutes.   מג. וְהָאָרֶץ תֵּעָזֵב מֵהֶם וְתִרֶץ אֶת שַׁבְּתֹתֶיהָ בָּהְשַׁמָּה מֵהֶם וְהֵם יִרְצוּ אֶת עֲו‍ֹנָם יַעַן וּבְיַעַן בְּמִשְׁפָּטַי מָאָסוּ וְאֶת חֻקֹּתַי גָּעֲלָה נַפְשָׁם:
This was all in retribution for: [means:] “In retribution (יַעַן) and in retribution (וּבְיַעַן) [i.e., in retribution] for their having despised My ordinances [and in retribution (וּבְיַעַן) for their having rejected My statutes].”- [Mizrachi]   יען וביען: גמול ובגמול אשר במשפטי מאסו:
44. But despite all this, while they are in the land of their enemies, I will not despise them nor will I reject them to annihilate them, thereby breaking My covenant that is with them, for I am the Lord their God.   מד. וְאַף גַּם זֹאת בִּהְיוֹתָם בְּאֶרֶץ אֹיְבֵיהֶם לֹא מְאַסְתִּים וְלֹא גְעַלְתִּים לְכַלֹּתָם לְהָפֵר בְּרִיתִי אִתָּם כִּי אֲנִי יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵיהֶם:
But despite all this: Moreover (אַף), even though (גַּם) I will mete out this (זֹאת) retribution upon them which I have described [for them] when they are in the land of their enemies-nevertheless, I will not despise them… to annihilate them, thereby breaking My covenant that is with them.   ואף גם זאת: ואף אפילו אני עושה עמהם זאת הפורענות אשר אמרתי בהיותם בארץ אויביהם, לא אמאסם לכלותם ולהפר בריתי אשר אתם:
45. I will remember for them the covenant [made with] the ancestors, whom I took out from the land of Egypt before the eyes of the nations, to be a God to them. I am the Lord.   מה. וְזָכַרְתִּי לָהֶם בְּרִית רִאשֹׁנִים אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִי אֹתָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם לְעֵינֵי הַגּוֹיִם לִהְיוֹת לָהֶם לֵאלֹהִים אֲנִי יְהֹוָה:
The covenant [made with] the ancestors: i.e., with the Tribes. — [Torath Kohanim 26:53]   ברית ראשנים: של שבטים:
46. These are the statutes, the ordinances, and the laws that the Lord gave between Himself and the children of Israel on Mount Sinai, by the hand of Moses.   מו. אֵלֶּה הַחֻקִּים וְהַמִּשְׁפָּטִים וְהַתּוֹרֹת אֲשֶׁר נָתַן יְהֹוָה בֵּינוֹ וּבֵין בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּהַר סִינַי בְּיַד משֶׁה:
the laws: וְהַתּוֹרוֹת. [Why the plural form, וְהַתּוֹרוֹת ? This denotes two Torahs -] one Written Torah and one Oral Torah. It teaches us that all were given to Moses on [Mount] Sinai. — [Torath Kohanim 26:54]   והתורת: אחת בכתב ואחת בעל פה, מגיד שכולם נתנו למשה בסיני:

6th Portion

Chapter 27

1. And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying,   א. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהֹוָה אֶל משֶׁה לֵּאמֹר:
2. Speak to the children of Israel and say to them: When a man expresses a vow, [pledging the] value of lives to the Lord,   ב. דַּבֵּר אֶל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם אִישׁ כִּי יַפְלִא נֶדֶר בְּעֶרְכְּךָ נְפָשֹׁת לַיהֹוָה:
When a man expresses: Expresses verbally.   כי יפלא: יפריש בפיו:
[pledging the] value of lives: to give the valuation of his life, i.e., saying: “I take it upon myself [to donate to the Holy Temple] the value (בְּעֶרְכְּךָ) of a vital (נְפָשֹׁת) organ, [such as the head or the liver]” - [Torath Kohanim 26:57, Arachin 20a]   בערכך נפשת: ליתן ערך נפשו לומר ערך דבר שנפשו תלויה בו עלי:
3. the [fixed] value of a male shall be as follows: From twenty years old until sixty years old, the value is fifty silver shekels, according to the holy shekel;   ג. וְהָיָה עֶרְכְּךָ הַזָּכָר מִבֶּן עֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה וְעַד בֶּן שִׁשִּׁים שָׁנָה וְהָיָה עֶרְכְּךָ חֲמִשִּׁים שֶׁקֶל כֶּסֶף בְּשֶׁקֶל הַקֹּדֶשׁ:
the [fixed] value… shall be: The value stated here is not an expression of monetary value [the usual market value of a person sold as a slave], but, whether he has a high market value or a low one, the value fixed for him in this passage is according to his age.   והיה ערכך וגו': אין ערך זה לשון דמים, אלא בין שהוא יקר בין שהוא זול, כפי שניו הוא הערך הקצוב עליו בפרשה זו:
the value: Heb. הָעֶרְכְּ [The last letter of this word, ךָ, is not the second person pronominal suffix, “your,” but rather, a double of the preceding letter כ, and therefore, this word is] the same as עֵרֶךְ, “value.” And I do not know what the double כ denotes here.   ערכך: כמו ערך. וכפל הכפי"ן לא ידעתי מאיזה לשון הוא:
4. And if she is a female, the value is thirty shekels;   ד. וְאִם נְקֵבָה הִוא וְהָיָה עֶרְכְּךָ שְׁלשִׁים שָׁקֶל:
5. And if [the person is] from five years old until twenty years old, the value of a male shall be twenty shekels, while that of a female shall be ten shekels;   ה. וְאִם מִבֶּן חָמֵשׁ שָׁנִים וְעַד בֶּן עֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה וְהָיָה עֶרְכְּךָ הַזָּכָר עֶשְׂרִים שְׁקָלִים וְלַנְּקֵבָה עֲשֶׂרֶת שְׁקָלִים:
And if… five years old: Not that the one who is vowing is a minor, because a minor’s words have no validity. Rather, [our verse is speaking of] an adult who says: “I take upon myself [to donate to the Holy Temple] the value of this five-year-old” [i.e., the subject of our verse is the person who is to be evaluated].   ואם מבן חמש שנים: לא שיהא הנודר קטן, שאין בדברי קטן כלום, אלא גדול שאמר ערך קטן זה, שהוא בן חמש שנים, עלי:
6. And if [the person is] from one month old until five years old, the value of a male shall be five silver shekels, while the value of a female shall be three silver shekels;   ו. וְאִם מִבֶּן חֹדֶשׁ וְעַד בֶּן חָמֵשׁ שָׁנִים וְהָיָה עֶרְכְּךָ הַזָּכָר חֲמִשָּׁה שְׁקָלִים כָּסֶף וְלַנְּקֵבָה עֶרְכְּךָ שְׁלשֶׁת שְׁקָלִים כָּסֶף:
7. And if [the person is] sixty years old or over, if it is a male, the value shall be fifteen shekels, while for a female, it shall be ten shekels.   ז. וְאִם מִבֶּן שִׁשִּׁים שָׁנָה וָמַעְלָה אִם זָכָר וְהָיָה עֶרְכְּךָ חֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר שָׁקֶל וְלַנְּקֵבָה עֲשָׂרָה שְׁקָלִים:
And if [the person is] sixty years old [or over]: When people reach a venerable age, a woman’s value becomes closer to that of a man. This is why a man decreases [in value] in his old age [to] beyond a third of his value [as an adult, namely, from 50 shekels to 15], while a woman [in her old age] decreases [to] only one third of her value [namely, from 30 shekels to 10]. As people say: “An old man in the house is a breach in the house (Rashi) [or] a snare in the house (Rabbenu Gershom), while an old woman in the house is a hidden treasure in the house and a good sign for the house.”- [Arachin 19a]   ואם מבן ששים שנה וגו': כשמגיע לימי הזקנה האשה קרובה להחשב כאיש, לפיכך האיש פוחת בהזדקנו יותר משליש בערכו, והאשה אינה פוחתת אלא שליש בערכה, דאמרי אינשי סבא בביתא פחא בביתא, סבתא בביתא סימא בביתא וסימנא טבא בביתא:
8. But if he is [too] poor to [pay] the valuation [amount], he shall stand him up before the kohen, and the kohen shall evaluate him according to how much the one who is vowing his value can afford._   ח. וְאִם מָךְ הוּא מֵעֶרְכֶּךָ וְהֶעֱמִידוֹ לִפְנֵי הַכֹּהֵן וְהֶעֱרִיךְ אֹתוֹ הַכֹּהֵן עַל פִּי אֲשֶׁר תַּשִּׂיג יַד הַנֹּדֵר יַעֲרִיכֶנּוּ הַכֹּהֵן:
But if he is [too] poor: that he cannot afford to pay this [fixed] valuation amount,   ואם מך הוא: שאין ידו משגת ליתן הערך הזה:
he shall stand him up: [i.e., the one making the vow should stand up] the one whose value he pledged, before the kohen , [who] will then evaluate him in view of how much the one pledging the valuation, can afford. — [see next Rashi ; Torath Kohanim 27:62]   והעמידו: לנערך לפני הכהן ויעריכנו לפי השגת ידו של מעריך:
according to how much [the one who is vowing his value] can afford: [The kohen] shall estimate the valuation, with reference to how much [the one who is vowing] owns, leaving him his basic life necessities, namely, a bed, a bolster, a pillow, and tools of trade-e.g., if he is a donkey-driver, the kohen must [make the valuation such that he] leaves him his donkey. — [Arachin 23b]   על פי אשר תשיג: לפי מה שיש לו יסדרנו וישאיר לו כדי חייו מטה כר וכסת וכלי אומנות, אם היה חמר, משאיר לו חמורו:
9. Now, if an animal of whose type is [fit] to be brought as an offering to the Lord, whatever part of it the person donates to the Lord, shall become holy.   ט. וְאִם בְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר יַקְרִיבוּ מִמֶּנָּה קָרְבָּן לַיהֹוָה כֹּל אֲשֶׁר יִתֵּן מִמֶּנּוּ לַיהֹוָה יִהְיֶה קֹּדֶשׁ:
[If… an animal…] whatever part of it the person donates [… shall become holy]: If a person says, “The leg of this animal shall be a burnt-offering,” his words have validity. [And how is his vow expedited?] The [entire] animal [except for its leg] should be sold to one who needs a burnt-offering, and the money [received from this sale] which excludes the value of that limb [as stated above], becomes non-consecrated, [and then the entire animal can be brought by both parties as a burnt-offering]. — [Arachin 5a, Temurah 11b, Raavad on Torath Kohanim]   כל אשר יתן ממנו: אמר רגלה של זו עולה, דבריו קיימין, ותמכר לצרכי עולה ודמיה חולין, חוץ מדמי אותו האבר:
10. He shall not exchange it or offer a substitute for it, whether it be a good one for a bad one, or a bad one for a good one. But if he does substitute one animal for another animal, [both] that one and its replacement shall be holy.   י. לֹא יַחֲלִיפֶנּוּ וְלֹא יָמִיר אֹתוֹ טוֹב בְּרָע אוֹ רַע בְּטוֹב וְאִם הָמֵר יָמִיר בְּהֵמָה בִּבְהֵמָה וְהָיָה הוּא וּתְמוּרָתוֹ יִהְיֶה קֹּדֶשׁ:
whether it be a good one for a bad one: i.e., an unblemished animal in place of a blemished one,   טוב ברע: תם בבעל מום:
or a bad one in place of a good one: And how much more so [should he receive lashes if he replaced] a good [unblemished animal] for another good one, or if he replaced a bad [blemished animal] with another bad one [in which cases he did not raise the standard of the consecrated animal]. — [Torath Kohanim 27:71; Temurah 9a]   או רע בטוב: וכל שכן טוב בטוב ורע ברע:
11. And if it is any unclean animal, of whose type shall not be brought as an offering to the Lord, then he shall stand up the animal before the kohen.   יא. וְאִם כָּל בְּהֵמָה טְמֵאָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא יַקְרִיבוּ מִמֶּנָּה קָרְבָּן לַיהֹוָה וְהֶעֱמִיד אֶת הַבְּהֵמָה לִפְנֵי הַכֹּהֵן:
And if it is any unclean animal: [But the case of an unclean animal is stated later (verse 27); so what “unclean animal” is meant?] The text is speaking about a blemished animal, which is “unclean” [i.e., unfit] for sacrifice. And Scripture is teaching us that unblemished consecrated animals cannot leave [their holy status and enter] into a mundane status through redemption, unless they become blemished. — [Men. 101a, Temurah 32b, 33a]   ואם כל בהמה טמאה: בבעלת מום הכתוב מדבר, שהיא טמאה להקרבה, ולמדך הכתוב שאין קדשים תמימים יוצאין לחולין בפדיון אלא אם כן הוממו:
12. The kohen shall then evaluate it whether it is good or bad; like the evaluation of the kohen, so shall it be.   יב. וְהֶעֱרִיךְ הַכֹּהֵן אֹתָהּ בֵּין טוֹב וּבֵין רָע כְּעֶרְכְּךָ הַכֹּהֵן כֵּן יִהְיֶה:
like the evaluation of the kohen, so shall it be: for anyone else [but the owner], who wishes to purchase it from the possession of the Temple treasury,   כערכך הכהן כן יהיה: לשאר כל אדם הבא לקנותה מיד הקדש:
13. But if he redeems it, he shall add its fifth to its value.   יג. וְאִם גָּאֹל יִגְאָלֶנָּה וְיָסַף חֲמִישִׁתוֹ עַל עֶרְכֶּךָ:
But if he redeems it: [i.e., if the owner himself redeems the animal]. Scripture is more stringent with the owner, [obligating him] to add a fifth [to its value (see B.M . 54a, regarding the meaning of fifth)]. Likewise, in the case of one who consecrates his house, and likewise, in the case of one who consecrates his field, and likewise, in the case of the redemption of the Second Tithe- [in all these cases,] the owners must add a fifth [to the value], but no one else [who redeems these items must add a fifth]. [Torath Kohanim 27:83]   ואם גאל יגאלנה: בבעלים החמיר הכתוב להוסיף חומש, וכן במקדיש בית וכן במקדיש את השדה וכן בפדיון מעשר שני הבעלים מוסיפין חומש, ולא שאר כל אדם:
14. And if a man consecrates his house [to be] holy to the Lord, the kohen shall evaluate it whether good or bad; as the kohen evaluates it, so shall it remain.   יד. וְאִישׁ כִּי יַקְדִּשׁ אֶת בֵּיתוֹ קֹדֶשׁ לַיהֹוָה וְהֶעֱרִיכוֹ הַכֹּהֵן בֵּין טוֹב וּבֵין רָע כַּאֲשֶׁר יַעֲרִיךְ אֹתוֹ הַכֹּהֵן כֵּן יָקוּם:
15. But if the one who consecrated it redeems his house, he shall add to it a fifth of its valuation money, and it shall be his.   טו. וְאִם הַמַּקְדִּישׁ יִגְאַל אֶת בֵּיתוֹ וְיָסַף חֲמִישִׁית כֶּסֶף עֶרְכְּךָ עָלָיו וְהָיָה לוֹ:

7th Portion

Chapter 27

16. And if a man consecrates some of the field of his inherited property to the Lord, the valuation shall be according to its sowing: an area which requires a chomer of barley seeds at fifty silver shekels.   טז. וְאִם | מִשְּׂדֵה אֲחֻזָּתוֹ יַקְדִּישׁ אִישׁ לַיהֹוָה וְהָיָה עֶרְכְּךָ לְפִי זַרְעוֹ זֶרַע חֹמֶר שְׂעֹרִים בַּחֲמִשִּׁים שֶׁקֶל כָּסֶף:
the valuation shall be according to its sowing: And not according to its value, whether it is a field of good quality or a field of bad quality, their redemption from consecration is equal, [namely]: The area requiring a kor (a chomer in Scripture) of barley seeds [must be redeemed] for fifty [silver] shekels. This is Scripture’s decree. — [Torath Kohanim 27:90] Now, this applies to one who comes to redeem it at the beginning of the Jubilee cycle [namely, in its first year]. However, if he comes to redeem it in the middle [of the Jubilee cycle, i.e., after the first year has elapsed], he must pay according to the calculation of one sela (i.e., a shekel) and a pundyon (one forty-eighth of a shekel) per year [depending on how many years until the next Jubilee (see Rashi on verse 18 below)]. — [Arachin 25a] [And why so?] Because property is consecrated only according to the years of the Jubilee cycle-if it is redeemed [within the Jubilee cycle], very good, [i.e., it reverts to its original owners and is no longer Temple property]; but if not, the [Temple] treasurer sells it to someone else at the aforementioned rate, and it remains in the purchaser’s possession until the next Jubilee, just like any other fields which are sold. Then, when it leaves the possession of this purchaser [in the Jubilee], it reverts to the kohanim of that watch, namely, [namely, the shift officiating] when [Yom Kippur of that] Jubilee occurs, and is apportioned among them. — [Arachin 28b] [The kohanim are divided into 24 family watches, or shifts, each in rotation for two or three one-week periods every year.] This is the law stated regarding one who consecrates a field. I will now explain it according to the order of the verses.   והיה ערכך לפי זרעו: ולא כפי שוויה. אחת שדה טובה ואחת שדה רעה, פדיון הקדשן שוה, בית כור שעורים בחמשים שקלים, כך גזירת הכתוב. והוא שבא לגאלה בתחלת היובל, ואם בא לגאלה באמצעו, נותן לפי החשבון סלע ופונדיון לשנה, לפי שאינה הקדש אלא למנין שני היובל, שאם נגאלה הרי טוב, ואם לאו הגזבר מוכרה בדמים הללו לאחר ועומדת ביד הלוקח עד היובל כשאר כל השדות המכורות, וכשהיא יוצאה מידו חוזרת לכהנים של אותו משמר שהיובל פוגע בו ומתחלקת ביניהם, זהו המשפט האמור במקדיש שדה. ועכשיו אפרשנו על סדר המקראות:
17. Now, if he consecrates his field from [when] the Jubilee year [has ended], it shall remain at [its full] valuation.   יז. אִם מִשְּׁנַת הַיֹּבֵל יַקְדִּישׁ שָׂדֵהוּ כְּעֶרְכְּךָ יָקוּם:
Now, if he consecrates his field from [when] the Jubilee year [has ended]: If, as soon as the Jubilee year has ended, he immediately consecrates [his property i.e., within that first year of the next Shemittah and Jubilee cycle], and then he comes to redeem it immediately [i.e., before that first year has ended].   אם משנת היבל יקדיש וגו': אם משעברה שנת היובל מיד הקדישה ובא לגאלה מיד:
it shall remain at [its full] valuation: i.e., like this aforementioned (in verse 16) valuation, it shall be, [namely,] he must give fifty silver shekels [for the size of field stated]. — [see Arachin 24b]   כערכך יקום: כערך הזה האמור יהיה, חמשים כסף יתן:
18. But if he consecrates his field after the Jubilee, the kohen shall calculate the money for him, according to the remaining years until the [next] Jubilee year, and it shall be deducted from the valuation.   יח. וְאִם אַחַר הַיֹּבֵל יַקְדִּישׁ שָׂדֵהוּ וְחִשַּׁב לוֹ הַכֹּהֵן אֶת הַכֶּסֶף עַל פִּי הַשָּׁנִים הַנּוֹתָרֹת עַד שְׁנַת הַיֹּבֵל וְנִגְרַע מֵעֶרְכֶּךָ:
But if he consecrates his field after the Jubilee, [the kohen should calculate the money for him….: [And not only in this case, but] likewise, if [the original owner] had consecrated the property immediately after the Jubilee ended, and it remained in the possession of the treasurer, and this one comes to redeem it after [this first year following] the Jubilee -   ואם אחר היבל יקדיש: וכן אם הקדישה משנת היובל ונשתהה ביד גזבר ובא זה לגאלה אחר היובל:
the kohen shall calculate the money for him, according to the remaining years [until the (next) Jubilee year]: according to the rate. How? [Scripture] has stated the fixed value [of redemption for a field whose size is that stated in our verse,] for forty-nine years as fifty [silver] shekels, i.e., one shekel for each of the [49] years and an extra shekel [paid over] all the [49] years. Now, a shekel is equivalent to 48 pundyons . Thus, one sela [i.e., a shekel] and one pundyon for each year, except that one pundyon is missing for all of them [i.e., if we figure fifty shekels, we have only 49 shekels and 48 pundyons , which is less than a sela and a pundyon per year, but the redeemer is required to pay one extra pundyon per a 49-year period, for] our Rabbis taught (Bech. 50a) that, the [extra] pundyon is a surcharge for [currency exchange of] small coins [i.e., if someone comes to purchase a silver shekel with pundyons , he will be charged 49 of them, the extra pundyon being a surcharge for attaining the more significant single shekel coin rather than many small coins. This surcharge, then, is passed on to the one who wishes to redeem the field. Hence, at an annual rate of one shekel and one pundyon, the redeemer is actually paying one forty-ninth of a pundyon currency exchange surcharge every year]. And therefore, someone who comes to redeem [a field], must pay one sela [i.e., a shekel] and one pundyon for every year left until the next Jubilee year.   וחשב לו הכהן את הכסף על פי השנים הנותרת: כפי חשבון. כיצד, הרי קצב דמיה של ארבעים ותשע שנים חמשים שקל, הרי שקל לכל שנה, ושקל יתר בין כולן, והשקל ארבעים ושמנה פודיונין, הרי סלע ופונדיון לשנה אלא שחסר פונדיון אחד לכולן, ואמרו רבותינו שאותו פונדיון קלבון לפרוטרוט, והבא לגאול יתן סלע ופונדיון לכל שנה לשנים הנותרות עד שנת היובל:
thereby deducting from the [full] valuation [amount]: the number of years from the [preceding] Jubilee year until the redemption year.   ונגרע מערכך: מנין השנים שמשנת היובל עד שנת הפדיון:
19. If the one who consecrated it redeems the field, he shall add to it a fifth of the valuation money, and it shall be his.   יט. וְאִם גָּאֹל יִגְאַל אֶת הַשָּׂדֶה הַמַּקְדִּישׁ אֹתוֹ וְיָסַף חֲמִשִׁית כֶּסֶף עֶרְכְּךָ עָלָיו וְקָם לוֹ:
If the [one who consecrated it] redeems the field: The person who consecrated it must add a fifth to this set amount. — [see Rashi on preceding verse; Mizrachi]   ואם גאל יגאל: המקדיש אותו, יוסיף חומש על הקצבה הזאת:
20. But if he does not redeem the field, and if he has sold the field to someone else it may no longer be redeemed.   כ. וְאִם לֹא יִגְאַל אֶת הַשָּׂדֶה וְאִם מָכַר אֶת הַשָּׂדֶה לְאִישׁ אַחֵר לֹא יִגָּאֵל עוֹד:
But if he does not redeem the field: [i.e., if] the one who consecrated [the field does not redeem it].   ואם לא יגאל את השדה: המקדיש:
and if… has sold: [i.e., if] the treasurer (Arachin 25b) has sold   ואם מכר: הגזבר:
the field to someone else-it may no longer be redeemed: to revert to the possession of the one who consecrated it [i.e., the original owner, come Jubilee]. — [Sifthei Chachamim]   את השדה לאיש אחר לא יגאל עוד: לשוב ליד המקדיש:
21. But, when the field leaves in the Jubilee, it shall be holy to the Lord like a field devoted; his inherited property shall belong to the kohen.   כא. וְהָיָה הַשָּׂדֶה בְּצֵאתוֹ בַיֹּבֵל קֹדֶשׁ לַיהֹוָה כִּשְׂדֵה הַחֵרֶם לַכֹּהֵן תִּהְיֶה אֲחֻזָּתוֹ:
But, when the field leaves in the Jubilee: the possession of the one who had purchased it from the treasurer, just like all fields that leave the possession of their purchasers, come Jubilee.   והיה השדה בצאתו ביבל: מיד הלוקחו מן הגזבר, כדרך שאר שדות היוצאות מיד לוקחיהם ביובל:
holy to the Lord: This does not mean that it reverts to the treasurer as sacred property designated for maintenance of the Holy Temple. Rather, it is “like a field devoted” which is given to the kohanim, as it is said, “Anything devoted in Israel shall belong to you” (Num. 18:14). This too shall be divided in Jubilee among the kohanim of the watch at that time, namely, when Yom Kippur of that Jubilee occurs. — [Arachin 28b]   קדש לה': לא שישוב להקדש בדק הבית ליד הגזבר אלא כשדה החרם הנתון לכהנים, שנאמר (במדבר יח יד) כל חרם בישראל לך יהיה, אף זו תתחלק ביובל לכהנים של אותו משמר, שיום הכפורים של יובל פוגע בו:
22. And if he consecrates to the Lord a field that he had acquired, that is not part of his inherited property,   כב. וְאִם אֶת שְׂדֵה מִקְנָתוֹ אֲשֶׁר לֹא מִשְּׂדֵה אֲחֻזָּתוֹ יַקְדִּישׁ לַיהֹוָה:
And if [he consecrates…] a field that he had acquired…: There is a difference between an acquired field (שְׂדֵה מִקְנֶה) and a field that is part of inherited property (שְׂדֵה אֲחֻזָּה), namely, that the acquired field is not apportioned among the kohanim in the Jubilee because [the acquirer] can consecrate the field only until Jubilee, for in the Jubilee, the field is destined to leave his possession and revert to the original owner [from whom he acquired it]. Therefore, if he [the original owner (Panim Yafoth; Malbim)] comes to redeem [his property,] he must redeem it with that same fixed rate of valuation for a field that was part of an inherited property. [Should the one who consecrated it redeem it, according to the Sages, he redeems it according to its market value.] But if he does not redeem it, and the treasurer sells it to someone else, or if he does redeem it [according to Tos., Arachin 26b, the reading in Rashi is: If no one redeemed it, and it remained in the possession of the treasurer] in the Jubilee year the field reverts to the one from whom the one who consecrated it bought it, [i.e., the original owner of the field]. Now, lest you say that [the expression] לַאֲשֶׁר קָנֵהוּ מֵאִתּוֹ (in verse 24 below) [refers to] the one from whom this acquirer most recently acquired the field, namely, the treasurer [and that our verse is thus stating here that come Jubilee, the field “reverts” to the treasurer]. Therefore, it was necessary to state (verse 24),“namely, the one whose inherited land it was,” i.e., inherited from his ancestors-referring, therefore, to the original owner who had sold [the field] to the one who consecrated it. — [Arachin 26b]   ואם את שדה מקנתו וגו': חלוק יש בין שדה מקנה לשדה אחוזה, ששדה מקנה לא תתחלק לכהנים ביובל, לפי שאינו יכול להקדישה אלא עד היובל, שהרי ביובל היתה עתידה לצאת מידו ולשוב לבעלים, לפיכך אם בא לגאלה, יגאל בדמים הללו הקצובים לשדה אחוזה. ואם לא יגאל וימכרנה גזבר לאחר, או אם לא יגאל הוא, בשנת היובל ישוב השדה לאשר קנהו מאתו, אותו שהקדישה. ופן תאמר לאשר קנהו הלוקח הזה האחרון מאתו, וזהו הגזבר, לכך הוצרך לומר לאשר לו אחוזת הארץ (פסוק כד), מירושת אבות, וזהו בעלים הראשונים שמכרוה למקדיש:
23. the kohen shall calculate for him the amount of the valuation until the Jubilee year, and he shall give the valuation on that day, holy to the Lord.   כג. וְחִשַּׁב לוֹ הַכֹּהֵן אֵת מִכְסַת הָעֶרְכְּךָ עַד שְׁנַת הַיֹּבֵל וְנָתַן אֶת הָעֶרְכְּךָ בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא קֹדֶשׁ לַיהֹוָה:
24. In the Jubilee year, the field shall return to the one from whom he bought it namely, the one whose inherited land it was.   כד. בִּשְׁנַת הַיּוֹבֵל יָשׁוּב הַשָּׂדֶה לַאֲשֶׁר קָנָהוּ מֵאִתּוֹ לַאֲשֶׁר לוֹ אֲחֻזַּת הָאָרֶץ:
25. Every valuation shall be made according to the holy shekel, whereby one shekel is the equivalent of twenty gerahs.   כה. וְכָל עֶרְכְּךָ יִהְיֶה בְּשֶׁקֶל הַקֹּדֶשׁ עֶשְׂרִים גֵּרָה יִהְיֶה הַשָּׁקֶל:
Every valuation shall be made according to the holy shekel: i.e., every valuation regarding which shekels are written, will be made according to the holy shekel.   וכל ערכך יהיה בשקל הקדש: כל ערכך שכתוב בו שקלים יהיה בשקל הקדש:
one shekel is the equivalent of twenty gerahs: Twenty ma’ahs. This was how it was originally. However, in later times, they “added a sixth” [i.e., instead of a dinar being worth five ma’ahs (or gerahs), it became worth six ma’ahs (or gerahs)]. And indeed, our Rabbis taught: “A dinar is comprised of six ma’ahs of silver, and [since a shekel is worth four dinars,] there are twenty-four ma’ahs to one sela (i.e., shekel)” [as opposed to twenty ma’ahs in the shekel of the Torah]. — [Bech. 50a]   עשרים גרה: עשרים מעות כך היו מתחילה ולאחר מכאן הוסיפו שתות. ואמרו רבותינו שש מעה כסף דינר, עשרים וארבע מעות לסלע:
26. However, a firstborn animal that must be [sacrificed as] a firstborn to the Lord no man may consecrate it; whether it be an ox or sheep, it belongs to the Lord.   כו. אַךְ בְּכוֹר אֲשֶׁר יְבֻכַּר לַיהֹוָה בִּבְהֵמָה לֹא יַקְדִּישׁ אִישׁ אֹתוֹ אִם שׁוֹר אִם שֶׂה לַיהֹוָה הוּא:
no man may consecrate it: for the purpose of any other sacrifice, because it does not belong to him [but from its birth, a firstborn animal is designated as holy, to be given to the kohanim]. — [Torath Kohanim 27:107]   לא יקדיש איש אתו: לשם קרבן אחר, לפי שאינו שלו:
27. Now, if [someone consecrates] an unclean animal, he may redeem [it] by [paying] the valuation, and he shall add its fifth to it, and if it is not redeemed, it shall be sold for the valuation [price].   כז. וְאִם בַּבְּהֵמָה הַטְּמֵאָה וּפָדָה בְעֶרְכֶּךָ וְיָסַף חֲמִשִׁתוֹ עָלָיו וְאִם לֹא יִגָּאֵל וְנִמְכַּר בְּעֶרְכֶּךָ:
Now, if [someone consecrates] an unclean animal: [lit., “And if it is with an unclean animal….”] This verse does not refer back to firstborn animals [discussed in the preceding verse], for it cannot state of a firstborn unclean animal that “he may redeem [it] by [paying] the valuation” [for the only unclean animal to which the law of the firstborn applies is a donkey (see Exod. 13: 12-13)]; and this [verse] cannot refer to a donkey, because the firstborn of a donkey can be redeemed only with a lamb (see Exod. 13:13), which becomes a gift to the kohen and is not given to the Sanctuary [as does the valuation money in our verse]. Rather, our verse here is referring back to consecration [of one’s possessions to the Temple], for Scripture above (verses 11-13) was speaking about the redemption of a clean animal that had been [consecrated and subsequently] blemished (see Rashi there), and here, our verse is speaking about one who consecrates an unclean animal for maintenance of the Temple. — [Men. 101a]   ואם בבהמה הטמאה וגו': אין המקרא הזה מוסב על הבכור, שאין לומר בבכור בהמה טמאה ופדה בערכך. וחמור אין זה, שהרי אין פדיון פטר חמור אלא טלה, והוא מתנה לכהן ואינו להקדש, אלא הכתוב מוסב על ההקדש. שהכתוב שלמעלה (פסוק יא) דבר בפדיון בהמה טהורה שהוממה, וכאן דבר במקדיש בהמה טמאה לבדק הבית:
he may redeem [it] by [paying] the valuation: According to how much the kohen will assess its value.   ופדה בערכך: כפי מה שיעריכנה הכהן:
and if it is not redeemed: By the owner,   ואם לא יגאל: ע"י בעלים:
it shall be sold for the valuation [price]: to others. — [Torath Kohanim 27: 108]   ונמכר בערכך: לאחרים:
28. However, anything that a man devotes to the Lord from any of his property whether a person, an animal, or part of his inherited field shall not be sold, nor shall it be redeemed, [for] all devoted things are holy of holies to the Lord.   כח. אַךְ כָּל חֵרֶם אֲשֶׁר יַחֲרִם אִישׁ לַיהֹוָה מִכָּל אֲשֶׁר לוֹ מֵאָדָם וּבְהֵמָה וּמִשְּׂדֵה אֲחֻזָּתוֹ לֹא יִמָּכֵר וְלֹא יִגָּאֵל כָּל חֵרֶם קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים הוּא לַיהֹוָה:
However, anything that a man devotes…: Our Rabbis are in dispute regarding this matter [of devoted property]: Some say that unqualified vows of devoted property [i.e., he says, “This is hereby devoted (חֵרֶם),” and does not specify,] go [automatically] to Sanctuary moneys [designated for maintenance of the Temple. Now, according to this ruling,] what then is the meaning of, “Anything devoted in Israel shall belong to you”? (Num. 18:14). This refers to vows of devoted property specifically designated to the kohanim, whereby someone says explicitly: “This is (חֵרֶם) devoted for the kohen .” But some [Rabbis] say that unqualified vows of devoted property go [automatically] to the kohanim . — [Arachin 28b]   אך כל חרם וגו': נחלקו רבותינו בדבר יש אומרים סתם חרמים להקדש, ומה אני מקיים (במדבר יח יד) כל חרם בישראל לך יהיה, בחרמי כהנים שפירש ואמר הרי זה חרם לכהן, ויש שאמרו סתם חרמים לכהנים:
shall not be sold, nor shall it be redeemed: But, it must be given to the kohen . [For] according to those who rule that unqualified vows of devoted property go [automatically] to the kohanim (see preceding Rashi), they explain this verse as referring to unqualified vows of devoted property, while those who rule that unqualified vows of devoted property go [automatically] to [Sanctuary moneys designated for] maintenance of the Temple, explain this verse as referring to vows of devoted property specifically designated to the kohanim. For all agree that devoted property specifically designated to kohanim does not have any redemption, until it falls into the possession of the kohen [and the property then becomes completely non-consecrated and can even be sold by the kohen (Sifthei Chachamim)]. Devoted property to the One on High [i.e., specifically designated to the maintenance of the Holy Temple, on the other hand], may be redeemed [at its market value even before it reaches the Temple treasury, and its redemption moneys go for maintenance of the Holy Temple, and the property itself then becomes non-consecrated]. — [Sifthei Chachamim ; Arachin 29a]   לא ימכר ולא יגאל: אלא ינתן לכהן. לדברי האומר סתם חרמים לכהנים, מפרש מקרא זה בסתם חרמים. והאומר סתם חרמים לבדק הבית, מפרש מקרא זה בחרמי כהנים, שהכל מודים שחרמי כהנים אין להם פדיון עד שיבואו ליד כהן, וחרמי גבוה נפדים:
all devoted things are holy of holies: Those who rule that unqualified vows of devoted property go for maintenance of the Holy Temple, bring this verse as proof [to their position]. However, those who rule that unqualified vows of devoted property go to the kohanim, explain the phrase here, “all devoted things are holy of holies (קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים),” to mean that the act of devoting items to the kohanim can take effect upon [animal sacrifices with the degree of] “holy of holies” [indicated by the use of the double expression here, קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים] and [moreover, even the single expression itself here, קֹדֶשׁ, indicates that this act can take effect upon sacrifices with a degree] of lesser holiness. Thus, [if someone undertakes to bring a sacrifice, allocates which animal he is to sacrifice and then subsequently devotes that animal to the kohanim,] he must give [the relevant money (see below)] to the kohen [and then sacrifices the animal for the offering he had undertaken], just as we have learnt in Tractate Arachin (28b): If [he made] a vow (נֶדֶר) [to bring a sacrifice, i.e., he said, “I take upon myself (to bring an animal as such-and-such a sacrifice)” (see Rashi on Lev. 22: 18)-in this case, if an animal he had then allocated becomes lost or blemished, he must fulfill his vow with a replacement animal, for his vow was to bring a sacrifice and was not limited to that particular animal. Therefore, in the case of a devoted vow (נֶדֶר),] he must give [to the kohen, money worth] the full value [of the animal, for it is still considered fully his when he devoted it to the kohen]. And if [he committed himself in the form of] a donation (נְדָבָה) [saying, “This particular animal is to be brought as such-and-such a sacrifice” (see Rashi on Lev. 22:18)-in this case, if the animal he had allocated becomes lost or blemished, he need not replace it, for his undertaking was limited only to that particular animal, and therefore the animal is no longer considered his. Therefore, in the case of a devoted donation (נְדָבָה) ,] he need give only [the monetary value of] the “benefit” for the [animal which means: Since in case the animal is lost or dies, he would not be required to bring another one in replacement, then once he has set the animal aside for the purpose of that particular sacrifice, he is considered to have already fulfilled his duty, and so, his actual sacrificing it becomes simply a gift to God, as it were. Enjoying this gesture of presenting a gift to God is the “benefit” he has from that animal and which is also the extent of his monetary ownership. This “benefit” is valued as follows: Someone else, who was not obligated to bring this sacrifice, is asked how much he would pay to have this animal sacrificed in his name as a gift to God. The amount that this person states is the amount that the one devoting must give to the kohen , and then he must bring the animal as a sacrifice, as per his undertaking to bring a donation]. — [Mishnah Arachin 8:6-7 and see Rashi on Talmud Arachin 28b]   כל חרם קדש קדשים הוא: האומר סתם חרמים לבדק הבית מביא ראיה מכאן, והאומר סתם חרמים לכהנים מפרש כל חרם קדש קדשים הוא לה', ללמד שחרמי כהנים חלים על קדשי קדשים ועל קדשים קלים, ונותן לכהן, כמו ששנינו במסכת ערכין (כח ב) אם נדר נותן דמיהם, ואם נדבה נותן את טובתה:
[Anything that a man devotes… from any of his property -] whether it be a person: For example, if he devotes his non-Jewish male or female servants [for they are considered his property]. — [Arachin 28a]   מאדם: כגון שהחרים עבדיו ושפחותיו הכנענים:
29. Any devoting of a person who has been devoted, need not be redeemed [for] he is to be put to death.   כט. כָּל חֵרֶם אֲשֶׁר יָחֳרַם מִן הָאָדָם לֹא יִפָּדֶה מוֹת יוּמָת:
Any devoting… who has been devoted: [This verse refers to] someone who [has been sentenced to death, and, as he] is going out to be executed, another person declares, “I hereby make a personal commitment [to pay] his valuation!” his words have no validity. — [Arachin 6b]   כל חרם אשר יחרם וגו': היוצא ליהרג ואמר אחד ערכו עלי, לא אמר כלום:
[And why not? Because] he is to be put to death: i.e., he is on his way to be executed, and therefore, he “cannot be redeemed”-he has no market value [as a slave] or any valuation.   מות יומת: הרי הולך למות, לפיכך לא יפדה אין לו לא דמים ולא ערך:
30. Any tithe of the Land, whether it be from the seed of the land or the fruit of the tree it is the Lord's. It is holy to the Lord.   ל. וְכָל מַעְשַׂר הָאָרֶץ מִזֶּרַע הָאָרֶץ מִפְּרִי הָעֵץ לַיהֹוָה הוּא קֹדֶשׁ לַיהֹוָה:
Any tithe of the Land: Scripture is speaking about the Second Tithe. — [Torath Kohanim 27:112]   וכל מעשר הארץ: במעשר שני הכתוב מדבר:
the seed of the land: [Regarding the Second Tithe, Scripture says, “the tithes of your grain, of your wine and of your oil” (Deut. 14:23 and see Rashi there). Thus, here, “the seed of the land” refers to] grain [and]   מזרע הארץ: דגן:
the fruit of the tree: [refers to] wine and oil.   מפרי העץ: תירוש ויצהר:
It is the Lord’s: [The Second Tithe does not belong to God in the sense that one is forbidden to have benefit from it, for indeed it is eaten in Jerusalem by the one who brings it (Sifthei Chachamim) Rather,] God has acquired this [Second Tithe], and it is from His very Table, as it were, that He invites you to come up and eat it in Jerusalem, as it is said, “And you shall eat before the Lord, your God, [in the place which He will choose to establish His Name therein;] the tithes of your grain, of your wine and of your oil…” (Deut. 14: 23). - [Kid. 53a]   לה' הוא: קנאו השם ומשולחנו צוה לך לעלות ולאכלו בירושלים, כמו שנאמר (דברים יד כג) ואכלת לפני ה' אלהיך מעשר דגנך תירושך וגו':
31. And if a man redeems some of his tithe, he shall add its fifth to it.   לא. וְאִם גָּאֹל יִגְאַל אִישׁ מִמַּעַשְׂרוֹ חֲמִשִׁיתוֹ יֹסֵף עָלָיו:
[redeem] some of his tithe [… he shall add its fifth]: ] [“of his tithe,”] but not, of someone else’s tithe. Thus, one who redeems his friend’s tithe, does not add a fifth [to its value]. — [Kid. 24a] And what is [the purpose of] its redemption? In order to permit its being eaten anywhere [outside Jerusalem]. And [instead] he must bring the money [of its redemption] up to Jerusalem and eat [food there, bought with that money], as it is stated, “[And if… the place is too distant from you…] Then you will turn it into money [… and… go to the place which… God will choose. And you will turn that money into whatever your soul desires… and you will eat there before… God]” (Deut. 14:24-26).   ממעשרו: ולא ממעשר חברו, הפודה מעשר של חברו אין מוסיף חומש. ומה היא גאולתו, כדי להתירו באכילה בכל מקום. והמעות יעלה ויאכל בירושלים, כמו שנאמר (דברים יד כד) ונתת בכסף וגו':
32. Any tithe of cattle or flock of all that pass under the rod, the tenth shall be holy to the Lord.   לב. וְכָל מַעְשַׂר בָּקָר וָצֹאן כֹּל אֲשֶׁר יַעֲבֹר תַּחַת הַשָּׁבֶט הָעֲשִׂירִי יִהְיֶה קֹּדֶשׁ לַיהֹוָה:
of all that pass under the rod: When one comes to tithe them, he lets them out [of the pen] through the gate, one by one, and he strikes [every] tenth animal with a rod that has been painted with vermillion (red dye), so that it is identifiable as the tithe. So he must do with every year’s lambs and calves, [but with no other animals, as Scripture states, “Any tithe of cattle or flock”]. — [Bech. 58b]   תחת השבט: כשבא לעשרן מוציאן בפתח זה אחר זה, והעשירי מכה בשבט צבוע בסיקרא להיות ניכר שהוא מעשר, כן עושה [לגדיים] לטלאים ולעגלים של כל שנה ושנה:
[the tenth] shall be holy: that its blood and sacrificial portions be offered upon the altar, while its meat is eaten by the owner [with nothing given to the kohanim], because it is not enumerated with other [items categorized as] “gifts to the kehunah,” nor do we find that its meat must be given to kohanim.   יהיה קדש: ליקרב למזבח דמו ואמוריו, והבשר נאכל לבעלים, שהרי לא נמנה עם שאר מתנות כהונה, ולא מצינו שיהא ניתן לכהנים:
33. He shall not inspect [a tithed animal] for a good or a bad one, nor shall he offer a substitute for it. And if he does replace it, then [both] that one and its replacement are holy; it cannot be redeemed.   לג. לֹא יְבַקֵּר בֵּין טוֹב לָרַע וְלֹא יְמִירֶנּוּ וְאִם הָמֵר יְמִירֶנּוּ וְהָיָה הוּא וּתְמוּרָתוֹ יִהְיֶה קֹּדֶשׁ לֹא יִגָּאֵל:
He shall not inspect [a tithed animal]…: Since [Scripture] says, “[there will you bring…] the choice of your vows [which you will vow to the Lord]” (Deut. 12:11), one might think that he should select and take out the best [animal for the tithe]. Scripture, therefore, says, “He shall not inspect [a tithed animal] for a good or a bad one”-i.e., whether [the tenth animal] is unblemished or blemished, [since it is the tenth,] holiness has come upon it [exclusively]. This does not mean that a blemished animal can be sacrificed, but that he should eat it according to the law of tithes and that it must not be shorn or used for labor. — [Bech. 14b, 31b]   לא יבקר וגו': לפי שנאמר (שם יב יא) וכל מבחר נדריכם, יכול יהא בורר ומוציא את היפה, תלמוד לומר לא יבקר בין טוב לרע, בין תם בין בעל מום חלה עליו קדושה, ולא שיקרב בעל מום, אלא יאכל בתורת מעשר ואסור ליגזז וליעבד:
34. These are the commandments that the Lord commanded Moses to [tell] the children of Israel on Mount Sinai.   לד. אֵלֶּה הַמִּצְו‍ֹת אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהֹוָה אֶת משֶׁה אֶל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּהַר סִינָי:
The text on this page contains sacred literature. Please do not deface or discard.
E-mail
FEATURED ON CHABAD.ORG