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Torah Reading for Acharei-Kedoshim

Torah Reading for Acharei-Kedoshim

Leviticus 16:1-20:27

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1st Portion

Chapter 16

1. And the Lord spoke to Moses after the death of Aaron's two sons, when they drew near before the Lord, and they died.   א. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָֹה אֶל משֶׁה אַחֲרֵי מוֹת שְׁנֵי בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן בְּקָרְבָתָם לִפְנֵי יְהוָֹה וַיָּמֻתוּ:
And the Lord spoke to Moses after the death of Aaron’s two sons: What does this teach us [when it specifies “after the death of Aaron’s two sons”]? Rabbi Eleazar ben Azariah illustrated [the answer] with a parable of a patient, whom a physician came to visit. [The physician] said to him, “Do not eat cold foods, and do not lie down in a cold, damp place.” Then, another [physician] visited him, and advised him, “Do not eat cold foods or lie down in a cold, damp place, so that you will not die the way so-and-so died.” This one warned that patient more effectively than the former. Therefore, Scripture says, “after the death of Aaron’s two sons” [i.e., God effectively said to Aaron, “Do not enter the Holy in a prohibited manner, so that you will not die as your sons died”]- [Torath Kohanim 16:3]   וידבר ה' אל משה אחרי מות שני בני אהרן וגו': מה תלמוד לומר, היה רבי אלעזר בן עזריה מושלו משל לחולה שנכנס אצלו רופא. אמר לו אל תאכל צונן ואל תשכב בטחב. בא אחר ואמר לו אל תאכל צונן ואל תשכב בטחב שלא תמות כדרך שמת פלוני. זה זרזו יותר מן הראשון, לכך נאמר אחרי מות שני בני אהרן:
2. And the Lord said to Moses: Speak to your brother Aaron, that he should not come at all times into the Holy within the dividing curtain, in front of the cover that is upon the ark, so that he should not die, for I appear over the ark cover in a cloud.   ב. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהֹוָה אֶל משֶׁה דַּבֵּר אֶל אַהֲרֹן אָחִיךָ וְאַל יָבֹא בְכָל עֵת אֶל הַקֹּדֶשׁ מִבֵּית לַפָּרֹכֶת אֶל פְּנֵי הַכַּפֹּרֶת אֲשֶׁר עַל הָאָרֹן וְלֹא יָמוּת כִּי בֶּעָנָן אֵרָאֶה עַל הַכַּפֹּרֶת:
And the Lord said to Moses: Speak to your brother Aaron, that he should not come [at all times into the Holy]: so that he should not die the way his sons died. — [Torath Kohanim 16:3]   ויאמר ה' אל משה דבר אל אהרן אחיך ואל יבא: שלא ימות כדרך שמתו בניו:
so that he should not die: for if he does enter, he will die. — [Torath Kohanim 16:3]   ולא ימות: שאם בא הוא מת:
for I appear…in a cloud: “For I continuously appear there with My pillar of cloud, and therefore, since My Divine Presence is revealed there, he must be careful not to accustom himself to enter.” This is its simple meaning. Our Rabbis, however, interpreted [it as follows]: He shall not come except with the cloud of incense on Yom Kippur. - [Yoma 53a]   כי בענן אראה: כי תמיד אני נראה שם עם עמוד ענני. ולפי שגלוי שכינתי שם, יזהר שלא ירגיל לבא, זהו פשוטו. ומדרשו לא יבא כי אם בענן הקטרת ביום הכיפורים:
3. With this shall Aaron enter the Holy: with a young bull for a sin offering and a ram for a burnt offering.   ג. בְּזֹאת יָבֹא אַהֲרֹן אֶל הַקֹּדֶשׁ בְּפַר בֶּן בָּקָר לְחַטָּאת וְאַיִל לְעֹלָה:
with this: בְּזֹאת. Its gematria [numerical value] is 410, an allusion to [the number of years that] the first Temple [would stand when the kohanim were righteous like Aaron, and it was as if Aaron lived all these years and entered the Holy of Holies]. - [Vayikra Rabbah 21:9]   בזאת: גימטריא שלו ארבע מאות ועשר, רמז לבית ראשון:
With this shall Aaron enter [the Holy]: And even [with] this, not at all times, but [only] on Yom Kippur, as is specified at the end of this section (verse 29 below),“in the seventh month, on the tenth of the month…” [i.e., the tenth of Tishri, namely, Yom Kippur].   בזאת יבא אהרן וגו': ואף זו לא בכל עת, כי אם ביום הכיפורים, כמו שמפורש בסוף הפרשה (פסוק כט) בחדש השביעי בעשור לחודש:
4. He shall wear a holy linen shirt and linen pants shall be upon his flesh, and he shall gird himself with a linen sash and wear a linen cap these are holy garments, [and therefore,] he shall immerse himself in water and don them.   ד. כְּתֹנֶת בַּד קֹדֶשׁ יִלְבָּשׁ וּמִכְנְסֵי בַד יִהְיוּ עַל בְּשָׂרוֹ וּבְאַבְנֵט בַּד יַחְגֹּר וּבְמִצְנֶפֶת בַּד יִצְנֹף בִּגְדֵי קֹדֶשׁ הֵם וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם אֶת בְּשָׂרוֹ וּלְבֵשָׁם:
[He shall wear a…] linen shirt…: [By enumerating only the four garments of an ordinary kohen, Scripture] informs [us] that [the Kohen Gadol] does not perform the service inside [i.e., in the Holy of Holies] wearing the eight garments with which he performs the service outside [the Holy of Holies (see Exod. Chap. 28)], for those [garments] contain gold, and a prosecutor cannot become a defender. [I.e., since the Kohen Gadol enters the Holy of Holies on Yom Kippur to effect atonement for all Israel, he may not enter wearing gold, reminiscent of the golden calf]. Instead, [he wears] four garments, like an ordinary kohen, all of which are [made] of linen. — [R. H. 26a]   כתנת בד וגו': מגיד שאינו משמש לפנים בשמונה בגדים שהוא משמש בהם בחוץ, שיש בהם זהב, לפי שאין קטיגור נעשה סניגור, אלא בארבעה, ככהן הדיוט, וכולן של בוץ:
He shall wear a holy [linen shirt…]: i.e., these garments shall be [purchased] from the Temple treasury. - [Torath Kohanim 16:13]   קדש ילבש: שיהיו משל הקדש:
and wear: Heb. יִצְנֹף, as the Targum [Onkelos] renders it: יָחֵית בְּרֵישֵׁיהּ, he shall place on his head. This is similar to “So she placed (וַתַּנַּח) his garment” (Gen. 39:16), [which Onkelos renders:] וְאַחְתְתֵהּ.   יצנף: כתרגומו יחית ברישיה, יניח בראשו, כמו (בראשית לט טז) ותנח בגדו ואחתתיה:
he shall immerse in water: On that day he was required to immerse himself every time he changed [his garments]. And [in total, the Kohen Gadol] changed his garments five times [when transferring] from the service inside [the Holy of Holies] to the service outside, and from outside to inside, changing from golden garments to white garments, and from white garments to golden garments. And at every change [of garments], he was required to immerse in a mikvah [once] and to sanctify his hands and feet twice [by washing his hands in the water] from the washstand [i.e., once when removing the garments he wore and a second time when he donned the next set of garments]. — [Yoma 32a]   ורחץ במים: אותו היום טעון טבילה בכל חליפותיו. וחמש פעמים היה מחליף מעבודת פנים לעבודת חוץ ומחוץ לפנים, ומשנה מבגדי זהב לבגדי לבן ומבגדי לבן לבגדי זהב, ובכל חליפה טעון טבילה ושני קדושי ידים ורגלים מן הכיור:
5. And from the community of the children of Israel, he shall take two he goats as a sin offering, and one ram as a burnt offering.   ה. וּמֵאֵת עֲדַת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל יִקַּח שְׁנֵי שְׂעִירֵי עִזִּים לְחַטָּאת וְאַיִל אֶחָד לְעֹלָה:
6. And Aaron shall bring his sin offering bull, and initiate atonement for himself and for his household.   ו. וְהִקְרִיב אַהֲרֹן אֶת פַּר הַחַטָּאת אֲשֶׁר לוֹ וְכִפֶּר בַּעֲדוֹ וּבְעַד בֵּיתוֹ:
his sin-offering bull: That is the one mentioned above (verse 3). And [Scripture’s reference to “his”] teaches you here that [this bull] had to be [purchased] from Aaron’s own money, rather than from public funds. — [Torath Kohanim 16:19; Yoma 3b]   את פר החטאת אשר לו: האמור למעלה. ולמדך כאן שמשלו הוא בא, ולא משל צבור:
and initiate atonement…for himself and for his household: [i.e., over this bull,] he confesses his own sins and those of his household. — [Torath Kohanim 16:20; Yoma 36b]   וכפר בעדו ובעד ביתו: מתודה עליו עונותיו ועונות ביתו:
7. And he shall take the two he goats, and place them before the Lord at the entrance to the Tent of Meeting.   ז. וְלָקַח אֶת שְׁנֵי הַשְּׂעִירִם וְהֶעֱמִיד אֹתָם לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד:
8. And Aaron shall place lots upon the two he goats: one lot "For the Lord," and the other lot, "For Azazel."   ח. וְנָתַן אַהֲרֹן עַל שְׁנֵי הַשְּׂעִירִם גֹּרָלוֹת גּוֹרָל אֶחָד לַיהֹוָה וְגוֹרָל אֶחָד לַעֲזָאזֵל:
And Aaron shall place lots upon the two he-goats: He would place one [he-goat] on his right and one on his left. Then, he would insert both his hands into an urn [which contained two lots, one bearing the inscription “to the Lord” and the other “to Azazel.” These lots were mixed up, and Aaron, with both hands inside the urn] took one lot in his right hand and the other in his left hand, and he would place them upon them [the he-goats]: [The one] upon which [he placed the lot] with the inscription “to the Lord,” would be for God, while the one upon which [he placed the lot] with the inscription “to Azazel,” would be sent off to Azazel. — [Yoma 39a]   ונתן אהרן על שני השעירים גרלות: מעמיד אחד לימין ואחד לשמאל, ונותן שתי ידיו בקלפי ונוטל גורל בימין וחברו בשמאל, ונותן עליהם, את שכתוב בו לשם הוא לשם, ואת שכתוב בו לעזאזל משתלח לעזאזל:
Azazel: This is a strong and hard mountain, [with] a high cliff, as the Scripture says [in describing Azazel] (verse 22 below),“a precipitous land (אֶרֶץ גְּזֵרָה),” meaning a cut-off land [i.e., a sheer drop]. — [Torath Kohanim 16:28; Yoma 67b]   עזאזל: הוא הר עז וקשה, צוק גבוה, שנאמר (פסוק כב) ארץ גזרה, חתוכה:
9. And Aaron shall bring the he goat upon which the lot, "For the Lord," came up, and designate it as a sin offering.   ט. וְהִקְרִיב אַהֲרֹן אֶת הַשָּׂעִיר אֲשֶׁר עָלָה עָלָיו הַגּוֹרָל לַיהוָֹה וְעָשָׂהוּ חַטָּאת:
and designate it as a sin-offering: When he places the lot upon it, he designates it by calling it [a sin-offering], saying, “To the Lord-a sin-offering”. — [Yoma 39a]   ועשהו חטאת: כשמניח הגורל עליו קורא לו שם ואומר לה' חטאת:
10. And the he goat upon which the lot "For Azazel" came up, shall be placed while still alive, before the Lord, to [initiate] atonement upon it, and to send it away to Azazel, into the desert.   י. וְהַשָּׂעִיר אֲשֶׁר עָלָה עָלָיו הַגּוֹרָל לַעֲזָאזֵל יָעֳמַד חַי לִפְנֵי יְהוָֹה לְכַפֵּר עָלָיו לְשַׁלַּח אֹתוֹ לַעֲזָאזֵל הַמִּדְבָּרָה:
while still alive: [is to be understood] like יָעֳמַד חַי [i.e., the word יָעֳמַד is in the hof’al conjugation, which is a passive form, meaning that the goat] was “stood up by others.” [Thus,] the Targum translates it as, יִתָּקַם כַּד חַי, “shall be stood up while alive.” And what does the verse teach us when it says “alive?” Since it says: “to send it away to Azazel,” and we do not know whether it was to be sent away to be killed or to remain alive. Therefore, Scripture says, “shall be placed while still alive,” [meaning that] it is to be placed while still alive [and shall remain alive only] until it is sent away. From here, we learn that it was sent away to its death. — [Torath Kohanim 16:26]   יעמד חי: כמו יעמד חי על ידי אחרים, ותרגומו יתקם כד חי. מה תלמוד לומר חי, לפי שנאמר לשלח אותו לעזאזל, ואיני יודע שילוחו אם למיתה אם לחיים, לכך נאמר יעמד חי, עמידתו חי עד שישתלח, מכאן ששילוחו למיתה:
to [initiate] atonement: [lit., “to effect atonement upon it,” here meaning] that he is to confess upon it, as Scripture says, “and confess upon it….” (verse 21 below). - [Torath Kohanim 16:27; Yoma 40b]   לכפר עליו: שיתודה עליו, כדכתיב (פסוק כא) והתודה עליו וגו':
11. And Aaron shall bring his sin offering bull, and shall [initiate] atonement for himself and for his household, and he shall [then] slaughter his sin offering bull.   יא. וְהִקְרִיב אַהֲרֹן אֶת פַּר הַחַטָּאת אֲשֶׁר לוֹ וְכִפֶּר בַּעֲדוֹ וּבְעַד בֵּיתוֹ וְשָׁחַט אֶת פַּר הַחַטָּאת אֲשֶׁר לוֹ:
…and shall [initiate] atonement for himself: This is a second confession [i. e., besides that stated in verse 6 above for himself and his household], and is for himself [again] and for his brothers, the kohanim, all of whom are called “his household,” as the verse says, “O house of Aaron, bless the Lord,” (Ps. 135:19). From here, we see that [all] the kohanim receive atonement through this [sin-offering bull of the Kohen Gadol] (Torath Kohanim 16:29; Shev. 13b) And all its atonement is exclusively for defiling the Sanctuary and its holy things, [e.g., if a kohen forgot that he was unclean and entered the Sanctuary or ate sacrifices], as the verse says, “And he shall effect atonement upon the Holy, from the defilements [of the children of Israel]” (verse 16 below). - [Shev. 14a]   וכפר בעדו וגו': וידוי שני עליו ועל אחיו הכהנים, שהם כלם קרוים ביתו, שנאמר (תהלים קלה יט) בית אהרן ברכו את ה' וגו', מכאן שהכהנים מתכפרים בו, וכל כפרתן אינה אלא על טומאת מקדש וקדשיו, כמו שנאמר (פסוק טז) וכפר על הקדש מטומאות וגו':
12. And he shall take a pan full of burning coals from upon the altar, from before the Lord, and both hands' full of fine incense, and bring [it] within the dividing curtain.   יב. וְלָקַח מְלֹא הַמַּחְתָּה גַּחֲלֵי אֵשׁ מֵעַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ מִלִּפְנֵי יְהֹוָה וּמְלֹא חָפְנָיו קְטֹרֶת סַמִּים דַּקָּה וְהֵבִיא מִבֵּית לַפָּרֹכֶת:
from upon the altar: [referring to] the outside altar. — [Yoma 45b]   מעל המזבח: החיצון:
from before the Lord: From the side [of the altar] that is before the entrance [to the Holy], namely, the western side [of the altar]. — [Yoma 45b]   מלפני ה': מצד שלפני הפתח והוא צד מערבי:
fine: Heb. דַּקָּה. But what does Scripture teach us here, when it says [that the incense had to be] fine? Was not all incense fine, as Scripture says [regarding the spices], “And you shall crush some of it finely” (Exod. 30:36)? Rather, [Scripture is telling us here that this incense] was to be the finest of the fine, for on the eve of Yom Kippur, they would return [already crushed incense] to the mortar [in order to crush it even finer, for use on Yom Kippur]. — [Torath Kohanim 16:34; Keritot 6b]   דקה: מה תלמוד לומר דקה, והלא כל הקטורת דקה היא, שנאמר (שמות ל לו) ושחקת ממנה הדק, אלא שתהא דקה מן הדקה, שמערב יום הכפורים היה מחזירה למכתשת:
13. And he shall place the incense upon the fire, before the Lord, so that the cloud of the incense shall envelope the ark cover that is over the [tablets of] Testimony, so that he shall not die.   יג. וְנָתַן אֶת הַקְּטֹרֶת עַל הָאֵשׁ לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה וְכִסָּה | עֲנַן הַקְּטֹרֶת אֶת הַכַּפֹּרֶת אֲשֶׁר עַל הָעֵדוּת וְלֹא יָמוּת:
[And he shall place the incense] upon the fire: that is inside the pan.   על האש: שבתוך המחתה:
so that he shall not die: Hence, if [the Kohen Gadol] did not make it according to its formula, he would be liable to death. — [Torath Kohanim 16:35; Yoma 53a]   ולא ימות: הא אם לא עשאה כתקנה, חייב מיתה:
14. And he shall take some of the bull's blood and sprinkle [it] with his index finger on top of the ark cover on the eastern side; and before the ark cover, he shall sprinkle seven times from the blood, with his index finger.   יד. וְלָקַח מִדַּם הַפָּר וְהִזָּה בְאֶצְבָּעוֹ עַל פְּנֵי הַכַּפֹּרֶת קֵדְמָה וְלִפְנֵי הַכַּפֹּרֶת יַזֶּה שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים מִן הַדָּם בְּאֶצְבָּעוֹ:
and sprinkle [it] with his index finger: One sprinkling is meant.   והזה באצבעו: הזאה אחת במשמע:
and before the [ark] cover, he shall sprinkle seven [times]: Thus, once above and seven times below. — [Torath Kohanim 16:41; Yoma 55a]   ולפני הכפרת יזה שבע: הרי אחת למעלה ושבע למטה:
15. He shall then slaughter the he goat of the people's sin offering and bring its blood within the dividing curtain, and he shall do with its blood as he had done with the bull's blood, and he shall sprinkle it upon the ark cover and before the ark cover.   טו. וְשָׁחַט אֶת שְׂעִיר הַחַטָּאת אֲשֶׁר לָעָם וְהֵבִיא אֶת דָּמוֹ אֶל מִבֵּית לַפָּרֹכֶת וְעָשָׂה אֶת דָּמוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה לְדַם הַפָּר וְהִזָּה אֹתוֹ עַל הַכַּפֹּרֶת וְלִפְנֵי הַכַּפֹּרֶת:
the people’s [sin-offering he-goat]: For what the bull atones for the kohanim [namely, defilements of the Sanctuary and its holy things], the he-goat atones for the Israelites, and this goat was the one upon which the lot “For the Lord” had fallen. - [Yoma 61a]   אשר לעם: מה שהפר מכפר על הכהנים מכפר השעיר על ישראל, והוא השעיר שעלה עליו הגורל לשם:
as he had done with the bull’s blood: [namely, sprinkling it] once above and seven times below. — [Torath Kohanim 16:41; Yoma 55a]   כאשר עשה לדם הפר: אחת למעלה ושבע למטה:
16. And he shall effect atonement upon the Holy from the defilements of the children of Israel and from their rebellions and all their unintentional sins. He shall do likewise to the Tent of Meeting, which dwells with them amidst their defilements.   טז. וְכִפֶּר עַל הַקֹּדֶשׁ מִטֻּמְאֹת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמִפִּשְׁעֵיהֶם לְכָל חַטֹּאתָם וְכֵן יַעֲשֶׂה לְאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד הַשֹּׁכֵן אִתָּם בְּתוֹךְ טֻמְאֹתָם:
from the defilements of the children of Israel-: [i.e., atoning] for those who, while in [a state of] uncleanness, had entered the Sanctuary, and it never became known to them [that they had been unclean], for it says: לְכָלחַטֹּאתָם, חַטָּאַת denotes an unintentional sin. — [Torath Kohanim 16:42; Shev. 17b]   מטמאת בני ישראל: על הנכנסין למקדש בטומאה ולא נודע להם בסוף, שנאמר לכל חטאתם, וחטאת היא שוגג:
and from their rebellions: [i.e., atoning] also [for] those who, in a state of uncleanness, willfully entered [the Sanctuary, thereby defiling it]. — [Torath Kohanim 16:42; Shev. 17b]   ומפשעיהם: אף הנכנסין מזיד בטומאה:
He shall do likewise to the Tent of Meeting: i.e., just as he had sprinkled from [the blood of] both [the bull and the he-goat] inside [the Holy of Holies, with] one sprinkling above and seven below, so shall he sprinkle from [the blood of] both [the bull and the he-goat] on the dividing curtain from the outside once above and seven times below. — [Torath Kohanim 16:43; Yoma 56b]   וכן יעשה לאהל מועד: כשם שהזה משניהם בפנים אחת למעלה ושבע למטה, כך מזה על הפרוכת מבחוץ משניהם אחת למעלה ושבע למטה:
which dwells with them, [even] amidst their defilements: Although they are unclean, the Divine Presence is among them. — [Torath Kohanim 16:43; Yoma 56b]   השכן אתם בתוך טמאתם: אף על פי שהם טמאים שכינה ביניהם:
17. And no man shall be in the Tent of Meeting when he comes to effect atonement in the Holy, until he comes out. And he shall effect atonement for himself, for his household, and for all the congregation of Israel.   יז. וְכָל אָדָם לֹא יִהְיֶה | בְּאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד בְּבֹאוֹ לְכַפֵּר בַּקֹּדֶשׁ עַד צֵאתוֹ וְכִפֶּר בַּעֲדוֹ וּבְעַד בֵּיתוֹ וּבְעַד כָּל קְהַל יִשְׂרָאֵל:
18. And he shall then go out to the altar that is before the Lord and effect atonement upon it: He shall take some of the bull's blood and some of the he goat's blood, and place it on the horns of the altar, around.   יח. וְיָצָא אֶל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵי יְהוָֹה וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו וְלָקַח מִדַּם הַפָּר וּמִדַּם הַשָּׂעִיר וְנָתַן עַל קַרְנוֹת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ סָבִיב:
to the altar that is before the Lord: This is the golden altar, which is “before the Lord” in the heichal [i.e., in the Temple, it was in the heichal , was the equivalent of the Holy in the Mishkan]. And [since the Kohen Gadol was to remain inside the Holy for the next procedure,] what does Scripture mean when it says, “And he shall then go out?” Since he had just performed the blood sprinklings on the dividing curtain, standing on the inner side of the altar to sprinkle [i.e., between the altar and the dividing curtain], for the applications on the altar, [Scripture] required him to “go out” to the outer side of the altar and to begin with the north-eastern corner. — [Torath Kohanim 16:45; Yoma 58b. See Mizrachi , Gur Aryeh. Also Chavel, who asserts that, according to the Reggio edition of Rashi, the Kohen Gadol did not stand beyond the altar, but alongside it, from where he commenced to apply the blood from the north-eastern corner.]   אל המזבח אשר לפני ה': זה מזבח הזהב שהוא לפני ה' בהיכל. ומה תלמוד לומר ויצא, לפי שהזה ההזאות על הפרוכת ועמד מן המזבח ולפנים והזה, ובמתנות המזבח הזקיקו לצאת מן המזבח ולחוץ, ויתחיל מקרן מזרחית צפונית:
and effect atonement upon it: And what is the [procedure that effects the] atonement? [As the verse continues:] “He shall take some of the bull’s blood and some of the he-goat’s blood,” one mingled with the other. — [Torath Kohanim 16:46; Yoma 57b]   וכפר עליו: ומה היא כפרתו, ולקח מדם הפר ומדם השעיר, מעורבין זה לתוך זה:
19. He shall then sprinkle some of the blood upon it with his index finger seven times, and he shall cleanse it and sanctify it of the defilements of the children of Israel.   יט. וְהִזָּה עָלָיו מִן הַדָּם בְּאֶצְבָּעוֹ שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים וְטִהֲרוֹ וְקִדְּשׁוֹ מִטֻּמְאֹת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל:
He shall then sprinkle some of the blood upon it: After he has applied the blood with his index finger on its horns, he shall then sprinkle seven sprinklings on its top.   והזה עליו מן הדם: אחר שנתן מתנות באצבעו על קרנותיו, מזה שבע הזאות על גגו:
and he shall cleanse it: from any [defilements] that had occurred in the past,   וטהרו: ממה שעבר:
and sanctify it: for the future. — [Torath Kohanim 16:48] [According to Mizrachi, this means that now that the altar had been purified from past defilements, care would be taken not to defile this now pure altar. Maskil LeDavid explains that, after the altar was cleansed of its previous defilements, it had to be resanctified for future use. This the Kohen Gadol would effect. Raavad explains that, by cleansing it of its defilements, he would sanctify it for future use.]   וקדשו: לעתיד לבא:
20. And he shall finish effecting atonement for the Holy, the Tent of Meeting, and the altar, and then he shall bring the live he goat.   כ. וְכִלָּה מִכַּפֵּר אֶת הַקֹּדֶשׁ וְאֶת אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְאֶת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְהִקְרִיב אֶת הַשָּׂעִיר הֶחָי:
21. And Aaron shall lean both of his hands [forcefully] upon the live he goat's head and confess upon it all the willful transgressions of the children of Israel, all their rebellions, and all their unintentional sins, and he shall place them on the he goat's head, and send it off to the desert with a timely man.   כא. וְסָמַךְ אַהֲרֹן אֶת שְׁתֵּי יָדָיו עַל רֹאשׁ הַשָּׂעִיר הַחַי וְהִתְוַדָּה עָלָיו אֶת כָּל עֲו‍ֹנֹת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת כָּל פִּשְׁעֵיהֶם לְכָל חַטֹּאתָם וְנָתַן אֹתָם עַל רֹאשׁ הַשָּׂעִיר וְשִׁלַּח בְּיַד אִישׁ עִתִּי הַמִּדְבָּרָה:
with a timely man: Heb. אִישׁ עִתִּי, one who had been prepared for this from the day before. — [Torath Kohanim 16:60; Yoma 32a]   איש עתי: המוכן לכך מיום אתמול:
22. The he goat shall thus carry upon itself all their sins to a precipitous land, and he shall send off the he goat into the desert.   כב. וְנָשָׂא הַשָּׂעִיר עָלָיו אֶת כָּל עֲו‍ֹנֹתָם אֶל אֶרֶץ גְּזֵרָה וְשִׁלַּח אֶת הַשָּׂעִיר בַּמִּדְבָּר:
23. And Aaron shall enter the Tent of Meeting and remove the linen garments that he had worn when he came into the Holy, and there, he shall store them away.   כג. וּבָא אַהֲרֹן אֶל אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וּפָשַׁט אֶת בִּגְדֵי הַבָּד אֲשֶׁר לָבַשׁ בְּבֹאוֹ אֶל הַקֹּדֶשׁ וְהִנִּיחָם שָׁם:
And Aaron shall come into the Tent of Meeting: Our Rabbis stated (Torath Kohanim 16:60; Yoma 32a) that this is not the [correct chronological] place for this verse, and they gave a reason for this in Tractate Yoma (32a). And they said: “This whole passage is in correct chronological order, except for this entry, for this followed the performance of his burnt offering and the people’s burnt offering, and the burning of the sacrificial parts of the bull and the he-goat, which were performed outside [the Holy of Holies, with the Kohen Gadol attired] in golden garments. Then he would immerse himself, sanctify [his hands and feet with water from the washstand], remove them [his golden garments], don his white garments”-   ובא אהרן אל אהל מועד: אמרו רבותינו, שאין זה מקומו של מקרא זה, ונתנו טעם לדבריהם במסכת יומא (דף לב א) ואמרו כל הפרשה כולה אמורה על הסדר, חוץ מביאה זו, שהיא אחר עשיית עולתו ועולת העם והקטרת אימורי פר ושעיר שנעשים בחוץ בבגדי זהב, וטובל ומקדש ופושטן ולובש בגדי לבן:
and…shall come into the Tent of Meeting: to take out the spoon and the pan, with which he had caused the incense to go up in smoke in the inner Holy. [Then,]   ובא אל אהל מועד: להוציא את הכף ואת המחתה שהקטיר בה הקטרת לפני ולפנים:
[Aaron shall…] remove the linen garments: After he took them [the spoon and the pan] out, and then he would don his golden garments the afternoon תָּמִיד [i.e., the daily burnt offering sacrificed twice every day]. The following, [therefore,] is the order of the services: 1) The morning תָּמִיד in golden garments; 2) the service involving the bull and he-goat whose blood was sprinkled inside [the Holy] and the incense procedure [with the burning coals] in the pan, in white garments. 3) Then, his ram, the people’s ram and some of the additional sacrifices [of the day (see Num. 29:7-11)] in golden garments; 4) then, the removal of the spoon and the pan in white garments; 5) the remainder of the additional sacrifices, the afternoon תָּמִיד, and the incense procedure in the heichal upon the inner altar in golden garments. Hence, the [chronological] sequence of the verses, corresponding to [the chronological order of] the services is as follows: (Verse 22), “and he shall send off the he-goat into the desert”; then (verse 24),“And he shall immerse his flesh…He shall then go out and sacrifice his burnt offering…”; then (verse 25),“the fat of the sin-offering…”; then the remainder of this passage, up till (verse 26),“And after this, he may come into the camp”; only then [comes our verse 23 into the chronological sequence,] “And Aaron shall enter [the Tent of Meeting, and remove the linen garments],”   ופשט את בגדי הבד: אחר שהוציאם ולובש בגדי זהב לתמיד של בין הערבים. וזהו סדר העבודות תמיד של שחר בבגדי זהב, ועבודת פר ושעיר הפנימים וקטרת של מחתה בבגדי לבן, ואילו ואיל העם ומקצת המוספין בבגדי זהב, והוצאת כף ומחתה בבגדי לבן, ושעירי [ושיירי] המוספין ותמיד של בין הערבים וקטורת ההיכל שעל מזבח הפנימי בבגדי זהב. וסדר המקראות לפי סדר העבודות כך הוא ושלח את השעיר במדבר, ורחץ את בשרו במים וגו' ויצא ועשה את עולתו וגו' ואת חלב החטאת וגו'. וכל הפרשה עד ואחרי כן יבא אל המחנה, ואחר כך ובא אהרן:
and there, he shall store them away: This teaches [us] that they require being stored away [forever], and he shall not use those four garments for any other Yom Kippur. — [Torath Kohanim 16:61; Yoma 12b]   והניחם שם: מלמד שטעונין גניזה, ולא ישתמש באותן ארבעה בגדים ליום כפורים אחר:
24. And he shall immerse his flesh in a holy place and don his garments. He shall then go out and sacrifice his burnt offering and the people's burnt offering, and he shall effect atonement for himself and for the people.   כד. וְרָחַץ אֶת בְּשָׂרוֹ בַמַּיִם בְּמָקוֹם קָדוֹשׁ וְלָבַשׁ אֶת בְּגָדָיו וְיָצָא וְעָשָׂה אֶת עֹלָתוֹ וְאֶת עֹלַת הָעָם וְכִפֶּר בַּעֲדוֹ וּבְעַד הָעָם:
And he shall immerse his flesh…: Above (see Rashi verse 4), we learned from “he shall immerse in water and then don them,” that when he changes from golden garments to white garments, he is required to immerse himself, for with that immersion, he removed the golden garments, with which he had performed the service of the morning תָּמִיד, and subsequently changed into white garments, to perform the service of the day (see verse 4). Here, we learn that when he changes from white garments to golden garments, he [also] is required to immerse [in a mikvah]. — [Torath Kohanim 16:60; Yoma 32a]   ורחץ את בשרו וגו': למעלה למדנו מורחץ את בשרו ולבשם (פסוק ד), שכשהוא משנה מבגדי זהב לבגדי לבן טעון טבילה, שבאותה טבילה פשט בגדי זהב שעבד בהן עבודת תמיד של שחר ולבש בגדי לבן לעבודת היום, וכאן למדנו שכשהוא משנה מבגדי לבן לבגדי זהב טעון טבילה:
in a holy place: sanctified with the [degree of] holiness of the Courtyard [of the Holy Temple], and it was on the roof of [a chamber in the Holy Temple, called] Beth HaParvah. And so were [all] four immersions which were obligatory for the day, except for the very first immersion, which was performed in an unsanctified [place because this immersion, in preparation to sacrifice the morning תָּמִיד, took place every day and was not, therefore, specific to the Yom Kippur service]. — [Torath Kohanim 16:62; Yoma 30a]   במקום קדוש: המקודש בקדושת עזרה והיא היתה בגג בית הפרוה, וכן ארבע טבילות הבאות חובה ליום, אבל הראשונה היתה בחול:
and don his garments: [meaning “his” regular] eight garments, in which he officiates all the days of the year.   ולבש את בגדיו: שמנה בגדים שהוא עובד בהן כל ימות השנה:
He shall then go out: of the heichal, to the Courtyard in which the altar for burnt offerings was located.   ויצא: מן ההיכל אל החצר שמזבח העולה שם:
and sacrifice his burnt offering: namely, the ram for a burnt offering, stated above (verse 3), [when Scripture says there,] “Aaron shall come with this…,”   ועשה את עלתו: איל לעולה האמור למעלה (פסוק ג) בזאת יבא אהרון וגו':
and the people’s burnt offering: namely, “and one ram for a burnt offering,” stated above (verse 5), [when Scripture says,] “And from the community of the children of Israel….”   ואת עלת העם: ואיל אחד לעולה האמור למעלה (פסוק ה) ומאת עדת בני ישראל וגו':

2nd Portion

Chapter 16

25. And he shall cause the fat of the sin offering to go up in smoke upon the altar.   כה. וְאֵת חֵלֶב הַחַטָּאת יַקְטִיר הַמִּזְבֵּחָה:
the fat of the sin-offering: [This refers to] the sacrificial fats of the bull and the he-goat.   ואת חלב החטאת: אימורי פר ושעיר:
And he shall cause [the fat of the sin-offering] to go up in smoke upon the altar: On the outer altar, for, concerning the inner altar, it is written: “You shall offer up on it no alien incense, burnt offering, or meal offering” (Exod. 30:9), [and likewise, no sin-offering shall be brought on the internal altar since “burnt offering” includes any sacrifice of which any part is burned].   יקטיר המזבחה: על מזבח החיצון, דאלו בפנימי כתיב (שמות ל ט) לא תעלו עליו קטרת זרה ועולה ומנחה:
26. And the person who sent off the he goat to Azazel, shall immerse his garments and immerse his flesh in water. And after this, he may come into the camp.   כו. וְהַמְשַׁלֵּחַ אֶת הַשָּׂעִיר לַעֲזָאזֵל יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ אֶת בְּשָׂרוֹ בַּמָּיִם וְאַחֲרֵי כֵן יָבוֹא אֶל הַמַּחֲנֶה:
27. And the sin offering bull and he goat of the sin offering, [both of] whose blood was brought to effect atonement in the Holy, he shall take outside the camp, and they shall burn in fire their hides, their flesh, and their waste.   כז. וְאֵת פַּר הַחַטָּאת וְאֵת | שְׂעִיר הַחַטָּאת אֲשֶׁר הוּבָא אֶת דָּמָם לְכַפֵּר בַּקֹּדֶשׁ יוֹצִיא אֶל מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה וְשָׂרְפוּ בָאֵשׁ אֶת עֹרֹתָם וְאֶת בְּשָׂרָם וְאֶת פִּרְשָׁם:
whose blood was brought: into the heichal and into the very interior.   אשר הובא את דמם: להיכל ולפני ולפנים:
28. And the person who burns them shall immerse his garments and immerse his flesh in water. And after this, he may come into the camp.   כח. וְהַשּׂרֵף אֹתָם יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ אֶת בְּשָׂרוֹ בַּמָּיִם וְאַחֲרֵי כֵן יָבוֹא אֶל הַמַּחֲנֶה:
29. And [all this] shall be as an eternal statute for you; in the seventh month, on the tenth of the month, you shall afflict yourselves, and you shall not do any work neither the native nor the stranger who dwells among you.   כט. וְהָיְתָה לָכֶם לְחֻקַּת עוֹלָם בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי בֶּעָשׂוֹר לַחֹדֶשׁ תְּעַנּוּ אֶת נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם וְכָל מְלָאכָה לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ הָאֶזְרָח וְהַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּתוֹכְכֶם:
30. For on this day He shall effect atonement for you to cleanse you. Before the Lord, you shall be cleansed from all your sins.   ל. כִּי בַיּוֹם הַזֶּה יְכַפֵּר עֲלֵיכֶם לְטַהֵר אֶתְכֶם מִכֹּל חַטֹּאתֵיכֶם לִפְנֵי יְהוָֹה תִּטְהָרוּ:
31. It is a Sabbath of rest for you, and you shall afflict yourselves. It is an eternal statute.   לא. שַׁבַּת שַׁבָּתוֹן הִיא לָכֶם וְעִנִּיתֶם אֶת נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם חֻקַּת עוֹלָם:
32. And the Kohen who is anointed or who is invested to serve in his father's stead, shall effect [this] atonement, and he shall don the linen garments, the holy garments;   לב. וְכִפֶּר הַכֹּהֵן אֲשֶׁר יִמְשַׁח אֹתוֹ וַאֲשֶׁר יְמַלֵּא אֶת יָדוֹ לְכַהֵן תַּחַת אָבִיו וְלָבַשׁ אֶת בִּגְדֵי הַבָּד בִּגְדֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ:
And the Kohen who is anointed: This atonement on Yom Kippur is valid only through a Kohen Gadol [since anointment in this context exclusively refers to that of a Kohen Gadol (see Lev. 21:10)].-[Yoma 32b] Since this entire passage is stated concerning Aaron, Scripture found it necessary to state that the Kohen Gadol who succeeds him is like him. -[Torath Kohanim 16:79]   וכפר הכהן אשר ימשח וגו': כפרה זו של יום הכיפורים אינה כשרה אלא בכהן גדול, לפי שנאמרה כל הפרשה באהרן, הוצרך לומר בכהן גדול הבא אחריו שיהא כמוהו:
or who is invested: [Without this phrase,] we would know only that [the Kohen Gadol] anointed with the anointing oil (see Exod. 30:22-33) may perform the Yom Kippur service]. How would we know that [a Kohen Gadol who was invested only by] wearing the many garments [i.e., eight, as opposed to the four of an ordinary kohen, may also perform Yom Kippur service]? Scripture, therefore, says here, "or who is invested to serve [for their authorized wearing of the eight golden garments of a Kohen Gadol is their very investiture (see Rashi Exod. 29:9)]. — [Torath Kohanim 16:79] These [Kohanim Gedolim referred to here,] are all the Kohanim Gedolim who were appointed from the time of Josiah and onwards, for in the days [of Josiah], the jug of anointing oil was hidden away. — [see Yoma 52b]   ואשר ימלא את ידו: אין לי אלא המשוח בשמן המשחה, מרובה בגדים מנין, תלמוד לומר ואשר ימלא את ידו וגו', והם כל הכהנים הגדולים שעמדו מיאשיהו ואילך, שבימיו נגנזה צלוחית של שמן המשחה:
to serve in his father’s stead: This teaches us that if his son can take his place [meaning that he is his equal], he takes precedence over everyone else. — [Torath Kohanim 16:80]   לכהן תחת אביו: ללמד שאם בנו ממלא את מקומו הוא קודם לכל אדם:
33. And he shall effect atonement upon the Holy of Holies, and he shall effect atonement upon the Tent of Meeting and upon the altar, and he shall effect atonement upon the kohanim and upon all the people of the congregation.   לג. וְכִפֶּר אֶת מִקְדַּשׁ הַקֹּדֶשׁ וְאֶת אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְאֶת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ יְכַפֵּר וְעַל הַכֹּהֲנִים וְעַל כָּל עַם הַקָּהָל יְכַפֵּר:
34. [All] this shall be as an eternal statute for you, to effect atonement upon the children of Israel, for all their sins, once each year. And he did as the Lord had commanded Moses.   לד. וְהָיְתָה זֹּאת לָכֶם לְחֻקַּת עוֹלָם לְכַפֵּר עַל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל מִכָּל חַטֹּאתָם אַחַת בַּשָּׁנָה וַיַּעַשׂ כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָֹה אֶת משֶׁה:
And he did as the Lord had commanded [Moses]: [i.e.,] when Yom Kippur arrived, [Aaron] performed [the service] according to ths order, and [this verse is written] to tell Aaron’s praise, namely, that he did not don those [special garments of the Kohen Gadol] for his self-aggrandizement, but rather, as one who is fulfilling the King’s decree [thus, “he did as the Lord had commanded”]. — [Torath Kohanim 16:85]   ויעש כאשר צוה ה' וגו': כשהגיע יום הכפורים עשה כסדר הזה, ולהגיד שבחו של אהרן שלא היה לובשן לגדולתו, אלא כמקיים גזירת המלך:

Chapter 17

1. And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying:   א. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָֹה אֶל משֶׁה לֵּאמֹר:
2. Speak to Aaron and to his sons, and to all the children of Israel, and say to them: This is the thing the Lord has commanded, saying:   ב. דַּבֵּר אֶל אַהֲרֹן וְאֶל בָּנָיו וְאֶל כָּל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵיהֶם זֶה הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָֹה לֵאמֹר:
3. Any man of the House of Israel, who slaughters an ox, a lamb, or a goat inside the camp, or who slaughters outside the camp,   ג. אִישׁ אִישׁ מִבֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁחַט שׁוֹר אוֹ כֶשֶׂב אוֹ עֵז בַּמַּחֲנֶה אוֹ אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁחָט מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה:
Who slaughters an ox, a lamb, [or a goat]: Scripture is speaking of [slaughtering] holy sacrifices [not of slaughtering ordinary animals], for Scripture continues, “to offer up as a sacrifice” (next verse). - [Torath Kohanim 17:91]   אשר ישחט שור או כשב: במוקדשין הכתוב מדבר, שנאמר להקריב קרבן:
inside the camp: But outside the Courtyard. — [Torath Kohanim 17:89; Zev. 107b]   במחנה: חוץ לעזרה:
4. but does not bring it to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting to offer up as a sacrifice to the Lord before the Mishkan of the Lord, this [act] shall be counted for that man as blood he has shed blood, and that man shall be cut off from among his people;   ד. וְאֶל פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד לֹא הֱבִיאוֹ לְהַקְרִיב קָרְבָּן לַיהֹוָה לִפְנֵי מִשְׁכַּן יְהוָֹה דָּם יֵחָשֵׁב לָאִישׁ הַהוּא דָּם שָׁפָךְ וְנִכְרַת הָאִישׁ הַהוּא מִקֶּרֶב עַמּוֹ:
shall be counted [for that man] as blood: As though he had shed human blood, for which one is liable to the death penalty.   דם יחשב: כשופך דם האדם שמתחייב בנפשו:
He has shed blood: [This comes] to include one who dashes the blood [of a holy sacrifice] outside [the Temple Courtyard]. — [Zev. 107a]   דם שפך: לרבות את הזורק דמים בחוץ:
5. in order that the children of Israel should bring their offerings which they slaughter on the open field, and bring them to the Lord, to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting, to the kohen, and slaughter them as peace offerings to the Lord.   ה. לְמַעַן אֲשֶׁר יָבִיאוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת זִבְחֵיהֶם אֲשֶׁר הֵם זֹבְחִים עַל פְּנֵי הַשָּׂדֶה וֶהֱבִיאֻם לַיהֹוָה אֶל פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד אֶל הַכֹּהֵן וְזָבְחוּ זִבְחֵי שְׁלָמִים לַיהוָֹה אוֹתָם:
which they slaughter: which they are accustomed to slaughter.   אשר הם זבחים: אשר הם רגילים לזבוח:
6. And the kohen shall dash the blood upon the altar of the Lord at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting, and he shall cause the fat to go up in smoke, as a pleasing fragrance to the Lord.   ו. וְזָרַק הַכֹּהֵן אֶת הַדָּם עַל מִזְבַּח יְהֹוָה פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְהִקְטִיר הַחֵלֶב לְרֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָֹה:
7. And they shall no longer slaughter their sacrifices to the satyrs after which they stray. This shall be an eternal statute for them, for [all] their generations.   ז. וְלֹא יִזְבְּחוּ עוֹד אֶת זִבְחֵיהֶם לַשְּׂעִירִם אֲשֶׁר הֵם זֹנִים אַחֲרֵיהֶם חֻקַּת עוֹלָם תִּהְיֶה זֹּאת לָהֶם לְדֹרֹתָם:
to the satyrs: Heb. לַשְּׂעִירִים, to the demons, like, “and satyrs (וּשְּׂעִירִים) will dance there” (Isa. 13:21). - [Torath Kohanim 17:100]   לשעירם: לשדים, כמו (ישעיה יג כא) ושעירים ירקדו שם:

3rd Portion

Chapter 17

8. And you should say to them: Any man of the House of Israel or of the strangers who will sojourn among them, who offers up a burnt offering or [any other] sacrifice,   ח. וַאֲלֵהֶם תֹּאמַר אִישׁ אִישׁ מִבֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמִן הַגֵּר אֲשֶׁר יָגוּר בְּתוֹכָם אֲשֶׁר יַעֲלֶה עֹלָה אוֹ זָבַח:
Who offers up a burnt-offering: [This passage] comes to make liable one who causes the limbs [of a sacrifice] to go up in smoke outside [the Temple Courtyard] like the one who slaughters [a sacrifice] outside [the Courtyard. Consequently,] if one person slaughtered [the sacrifice] and his fellow offered it up [outside the Courtyard], they are both liable [to the penalty of excision]. — [Torath Kohanim 17:103; Zev. 106a]   אשר יעלה עלה: לחייב על המקטיר איברים בחוץ כשוחט בחוץ, שאם שחט אחד והעלה חבירו שניהם חייבין:
9. but does not bring it to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting to make it [a sacrifice] to the Lord, that man shall be cut off from his people.   ט. וְאֶל פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד לֹא יְבִיאֶנּוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת אֹתוֹ לַיהוָֹה וְנִכְרַת הָאִישׁ הַהוּא מֵעַמָּיו:
[that man] will be cut off [from his people]: Heb. מֵעַמּוֹ, lit. from his peoples. [The plural form of “peoples” teaches us that] his offspring will be cut off as well as his own days being cut off.   ונכרת: זרעו נכרת וימיו נכרתין:
10. And any man of the House of Israel or of the strangers that sojourn among them, who eats any blood, I will set My attention upon the soul who eats the blood, and I will cut him off from among his people.   י. וְאִישׁ אִישׁ מִבֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמִן הַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּתוֹכָם אֲשֶׁר יֹאכַל כָּל דָּם וְנָתַתִּי פָנַי בַּנֶּפֶשׁ הָאֹכֶלֶת אֶת הַדָּם וְהִכְרַתִּי אֹתָהּ מִקֶּרֶב עַמָּהּ:
any blood: Since Scripture says, “[For it is the blood] that atones for the soul” (next verse), one might think that a person is liable only for [eating] the blood of sanctified things, [which effects atonement]. Scripture, therefore, says here, “any blood” [to include even the blood of ordinary animals]. — [Kereithoth 4b]   כל דם: לפי שנאמר בנפש יכפר, יכול לא יהא חייב אלא על דם המוקדשים, תלמוד לומר כל דם:
I will set my attention: Heb. פָנַי. [The word פָנַי here is to be understood to mean] My פְּנַאי, i.e., My leisure. [God is saying,] “I will make Myself free (פּוֹנֶה) from all My affairs, and I will deal with this person!” - [Torath Kohanim 17:108]   ונתתי פני: פנאי שלי, פונה אני מכל עסקי ועוסק בו:
11. For the soul of the flesh is in the blood, and I have therefore given it to you [to be placed] upon the altar, to atone for your souls. For it is the blood that atones for the soul.   יא. כִּי נֶפֶשׁ הַבָּשָׂר בַּדָּם הִוא וַאֲנִי נְתַתִּיו לָכֶם עַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לְכַפֵּר עַל נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם כִּי הַדָּם הוּא בַּנֶּפֶשׁ יְכַפֵּר:
For the soul of the flesh: of every creature is dependent upon the blood, and therefore, I have given it to atone for the soul of man. [In this way,] one “soul” [namely, the blood of a sacrifice] shall come and atone for another soul.   כי נפש הבשר: של כל בריה בדם היא תלויה, ולפיכך נתתיו על המזבח לכפר על נפש האדם. תבוא נפש ותכפר על הנפש:
12. Therefore, I said to the children of Israel: None of you shall eat blood, and the stranger who sojourns among you shall not eat blood.   יב. עַל כֵּן אָמַרְתִּי לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל כָּל נֶפֶשׁ מִכֶּם לֹא תֹאכַל דָּם וְהַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּתוֹכְכֶם לֹא יֹאכַל דָּם:
None of you: [This phrase] comes to warn adults regarding minors [not to feed them blood]. — [Torath Kohanim 17:110; Yev. 114a]   כל נפש מכם: להזהיר גדולים על הקטנים:
13. And any man of the children of Israel or of the strangers who sojourn among them, who traps a quarry of a wild animal or bird that may be eaten, and sheds its blood, he shall cover it [the blood] with dust.   יג. וְאִישׁ אִישׁ מִבְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמִן הַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּתוֹכָם אֲשֶׁר יָצוּד צֵיד חַיָּה אוֹ עוֹף אֲשֶׁר יֵאָכֵל וְשָׁפַךְ אֶת דָּמוֹ וְכִסָּהוּ בֶּעָפָר:
who traps: [Had the verse stated only this phrase,] we would know only [that this law applies to] creatures that require trapping. But how would we know [that the law includes also] geese and roosters, [which do not require trapping]? Scripture, therefore, adds [the word] צֵיד -a quarry, meaning in any way [even if not trapped]. But if so, why is it stated, “who traps”? [To teach us] that one should not eat flesh except with this preparation, [meaning, that just as one does not go out to trap every day, neither should one eat meat regularly at all his meals, as if he had to go out and trap it]. — [Torath Kohanim 17:111; Chul. 84a]   אשר יצוד: אין לי אלא ציד, אווזין ותרנגולין מנין, תלמוד לומר ציד, מכל מקום. אם כן למה נאמר אשר יצוד, שלא יאכל בשר אלא בהזמנה הזאת:
that may be eaten: [This comes] to exclude unclean creatures [which are prohibited to be eaten, that their blood does not require covering]. — [Torath Kohanim 17:112]   אשר יאכל: פרט לטמאים:
14. For [regarding] the soul of all flesh its blood is in its soul, and I said to the children of Israel: You shall not eat the blood of any flesh, for the soul of any flesh is its blood all who eat it shall be cut off.   יד. כִּי נֶפֶשׁ כָּל בָּשָׂר דָּמוֹ בְנַפְשׁוֹ הוּא וָאֹמַר לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל דַּם כָּל בָּשָׂר לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ כִּי נֶפֶשׁ כָּל בָּשָׂר דָּמוֹ הִוא כָּל אֹכְלָיו יִכָּרֵת:
its blood is in its soul: Its blood is in the place of its very soul, because the soul is dependent upon it.   דמו בנפשו הוא: דמו הוא לו במקום הנפש, שהנפש תלויה בו:
for the soul of any flesh is its blood: [The word הִוא, meaning here “it is,” is feminine in gender.] “for the soul […] is the blood.” [For] the words דָּם and בָּשָׂר are masculine in gender, while the word נֶפֶשׁ is feminine in gender. [Hence, the antecedent of הִוא is נֶפֶשׁ.]   כי נפש כל בשר דמו הוא: הנפש היא הדם. דם ובשר לשון זכר, נפש לשון נקבה:
15. And any person, whether a native or a stranger, who eats carrion or what was torn, shall immerse his garments and immerse himself in the waters, and shall remain unclean until evening, and then he shall become clean.   טו. וְכָל נֶפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר תֹּאכַל נְבֵלָה וּטְרֵפָה בָּאֶזְרָח וּבַגֵּר וְכִבֶּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד הָעֶרֶב וְטָהֵר:
who eats carrion or what was torn: Scripture is speaking about the carcass of a clean bird [i.e., a kosher species of bird], which transmits defilement only at the time it is swallowed into the esophagus. And it teaches you here, that it defiles [the person], when he eats it. [The trefah, the bird mortally wounded by a wild beast, or stricken with a terminal illness, however, does not transmit defilement. Consequently,] the torn one mentioned here was written only to expound upon it. Thus we learned: One might think that the carcass of an unclean bird [also] defiles when it is swallowed into the esophagus. Scripture, therefore, says, “or what was torn,” [referring to a type of bird] that may fall under the category of טְרֵפָה [i.e., a kosher bird, which is prohibited only if it is torn], thus, excluding the case of an unclean bird, which can never fall under the category of טְרֵפָה, [because it is prohibited in any case]. - [Torath Kohanim 17:126]   אשר תאכל נבלה וטרפה: בנבלת עוף טהור דבר הכתוב, שאין לה טומאה אלא בשעה שנבלעת בבית הבליעה, ולמדך כאן שמטמאה באכילתה, ואינה מטמאה במגע. וטרפה האמורה כאן לא נכתבה אלא לדרוש. וכן שנינו יכול תהא נבלת עוף טמא מטמאה בבית הבליעה, תלמוד לומר טרפה, מי שיש במינו טרפה, יצא עוף טמא שאין במינו טרפה:
16. But if he does not immerse [his garments] or immerse his flesh, he shall bear his sin.   טז. וְאִם לֹא יְכַבֵּס וּבְשָׂרוֹ לֹא יִרְחָץ וְנָשָׂא עֲו‍ֹנוֹ:
he shall bear his sin: If he [subsequently] eats holy sacrifices or enters the Sanctuary [in his unclean state], he is punished by excision because of this uncleanness, like all other cases of uncleanness. — [Torath Kohanim 17: 129]   ונשא עונו: אם יאכל קדש או יכנס למקדש חייב על טומאה זו ככל שאר טומאות:
[But if he does not]…immerse his flesh, he shall bear his sin: For [not] immersing his body he is punished by excision. However, for [not] immersing his garments, [and entering the Mishkan wearing them,] he is punished by lashes. — [Torath Kohanim 17:129]   ובשרו לא ירחץ ונשא עונו: על רחיצת גופו ענוש כרת ועל כבוס בגדים במלקות:

Chapter 18

1. And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying:   א. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָֹה אֶל משֶׁה לֵּאמֹר:
2. Speak to the children of Israel, and say to them: I am the Lord, your God.   ב. דַּבֵּר אֶל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם אֲנִי יְהוָֹה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם:
I am the Lord, your God: I am the One Who said at Sinai, “I am the Lord, your God” (Exod. 20:2), and you accepted My sovereignty upon yourselves [at that time]; consequently, accept My decrees. Rabbi [Yehudah Hanassi] says: “It is openly known before Him, that they would eventually be scourged by [transgressing the laws of] immoral relations, in the days of Ezra. Therefore, [concerning these laws,] God came to them with the decree: I am the Lord, your God! You should know Who is placing these decrees upon you-the Judge Who exacts retribution (אלֹקִים), but Who is faithful also to pay a reward ('ה)!”- [Torath Kohanim 18:138]   אני ה' אלהיכם: אני הוא שאמרתי בסיני (שמות כ ב) אנכי ה' אלהיך, וקבלתם עליכם מלכותי, מעתה קבלו גזרותי. רבי אומר גלוי וידוע לפניו שסופן לנתק בעריות בימי עזרא, לפיכך בא עליהם בגזירה אני ה' אלהיכם, דעו מי גוזר עליכם, דיין להפרע ונאמן לשלם שכר:
3. Like the practice of the land of Egypt, in which you dwelled, you shall not do, and like the practice of the land of Canaan, to which I am bringing you, you shall not do, and you shall not follow their statutes.   ג. כְּמַעֲשֵׂה אֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם אֲשֶׁר יְשַׁבְתֶּם בָּהּ לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ וּכְמַעֲשֵׂה אֶרֶץ כְּנַעַן אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי מֵבִיא אֶתְכֶם שָׁמָּה לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ וּבְחֻקֹּתֵיהֶם לֹא תֵלֵכוּ:
Like the practice of the land of Egypt […and like the practice of the land of Canaan]: [This verse] informs [us] that the deeds of the Egyptians and the Canaanites were more corrupt than those of all other nations, and moreover, that the [Egyptians residing in that] region [of Egypt] in which the Israelites had dwelt, were the most corrupt of all. — [Torath Kohanim 18:138]   כמעשה ארץ מצרים: מגיד שמעשיהם של מצריים ושל כנעניים מקולקלים מכל האומות, ואותו מקום שישבו בו ישראל מקולקל מן הכל:
and like the practice of the land of Canaan, to which I am bringing you: [This verse] informs [us] that those [Canaanite] peoples whom the Israelites conquered, were more corrupt than any other [people, even the Egyptians]. — [Torath Kohanim 18:138]   אשר אני מביא אתכם שמה: מגיד שאותן עממין שכבשו ישראל מקולקלים יותר מכולם:
and you shall not follow their statutes: What did Scripture omit [until now] that it did not state [and includes in this clause]? However, these are their social practices, things that assumed the status of law (חָקוּק) for them, for example, [certain days set aside for attendance at] theaters and stadiums. Rabbi Meir says: These [practices referred to here,] are the “ways of the Amorites,” [the superstitious practices] enumerated by our Sages. — [see Shab. 67ab; Torath Kohanim 18: 139]   ובחקתיהם לא תלכו: מה הניח הכתוב שלא אמר, אלא אלו נמוסות שלהן, דברים החקוקין להם, כגון טרטיאות ואצטדיאות. רבי מאיר אומר אלו דרכי האמורי שמנו חכמים:
4. You shall fulfill My ordinances and observe My statutes, to follow them. I am the Lord, your God.   ד. אֶת מִשְׁפָּטַי תַּעֲשׂוּ וְאֶת חֻקֹּתַי תִּשְׁמְרוּ לָלֶכֶת בָּהֶם אֲנִי יְהוָֹה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם:
You shall fulfill My ordinances: These are the laws stated in the Torah in justice, [i.e., which human intellect deems proper,] which, had they not been stated [in the Torah], would have been deemed worthy to be stated [e.g., not to steal, not to murder, etc.]. — [Torath Kohanim 18:140]   את משפטי תעשו: אלו דברים האמורים בתורה במשפט, שאלו לא נאמרו, היו כדאי לאמרן:
and observe My statutes: These are the “King’s decrees” [without apparent rationale to man], against which the evil inclination protests, “Why should we keep them?” Likewise, the nations of the world object to them. Examples are: [The prohibition of] eating pig and wearing shaatnez [a mixture of wool and linen] (see Lev. 19:19), and the purification procedure effected by purification water [the mixture including the ashes of the red cow] (see Num., Chapter 19). Therefore it says, “I am the Lord.” I have decreed [these] upon you; you are not permitted to exempt yourselves [from fulfilling them]. — Torath Kohanim 18:140]   ואת חקתי תשמורו: דברים שהם גזירת המלך, שיצר הרע משיב עליהם, למה לנו לשומרן, ואומות העולם משיבין עליהם, כגון אכילת חזיר ולבישת שעטנז וטהרת מי חטאת, לכך נאמר אני ה' גזרתי עליכם, אי אתם רשאים להפטר:
to follow them: Do not take leave from [studying] them, i.e., you shall not say, “I have learned the wisdom of Israel-now I will go and learn the wisdom of the [other] nations.” - [Torath Kohanim 18:141]   ללכת בהם: אל תפטר מתוכם, שלא תאמר למדתי חכמת ישראל אלך ואלמד חכמת האומות:
5. You shall observe My statutes and My ordinances, which a man shall do and live by them. I am the Lord.   ה. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת חֻקֹּתַי וְאֶת מִשְׁפָּטַי אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂה אֹתָם הָאָדָם וָחַי בָּהֶם אֲנִי יְהוָֹה:
You shall observe My statutes and My ordinances: [This comes to include other details of [laws pertaining to] this passage, that Scripture did not mention explicitly. — [Torath Kohanim 18:142] Another explanation: [This clause, “You shall observe My statutes and My judgments, which a man shall do,” was added,] in order to apply “observance” (שְׁמִירָה) and fulfillment (עֲשִׂיָּה) to statutes, and to apply “observance” (שְׁמִירָה) and “fulfillment” (עֲשִׂיָּה) to ordinances. For [up till now,] Scripture had mentioned only “fulfillment” regarding ordinances and “observance” regarding statutes (see previous verse). - [Torath Kohanim 18:134]   ושמרתם את חקתי וגו': לרבות שאר דקדוקי הפרשה, שלא פרט הכתוב בהם. דבר אחר ליתן שמירה ועשייה לחוקים ושמירה ועשייה למשפטים, לפי שלא נתן אלא עשייה למשפטים ושמירה לחוקים:
and live by them: in the World-To-Come. For if you say [that the verse refers to living] in this world, does he not eventually die? [Torath Kohanim 18:134]   וחי בהם: לעולם הבא, שאם תאמר בעולם הזה, והלא סופו הוא מת:
I am the Lord: faithful to pay a reward [an attribute represented by the Name ה ]. — [Torath Kohanim 18:134]   אני ה': נאמן לשלם שכר:
6. No man shall come near to any of his close relatives, to uncover [their] nakedness. I am the Lord.   ו. אִישׁ אִישׁ אֶל כָּל שְׁאֵר בְּשָׂרוֹ לֹא תִקְרְבוּ לְגַלּוֹת עֶרְוָה אֲנִי יְהוָֹה:
No man shall come near: Heb. תִקְרְבוּ לֹא. [This comes] to admonish the female as [it does] the male. Therefore, it is stated in the plural form. — [Torath Kohanim 18:136]   לא תקרבו: להזהיר הנקבה כזכר, לכך נאמר לשון רבים:
I am the Lord: faithful to pay a reward [not only for fulfilling positive commandments but also to the one who saves himself from sinning]. — [Torath Kohanim 18:145]   אני ה': נאמן לשלם שכר:
7. You shall not uncover the nakedness of your father or the nakedness of your mother; she is your mother; you shall not uncover her nakedness.   ז. עֶרְוַת אָבִיךָ וְעֶרְוַת אִמְּךָ לֹא תְגַלֵּה אִמְּךָ הִוא לֹא תְגַלֶּה עֶרְוָתָהּ:
the nakedness of your father: This [refers to] your father’s wife. [But how do we know this?] Perhaps it is only to be interpreted literally [as an admonition against relations with one’s father, in addition to the general admonition against pederasty]. [The answer is:] It says here, “The nakedness of your father,” and it says further, “has uncovered his father’s nakedness” (Lev. 20:11). Just as in the latter verse, Scripture is speaking of his father’s wife [as that verse begins with, “And a man who cohabits with his father’s wife”], here, too, [Scripture is speaking of] his father’s wife. - [Sanh. 54a]   ערות אביך: זו אשת אביך, או אינו אלא כמשמעו, נאמר כאן ערות אביך, ונאמר להלן (ויקרא כ יא) ערות אביו גלה, מה להלן אשת אביו, אף כאן אשת אביו:
or the nakedness of your mother: [It comes] to include [in the prohibition,] his mother who is not his father’s wife. — [Sanh. 54a]   וערות אמך: להביא אמו שאינה אשת אביו:
8. You shall not uncover the nakedness of your father's wife; it is your father's nakedness.   ח. עֶרְוַת אֵשֶׁת אָבִיךָ לֹא תְגַלֵּה עֶרְוַת אָבִיךָ הִוא:
the nakedness of your father’s wife: [This admonition is repeated] to include [in the prohibition, one’s father’s wife, even] after the death [of one’s father]. — [Sanh. 54a]   ערות אשת אביך: לרבות לאחר מיתה:
9. The nakedness of your sister, whether your father's daughter or your mother's daughter, whether born to one who may remain in the home or born to one who must be sent outside you shall not uncover their nakedness.   ט. עֶרְוַת אֲחוֹתְךָ בַת אָבִיךָ אוֹ בַת אִמֶּךָ מוֹלֶדֶת בַּיִת אוֹ מוֹלֶדֶת חוּץ לֹא תְגַלֶּה עֶרְוָתָן:
your father’s daughter: Included in the meaning [of the verse] is also a daughter born from a woman [the father] raped [i.e., not the father’s wife]. — [Yev. 22b]   בת אביך: אף בת אנוסה במשמע:
whether born to one who may remain in the home or to one who must remain outside: מוֹלֶדֶת בַּית אוֹ מוֹלֶדֶת חוּץ, lit. born in the house or born outside. Whether they say to your father, “[You may] keep her mother [as your wife],” or whether they say to your father, “[You must] send her mother away,” for example, a mamzereth, or a nethinah [an offspring of the Gibeonites (see Josh. 9:327)]. — [Yev. 23a]   מולדת בית או מולדת חוץ: בין שאומרים לו לאביך קיים את אמה ובין שאומרים לו לאביך הוצא את אמה, כגון ממזרת או נתינה:
10. The nakedness of your son's daughter or your daughter's daughter you shall not uncover their nakedness, for they are your own nakedness.   י. עֶרְוַת בַּת בִּנְךָ אוֹ בַת בִּתְּךָ לֹא תְגַלֶּה עֶרְוָתָן כִּי עֶרְוָתְךָ הֵנָּה:
The nakedness of your son’s daughter [or your daughter’s daughter]: Scripture is speaking of his daughter born from a woman he had raped. [The case, however,] of [his son’s] daughter and his daughter’s daughter [who stem] from his wife, we learn from (verse 17 below), “You shall not uncover the nakedness of a woman and her daughter; you shall not take [in marriage] her son’s daughter or her daughter’s daughter” about [whose nakedness] Scripture says, “You shall not uncover the nakedness of a woman and her daughter” whether this daughter stems from him or from another man. — [Yev. 22b]   ערות בת בנך וגו: בבתו מאנוסתו הכתוב מדבר, ובתו ובת בתו מאשתו אנו למדין מערות אשה ובתה לא תגלה, בין שהיא ממנו ובין שהיא מאיש אחר:
The nakedness of your son’s daughter: How much more so, then, should one’s own daughter [be prohibited]! But since a Scriptural admonition must not be derived from an inference from minor to major, [but must be explicitly mentioned], they learned it from a gezeirah shavah [an exposition linking common words within verses of this passage, which is considered as if explicitly mentioned] in Tractate Yevamoth (3a).   ערות בת בנך: קל וחומר לבתך, אלא לפי שאין מזהירין מן הדין למדוה מגזרה שוה במסכת יבמות (ג א):
11. The nakedness of the daughter of your father's wife, born to your father she is your sister: you shall not uncover her nakedness.   יא. עֶרְוַת בַּת אֵשֶׁת אָבִיךָ מוֹלֶדֶת אָבִיךָ אֲחוֹתְךָ הִוא לֹא תְגַלֶּה עֶרְוָתָהּ:
The nakedness of the daughter of your father’s wife: [This verse] teaches us that one is not liable to the punishment [of excision, if he cohabited with] his sister who stems from a handmaid or a non-Jewess. Therefore, it says, “the daughter of your father’s wife” - [i.e.,] a woman fit to enter into marriage [thus excluding a handmaid and non-Jewess, marriage with whom is not binding]. — [Yev. 23a]   ערות בת אשת אביך: לימד שאינו חייב על אחותו משפחה ונכרית לכך נאמר בת אשת אביך בראויה לקידושין:
12. You shall not uncover the nakedness of your father's sister; she is the close relative of your father.   יב. עֶרְוַת אֲחוֹת אָבִיךָ לֹא תְגַלֵּה שְׁאֵר אָבִיךָ הִוא:
13. You shall not uncover the nakedness of your mother's sister, for she is the close relative of your mother.   יג. עֶרְוַת אֲחוֹת אִמְּךָ לֹא תְגַלֵּה כִּי שְׁאֵר אִמְּךָ הִוא:
14. You shall not uncover the nakedness of your father's brother you shall not come near his wife; she is your aunt.   יד. עֶרְוַת אֲחִי אָבִיךָ לֹא תְגַלֵּה אֶל אִשְׁתּוֹ לֹא תִקְרָב דֹּדָתְךָ הִוא:
You shall not uncover the nakedness of your father’s brother: And what is “his nakedness?” “you shall not come near his wife.”   ערות אחי אביך לא תגלה: ומה היא ערותו, אל אשתו לא תקרב:
15. You shall not uncover the nakedness of your daughter in law; she is your son's wife you shall not uncover her nakedness.   טו. עֶרְוַת כַּלָּתְךָ לֹא תְגַלֵּה אֵשֶׁת בִּנְךָ הִוא לֹא תְגַלֶּה עֶרְוָתָהּ:
[she is] your son’s wife: [Scripture says:] I have stated [the law] only [in the case of a woman] with whom your son has a marital tie. [This] excludes a woman he has raped, a handmaid, or a non-Jewess [with whom the son has cohabited]. — [Torath Kohanim 20:108]   אשת בנך היא: לא אמרתי אלא בשיש לבנך אישות בה, פרט לאנוסה ושפחה ונכרית:
16. You shall not uncover the nakedness of your brother's wife: it is your brother's nakedness.   טז. עֶרְוַת אֵשֶׁת אָחִיךָ לֹא תְגַלֵּה עֶרְוַת אָחִיךָ הִוא:
17. You shall not uncover the nakedness of a woman and her daughter; you shall not take [in marriage] her son's daughter or her daughter's daughter, to uncover her nakedness they are close relatives, it is evil counsel.   יז. עֶרְוַת אִשָּׁה וּבִתָּהּ לֹא תְגַלֵּה אֶת בַּת בְּנָהּ וְאֶת בַּת בִּתָּהּ לֹא תִקַּח לְגַלּוֹת עֶרְוָתָהּ שַׁאֲרָה הֵנָּה זִמָּה הִוא:
You shall not uncover the nakedness of a woman and her daughter: Scripture prohibits [relations with the second woman] only through a marital tie with the first one [whether the woman or her daughter]. Hence, Scripture says, לֹא תִקַּח, denoting “taking (קִיחָה) in marriage.” Similarly, when it comes to stating the punishment [of those who transgress this matter, Scripture says], “[And a man] who takes (יִקַּח) a woman and her mother [in marriage…they shall burn him and them in fire]” (Lev. 20:14), [also using] the expression of קִיחָה, “taking [in marriage].” But if he raped a woman, he is permitted to marry her daughter. — [Yev. 97a]   ערות אשה ובתה: לא אסר הכתוב אלא ע"י נשואי הראשונה, לכך נאמר לא תקח, לשון קיחה, וכן לענין העונש אשר יקח את אשה ואת אמה (ויקרא כ יד), לשון קיחה, אבל אנס אשה מותר לישא בתה:
they are close relatives: Heb. שַׁאֲרָה הֵנָּה, they are related to one another.   שארה הנה: קרובות (הן) זו לזו:
evil counsel: Heb. זִמָּה, counsel [like the word זָמַם, plotted]; as the Targum renders: עֲצַת חֶטְאִין, counsel of sins, which your [evil] inclination has counseled you to sin.   זמה: עצה כתרגומו עצת חטאין, שיצרך יועצך לחטוא:
18. And you shall not take a woman with her sister [in marriage] as rivals, to uncover the nakedness of one upon the other, in her lifetime.   יח. וְאִשָּׁה אֶל אֲחֹתָהּ לֹא תִקָּח לִצְרֹר לְגַלּוֹת עֶרְוָתָהּ עָלֶיהָ בְּחַיֶּיהָ:
a woman with her sister: both at the same time.   אל אחתה: שתיהן כאחת:
as rivals: Heb. לִצְרֹר, an expression similar to צָרָה, rival, to make one a rival to the other.   לצרר: לשון צרה לעשות את זו צרה לזו:
in her lifetime: This teaches you that if he divorced her, he may not marry her sister while she is still alive. — [Yev.. 8b]   בחייה: למדך שאם גרשה לא ישא את אחותה כל זמן שהיא בחיים:
19. And to a woman during the uncleanness of her separation, you shall not come near to uncover her nakedness.   יט. וְאֶל אִשָּׁה בְּנִדַּת טֻמְאָתָהּ לֹא תִקְרַב לְגַלּוֹת עֶרְוָתָהּ:
20. You shall not lie carnally with your neighbor's wife, to become defiled by her.   כ. וְאֶל אֵשֶׁת עֲמִיתְךָ לֹא תִתֵּן שְׁכָבְתְּךָ לְזָרַע לְטָמְאָה בָהּ:
21. And you shall not give any of your offspring to pass through for Molech. And you shall not profane the Name of your God. I am the Lord.   כא. וּמִזַּרְעֲךָ לֹא תִתֵּן לְהַעֲבִיר לַמֹּלֶךְ וְלֹא תְחַלֵּל אֶת שֵׁם אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲנִי יְהוָֹה:
for Molech: A form of idolatry, named Molech, and this was the manner of its worship, that one would hand over one’s child to the pagan priests, who would make two huge fires. The child was then passed through on foot between these two fires. — [Sanh. 64b, see Rashi there.]   למלך: עבודה זרה היא ששמה מולך, וזו היא עבודתה, שמוסר בנו לכומרים ועושין שתי מדורות גדולות ומעבירין את הבן ברגליו בין שתי מדורות האש:
And you shall not give: This refers to the handing him over to the pagan priests.   לא תתן: זו היא מסירתו לכומרים:
to pass through for Molech: This refers to passing [the child] between the fire[s].   להעביר למלך: זו (היא) העברת האש:

4th Portion

Chapter 18

22. You shall not lie down with a male, as with a woman: this is an abomination.   כב. וְאֶת זָכָר לֹא תִשְׁכַּב מִשְׁכְּבֵי אִשָּׁה תּוֹעֵבָה הִוא:
23. And with no animal shall you cohabit, to become defiled by it. And a woman shall not stand in front of an animal to cohabit with it; this is depravity.   כג. וּבְכָל בְּהֵמָה לֹא תִתֵּן שְׁכָבְתְּךָ לְטָמְאָה בָהּ וְאִשָּׁה לֹא תַעֲמֹד לִפְנֵי בְהֵמָה לְרִבְעָהּ תֶּבֶל הוּא:
this is depravity: Heb. תֶּבֶל, an expression denoting prostitution, sexual immorality, and adultery. Similarly, “and My wrath, because of their depravity (תַּבְלִיתָם).” (Isa. 10:25) Another explanation of תֶּבֶל הוּא : An expression which denotes mingling (בּלל) and mixing up; [here, it refers to the perverted mingling of] human seed and animal seed.   תבל הוא: לשון קדש וערוה וניאוף, וכן ואפי על תבליתם (ישעיה י כה). דבר אחר תבל הוא לשון בלילה וערבוב, זרע אדם וזרע בהמה:
24. You shall not defile yourselves by any of these things, for the nations, whom I am sending away from before you, have defiled themselves with all these things.   כד. אַל תִּטַּמְּאוּ בְּכָל אֵלֶּה כִּי בְכָל אֵלֶּה נִטְמְאוּ הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי מְשַׁלֵּחַ מִפְּנֵיכֶם:
25. And the land became defiled, and I visited its sin upon it, and the land vomited out its inhabitants.   כה. וַתִּטְמָא הָאָרֶץ וָאֶפְקֹד עֲו‍ֹנָהּ עָלֶיהָ וַתָּקִא הָאָרֶץ אֶת ישְׁבֶיהָ:
26. But as for you, you shall observe My statutes and My ordinances, and you shall not do like any of these abominations neither the native, nor the stranger who sojourns among you.   כו. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אַתֶּם אֶת חֻקֹּתַי וְאֶת מִשְׁפָּטַי וְלֹא תַעֲשׂוּ מִכֹּל הַתּוֹעֵבֹת הָאֵלֶּה הָאֶזְרָח וְהַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּתוֹכְכֶם:
27. For the people of the land who preceded you, did all of these abominations, and the land became defiled.   כז. כִּי אֶת כָּל הַתּוֹעֵבֹת הָאֵל עָשׂוּ אַנְשֵׁי הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵיכֶם וַתִּטְמָא הָאָרֶץ:
28. And let the land not vomit you out for having defiled it, as it vomited out the nation that preceded you.   כח. וְלֹא תָקִיא הָאָרֶץ אֶתְכֶם בְּטַמַּאֲכֶם אֹתָהּ כַּאֲשֶׁר קָאָה אֶת הַגּוֹי אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵיכֶם:
And let the land not vomit you out: This can be compared to a prince who was fed obnoxious food, which could not stay in his intestines; so he vomited it out. Likewise, the Land of Israel cannot retain transgressors [and thus, it vomits them out]. — [Torath Kohanim 20:123] The Targum rendersוְלֹאתָקִיא, as: וְלֹא תְרוֹקֵן as:, denoting “emptying out” (רִקּוּן), i.e., the Land empties itself of the transgressors.   ולא תקיא הארץ אתכם: משל לבן מלך שהאכילוהו דבר מאוס, שאין עומד במעיו אלא מקיאו, כך ארץ ישראל אינה מקיימת עוברי עבירה. ותרגומו ולא תרוקין, לשון ריקון, מריקה עצמה מהם:
29. For anyone who commits any of these abominations, the persons doing so shall be cut off from the midst of their people.   כט. כִּי כָּל אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂה מִכֹּל הַתּוֹעֵבֹת הָאֵלֶּה וְנִכְרְתוּ הַנְּפָשׁוֹת הָעֹשׂת מִקֶּרֶב עַמָּם:
the people doing so: הַנְּפָשׁוֹת הָעֹשׂת. [Since the verse begins, “anyone who does,” it should have used the singular form here. By using the plural, “the people doing so,”] it means both the male and female [involved in the act]. — [B.K. 32a]   הנפשות העשת: הזכר והנקבה במשמע:
30. And you shall observe My charge, not to commit any of the abominable practices that were done before you, and you shall not become defiled by them. I am the Lord your God.   ל. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת מִשְׁמַרְתִּי לְבִלְתִּי עֲשׂוֹת מֵחֻקּוֹת הַתּוֹעֵבֹת אֲשֶׁר נַעֲשׂוּ לִפְנֵיכֶם וְלֹא תִטַּמְּאוּ בָּהֶם אֲנִי יְהוָֹה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם:
And you shall observe My charge: This [clause come] to admonish the courts regarding the matter. — [Torath Kohanim 18:151]   ושמרתם את משמרתי: להזהיר בית דין על כך:
and you shall not become defiled by them. I am the Lord, your God: But if you do become defiled,“ [says God,] ”I am not your God, and you will be cut off from Me. What benefit will I have from you? Moreover, you will deserve annihilation.“ Therefore, it says, ”I am the Lord, your God." - [Torath Kohanim 18:151]   ולא תטמאו בהם אני ה' אלהיכם: הא אם תטמאו, איני אלהיכם, ואתם נפסלים מאחרי, ומה הנאה יש לי בכם, ואתם מתחייבים כלייה, לכך נאמר אני ה' אלהיכם:

Chapter 19

1. And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying,   א. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָֹה אֶל משֶׁה לֵּאמֹר:
2. Speak to the entire congregation of the children of Israel, and say to them, You shall be holy, for I, the Lord, your God, am holy.   ב. דַּבֵּר אֶל כָּל עֲדַת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם קְדשִׁים תִּהְיוּ כִּי קָדוֹשׁ אֲנִי יְהוָֹה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם:
Speak to the entire congregation of the children of Israel: [This] teaches us that this passage was stated in the assembly [of the entire congregation of Israel] because most of the fundamental teachings of the Torah are dependent on it [i.e., they are encapsulated in this passage]. — [Torath Kohanim 19:1; Vayikra Rabbah 24:5]   דבר אל כל עדת בני ישראל: מלמד שנאמרה פרשה זו בהקהל, מפני שרוב גופי תורה תלויין בה:
You shall be holy: Separate yourselves from sexual immorality and from sin, for wherever one finds a barrier against sexual immorality, one finds holiness, [for example:], “[They (the kohanim) shall not take in marriage] a woman who is a prostitute or one who was profaned…I, the Lord, Who sanctifies you [am holy]” (Lev. 21:7-8); and, “he shall not profane his offspring…I am the Lord, Who sanctifies him” (Lev. 21:15); and, “They shall be holy…[They shall not take in marriage] a woman who is a prostitute or one who was profaned” (Lev. 21:6-7). - [Vayikra Rabbah 24:4-6; and see also Sefer Hazikkaron]   קדשים תהיו: הוו פרושים מן העריות ומן העבירה, שכל מקום שאתה מוצא גדר ערוה אתה מוצא קדושה, אשה זונה וחללה וגו' אני ה' מקדשכם, (ויקרא כא ז - ח) ולא יחלל זרעו אני ה' מקדשו (ויקרא כא טו) קדושים יהיו אשה זונה וחללה וגו' (ויקרא כא ו - ז):
3. Every man shall fear his mother and his father, and you shall observe My Sabbaths. I am the Lord, your God.   ג. אִישׁ אִמּוֹ וְאָבִיו תִּירָאוּ וְאֶת שַׁבְּתֹתַי תִּשְׁמֹרוּ אֲנִי יְהוָֹה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם:
Every man shall fear his mother and father: Every one of you shall fear his father and his mother. This is its simple meaning. Its Midrashic explanation, however, [is as follows]. Since the verse literally means, “Every man shall fear…,”] we know only [that this law applies to] a man; how do we know [that it applies to] a woman [as well]? When Scripture says, תִּירָאוּ [you shall fear, using the plural form], two are included [in the verse, namely, men and women]. But if this is so, why does the verse say, “Every man…?” Because a man has the ability to fulfill this [commandment without restriction, since he is independent and thus obliged to fear his parents], whereas a woman is [sometimes] under the authority of others [namely her husband. — [Kid. 30b; Torath Kohanim 19:3]   איש אמו ואביו תיראו: כל אחד מכם תיראו אביו ואמו, זהו פשוטו. ומדרשו אין לי אלא איש, אשה מנין, כשהוא אומר תיראו, הרי כאן שנים אם כן למה נאמר איש, שהאיש סיפק בידו לעשות, אבל אשה רשות אחרים עליה:
[Every man] shall fear his mother and his father: Here, Scripture mentions the mother before the father, because He is privy to the fact that a child fears his father more than his mother [and therefore, by mentioning the mother first, Scripture emphasizes the duty of fearing her also. However,] in the case of honoring [one’s parents], Scripture mentions the father before the mother, because He is privy to the fact that a child honors his mother more than his father, since she wins his favor by [speaking kind and loving] words. [Therefore, by mentioning the father first in the context of honor, Scripture emphasizes the duty of honoring him also]. — [Kid. 31a]   אמו ואביו תיראו: כאן הקדים אם לאב, לפי שגלוי לפניו שהבן ירא את אביו יותר מאמו, ובכבוד הקדים אב לאם, לפי שגלוי לפניו שהבן מכבד את אמו יותר מאביו, מפני שמשדלתו בדברים:
and you shall observe My Sabbaths: Scripture juxtaposes [the commandment of] observing the Sabbath with [that] of fearing one’s father [and mother], in order to state [the following principle]: “Although I have admonished you regarding the fear of your father, nevertheless, if he tells you to desecrate the Sabbath, do not listen to him.” And this is also the case with all the [other] commandments. — [B.M. 32a] [This is indicated by:]   ואת שבתתי תשמרו: סמך שמירת שבת למורא אב, לומר אף על פי שהזהרתיך על מורא אב, אם יאמר לך חלל את השבת אל תשמע לו, וכן בשאר כל המצות:
I am the Lord, your God: [where “your” is in the plural form, meaning to say,] both you and your father are obligated to honor Me! Therefore, do not listen to him to negate My commands. — [B.M. 32a] Now, what constitutes “fear”? One must not sit in his place, speak in his stead [when it is his father’s turn to speak] or contradict him. And what constitutes “honor”? One must give [the father and mother] food and drink, clothe them and put on their shoes, and accompany them when they enter or leave. — [Torath Kohanim 19:3; Kid. 31b]   אני ה' אלהיכם: אתה ואביך חייבים בכבודי, לפיכך לא תשמע לו לבטל את דברי. איזהו מורא, לא ישב במקומו ולא ידבר במקומו ולא יסתור את דבריו. ואיזהו כבוד, מאכיל ומשקה, מלביש ומנעיל, מכניס ומוציא:
4. You shall not turn to the worthless idols, nor shall you make molten deities for yourselves. I am the Lord, your God.   ד. אַל תִּפְנוּ אֶל הָאֱלִילִם וֵאלֹהֵי מַסֵּכָה לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ לָכֶם אֲנִי יְהוָֹה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם:
You shall not turn to the worthless idols: to serve them. [The term] הָאֶלִילִם stems from אַל, naught , meaning that [these idols] are considered as naught.   אל תפנו אל האלילם: לעבדם. אלילים לשון אל, כלא הוא חשוב:
molten deities: At first, they are just worthless idols. But if you turn after them, eventually, you will make them into deities. — [Torath Kohanim 19:8]   ואלהי מסכה: תחילתן אלילים הם, ואם אתה פונה אחריהם, סופך לעשותן אלהות:
nor shall you make [molten deities] for yourselves: [This verse is to be understood as two separate admonitions, the first:] “Nor shall you make” [meaning] for other people; [the second:] “for yourselves” [meaning] nor shall others make them for you. Now, if you say that [this verse is one admonition, namely,] that you shall not make [molten deities] for yourselves, but others may make [them] for you, [this cannot be so, since] it has already been stated, “You shall not have [any other deities]” (Exod. 20:3) neither your own nor those of others. — [Torath Kohanim 19:9]   לא תעשו לכם: לא תעשו לאחרים ולא אחרים לכם. ואם תאמר לא תעשו לעצמכם אבל אחרים עושין לכם, הרי כבר נאמר (שמות כ ג) לא יהיה לך, לא שלך ולא של אחרים:
5. When you slaughter a peace offering to the Lord, you shall slaughter it for your acceptance.   ה. וְכִי תִזְבְּחוּ זֶבַח שְׁלָמִים לַיהוָֹה לִרְצֹנְכֶם תִּזְבָּחֻהוּ:
When you slaughter…: This passage is stated only to teach us that the offerings must be slaughtered with the intent that they be eaten within this time, for if [you think that this passage comes to] fix a time limit for eating them, [this cannot be so, for] it has already been stated, “And if his sacrifice is a vow or a voluntary donation [it may be eaten]….” (Lev. 7:16). - [Torath Kohanim 19:10]   וכי תזבחו וגו': לא נאמרה פרשה זו אלא ללמד שלא תהא זביחתן אלא על מנת להאכל בתוך הזמן הזה, שאם לקבוע להם זמן אכילה, הרי כבר נאמר (ויקרא ז טז) ואם נדר או נדבה זבח קרבנו וגו':
you shall slaughter it for your acceptance: The very outset of your slaughtering [the offering] must be with the intent that [it is for the purpose of causing] contentment [to God, as it were,] for your acceptance [by Him]. For if you think an invalidating thought regarding it, [says God,] the sacrifice will not gain your acceptance before Me.   לרצנכם תזבחהו: תחלת זביחתו תהא על מנת נחת רוח שיהא לכם לרצון, שאם תחשבו עליו מחשבת פסול לא ירצה עליכם לפני:
for your acceptance: Heb., apaisement in French, appeasement. [Note that the spelling in Mikraoth Gedoloth matches the Italian appaciamento, more closely than the French. In Old French, it is spelled apayement according to Greenberg, or apaiemant according to Gukovitzki, and this form appears in many editions of Rashi.] This is according to its simple meaning. Our Rabbis, however, learned from here, that if someone was involved in another activity (מִתְעסֵּק) and accidentally slaughtered [e.g., if he threw a knife, and in its path it slaughtered an animal] designated for a holy sacrifice, it is invalid, because [in the context of sacrifices] one must intend to slaughter. — [Chul. 13a]   לרצנכם: אפיימנ"ט [פיוס]. זהו לפי פשוטו. ורבותינו למדו (חולין יג א), מכאן למתעסק בקדשים שפסול, שצריך שיתכוין לשחוט:
6. It may be eaten on the day you slaughter it and on the morrow, but anything left over until the third day, shall be burned in fire.   ו. בְּיוֹם זִבְחֲכֶם יֵאָכֵל וּמִמָּחֳרָת וְהַנּוֹתָר עַד יוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי בָּאֵשׁ יִשָּׂרֵף:
It may be eaten on the day you slaughter it: When you slaughter it, you must slaughter it with the intent that you will eat it within this time limit, which I have already fixed for you [regarding that particular sacrifice]."   ביום זבחכם יאכל: כשתזבחוהו, תשחטוהו על מנת לאכלו בזמן שקבעתי לכם כבר:
7. And if it would be eaten on the third day, it is abominable; it shall not be accepted.   ז. וְאִם הֵאָכֹל יֵאָכֵל בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי פִּגּוּל הוּא לֹא יֵרָצֶה:
And if it would be eaten…: If this [verse] does not refer to [an intention to eat the sacrifice] outside its time limit, since this has already been stated, “And if, [on the third day,] any of the flesh of his sacrifice would be eaten,” (Lev. 7:18) [explained there by Rashi to refer to someone who, while slaughtering the sacrifice, intends, to eat it outside its time limit], it must be utilized to refer to [someone who, while slaughtering the sacrifice, intends to eat it] outside its permitted location. — [Torath Kohanim 19:10] Now, one might think that if someone eats from it, he is liable to the punishment of excision [just like a sacrifice slaughtered with the intention to eat it outside its time limit]. Scripture, therefore, states, “And the person who eats from it, shall bear his sin” (Lev. 7:18)-“from it,” but not from anything like it. This excludes [from the punishment of excision, a sacrifice] slaughtered with the intention [of eating it] outside its [permitted] location. — [Zev. 29a]   ואם האכל יאכל וגו': אם אינו ענין לחוץ לזמנו, שהרי כבר נאמר (ויקרא ז יח) ואם האכל יאכל מבשר זבח שלמיו וגו', תנהו ענין לחוץ למקומו. יכול יהיו חייבין כרת על אכילתו, תלמוד לומר (שם) והנפש האוכלת ממנו עונה תשא, ממנו ולא מחבירו, יצא הנשחט במחשבת חוץ למקומו:
it is abominable: Heb. פִּגּוּל, abominable, like, “and broth of abominable things (פִּגּוּלִים) is in their vessels” (Isa. 65:4).   פגול: מתועב, כמו (ישעיה סה ד) ומרק פגולים כליהם:
8. And whoever eats it shall bear his sin, because he has profaned what is holy to the Lord, and that person shall be cut off from his people.   ח. וְאֹכְלָיו עֲו‍ֹנוֹ יִשָּׂא כִּי אֶת קֹדֶשׁ יְהוָֹה חִלֵּל וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מֵעַמֶּיהָ:
And whoever eats it, shall bear his sin: Scripture is referring to a sacrifice actually left over (נוֹתָר) [past its time limit]. But one is not punished by excision in the case of a sacrifice slaughtered [with the intention of eating it] outside its permitted location, for Scripture has already excluded this case [from the punishment of excision (see Rashi on verse 7 above)]. Rather, this verse is referring to actual נוֹתָר. [And how do we know this?] In Tractate Kereithoth (5a) we learn this through a gezeirah shavah [a Rabbinical tradition that links the word קֹדֶשׁ common to our verse and to Exod. 29:34, the latter dealing with actual נוֹתָר].   ואכליו עונו ישא: בנותר גמור הכתוב מדבר ואינו ענוש כרת על הנשחט חוץ למקומו שכבר מיעטו הכתוב. וזהו בנותר גמור מדבר. ובמסכת כריתות (ה א) למדוהו מגזירה שוה:
9. When you reap the harvest of your land, you shall not fully reap the corner of your field, nor shall you gather the gleanings of your harvest.   ט. וּבְקֻצְרְכֶם אֶת קְצִיר אַרְצְכֶם לֹא תְכַלֶּה פְּאַת שָׂדְךָ לִקְצֹר וְלֶקֶט קְצִירְךָ לֹא תְלַקֵּט:
You shall not fully reap the corner of your field: [meaning] that one should leave the corner at the edge of his field [unharvested]. — [Torath Kohanim 19:15]   לא תכלה פאת שדך: שיניח פאה בסוף שדהו:
gleanings of your harvest: Heb. לֶקֶט. [This refers to individual] stalks that fall down at the time of harvest. [And how many stalks constitute לֶקֶט ?] One or two; three, however, do not constitute לֶקֶט [and the owner may gather them for himself]. — [Peah 6:5]   ולקט קצירך: שבלים הנושרים בשעת קצירה אחת או שתים, אבל שלש אינן לקט:
10. And you shall not glean your vineyard, nor shall you collect the [fallen] individual grapes of your vineyard; you shall leave them for the poor and the stranger. I am the Lord, your God.   י. וְכַרְמְךָ לֹא תְעוֹלֵל וּפֶרֶט כַּרְמְךָ לֹא תְלַקֵּט לֶעָנִי וְלַגֵּר תַּעֲזֹב אֹתָם אֲנִי יְהוָֹה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם:
And you shall not glean: Heb. לֹא תְעוֹלֵל, you shall not take the small clusters (עוֹלֵלוֹת) therein, and these are identifiable. “Which clusters עוֹלֵלוֹת ? Any one which has neither a כָּתֵף [a shoulder] or a נָטֵף [drippings].” [Peah 7:4. See Rashi Deut. 24:21 for explanation.]   לא תעולל: לא תטול עוללות שבה והן ניכרות. איזהו עוללות כל שאין לה לא כתף ולא נטף:
the [fallen] individual grapes: Heb. וּפֶרֶט. Individual grapes which fall off at the time of the vintage.   ופרט כרמך: גרגרי ענבים הנושרים בשעת בצירה:
I am the Lord, your God: A Judge Who exacts punishment; and [for this sin] I will exact from you nothing less than [your] souls, as it is said, “Do not rob a poor man…for the Lord will plead their cause, and rob those who rob them, of life” (Prov. 22: 2223). - [Torath Kohanim 19:22]   אני ה' אלהיכם: דיין להפרע ואיני גובה מכם אלא נפשות, שנאמר (משלי כב - כג) אל תגזל דל וגו' כי ה' יריב ריבם וגו':
11. You shall not steal. You shall not deny falsely. You shall not lie, one man to his fellow.   יא. לֹא תִּגְנֹבוּ וְלֹא תְכַחֲשׁוּ וְלֹא תְשַׁקְּרוּ אִישׁ בַּעֲמִיתוֹ:
You shall not steal: Heb. לֹא תִּגְנֹבוּ. This is an admonition against someone stealing money, while “You shall not steal (לֹא תִגְנֹב) ” in the Ten Commandments is an admonition against stealing people [i.e., kidnapping]. [This is] a matter derived from its context [namely, “You shall not murder,” “ You shall not commit adultery,” each of which is] a capital crime, [which is the case of kidnapping but not of stealing money]. — [see Rashi on Exod. 20:13; Sanh. 86a]   לא תגנבו: אזהרה לגונב ממון, אבל לא תגנוב (שמות כ יג) שבעשרת הדברות, אזהרה לגונב נפשות, דבר הלמד מענינו, דבר שחייבין עליו מיתת בית דין:
You shall not deny falsely: Since Scripture says, “and he denies it” (Lev. 5:22), he must pay the principal and [an additional] fifth [of its value], we know the punishment [involved]. But where do we find the admonition [against denying a rightful claim]? Therefore, Scripture says, “You shall not deny falsely.”   ולא תכחשו: לפי שנאמר (ויקרא ה כב) וכחש בה, משלם קרן וחומש. למדנו עונש, אזהרה מנין, תלמוד לומר ולא תכחשו:
You shall not lie: Since Scripture says “and he…swears falsely” (Lev. 5:22), he must pay back the principal and [an additional] fifth [of its value], we know the punishment [involved]. [But] where do we find the admonition [against swearing falsely]? Therefore, Scripture says, “You shall not lie.”   ולא תשקרו: לפי שנאמר (שם) ונשבע על שקר, ישלם קרן וחומש. למדנו עונש, אזהרה מנין, תלמוד לומר ולא תשקרו:
You shall not steal. You shall not deny falsely. You shall not lie,… You shall not swear [falsely]: If you steal, you will eventually come to deny falsely, and consequently, you will come to lie and then swear falsely. — [Torath Kohanim 19:26]   לא תגנבו ולא תכחשו ולא תשקרו ולא תשבעו: אם גנבת, סופך לכחש, סופך לשקר, סופך להשבע לשקר:
12. You shall not swear falsely by My Name, thereby profaning the Name of your God. I am the Lord.   יב. וְלֹא תִשָּׁבְעוּ בִשְׁמִי לַשָּׁקֶר וְחִלַּלְתָּ אֶת שֵׁם אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲנִי יְהוָֹה:
You shall not swear falsely by My Name: Why is this stated? Since Scripture says, “You shall not take the Name of the Lord (יהוה), your God in vain” (Exod. 20:7), one might think that a person is liable only regarding the special Name [of God יהוה]. How do we know that included [also in this prohibition] are the כִּנּוּיִין [i.e., all the ancillary Names that represent various attributes of God, thus adopting the status of a “Name of God”]? Because Scripture says here, “You shall not swear falsely by My Name”- [meaning,] any Name that I have. — [Torath Kohanim 19:27]   ולא תשבעו בשמי: למה נאמר, לפי שנאמר (שמות כ ז) לא תשא את שם ה' אלהיך לשוא, יכול לא יהא חייב אלא על שם המיוחד, מנין לרבות כל הכנויין, תלמוד לומר ולא תשבעו בשמי לשקר, כל שם שיש לי:
13. You shall not oppress your fellow. You shall not rob. The hired worker's wage shall not remain with you overnight until morning.   יג. לֹא תַעֲשֹׁק אֶת רֵעֲךָ וְלֹא תִגְזֹל לֹא תָלִין פְּעֻלַּת שָׂכִיר אִתְּךָ עַד בֹּקֶר:
You shall not oppress: Heb. לֹא תַעֲשֹׁק. This refers to one who withholds a hired worker’s wages. — [Torath Kohanim 19:29]   לא תעשק: זה הכובש שכר שכיר:
shall not remain… overnight: Heb. לֹא תָלִין. This [verb] is feminine in gender, referring to פְּעֻלַּת, the wages. [Although the word תָלִין, could be understood as, “You shall not keep overnight,” i.e., a command in the second person masculine, since it always appears as an intransitive verb, Rashi prefers to interpret it as the third person feminine, referring to פְּעֻלַּת.]   לא תלין: לשון נקבה מוסב על הפעולה:
until morning: The verse is speaking about a worker hired for a day, whose departure [from his work] is at sunset. Therefore, the time for him to collect his wages is the entire night [and the employer has till dawn to pay him]. But elsewhere, Scripture says, “[You shall give him his wage on his day and not let the sun set over it,” (Deut. 24:15) [which seems to contradict our verse. However, that verse] is speaking about a worker hired for the night, the completion of whose work is at the break of dawn. Therefore, the time for him to collect his wages is the entire day because the Torah gave the employer time, namely, an עוֹנָה [a twelve-hour period] to seek money [to pay his workers]. — [B.M. 110b]   עד בקר: בשכיר יום הכתוב מדבר, שיציאתו מששקעה החמה, לפיכך זמן גבוי שכרו כל הלילה. ובמקום אחר הוא אומר (דברים כד טו) ולא תבוא עליו השמש, מדבר בשכיר לילה, שהשלמת פעולתו משיעלה עמוד השחר, לפיכך זמן גבוי שכרו כל היום, לפי שנתנה תורה זמן לבעל הבית עונה לבקש מעות:
14. You shall not curse a deaf person. You shall not place a stumbling block before a blind person, and you shall fear your God. I am the Lord.   יד. לֹא תְקַלֵּל חֵרֵשׁ וְלִפְנֵי עִוֵּר לֹא תִתֵּן מִכְשֹׁל וְיָרֵאתָ מֵאֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲנִי יְהוָֹה:
You shall not curse a deaf person: [From this verse] I know only that [one may not curse] a deaf person. But from where do I know that this [prohibition] includes [cursing] any person [even if he is not deaf]? Therefore, Scripture says, “You shall not curse…among your people.” But if this is so [that this law is not exclusive to deaf people], why does it say here, “a deaf person?” (Exod. 22:27). [The answer is that] just as a deaf person is special insofar as he is alive, likewise, [one is prohibited from cursing] anyone who is alive. This excludes [cursing] a dead person, for he is not alive. — [Torath Kohanim 19:35]   לא תקלל חרש: אין לי אלא חרש, מנין לרבות כל אדם, תלמוד לומר (שמות כב כז) בעמך לא תאר, אם כן למה נאמר חרש, מה חרש מיוחד שהוא בחיים אף כל שהוא בחיים, יצא המת שאינו בחיים:
You shall not place a stumbling block before a blind person: Before a person who is “blind” regarding a matter, you shall not give advice that is improper for him. [For instance,] do not say to someone,“ Sell your field and buy a donkey [with the proceeds], ”while [in truth,] you plan to cheat him since you yourself will take it from him [by lending him money and taking the donkey as collateral. He will not be able to take the field because a previous creditor has a lien on it.] - [Torath Kohanim 19:34]   ולפני עור לא תתן מכשל: לפני הסומא בדבר לא תתן עצה שאינה הוגנת לו, אל תאמר מכור שדך וקח לך חמור, ואתה עוקף עליו ונוטלה הימנו:
and you shall fear your God: [Why is this mentioned here?] Because this matter [of misadvising someone] is not discernible by people, whether this person had good or evil intentions, and he can avoid [being recriminated by his victim afterwards] by saying, “I meant well!” Therefore, concerning this, it says, “and you shall fear your God,” Who knows your thoughts! Likewise, concerning anything known to the one who does it, but to which no one else is privy, Scripture says, “and you shall fear your God.” - [Torath Kohanim 19:34]   ויראת מאלהיך: לפי שהדבר הזה אינו מסור לבריות לידע אם דעתו של זה לטובה או לרעה, ויכול להשמט ולומר לטובה נתכוונתי, לפיכך נאמר בו ויראת מאלהיך המכיר מחשבותיך. וכן כל דבר המסור ללבו של אדם העושהו ואין שאר הבריות מכירות בו, נאמר בו ויראת מאלהיך:

5th Portion

Chapter 19

15. You shall commit no injustice in judgment; you shall not favor a poor person or respect a great man; you shall judge your fellow with righteousness.   טו. לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ עָוֶל בַּמִּשְׁפָּט לֹא תִשָּׂא פְנֵי דָל וְלֹא תֶהְדַּר פְּנֵי גָדוֹל בְּצֶדֶק תִּשְׁפֹּט עֲמִיתֶךָ:
You shall commit no injustice in judgment: This verse teaches us that a judge who corrupts the law is called unjust, hated and disgusting, fit to be destroyed, and an abomination. For an unjust person is called an abomination, as the verse says, “For whoever does these things, whoever perpetrates such injustice, is an abomination to the Lord…” (Deut. 25: 16); and an abomination, is called a חֵרֶם, [something doomed to destruction], and a disgusting thing, as the verse says (Deut. 7:26), “Nor should you bring an abomination into your house, lest you be destroyed (חֵרֶם) like it, but you shall utterly detest it (שַׁקֵּץ תְּשַׁקְּצֶנּוּ) ” [and an abomination is called hated, as it is said, “for every abomination to the Lord which He hates”] (Deut. 12:31).   לא תעשו עול במשפט: מלמד שהדיין המקלקל את הדין קרוי עול, שנאוי ומשוקץ, חרם ותועבה. שהעול קרוי תועבה, שנאמר (דברים כה טז) כי תועבת ה' וגו' כל עושה עול, והתועבה קרויה שקץ וחרם, שנאמר (שם ז כו) ולא תביא תועבה אל ביתך והיית חרם כמוהו שקץ תשקצנו וגו':
You shall not favor a poor person: [This means] that you shall not say, “This man is poor, and the rich man is obligated to provide him with sustenance; therefore, I will acquit him in judgment, and he will thus be sustained respectably.”- [Torath Kohanim 19:37]   לא תשא פני דל: שלא תאמר עני הוא זה והעשיר חייב לפרנסו, אזכנו בדין, ונמצא מתפרנס בנקיות:
or show respect to the great: [This means] that you shall not say, “This man is rich, the son of prominent people; how can I embarrass him and behold his shame? That would surely be a punishable act!” Therefore, Scripture says here, “or respect a great man.” - [Torath Kohanim 19:38]   ולא תהדר פני גדול: שלא תאמר עשיר הוא זה בן גדולים הוא זה, היאך אביישנו ואראה בבושתו, עונש יש בדבר, לכך נאמר ולא תהדר פני גדול:
Judge your fellow with righteousness: [This is to be understood] according to its apparent meaning. Another explanation is: Judge your fellow favorably [i.e., give him the benefit of the doubt].   בצדק תשפט עמיתך: כמשמעו. דבר אחר הוי דן את חברך לכף זכות:
16. You shall not go around as a gossipmonger amidst your people. You shall not stand by [the shedding of] your fellow's blood. I am the Lord.   טז. לֹא תֵלֵךְ רָכִיל בְּעַמֶּיךָ לֹא תַעֲמֹד עַל דַּם רֵעֶךָ אֲנִי יְהוָֹה:
You shall not go around as a gossipmonger: Heb. לֹא תֵלֵךְ רָכִיל. I say that, since all those who instigate quarrels and speak evil talk go (הוֹלְכִים) into their friends’ houses in order to spy out (לְרַגֵּל) what evil they can see there, or what evil they can hear, to tell in the market-place, they are called הוֹלְכֵי רָכִיל, [which is the same as] הוֹלְכֵי רְגִילָה, - “those who go about spying” ; espiement in Old French, spying. A proof for my words is that we do not find [anywhere in Scripture] where the term רְכִילוּת is used without expressing it in terms of הֲלִיכָה, “going”; [for instance here,] לֹא תֵלֵךְ רָכִיל, “You shall not go around as a gossipmonger,” and, “going tale bearing (הוֹלְכֵי רָכִיל) (Jer. 6:28); [like] copper and iron.” With any other expression for evil talk, however, Scripture does not mention the term הֲלִיכָה, “going”; [for instance,], “He who slanders his fellow in secret” (Ps. 101: 5), and, “you deceitful tongue” (Ps. 120:3), and, “the tongue that speaks great things” (Ps. 12:4). Therefore, I say that the expression רָכִיל is an expression of “going around and spying מְרַגֵּל,” whereby [the letter] כ [of the word רָכִיל] is interchanged with [the letter] ג \'82 [so that the word רָכִיל is equivalent to רָגִיל]. For all letters which stem from the same source are interchangeable with one another [i.e., letters by the same speech organs, namely, the lips, tongue, teeth, palate, or throat]. [For example], [the letter] ב [is interchangeable] with פ or ו [as they are all labials; the letter] ג \'82 [is interchangeable] with כ as is [the letter] ק [since they are all palatals; the letter] נ [is interchangeable] with ל [because they are both linguals, and [the letters] ר and ז [are interchangeable] with צ [as they are all dentals]. Similarly, [the following verses illustrate how רָגַל is employed in connection with slander, just as is רָכִיל in our verse:], “And he slandered (וַיְרַגֵּל) your servant” (II Sam. 19:28), [lit.,] he spied deceitfully to say evil about me, and [likewise], “He did not slander (רָגַל) with his tongue” (Ps. 15:3). And likewise, [the term] רוֹכֵל means a merchant who goes around spying out (מְרַגֵּל) merchandise; [similarly,] one who sells perfumes with which women beautify themselves, since he constantly goes around in the towns, he is called a רוֹכֵל, equivalent to the term רוֹגֵל -one who spies. And the Targum renders [the phrase in our verse, לֹא תֵלֵךְ רָכִיל, as]: לָא תֵיכוּל קוּרְצִין, [lit., “You shall not eat the food of winking,” a figurative expression for slandering], as, וַאֲכַלוּ קַרְצֵיהוֹן דִּי יְהוּדָיֵא [lit., “and they ate their food of winking concerning the Jews” (Dan. 3:8), i.e., they informed against the Jews], and, אֲכַל בֵּהּ קֻרְצָא בֵּי מַלְכָּא [lit., “he ate the food of winking, concerning him, to the king’s palace” (Ber. 58a), i.e., he informed against him to the king. And why is the expression “eating the food of winking” used to signify slander?] It appears to me that it was the practice of these [informers and slanderers] to eat some sort of small snack at the house of those who listened to their words, for this [eating] acted as a [gesture of] final reinforcement, that the slanderer’s words were indeed well-founded and that he maintained them as the truth. This snack, then, is referred to as אֲכִילַת קוּרְצִין, [where the term קוּרְצִין is] denoted by [Scripture’s description of a faithless man], “He winks (קוֹרֵץ) with his eyes” (Prov. 6:13), for so is the way of all those who go around speaking evil talk, to wink with their eyes, thereby alluding to their slanderous words by innuendo, so that any other people listening will not understand.   לא תלך רכיל: אני אומר על שם שכל משלחי מדנים ומספרי לשון הרע הולכים בבתי רעיהם לרגל מה יראו רע או מה ישמעו רע לספר בשוק, נקראים הולכי רכיל, הולכי רגילה אשפיימנ"ט בלע"ז [ריגול]. וראיה לדברי, שלא מצינו רכילות שאין כתוב בלשון הליכה לא תלך רכיל, הולכי רכיל נחשת וברזל (ירמיה ו כח), ושאר לשון הרע אין כתוב בו הליכה מלשני בסתר רעהו (תהלים קא ה), לשון רמיה (שם קכ ב), לשון מדברת גדולות (שם יב ד), לכך אני אומר שלשון רכיל לשון הולך ומרגל, שהכ"ף נחלפת בגימ"ל, שכל האותיות שמוצאיהם ממקום אחד מתחלפות זו בזו, בי"ת בפ"א ובוי"ו, גימ"ל בכ"ף וקו"ף, נו"ן בלמ"ד, ורי"ש וזי"ן בצד"י וכן (ש"ב יט כח) וירגל בעבדך, רגל ותרמה לומר עלי רעה, וכן (תהלים טו ג) לא רגל על לשונו, וכן רוכל הסוחר ומרגל אחר כל סחורה, וכל המוכר בשמים להתקשט בהם הנשים, על שם שמחזר תמיד בעיירות נקרא רוכל, לשון רוגל. ותרגומו לא תיכול קורצין, כמו (דניאל ג ח) ואכלו קרציהון די יהודיא, אכל ביה קורצא בי מלכא (ברכות נח א). נראה בעיני שהיה משפטם לאכול בבית המקבל דבריהם שום הלעטה, והוא גמר חזוק, שדבריו מקויימים ויעמידם על האמת, ואותה הלעטה נקראת אכילת קורצין, לשון קורץ בעיניו (משלי ו יג), שכן דרך כל הולכי רכיל לקרוץ בעיניהם ולרמוז דברי רכילותן, שלא יבינו שאר השומעים:
You shall not stand by [the shedding of] your fellow’s blood: [I.e., do not stand by,] watching your fellow’s death, when you are able to save him; for example, if he is drowning in the river or if a wild beast or robbers come upon him. — [Torath Kohanim 19:41; Sanh. 73a]   לא תעמד על דם רעך: לראות במיתתו ואתה יכול להצילו, כגון טובע בנהר, וחיה או לסטים באים עליו:
I am the Lord: faithful to pay reward [to those who heed the above warnings], and faithful to exact punishment [upon those who transgress them].   אני ה': נאמן לשלם שכר, ונאמן להפרע:
17. You shall not hate your brother in your heart. You shall surely rebuke your fellow, but you shall not bear a sin on his account.   יז. לֹא תִשְׂנָא אֶת אָחִיךָ בִּלְבָבֶךָ הוֹכֵחַ תּוֹכִיחַ אֶת עֲמִיתֶךָ וְלֹא תִשָּׂא עָלָיו חֵטְא:
but You shall not bear a sin on his account: I.e., [in the course of your rebuking your fellow,] do not embarrass him in public. — [Torath Kohanim 19:43; Arachin 16b]   ולא תשא עליו חטא: לא תלבין את פניו ברבים:
18. You shall neither take revenge from nor bear a grudge against the members of your people; you shall love your neighbor as yourself. I am the Lord.   יח. לֹא תִקֹּם וְלֹא תִטֹּר אֶת בְּנֵי עַמֶּךָ וְאָהַבְתָּ לְרֵעֲךָ כָּמוֹךָ אֲנִי יְהוָֹה:
You shall neither take revenge: [For example:] He says to him, “Lend me your sickle,” and he [the latter] replies, “No!” The next day, he [the latter] says to him, “Lend me your ax.” [If] he says to him, “I will not lend it to you, just as you did not lend to me!” this constitutes revenge. And what constitutes “bearing a grudge?” [For example:] he says to him, “Lend me your ax,” and he [the latter] replies, “No!” Then the next day, he [the latter] says to him, “Lend me your sickle.” [Now, if] he says to him, “Here it is for you; I am not like you, who did not lend me!” this constitutes “bearing a grudge,” for he keeps the hatred in his heart, even though he does not take revenge. — [Torath Kohanim 19:44; Yoma 23a]   לא תקם: אמר לו השאילני מגלך. אמר לו לאו. למחר אמר לו השאילני קרדומך. אמר לו איני משאילך כדרך שלא השאלתני, זו היא נקימה. ואיזו היא נטירה, אמר לו השאילני קרדומך. אמר לו לאו. למחר אמר לו השאילני מגלך. אמר לו הא לך ואיני כמותך, שלא השאלתני. זו היא נטירה, שנוטר האיבה בלבו אף על פי שאינו נוקם:
You shall love your neighbor as yourself: Rabbi Akiva says: “This is a fundamental [all-inclusive] principle of the Torah.” - [Torath Kohanim 19:45]   ואהבת לרעך כמוך: אמר רבי עקיבא זה כלל גדול בתורה:
19. You shall observe My statutes: You shall not crossbreed your livestock with different species. You shall not sow your field with a mixture of seeds, and a garment which has a mixture of shaatnez shall not come upon you.   יט. אֶת חֻקֹּתַי תִּשְׁמֹרוּ בְּהֶמְתְּךָ לֹא תַרְבִּיעַ כִּלְאַיִם שָׂדְךָ לֹא תִזְרַע כִּלְאָיִם וּבֶגֶד כִּלְאַיִם שַׁעַטְנֵז לֹא יַעֲלֶה עָלֶיךָ:
You shall observe My statutes: They are the following: “You shall not crossbreed your livestock with different species, etc.” [The term] חֻקִּים, “statutes,” refers to the decrees of the Divine King, which have no rationale.   את חקתי תשמרו: ואלו הן בהמתך לא תרביע כלאים וגו', חקים אלו גזרות מלך שאין טעם לדבר:
and a garment which has a mixture: Why is this stated? Since Scripture says, “ You shall not wear a mixture of wool and linen together” (Deut. 22:11), I might think that one may not wear [even] shearings of wool [beaten together with] stalks of linen. Therefore, Scripture says, “a garment” [thus excluding pieces of wool and linen combined together, which do not form a “garment”]. And how do we know that included [in this prohibition is also] felt [although it is not a garment, but only a belt]? Because Scripture employs the term שַׁעַטְנֵז, [an acronym of the terms] שׁוּעַ, combed, טָווּי, spun, and נוּז, woven. And נוּז, twisted. [i.e., even if the material in question is] “combed,” “spun” and “twined together” [although it does not form a garment]. And I say that [the term] נוּז denotes a material [made from fibers which have been] stretched and twined together in order to join it together; mestier in Old French, and similar to [the term employed by the Talmud], “…fit for use because of the hard [dry] seeds נַאֲזֵי that they have” (Moed Katan 12a), a term which we explain as meaning “hardened” [just as the fibers of the נוּז cloth become hardened when they are intertwined together]; flestre in Old French, wilted. And with regards to the actual term שַׁעַטְנֵז, Menahem [Ben Saruk] explains it to mean: “A combination of wool and linen.”   ובגד כלאים: למה נאמר, לפי שנאמר לא תלבש שעטנז צמר ופשתים יחדו (דברים כב יא), יכול לא ילבש גיזי צמר ואניצי פשתן, תלמוד לומר בגד. מנין לרבות הלבדים, תלמוד לומר שעטנז, דבר שהוא שוע טווי ונוז. ואומר אני נוז לשון דבר הנמלל ושזור זה עם זה לחברו, מישטי"ר בלע"ז [לערבב], כמו (מועד קטן יב ב) חזיין לנאזי דאית בהון, שאנו מפרשין לשון כמוש פלישטר"א [כמוש]. ולשון שעטנז פירש מנחם מחברת צמר ופשתים:
20. If a man lies carnally with a woman, and she is a handmaid designated for a man, and she had not been [fully] redeemed nor had her document of emancipation been granted her, there shall be an investigation; they shall not be put to death, because she had not been [completely] freed.   כ. וְאִישׁ כִּי יִשְׁכַּב אֶת אִשָּׁה שִׁכְבַת זֶרַע וְהִוא שִׁפְחָה נֶחֱרֶפֶת לְאִישׁ וְהָפְדֵּה לֹא נִפְדָּתָה אוֹ חֻפְשָׁה לֹא נִתַּן לָהּ בִּקֹּרֶת תִּהְיֶה לֹא יוּמְתוּ כִּי לֹא חֻפָּשָׁה:
designated for a man: נֶחֱרֶפֶת, designated and specified for a [particular] man. And [regarding this term נֶחֱרֶפֶת,] I do not know of [a term] resembling it anywhere in Scripture, but the Scripture is speaking of a Canaanite handmaid, partly a handmaid and partly a free woman [i.e., she belonged to two partners and one freed his part of her], who is betrothed to a Hebrew slave, who is permitted to [marry] a handmaid. — [Torath Kohanim 19:52; Kereithoth 11a]   נחרפת לאיש: מיועדת ומיוחדת לאיש, ואיני יודע לו דמיון במקרא. ובשפחה כנענית שחציה שפחה וחציה בת חורין המאורסת לעבד עברי שמותר בשפחה, הכתוב מדבר:
and she had not been [fully] redeemed: Heb. וְהָפְדֵּה לֹא נִפְדְּתָה, she is redeemed, but not redeemed. And when the unqualified term פִּדְיוֹן, “redemption” is employed, it means [redeeming with money. — [Torath Kohanim 19:53]   והפדה לא נפדתה: פדויה ואינה פדויה וסתם פדיון בכסף:
nor had her document of emancipation been granted her: [the unqualified term חפשׁ, “freeing,” refers to doing so] with a document [of release]. — [Torath Kohanim 19:53]   או חפשה: בשטר:
there shall be an investigation: Heb. בִּקֹרֶת תִּהְיֶה [which will result in] the woman being given lashes but not the man (Torath Kohanim 19:54) The court is obligated to investigate the matter in order not to sentence him [her] to death, since “she had not been [completely] freed” [and therefore,] her marriage is not completely binding. Our Rabbis, however, learned from [this verse], that whoever is sentenced to lashes [as this woman, those lashes] shall be accompanied by a “recitation” [בִּקֹרֶת בִּקְרִיאָה, derived from the בִּקֹרֶת, so that the phrase בִּקֹרֶת תִּהְיֶה is expounded to mean “she is to be given lashes with a קֹּרֶת, a recitation.” And what is the recitation referred to here? It is] that the judges who mete out the lashes, shall recite to the one receiving them (Deut. 28:58-59),“If you will not observe to fulfill [all the words of this Torah]…the Lord will bring upon you…uniquely [horrible] plagues!”- [Kereithoth 11a]   בקרת תהיה: היא לוקה ולא הוא, יש על בית דין לבקר את הדבר שלא לחייבו מיתה, כי לא חפשה, ואין קידושיה קידושין גמורין. ורבותינו למדו מכאן שמי שהוא במלקות יהא בקריאה, שהדיינים המלקין קורין על הלוקה (דברים כח נח - נט) אם לא תשמור לעשות וגו' והפלא ה' את מכותך וגו':
because she had not been [completely] freed: And therefore, the man is not liable to the death penalty because of [his intimacy with] her, since her marriage is not binding. It follows then, that if she had been freed, her marriage would be binding, and he would be liable to the death penalty. — [Torath Kohanim 19:55; Gittin 43b]   כי לא חפשה: לפיכך אין חייב עליה מיתה, שאין קידושיה קידושין, הא אם חופשה, קידושיה קידושין וחייב מיתה:
21. He shall bring his guilt offering to the Lord, to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting, a guilt offering ram.   כא. וְהֵבִיא אֶת אֲשָׁמוֹ לַיהֹוָה אֶל פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד אֵיל אָשָׁם:
22. And the kohen shall effect atonement for him with the guilt offering ram, before the Lord, for the sin that he had committed; and he shall be forgiven for the sin that he had committed.   כב. וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן בְּאֵיל הָאָשָׁם לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה עַל חַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר חָטָא וְנִסְלַח לוֹ מֵחַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר חָטָא:
And he shall be forgiven for the sin that he had committed: [The apparently superfluous phrase, “for the sin that he had committed,” is written] to include the intentional sinner like the unintentional sinner [insofar as atonement is effected by bringing a guilt-offering]. — [Torath Kohanim 19:57; Kereithoth 9a]   ונסלח לו מחטאתו אשר חטא: לרבות את המזיד כשוגג:
23. When you come to the Land and you plant any food tree, you shall surely block its fruit [from use]; it shall be blocked from you [from use] for three years, not to be eaten.   כג. וְכִי תָבֹאוּ אֶל הָאָרֶץ וּנְטַעְתֶּם כָּל עֵץ מַאֲכָל וַעֲרַלְתֶּם עָרְלָתוֹ אֶת פִּרְיוֹ שָׁלשׁ שָׁנִים יִהְיֶה לָכֶם עֲרֵלִים לֹא יֵאָכֵל:
you shall surely block…[from use]: Heb. וַעִרַלְתֶּם עָרְלָתוֹ, [lit.:] “And you shall block up its blockage,” i.e., [its fruit] shall be blocked and closed up from deriving benefit from it.   וערלתם ערלתו: ואטמתם אטימתו, יהא אטום ונסתם מליהנות ממנו:
it shall be blocked for you [from use] for three years: From when does one start counting [this three-year period]? From the time of its planting. — [Torath Kohanim 19:60] One might think that if one stores away the fruit [produced in the first three years], after the first three years have elapsed, [the fruit] will become permissible. Therefore, Scripture, says, “it shall be” -the fruit shall remain in its [forbidden] status [forever]. — [Torath Kohanim 19:62]   שלש שנים יהיה לכם ערלים: מאימתי מונה לו, משעת נטיעתו. יכול אם הצניעו, לאחר שלש שנים יהא מותר, תלמוד לומר יהיה, בהוייתו יהא:
24. And in the fourth year, all its fruit shall be holy, a praise to the Lord.   כד. וּבַשָּׁנָה הָרְבִיעִת יִהְיֶה כָּל פִּרְיוֹ קֹדֶשׁ הִלּוּלִים לַיהוָֹה:
all its fruit shall be holy: Just like the second tithe, concerning which it is [also] written, “And every tithe of the Land…is holy to the Lord” (Lev. 27:30); just as the tithe may not be eaten outside the wall of Jerusalem, except after having been redeemed, so is this. — [see Torath Kohanim 19:66], and this thing is “a praise to the Lord,” for he carries it there [to Jerusalem,] to laud and give praise to Heaven.   יהיה כל פריו קדש: כמעשר שני שכתוב בו (ויקרא כז ל) וכל מעשר הארץ וגו' קדש לה'. מה מעשר שני אינו נאכל חוץ לחומת ירושלים אלא בפדיון, אף זה כן. ודבר זה הלולים לה' הוא, שנושאו שם לשבח ולהלל לשמים:
25. And in the fifth year, you may eat its fruit; [do this, in order] to increase its produce for you. I am the Lord, your God.   כה. וּבַשָּׁנָה הַחֲמִישִׁת תֹּאכְלוּ אֶת פִּרְיוֹ לְהוֹסִיף לָכֶם תְּבוּאָתוֹ אֲנִי יְהוָֹה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם:
to increase its produce for you: This commandment which you will observe, will be “[in order] to increase its produce for you,” because as its reward, I will bless for you the fruits of [your] plantings. Rabbi Akiva used to say, “The Torah stated this to counter man’s evil inclination: so that a person should not say, ”For four years I suffer with this tree for nothing!“ Scripture therefore says here, ” [in order] to increase its produce for you." - [Torath Kohanim 19: 68]   להוסיף לכם תבואתו: המצוה הזאת שתשמרו תהיה להוסיף לכם תבואתו, שבשכרה אני מברך לכם פירות הנטיעות. היה רבי עקיבא אומר דברה תורה כנגד יצר הרע, שלא יאמר אדם הרי ארבע שנים אני מצטער בו חנם, לפיכך נאמר להוסיף לכם תבואתו:
I am the Lord: I am the Lord Who promises regarding this and Who is faithful to keep My promise.   אני ה': אני ה' המבטיח על כך ונאמן לשמור הבטחתי:
26. You shall not eat over the blood. You shall not act on the basis of omens or lucky hours.   כו. לֹא תֹאכְלוּ עַל הַדָּם לֹא תְנַחֲשׁוּ וְלֹא תְעוֹנֵנוּ:
You shall not eat over the blood: [This verse is] expounded in many different ways in Sanhedrin (63a) [as follows]: (a) It is a warning that one must not eat from the flesh of holy sacrifices before the dashing of the blood; (b) It is a warning against [anyone] who eats from an ordinary animal before its soul [contained in its blood] has [fully] departed; and in many more [ways this verse is expounded there].   לא תאכלו על הדם: להרבה פנים נדרש בסנהדרין (סג א) אזהרה שלא יאכל מבשר קדשים לפני זריקת דמים, ואזהרה לאוכל מבהמת חולין טרם שתצא נפשה, ועוד הרבה:
You shall not act on the basis of omens: like those who interpret [the sounds or actions of] a weasel or birds as omens [for good or bad], - [Torath Kohanim 19:71; Sanh. 66a], or [like those who interpret] bread falling from his mouth or a deer crossing his path [as signs for certain things]. — [Sanh. 65b]   לא תנחשו: כגון אלו המנחשין בחולדה ובעופות, פתו נפלה מפיו, צבי הפסיקו בדרך:
You shall not act on the basis of… lucky hours: [The expression תְעוֹנְנוּ] denotes times (עוֹנוֹת) and hours, that one would say, “Such and such a day is auspicious to begin your work,” or, “Such and such an hour is unlucky to embark [on a journey].” - [Sanh. 65b]   ולא תעוננו: לשון עונות ושעות, שאומר יום פלוני יפה להתחיל מלאכה, שעה פלונית קשה לצאת:
27. You shall not round off the corner of your head, and you shall not destroy the edge of your beard.   כז. לֹא תַקִּפוּ פְּאַת רֹאשְׁכֶם וְלֹא תַשְׁחִית אֵת פְּאַת זְקָנֶךָ:
You shall not round off the corner of your head: This refers to someone who [cuts his hair in such a way that he] makes [the hair on] his temples even with that behind his ear and on his forehead [i.e., the front hairline], thereby causing [the hairline] surrounding his head to become a circle, since the main hairline behind the ears is at a much higher level than [the hair on] his temples. — [Mak. 20b]   לא תקפו פאת ראשכם: זה המשוה צדעיו לאחורי אזנו ולפדחתו, ונמצא הקף ראשו עגול סביב, שעל אחורי אזניו עקרי שערו למעלה מצדעיו הרבה:
the edge of your beard: [meaning:] The end of the beard and its borders. And these are five: two on each cheek at the top [edge of the cheek] near the head, where [the cheek] is broad and has two “corners” [i.e., extremities, one near the temple and the other at the end of the cheek bone towards the center of the face]-and one below, on the chin, at the point where the two cheeks join together. - [Torath Kohanim 19: 74; Mak. 20b]   פאת זקנך: סוף הזקן וגבוליו. והן חמש שתים בכל לחי ולחי למעלה אצל הראש שהוא רחב ויש בו שתי פאות, ואחת למטה בסנטרו מקום חבור שני הלחיים יחד:
28. You shall not make cuts in your flesh for a person [who died]. You shall not etch a tattoo on yourselves. I am the Lord.   כח. וְשֶׂרֶט לָנֶפֶשׁ לֹא תִתְּנוּ בִּבְשַׂרְכֶם וּכְתֹבֶת קַעֲקַע לֹא תִתְּנוּ בָּכֶם אֲנִי יְהוָֹה:
You shall not make] cuts [in your flesh] for a person [who died]: This was the practice of the Amorites: to make cuts in their flesh when a person [related] to them died.   ושרט לנפש: כן דרכן של אמוריים להיות משרטין בשרם כשמת להם מת:
etch a tattoo: Heb. וּכְתֹבֶת קַעֲקַע, an inscription etched (מְחֻקֶּה) and sunken (שָׁקוּע), never to be erased, for one etches it with a needle, and it remains permanently black.   וכתבת קעקע: כתב המחוקה ושקוע שאינו נמחק לעולם שמקעקעו במחט והוא משחיר לעולם:
etched: Heb. קַעְקַע. Similar to the expression [found in the verses], “and hang (וְהוֹקַע) them” [lit., “and sink them”] (Num. 25:4), and, “and we will hang them (וְהוֹקַעְנוּם) ” [lit., “and we will sink them”] (II Sam. 21:6). They would thrust a pole into the ground, and hang the [guilty people] on it; in this way, [the ones hanged would appear as if] inserted and thrust into the ground [and thus the word קַעְקַע denoting “etched in and sunken” into the skin]; porpoynt in Old French [according to Greenberg, porpoint according to Gukovitzki].   קעקע: לשון (במדבר כה ד) והוקע אותם, (שמואל ב כא ו) והוקענום. תוחבין עץ בארץ ותולין אותם עליהם ונמצאו מחוקין ותחובין בקרקע, פורפויינ"ט בלע"ז [נעוץ]:
29. You shall not defile your daughter by making her a harlot, lest the Land fall into harlotry and the land be filled with immorality.   כט. אַל תְּחַלֵּל אֶת בִּתְּךָ לְהַזְנוֹתָהּ וְלֹא תִזְנֶה הָאָרֶץ וּמָלְאָה הָאָרֶץ זִמָּה:
You shall not defile your daughter by making her a harlot: [This is speaking of] a person who hands over his unmarried daughter to have relations that are not for the purpose of marriage.[Torath Kohanim 19:77; Sanh. 76a]   אל תחלל את בתך להזנותה: במוסר בתו פנויה לביאה שלא לשם קידושין:
lest the Land fall into harlotry: Heb. וְלֹאתִזְנֶה, for if you do so, the Land itself will cause its fruits to go astray (מְזַנֶּה), producing them elsewhere and not in your Land. And thus the verse says (Jer. 3:2-3), “[and you defiled the Land with your harlotries (בִּזְנוּתַיִ) …] Therefore, the rains were withheld.” - [Torath Kohanim 19:77]   ולא תזנה הארץ: אם אתה עושה כן הארץ מזנה את פירותיה לעשותן במקום אחר ולא בארצכם. וכן הוא אומר (ירמיה ג ג) וימנעו רביבים וגו':
30. You shall observe My Sabbaths and revere My Sanctuary. I am the Lord.   ל. אֶת שַׁבְּתֹתַי תִּשְׁמֹרוּ וּמִקְדָּשִׁי תִּירָאוּ אֲנִי יְהוָֹה:
And revere My Sanctuary: One may not enter [the Temple Mount] with his [walking] staff, his shoes, with his money belt, or with the dust on his feet.[Yev. 6b] And although I warn you regarding the [holiness of the] Sanctuary, [says God,] nevertheless-“You shall observe My Sabbaths”-the construction of the Sanctuary does not supersede [the laws of the] Sabbath. — [Yev. 6a].   ומקדשי תיראו: לא יכנס בהר הבית לא במקלו ולא במנעלו ובאפונדתו ובאבק שעל רגליו. ואף על פי שאני מזהירכם על המקדש, את שבתותי תשמורו אין בנין בית המקדש דוחה שבת:
31. You shall not turn to [the sorcery of] Ov or Yid'oni; you shall not seek [these and thereby] defile yourselves through them. I am the Lord, your God.   לא. אַל תִּפְנוּ אֶל הָאֹבֹת וְאֶל הַיִּדְּעֹנִים אַל תְּבַקְשׁוּ לְטָמְאָה בָהֶם אֲנִי יְהוָֹה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם:
You shall not turn to [the sorcery of]: Ov or Yid’oni. This is a warning against one who practices the sorcery of Ov or Yid’oni. [And what are these forms of sorcery?] One who practices the sorcery of Ov is “Pithom the sorcerer” (see Rashi Deut. 18:11); [he communes with the dead, as it were, by raising the spirit of the dead, which then] speaks from his armpit. [And one who practices the sorcery of] Yid’oni inserts the bone of a creature called Yido’a (see Bartenura, Mishnah Kilayim 8:5) into his mouth, and the bone speaks [from there].-[Torath Kohanim 19:79; Sanh. 65b]   אל תפנו אל האבת: אזהרה לבעל אוב וידעוני. בעל אוב זה פיתום המדבר משחיו. וידעוני מכניס עצם חיה ששמה ידוע לתוך פיו והעצם מדבר:
you shall not seek: to occupy yourselves with these [types of sorcery], for if you do occupy yourselves with them, you will become defiled before Me [says God], and I will deem you abominable.   אל תבקשו: להיות עסוקים בם, שאם תעסקו בם אתם מיטמאין לפני ואני מתעב אתכם:
I am the Lord, your God: Know Whom you are exchanging for whom [i.e., you would be exchanging “the Lord, your God” for these futile sorceries]. — [Torath Kohanim 19:79]   אני ה' אלהיכם: דעו את מי אתם מחליפין במי:
32. You shall rise before a venerable person and you shall respect the elderly, and you shall fear your God. I am the Lord.   לב. מִפְּנֵי שֵׂיבָה תָּקוּם וְהָדַרְתָּ פְּנֵי זָקֵן וְיָרֵאתָ מֵּאֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲנִי יְהוָֹה:
You shall rise before a venerable person: One might think [that the commandment refers to rising before] an old person, [even though he may be] guilty [of transgression]. Scripture, therefore, says, זָקֵן the term זָקֵן exclusively refers to one who has acquired wisdom [see Num. 11:16, where the same term refers to great, wise men, and therefore not guilty of transgression]. — [Torath Kohanim 19:80; Kid. 32b]   מפני שיבה תקום: יכול זקן אשמאי, תלמוד לומר זקן, אין זקן אלא שקנה חכמה:
and you shall respect the elderly: What is meant by “respecting” [the elderly]? One may not sit in his place, speak in his stead [when it is the elder’s turn to speak], or contradict him. [Since one is obligated to rise before the elderly only when the latter enters within one’s four cubits,] one might think that he may close his eyes [when the elder approaches], as if he did not see him [and thus evade the obligation to rise before him]! Therefore Scripture adds here, “and you shall fear your God,” for this matter is privately known to the one who commits it, and no one knows about it except the person himself, and, concerning any matter known only in the heart [of one person,], Scripture says, “and you shall fear your God,” [for God knows man’s thoughts]. — [Torath Kohanim 19:80; Kid. 31b, 32b]   והדרת פני זקן: איזהו הדור, לא ישב במקומו ולא ידבר במקומו ולא יסתור את דבריו. יכול יעצים עיניו כמי שלא ראהו, לכך נאמר ויראת מאלהיך, שהרי דבר זה מסור ללבו של עושהו, שאין מכיר בו אלא הוא, וכל דבר המסור ללב נאמר בו ויראת מאלהיך:

6th Portion

Chapter 19

33. When a stranger sojourns with you in your land, you shall not taunt him.   לג. וְכִי יָגוּר אִתְּךָ גֵּר בְּאַרְצְכֶם לֹא תוֹנוּ אֹתוֹ:
you shall not taunt him: Heb. לֹא תוֹנוּ. [This refers to] tormenting with words [as opposed to torment through other means, e.g., financially (see Rashi Lev. 25:14)]. [For instance,] do not say to him, “Only yesterday you were an idol worshipper, and now you come to learn Torah, which was given over by the Almighty God Himself! ”. — [Torath Kohanim 19:82]   לא תונו: אונאת דברים. לא תאמר לו אמש היית עובד עבודה זרה ועכשיו אתה בא ללמוד תורה שנתנה מפי הגבורה:
34. The stranger who sojourns with you shall be as a native from among you, and you shall love him as yourself; for you were strangers in the land of Egypt. I am the Lord, your God.   לד. כְּאֶזְרָח מִכֶּם יִהְיֶה לָכֶם הַגֵּר | הַגָּר אִתְּכֶם וְאָהַבְתָּ לוֹ כָּמוֹךָ כִּי גֵרִים הֱיִיתֶם בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם אֲנִי יְהוָֹה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם:
for you were strangers: Do not accuse your fellow man with your own defect. - [B.M. 59b]   כי גרים הייתם: מום שבך אל תאמר לחברך:
I am the Lord, your God: [Here, the word for “your,” אלֹהֵיכֶם, is in the plural; thus, regarding the stranger, Scripture reminds you:] I am Your God and his God!   אני ה' אלהיכם: אלהיך ואלהיו אני:
35. You shall not commit a perversion of justice with measures, weights, or liquid measures.   לה. לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ עָוֶל בַּמִּשְׁפָּט בַּמִּדָּה בַּמִּשְׁקָל וּבַמְּשׂוּרָה:
You shall not commit a perversion of justice: If we are dealing [here] with litigation, Scripture has already stated (verse above), “You shall commit no injustice in judgment.” So what is the “judgment” that is taught here? It refers to [“just” behavior regarding one’s dealing with] measures, weights or liquid measures: this teaches us that one who measures [out something in business,] is called a “judge,” for if he falsifies the measure, he is considered to be as one who perverts justice. He is [accordingly] called perverse, hated, disgusting, fit for destruction, and an abomination (see Rashi on verse 15 above). [Moreover,] he brings about the five things stated regarding a [corrupt] judge, namely, that he (a) defiles the Land, (b) desecrates the Name of God, (c) drives away the Divine Presence, (d) causes Israel to fall by the sword, and (e) exiles Israel from their Land. — [Torath Kohanim 19:84]   לא תעשו עול במשפט: אם לדין, הרי כבר נאמר לא תעשו עול במשפט (פסוק טו), ומהו משפט השנוי כאן, הוא המדה והמשקל והמשורה. מלמד שהמודד נקרא דיין, שאם שיקר במדה הרי הוא כמקלקל את הדין וקרוי עול, שנאוי, ומשוקץ, חרם ותועבה. וגורם לחמשה דברים האמורים בדיין מטמא את הארץ, ומחלל את השם, ומסלק את השכינה, ומפיל את ישראל בחרב, ומגלה אותם מארצם:
with measures: This refers to a land measure [i.e., measures of length or area of land]. — [Torath Kohanim 19:85; B.M. 61b];   במדה: זו מדת הארץ:
weights: [This is to be understood] according to its apparent meaning.   במשקל: כמשמעו:
liquid measures: Heb. וּבַמְּשׂוּרָה. This refers to liquid measures. — [see Torath Kohanim 19:85 and B.M. 61b]   ובמשורה: היא מדת הלח והיבש:
36. You shall have true scales, true weights, a true ephah, and a true hin. I am the Lord, your God, Who brought you out of the land of Egypt.   לו. מֹאזְנֵי צֶדֶק אַבְנֵי צֶדֶק אֵיפַת צֶדֶק וְהִין צֶדֶק יִהְיֶה לָכֶם אֲנִי יְהוָֹה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִי אֶתְכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם:
true weights: Heb. אַבְנֵי צֶדֶק, lit. stones of righteousness. These are the weights [people use] to weigh against [i.e., as a standard weight on the scales].   אבני צדק: הם המשקולות ששוקלין כנגדן:
a true ephah: This is a [unit of] dry measure.   איפת: היא מדת היבש:
and a true hin: This is a [unit of] liquid measure.   הין: זו היא מדת הלח:
Who brought you out: on this condition [i.e., to observe these commandments]. — [Torath Kohanim 19:87] Another explanation: God says,] In Egypt, I discerned between the drop [of sperm that led to the conception] of a firstborn and the drop [of sperm that did] not [lead to the conception] of a firstborn. [Likewise,] I am the One faithful to exact punishment upon someone who secretly stores his weights in salt [thus altering their weight] in order to defraud people who do not recognize them [as weights that have been tampered with]. — [B.M. 61b]   אשר הוצאתי אתכם: על מנת כן. דבר אחר אני הבחנתי במצרים בין טפה של בכור לטפה שאינה של בכור, ואני הנאמן להפרע ממי שטומן משקלותיו במלח להונות את הבריות שאין מכירים בהם:
37. You shall observe all My statutes and all My ordinances, and fulfill them. I am the Lord.   לז. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת כָּל חֻקֹּתַי וְאֶת כָּל מִשְׁפָּטַי וַעֲשִׂיתֶם אֹתָם אֲנִי יְהוָֹה:

Chapter 20

1. And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying,   א. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָֹה אֶל משֶׁה לֵּאמֹר:
2. And to the children of Israel, you shall say: Any man of the children of Israel or of the strangers who sojourn among Israel, who gives any of his offspring to Molech, shall surely be put to death; the people of the land shall pelt him with stones.   ב. וְאֶל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל תֹּאמַר אִישׁ אִישׁ מִבְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמִן הַגֵּר | הַגָּר בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר יִתֵּן מִזַּרְעוֹ לַמֹּלֶךְ מוֹת יוּמָת עַם הָאָרֶץ יִרְגְּמֻהוּ בָאָבֶן:
And to the children of Israel, you shall say: [i.e., enumerate the following] punishments for the warnings [that were given in chapter 18.].   ואל בני ישראל תאמר: עונשין על האזהרות:
shall surely be put to death: By the court. And if the court is not [physically] powerful [enough to kill him by themselves], “the people of the land” must assist them. — [Torath Kohanim 20:91]   מות יומת: בבית דין, ואם אין כח לבית דין עם הארץ מסייעין אותן:
the people of the land: עַם הָאָרֶץ. [This may be rendered either: “the people of the earth” or “ the people of the land,” as follows:] The people for whose sake the earth was created, the people who are destined to possess the Land [of Israel], through [the observance of] these commandments. — [Torath Kohanim 20:91]   עם הארץ: עם שבגינו נבראת הארץ. דבר אחר עם שעתידין לירש את הארץ ע"י מצות הללו:
3. And I will set My attention upon that man, and I will cut him off from amidst his people, because he gave of his offspring to Molech in order to defile My holy ones and to profane My holy Name.   ג. וַאֲנִי אֶתֵּן אֶת פָּנַי בָּאִישׁ הַהוּא וְהִכְרַתִּי אֹתוֹ מִקֶּרֶב עַמּוֹ כִּי מִזַּרְעוֹ נָתַן לַמֹּלֶךְ לְמַעַן טַמֵּא אֶת מִקְדָּשִׁי וּלְחַלֵּל אֶת שֵׁם קָדְשִׁי:
And I will set my attention: Heb., פָּנַי, i.e., My leisure (פְּנַאי). I will turn aside (פּוֹנֶה) from all My affairs and occupy Myself with him. — [Torath Kohanim 20:92]   אתן את פני: פנאי שלי, פונה אני מכל עסקי ועוסק בו:
[that] man: But not the [whole] community. — [Torath Kohanim 20:92] [I.e., if the entire community give their offspring over to Molech, they are not punished with excision,] because the entire community are not to be cut off.   באיש: ולא בצבור, שאין כל הצבור נכרתין:
because he gave of his offspring to Molech: [Are not this phrase here, and the phrase in the next verse, “when he gives of his offspring to Molech” superfluous? However,] since Scripture says, “[There shall not be found among you] anyone who passes his son or daughter through fire” (Deut. 18:10), how do we know [that the law applies as well to] his son’s son or his daughter’s son? Scripture, therefore, says, “because he gave of his offspring to Molech.” And how do we know that the law applies even to one’s illegitimate offspring [i.e., one produced from a halachically illegitimate union]? Scripture. therefore says (in the next verse),“when he gives of his offspring to Molech” [to include even his illegitimate offspring]. — [Torath Kohanim 20:93; Sanh. 64b]   כי מזרעו נתן למלך: לפי שנאמר מעביר בנו ובתו באש (דברים יח י), בן בנו ובן בתו מנין, תלמוד לומר כי מזרעו נתן למולך. זרע פסול מנין, תלמוד לומר בתתו מזרעו למולך:
In order to defile My holy ones: Heb. מִקְדָּשִׁי. [This is] the congregation of Israel, which is sanctified to Me. [This reference to Israel as מִקְדָּשִׁי, what is sanctified to Me, is] reminiscent of the expression [referring to the holy sacrifices], “he shall not desecrate My holy things (מִקְדָּשַׁי) ” (Lev. 21:23).   למען טמא את מקדשי: את כנסת ישראל, שהיא מקודשת לי, כלשון (ויקרא כא כג) ולא יחלל את מקדשי:
4. But if the people of the land ignore that man when he gives of his offspring to Molech, not putting him to death   ד. וְאִם הַעְלֵם יַעְלִימוּ עַם הָאָרֶץ אֶת עֵינֵיהֶם מִן הָאִישׁ הַהוּא בְּתִתּוֹ מִזַּרְעוֹ לַמֹּלֶךְ לְבִלְתִּי הָמִית אֹתוֹ:
But if [the people of the land] ignore [that man]: Heb. הַעְלֵם יַעְלִימוּ. [The double expression intimates that] if they ignore one matter [i.e., even one sin], they will eventually ignore many matters, and if the Small Sanhedrin [of twenty-three judges] ignores the matter, eventually the Great Sanhedrin [of seventy-one judges, in Jerusalem,] will ignore the matter. — [Torath Kohanim 20:94]   ואם העלם יעלימו: אם העלימו בדבר אחד, סוף שיעלימו בדברים הרבה. אם העלימו סנהדרי קטנה, סוף שיעלימו סנהדרי גדולה:
5. I will set My attention upon that man, and upon his family, and I will cut him off, and all who stray after him to stray after Molech, from amidst their people.   ה. וְשַׂמְתִּי אֲנִי אֶת פָּנַי בָּאִישׁ הַהוּא וּבְמִשְׁפַּחְתּוֹ וְהִכְרַתִּי אֹתוֹ וְאֵת | כָּל הַזֹּנִים אַחֲרָיו לִזְנוֹת אַחֲרֵי הַמֹּלֶךְ מִקֶּרֶב עַמָּם:
and upon his family: Rabbi Shimon says: [In] what [way] did the family sin [that they are punished]? However, this teaches you that there is no family in which there is an [unfair] tax collector which may not [be regarded as consisting] entirely of tax collectors, for they all cover up for him. — [Torath Kohanim 20:95; Shev. 39a]   ובמשפחתו: אמר ר' שמעון וכי משפחה מה חטאה, אלא ללמדך שאין לך משפחה שיש בה מוכס שאין כולם מוכסין, שכולם מחפין עליו:
and I will cut him off: Why is this stated? Because since Scripture says, “[I will set My attention upon that man] and upon his family,” one might think that his entire family is included in [the punishment of] excision. Scripture, therefore, says, “[I will cut] him [off]”-that man is to be excised [from the people of Israel], but the entire family is not included in excision, but with suffering. — [Torath Kohanim 20:96]   והכרתי אתו: למה נאמר, לפי שנאמר ובמשפחתו, יכול יהיו כל המשפחה בהכרת, תלמוד לומר אותו. אותו בהכרת ולא כל המשפחה בהכרת, אלא ביסורין:
to stray after Molech: [This phrase comes to] include [in this penalty] any other pagan deity that one worshipped in this manner, even though it is not its mode of worship. — [Sanh. 64b]   לזנות אחרי המלך: לרבות שאר עבודה זרה שעבדה בכך, ואפילו אין זו עבודתה:
6. And the person who turns to Ov or Yid'oni, to stray after them I will set My attention upon that person, and I will cut him off from amidst his people.   ו. וְהַנֶּפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר תִּפְנֶה אֶל הָאֹבֹת וְאֶל הַיִּדְּעֹנִים לִזְנֹת אַחֲרֵיהֶם וְנָתַתִּי אֶת פָּנַי בַּנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא וְהִכְרַתִּי אֹתוֹ מִקֶּרֶב עַמּוֹ:
7. You shall sanctify yourselves and be holy, for I am the Lord, your God.   ז. וְהִתְקַדִּשְׁתֶּם וִהְיִיתֶם קְדשִׁים כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָֹה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם:
You shall sanctify yourselves: This [refers to] separation from idolatry. — [Torath Kohanim 20:100]   והתקדשתם: זו פרישות עבודה זרה:

7th Portion

Chapter 20

8. And you shall observe My statutes and fulfill them. I am the Lord, Who sanctifies you.   ח. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת חֻקֹּתַי וַעֲשִׂיתֶם אֹתָם אֲנִי יְהוָֹה מְקַדִּשְׁכֶם:
9. For any man who curses his father or his mother shall be put to death; he has cursed his father or his mother; his blood is upon himself.   ט. כִּי אִישׁ אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יְקַלֵּל אֶת אָבִיו וְאֶת אִמּוֹ מוֹת יוּמָת אָבִיו וְאִמּוֹ קִלֵּל דָּמָיו בּוֹ:
he has cursed his father or his mother: [This phrase] comes to include [in this prohibition and its penalty], cursing one’s father or mother even] after [their] death. — [Sanh. 85b]   אביו ואמו קלל: לרבות לאחר מיתה:
his blood is upon himself: This refers to [the death penalty by] stoning. And likewise, wherever it is stated, “his blood is upon himself,” or “their blood is upon themselves” (see verse 27 below) [it refers to death by stoning]. And we learn [this principle] from [those who practice the sorcery of] Ov or Yid’oni, for regarding them, Scripture says (verse 27), “they shall pelt them with stones; their blood is upon themselves.” - [Torath Kohanim 20:103; Sanh. 66a] [According to] the simple meaning of the verse, however, it is like “his blood is upon his [own] head” (Josh. 2:19), i.e., no one is punished for his death but he himself, because he brought it upon himself to be killed.   דמיו בו: זו סקילה, וכן כל מקום שנאמר דמיהם בם, ולמדנו מאוב וידעוני שנאמר בהם באבן ירגמו אותם דמיהם בם (פסוק כז). ופשוטו של מקרא, כמו דמו בראשו (יהושע ב יט), אין נענש על מיתתו אלא הוא, שהוא גרם לעצמו שיהרג:
10. And a man who commits adultery with [another] man's wife, committing adultery with the wife of his fellow the adulterer and the adulteress shall surely be put to death.   י. וְאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יִנְאַף אֶת אֵשֶׁת אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יִנְאַף אֶת אֵשֶׁת רֵעֵהוּ מוֹת יוּמַת הַנֹּאֵף וְהַנֹּאָפֶת:
And a man [who commits adultery]: [The term “man”] comes to exclude a minor [from the death penalty]. — [Torath Kohanim 20:105; Sanh. 52b]   ואיש: פרט לקטן:
who commits adultery with [another] man’s wife: [The term “man’s wife” comes] to exclude the wife of a minor. [From here,] we learn that a minor cannot hold [the legal status of Jewish] marriage. And for which “man’s wife” have I held you liable ?   אשר ינאף את אשת איש: פרט לאשת קטן, למדנו שאין לקטן קידושין. ועל איזו אשת איש חייבתי לך:
committing adultery with the wife of his fellow: [Thus] excluding the wife of a non-Jew. [From here,] we learn that [the legal status of Jewish] marriage cannot be held by a non-Jew. — [Torath Kohanim 20:105; Sanh. 52b]   אשר ינאף את אשת רעהו: פרט לאשת גוי, למדנו שאין קידושין לגוי:
The adulterer and the adulteress shall be put to death: Wherever a death penalty is mentioned in the Torah without specification [as to the mode of death, it exclusively refers to strangulation. — [Torath Kohanim 20:106, Sanh. 52b]   מות יומת הנאף והנאפת: כל מיתה האמורה בתורה סתם אינה אלא חנק:
11. And a man who lies with his father's wife has uncovered his father's nakedness: both of them shall surely be put to death; their blood is upon themselves.   יא. וְאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁכַּב אֶת אֵשֶׁת אָבִיו עֶרְוַת אָבִיו גִּלָּה מוֹת יוּמְתוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם דְּמֵיהֶם בָּם:
12. And a man who lies with his daughter in law both of them shall surely be put to death; they have committed a depravity; their blood is upon themselves.   יב. וְאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁכַּב אֶת כַּלָּתוֹ מוֹת יוּמְתוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם תֶּבֶל עָשׂוּ דְּמֵיהֶם בָּם:
they have committed a depravity: Heb. תֶּבֶל, a shameful act. Another meaning: They mingle (בּלל) the seed of the father with the seed of the son. — [see Torath Kohanim 20:108]   תבל עשו: גנאי. לשון אחר מבלבלין זרע האב בזרע הבן:
13. And a man who lies with a male as one would with a woman both of them have committed an abomination; they shall surely be put to death; their blood is upon themselves.   יג. וְאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁכַּב אֶת זָכָר מִשְׁכְּבֵי אִשָּׁה תּוֹעֵבָה עָשׂוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם מוֹת יוּמָתוּ דְּמֵיהֶם בָּם:
as one would with a woman: [I.e.,] if he inserts [his membrum] as an applicator [is inserted] into a tube [of eye shadow]. — [B.M. 91a]   משכבי אשה: מכניס כמכחול בשפופרת:
14. And a man who takes a woman and her mother it is evil counsel. They shall burn him and them in fire, and there shall be no evil counsel in your midst.   יד. וְאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יִקַּח אֶת אִשָּׁה וְאֶת אִמָּהּ זִמָּה הִוא בָּאֵשׁ יִשְׂרְפוּ אֹתוֹ וְאֶתְהֶן וְלֹא תִהְיֶה זִמָּה בְּתוֹכְכֶם:
They must burn him and them: You cannot say that they should burn his first wife, because he married her permissibly, and she did not become forbidden to him. Rather, [the case of a man marrying] “a woman and her mother” written here, is [one, in which] both were forbidden to him, [namely,] that he married his mother-in-law and then her mother [in which case both women are burned along with him]. There are some of our Rabbis who say: [This case] means that only his mother-in-law [is to be burnt]. [If so,] what is the expression אֶתְהֶן, them ? It means “one of them,” being derived from the Greek term hen, meaning “one.” - [Sanh. 76b]   ישרפו אתו ואתהן: אי אתה יכול לומר אשתו הראשונה ישרפו, שהרי נשאה בהיתר ולא נאסרה עליו, אלא אשה ואמה הכתובין כאן, שתיהן לאיסור, שנשא את חמותו ואמה. ויש מרבותינו שאומרים, אין כאן אלא חמותו. ומהו אתהן, את אחת מהן, ולשון יוני הוא הן אחת:
15. And a man who lies with an animal, shall surely be put to death, and you shall kill the animal.   טו. וְאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יִתֵּן שְׁכָבְתּוֹ בִּבְהֵמָה מוֹת יוּמָת וְאֶת הַבְּהֵמָה תַּהֲרֹגוּ:
And you shall kill the animal: If the man sinned, in what way did the animal sin? However, since a failing came [upon a person] through [the animal], therefore, Scripture says: It must be stoned [to death]! How much more so [is this relevant] to a human being, who knows how to distinguish between good and evil, and yet brings evil upon his fellow [by causing him] to commit a transgression. Similar to this matter, it says, “You shall utterly destroy from all the places [where the nations…worshipped-their gods]” (Deut. 12:2). It is surely [possible here to draw] an inference from minor to major: If [in the case of] trees, which do not see and do not hear, when a failing comes [upon a man] through them, the Torah says, Destroy them! Burn them! Annihilate them!- how much more culpable is a human who leads his fellow astray from the path of life to the paths of death! - [Torath Kohanim 20:115]   ואת הבהמה תהרגו: אם אדם חטא בהמה מה חטאה, אלא מפני שבאה לאדם תקלה על ידה, לפיכך אמר הכתוב תסקל. קל וחומר לאדם שיודע להבחין בין טוב לרע וגורם רעה לחבירו לעבור עבירה. כיוצא בדבר אתה אומר (דברים יב ב) אבד תאבדון את כל המקומות, הרי דברים קל וחומר, מה אילנות שאינן רואין ואינן שומעין על שבאת תקלה על ידם אמרה תורה השחת שרוף וכלה, המטה את חבירו מדרך חיים לדרכי מיתה על אחת כמה וכמה:
16. And a woman who comes close to any animal so that it will mate with her you shall kill the woman and the animal; they shall surely be put to death; their blood is upon themselves.   טז. וְאִשָּׁה אֲשֶׁר תִּקְרַב אֶל כָּל בְּהֵמָה לְרִבְעָה אֹתָהּ וְהָרַגְתָּ אֶת הָאִשָּׁה וְאֶת הַבְּהֵמָה מוֹת יוּמָתוּ דְּמֵיהֶם בָּם:
17. And a man who takes his sister, whether his father's daughter or his mother's daughter, and he sees her nakedness, and she sees his nakedness it is a disgraceful act, and they shall be cut off before the eyes of the members of their people; he uncovered his sister's nakedness; he shall bear his sin.   יז. וְאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יִקַּח אֶת אֲחֹתוֹ בַּת אָבִיו אוֹ בַת אִמּוֹ וְרָאָה אֶת עֶרְוָתָהּ וְהִיא תִרְאֶה אֶת עֶרְוָתוֹ חֶסֶד הוּא וְנִכְרְתוּ לְעֵינֵי בְּנֵי עַמָּם עֶרְוַת אֲחֹתוֹ גִּלָּה עֲו‍ֹנוֹ יִשָּׂא:
it is a disgraceful act: The Aramaic term for “disgrace” is חִסוּדָא. - [see Onkelos on Gen. 34:14] Its Midrashic interpretation, however, is: If you [object and] say, “But Cain married his sister!” [the answer is:] the Omnipresent [in permitting this marriage,] performed an act of kindness (חֶסֶד), to build His world through him, as it is said: “the world is built on kindness (חֶסֶד) ” (Ps. 89:3). - [Torath Kohanim 20:116]   חסד הוא: לשון ארמי חרפה (בראשית לד יד) חסודא. ומדרשו אם תאמר קין נשא אחותו, חסד עשה המקום לבנות עולמו ממנו, שנאמר (תהלים פט ג) עולם חסד יבנה:
18. And a man who lies with a woman who has a flow, and he uncovers her nakedness he has bared her fountain, and she has uncovered the fountain of her blood. Both of them shall be cut off from the midst of their people.   יח. וְאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁכַּב אֶת אִשָּׁה דָּוָה וְגִלָּה אֶת עֶרְוָתָהּ אֶת מְקֹרָהּ הֶעֱרָה וְהִוא גִּלְּתָה אֶת מְקוֹר דָּמֶיהָ וְנִכְרְתוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם מִקֶּרֶב עַמָּם:
he has bared: Heb. הֶעֱרָה, he has uncovered. And likewise, every instance of the term עֶרְוָה [in Scripture], denotes “uncovering,” and the “vav” is inserted into the word [root ערה] for the noun form. Similarly, [the noun] זַעֲוָה, “trembling,” stems from the root [זָע, “tremble,” as in the verse], “and he did not rise, nor did he tremble (זָע) ” (Esther 5:9). Likewise, the noun אַחֲוָה, “brotherhood,” stems from the root אָח, “brother.” Now, regarding this הַעֲרָאָה, “uncovering” [in the context of illicit relations], our Rabbis differed [with respect to what constitutes “uncovering”]. Some say that it is the [mere] contact ofthe membrum, while others say that it is the insertion of the tip of the membrum. — [Yev. 55b]   הערה: גלה. וכן כל לשון ערוה גלוי הוא, והוי"ו יורדת בתיבה לשם דבר, כמו זעוה, מגזרת (אסתר ה ט) ולא קם ולא זע, וכן אחוה מגזרת אח. והעראה זו נחלקו בה רבותינו, יש אומרים זו נשיקת שמש, ויש אומרים זו הכנסת עטרה:
19. And you shall not uncover the nakedness of your mother's sister or your father's sister, for he would be baring his close relative; they shall bear their sin.   יט. וְעֶרְוַת אֲחוֹת אִמְּךָ וַאֲחוֹת אָבִיךָ לֹא תְגַלֵּה כִּי אֶת שְׁאֵרוֹ הֶעֱרָה עֲו‍ֹנָם יִשָּׂאוּ:
the nakedness of your mother’s sister [or your father’s sister]: Scripture repeats the warning [already given in 18:12,13], to tell us that one is warned against [cohabiting with] these [specific relatives], whether it is with one’s father’s or mother’s sister from one father or whether it is their sisters from one mother. However, [concerning] the nakedness of the wife of his father’s brother, he is warned only if she is the wife of his father’s brother from one father. — [Torath Kohanim 20:118]   וערות אחות אמך וגו': שנה הכתוב באזהרתן, לומר שהוזהר עליהן בין על אחות אביו ואמו מן האב בין על אחיותיהן מן האם, אבל ערות אשת אחי אביו לא הוזהר אלא על אשת אחי אביו מן האב:
20. And a man who lies with his aunt he has uncovered his uncle's nakedness; they shall bear their transgression; they shall die childless.   כ. וְאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁכַּב אֶת דֹּדָתוֹ עֶרְוַת דֹּדוֹ גִּלָּה חֶטְאָם יִשָּׂאוּ עֲרִירִים יָמֻתוּ:
who lies with his aunt […they shall die childless]: This verse comes to teach us concerning the punishment of excision stated above, [“anyone who does any of these abominations… shall be cut off” (Lev. 18:29)] that it constitutes the punishment of going childless.   אשר ישכב את דדתו: המקרא הזה בא ללמד על כרת האמור למעלה, שהוא בעונש הליכת ערירי:
childless: Heb. עֲרִירִי, as the Targum renders: בְּלָא וְלָד, without child. Similar to this [is the verse], “for I am going childless (עֲרִירִי) ” (Gen. 15:2). If he has children, he will bury them [i.e., they will die during his lifetime]. And if he has no children [when he commits this sin], he will die childless. This is why Scripture varied the expression in these two verses: (a) they shall die without children (our verse), and (b) they shall be childless (next verse)-“they shall die childless” [means that] if he has children at the time of the sin, he will not have any when he dies, because he will bury them in his lifetime; and “they will be childless” [means that] if he has no children at the time of the sin, he will remain all his life as he is now. — [See Torath Kohanim 20:120; Yev. 55a]   ערירים: כתרגומו בלא ולד, ודומה לו (בראשית טו ב) ואנכי הולך ערירי, יש לו בנים קוברן, אין לו בנים מת בלא בנים, לכך שנה בשני מקראות אלו ערירים ימותו ערירים יהיו. ערירים ימותו, אם יהיו לו בשעת עבירה, לא יהיו לו כשימות לפי שקוברן בחייו. ערירים יהיו, שאם אין לו בשעת עבירה, יהיה כל ימיו כמו שהוא עכשיו:
21. And a man who takes his brother's wife it is a repulsive act; he has uncovered his brother's nakedness; they shall be childless.   כא. וְאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יִקַּח אֶת אֵשֶׁת אָחִיו נִדָּה הִוא עֶרְוַת אָחִיו גִּלָּה עֲרִירִים יִהְיוּ:
it is a repulsive act: Heb. נִדָּה הִוא. This cohabitation is [an act from which one should] separate himself (מְנוּדָה) and is disgusting. Our Rabbis, however, expounded [this verse, as follows] (Yev. 54b): Scripture comes to prohibit uncovering her [nakedness] just like [the prohibition of uncovering the nakedness of] a menstruant woman (נִדָּה), concerning whom “baring” is explicitly stated (verse 18 above),“he has bared (הֶערָה) her fountain.” [I.e., one is liable for sexual contact, as is defined in the commentary on verse 18.]   נדה הוא: השכיבה הזאת מנודה היא ומאוסה. ורבותינו דרשו לאסור העראה בה כנדה, שהעראה מפורשת בה (פסוק יח) את מקורה הערה (לעיל יח):
22. And you shall observe all My statutes and all My ordinances, and fulfill them, then the Land, to which I am bringing you to dwell therein, will not vomit you out.   כב. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת כָּל חֻקֹּתַי וְאֶת כָּל מִשְׁפָּטַי וַעֲשִׂיתֶם אֹתָם וְלֹא תָקִיא אֶתְכֶם הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי מֵבִיא אֶתְכֶם שָׁמָּה לָשֶׁבֶת בָּהּ:
23. You shall not follow the practices of the nation that I am sending away from before you, for they committed all these [sins], and I was disgusted with them.   כג. וְלֹא תֵלְכוּ בְּחֻקֹּת הַגּוֹי אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי מְשַׁלֵּחַ מִפְּנֵיכֶם כִּי אֶת כָּל אֵלֶּה עָשׂוּ וָאָקֻץ בָּם:
and so I was disgusted with them: Denotes “disgust,” just as [in the verse], “I am disgusted (קַצְתִּי) with my life” (Gen. 27:46), like a man who loathes (קָץ) his food [so God loathed those nations]. — [Torath Kohanim 20:125]   ואקץ: לשון מיאוס, כמו (בראשית כז מו) קצתי בחיי, כאדם שהוא קץ במזונו:
24. So I said to you, You shall possess their land, and I shall give it to you to possess it a land flowing with milk and honey. I am the Lord your God, Who has distinguished you from the peoples.   כד. וָאֹמַר לָכֶם אַתֶּם תִּירְשׁוּ אֶת אַדְמָתָם וַאֲנִי אֶתְּנֶנָּה לָכֶם לָרֶשֶׁת אֹתָהּ אֶרֶץ זָבַת חָלָב וּדְבָשׁ אֲנִי יְהוָֹה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר הִבְדַּלְתִּי אֶתְכֶם מִן הָעַמִּים:
25. And you shall distinguish between clean animals and unclean ones, and between unclean birds and clean ones; thus you shall not make yourselves disgusting through [unclean] animals and birds and any [creature] which crawls on the earth, that I have distinguished for you to render unclean.   כה. וְהִבְדַּלְתֶּם בֵּין הַבְּהֵמָה הַטְּהֹרָה לַטְּמֵאָה וּבֵין הָעוֹף הַטָּמֵא לַטָּהֹר וְלֹא תְשַׁקְּצוּ אֶת נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם בַּבְּהֵמָה וּבָעוֹף וּבְכֹל אֲשֶׁר תִּרְמֹשׂ הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר הִבְדַּלְתִּי לָכֶם לְטַמֵּא:
And you shall distinguish between clean animals and unclean ones: It is not necessary for Scripture to say [that we must distinguish] between a cow and a donkey, since they are easily distinguishable and identifiable. Rather, [the Torah means that we must distinguish] between [an animal that] is clean because of you [i.e., permissible for you to eat because of your slaughtering], and [one that is] unclean because of you [i.e., forbidden for you to eat because of your slaughtering. [When an animal is slaughtered, both “signs,” i.e., organs, must be severed, namely, the esophagus, (gullet) and the trachea (windpipe), or at least, the majority of each. Thus, our verse here is referring to the following: The distinction] between an animal of which [one organ was severed completely and] the majority of the [other] organ was severed, [thus rendering the animal kosher], and [an animal of which one organ was completely severed] whereas only half the [other] organ was severed [thus rendering that animal nonkosher]. And what is the difference between its majority and half of it [that would mean the difference between kosher and nonkosher]? A hairbreadth [and consequently, Scripture commands us to make a careful distinction]. — [Torath Kohanim 20:116]   והבדלתם בין הבהמה הטהרה לטמאה: אין צריך לומר בין פרה לחמור, שהרי מובדלין ונכרין הם, אלא בין טהורה לך לטמאה לך, בין שנשחט רובו של סימן לנשחט חציו. וכמה בין רובו לחציו, מלא שערה:
that I have distinguished for you to render unclean: [I.e.,] to render] forbidden [to eat, as above]. — [Torath Kohanim 20:116]   אשר הבדלתי לכם לטמא: לאסור:
26. And you shall be holy to Me, for I, the Lord, am holy, and I have distinguished you from the peoples, to be Mine.   כו. וִהְיִיתֶם לִי קְדשִׁים כִּי קָדוֹשׁ אֲנִי יְהוָֹה וָאַבְדִּל אֶתְכֶם מִן הָעַמִּים לִהְיוֹת לִי:
And I have distinguished you from the peoples, to be Mine: If you are separated from them [through your observance of Torah], you will be Mine, but if not, you will belong to Nebuchadnezzar and his ilk. Rabbi Eleazar ben Azariah says: How do we know that a person should not say, “I find pork disgusting,” or “It is impossible for me to wear a mixture [of wool and linen],” but rather, one should say, “I indeed wish to, but what can I do-my Father in heaven has imposed these decrees upon me?” Because Scripture says here, “And I have distinguished you from the peoples, to be Mine”-your very distinction from the other peoples must be for My Name, separating yourself from transgression and accepting upon yourself the yoke of the Kingdom of Heaven. — [Torath Kohanim 20:128]   ואבדל אתכם מן העמים להיות לי: אם אתם מובדלים מהם הרי אתם שלי, ואם לאו הרי אתם של נבוכדנצר וחביריו. רבי אלעזר בן עזריה אומר מנין שלא יאמר אדם נפשי קצה בבשר חזיר, אי אפשי ללבוש כלאים, אבל יאמר אפשי, ומה אעשה ואבי שבשמים גזר עלי, תלמוד לומר ואבדיל אתכם מן העמים להיות לי, שתהא הבדלתכם מהם לשמי, פורש מן העבירה ומקבל עליו עול מלכות שמים:
27. And a man or a woman who has [the sorcery of] Ov or Yid'oni, shall surely be put to death; they shall pelt them with stones; their blood is upon themselves.   כז. וְאִישׁ אוֹ אִשָּׁה כִּי יִהְיֶה בָהֶם אוֹב אוֹ יִדְּעֹנִי מוֹת יוּמָתוּ בָּאֶבֶן יִרְגְּמוּ אֹתָם דְּמֵיהֶם בָּם:
[And a man or a woman] who has [the sorcery of] Ov or Yid’oni: Here, regarding those [who practice the sorcery of Ov or Yid’oni,] Scripture states death, while above (verse 6), Scripture states excision. [With] witnesses and warning [not to commit the sin], they incur [death by] stoning, but if [the perpetrators transgress] willfully but without warning, they incur excision; and if they transgress unintentionally, [they must bring] a sin-offering. And this [general principle regarding death, excision or sin-offering,] applies to all who are subject to the death penalty, about whom excision is also stated.   כי יהיה בהם אוב וגו': כאן נאמר בהם מיתה ולמעלה כרת. עדים והתראה בסקילה, מזיד בלא התראה בהכרת ושגגתם חטאת, וכן בכל חייבי מיתות שנאמר בהם כרת:
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