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Torah Reading for Tazria-Metzora

Torah Reading for Tazria-Metzora

Leviticus 12:1-15:33

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1st Portion

Chapter 12

1. And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying:   א. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהֹוָה אֶל משֶׁה לֵּאמֹר:
2. Speak to the children of Israel, saying: If a woman conceives and gives birth to a male, she shall be unclean for seven days; as [in] the days of her menstrual flow, she shall be unclean.   ב. דַּבֵּר אֶל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר אִשָּׁה כִּי תַזְרִיעַ וְיָלְדָה זָכָר וְטָמְאָה שִׁבְעַת יָמִים כִּימֵי נִדַּת דְּו‍ֹתָהּ תִּטְמָא:
If a woman conceives: Rabbi Simlai said: “Just as in the Creation, man was created after all domestic animals, wild beasts, and birds, so too, the law [concerning the cleanness] of man is stated after the law [concerning the cleanness] of domestic animals, wild beasts, and birds.”- [Vayikra Rabbah 14:1]   אשה כי תזריע: אמר ר' שמלאי כשם שיצירתו של אדם אחר כל בהמה חיה ועוף במעשה בראשית, כך תורתו נתפרשה אחר תורת בהמה חיה ועוף:
If [a woman] conceives: Heb. כִּי תַזְרִיעַ. [These words are stated] to include the case of [a woman] who gave birth to a dissolved [fetus, i.e., the fetus had matured, but had subsequently] dissolved [in the womb], resulting in a semen-like mass (זֶרַע akin to תַזְרִיע), its mother has the impurity of birth. — [Niddah 27b]   כי תזריע: לרבות שאפילו ילדתו מחוי, שנמחה ונעשה כעין זרע, אמו טמאה לידה:
as [in] the days of her menstrual flow: According to the order of all the uncleanness mentioned in regard to the menstruating woman (נִדָּה), she becomes unclean on account of giving birth. [This is true] even if the womb opens without [any issue of] blood.   כימי נדת דותה תטמא: כסדר כל טומאה האמורה בנדה מטמאה בטומאת לידה, ואפילו נפתח הקבר בלא דם:
flow: Heb. דְּוֹתָהּ This expression denotes a substance that flows from her body. Another explanation: It denotes illness (מַדְוֶה) and sickness, for there is not a woman who sees [menstrual] blood without feeling ill, [since] her head and limbs become heavy upon her.   דותה: לשון דבר הזב מגופה. לשון אחר לשון מדוה וחולי, שאין אשה רואה דם שלא תחלה ראשה ואבריה כבדין עליה:
3. And on the eighth day, the flesh of his foreskin shall be circumcised.   ג. וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי יִמּוֹל בְּשַׂר עָרְלָתוֹ:
4. And for thirty three days, she shall remain in the blood of purity; she shall not touch anything holy, nor may she enter the Sanctuary, until the days of her purification have been completed.   ד. וּשְׁלשִׁים יוֹם וּשְׁלשֶׁת יָמִים תֵּשֵׁב בִּדְמֵי טָהֳרָה בְּכָל קֹדֶשׁ לֹא תִגָּע וְאֶל הַמִּקְדָּשׁ לֹא תָבֹא עַד מְלֹאת יְמֵי טָהֳרָהּ:
she shall remain: The word תֵּשֵׁב means only staying [or remaining], like, “And you dwelled (וַתֵּשְׁבוּ) in Kadesh” (Deut. 1:46), “and he dwelt (וַיֵּשֶׁב) in the plain of Mamre” (Gen. 13:18).   תשב: אין תשב אלא לשון עכבה, כמו (דברים א מו) ותשבו בקדש, וישב באלוני ממרא (בראשית יג יח):
in the blood of purity: [I. e., during this interim period,] although she may see blood [issued from her], she is ritually clean. — [Torath Kohanim 12:15]   בדמי טהרה: אף על פי שרואה דם טהורה. בדמי טהרה לא מפיק ה"א, והוא שם דבר, כמו טוהר. ימי טהרה מפיק ה"א, ימי טוהר שלה:
in the blood of purity: Heb. טָהֳרָה. [This could be mistakenly understood as “in the blood of her purity.” However,] this is not an aspirate “hey,” [as is evidenced by the absence of a dot in the final letter ה]. Therefore, it is an [unqualified] noun, like the word טֹהַר [meaning “purity”].   בכל קדש וגו': לרבות את התרומה, לפי שזו טבולת יום ארוך, שטבלה לסוף שבעה ואין שמשה מעריב לטהרה עד שקיעת החמה של יום ארבעים, שלמחר תביא את כפרת טהרתה:
the days of her purification: Heb. טָהֳרָהּ. [Here,] this is an aspirate “hey,” meaning “the days of her purification.”   לא תגע: אזהרה לאוכל, כמו ששנויה ביבמות (עה א):
she shall not touch [anything holy]: [Although the verse says “shall not touch,” this is] a warning against one eating [anything holy] as is taught in Tractate Yev. (75a).   :
[she shall not touch] anything holy: This comes to include terumah [being prohibited to this woman, before she is ritually clean (Torath Kohanim 12:16). This woman is considered a טְבוּל יוֹם, i.e., someone who has immerses in a mikvah, but must still wait for that day to elapse in order to become completely clean. Now, how is she considered a טְבוּל יוֹם ? We are talking here about a thirty-three day period. However, she does fall under this category] because she is considered a טְבוּלַת יוֹם אָרֹ [i.e., she must wait a “prolonged day,” insofar as] she immerses after seven [days], but the sunset that she must wait for [in order to become pure is not the sunset of the day of her immersion, but rather, it] is the sunset of the fortieth day [from birth], since it is [only] on the following day that she may bring the atonement [sacrifice] of her purification. [Thus, the whole period is to be considered one prolonged day, in the context of the law regarding her eating anything holy.]   :
5. And if she gives birth to a female, she shall be unclean for two weeks, like her menstruation [period]. And for sixty six days, she shall remain in the blood of purity.   ה. וְאִם נְקֵבָה תֵלֵד וְטָמְאָה שְׁבֻעַיִם כְּנִדָּתָהּ וְשִׁשִּׁים יוֹם וְשֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תֵּשֵׁב עַל דְּמֵי טָהֳרָה:
6. And when the days of her purification have been completed, whether for a son or for a daughter, she shall bring a sheep in its first year as a burnt offering, and a young dove or a turtle dove as a sin offering, to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting, to the kohen.   ו. וּבִמְלֹאת | יְמֵי טָהֳרָהּ לְבֵן אוֹ לְבַת תָּבִיא כֶּבֶשׂ בֶּן שְׁנָתוֹ לְעֹלָה וּבֶן יוֹנָה אוֹ תֹר לְחַטָּאת אֶל פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד אֶל הַכֹּהֵן:
7. And he shall offer it up before the Lord and effect atonement for her, and thus, she will be purified from the source of her blood. This is the law of a woman who gives birth to a male or to a female.   ז. וְהִקְרִיבוֹ לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה וְכִפֶּר עָלֶיהָ וְטָהֲרָה מִמְּקֹר דָּמֶיהָ זֹאת תּוֹרַת הַיֹּלֶדֶת לַזָּכָר אוֹ לַנְּקֵבָה:
And he shall offer it up: Heb. וְהִקְרִיבוֹ. This [singular object comes] to teach you that only one [of these sacrifices, if it has not yet been brought], holds her back from eating anything holy. And which one is it? It is the sin-offering, for it says, “a sin-offering. And [the kohen] shall effect atonement for her, and thus, she will be purified” (verse 8). The one through which her atonement is effected [namely, the sin-offering], is the same one upon which her purification is dependent. — [Torath Kohanim 12:27]   והקריבו: למדך שאין מעכבה לאכול בקדשים אלא אחד מהם. ואי זה הוא, זה חטאת, שנאמר וכפר עליה הכהן וטהרה, מי שהוא בא לכפר, בו הטהרה תלוייה:
and she will thus become clean: From here, [we can conclude] that until here [namely, the offering up of her sacrifices, she is called unclean [and may not eat sacrificial flesh or enter the Sanctuary]. - [Yeb. 74b]   וטהרה: מכלל שעד כאן קרוייה טמאה:
8. And if she cannot afford a sheep, she shall take two turtle doves or two young doves: one as a burnt offering and one as a sin offering. And the kohen shall effect atonement for her, and she shall become clean.   ח. וְאִם לֹא תִמְצָא יָדָהּ דֵּי שֶׂה וְלָקְחָה שְׁתֵּי תֹרִים אוֹ שְׁנֵי בְּנֵי יוֹנָה אֶחָד לְעֹלָה וְאֶחָד לְחַטָּאת וְכִפֶּר עָלֶיהָ הַכֹּהֵן וְטָהֵרָה:
One as a burnt-offering and one as a sin-offering: Scripture places [the burnt-offering] before [the sin-offering] only insofar as how they must be read [in the Torah. This is due to the higher esteem of the burnt-offering, because it is burned in its entirety (Maskil LeDavid).] But the sacrificing of the sin-offering precedes [that of]the burnt-offering. Thus we learned in Zevachim, in the chapter entitled כָּל-הַתָּדִיר (90a).   אחד לעלה ואחד לחטאת: לא הקדימה הכתוב אלא למקראה, אבל הקרבת חטאת קודם לעולה, כך שנינו בזבחים בפרק כל התדיר (זבחים צ א):

Chapter 13

1. And the Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron, saying:   א. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהֹוָה אֶל משֶׁה וְאֶל אַהֲרֹן לֵאמֹר:
2. If a man has a se'eith, a sappachath, or a bahereth on the skin of his flesh, and it forms a lesion of tzara'ath on the skin of his flesh, he shall be brought to Aaron the kohen, or to one of his sons, the kohanim.   ב. אָדָם כִּי יִהְיֶה בְעוֹר בְּשָׂרוֹ שְׂאֵת אוֹ סַפַּחַת אוֹ בַהֶרֶת וְהָיָה בְעוֹר בְּשָׂרוֹ לְנֶגַע צָרָעַת וְהוּבָא אֶל אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֵן אוֹ אֶל אַחַד מִבָּנָיו הַכֹּהֲנִים:
se’eith, a sappachath, [or a bahereth]: Heb. The [terms se’eith and bahereth] are the names of two [major] lesions [and the term sappachath refers to categories related to these two major lesions], and one [major lesion, namely, bahereth] is whiter than the other [se’eith].-[Shev. 6b].   שאת או ספחת וגו': שמות נגעים הם ולבנות זו מזו:
bahereth: Heb. בַּהֶרֶת, spot, taye in Old French. This is similar to the verse, “it is [like] bright [clouds] (בָּהִיר) in the skies” (Job 37:21) [i.e., like the spots created by bright clouds in the blue sky].   בהרת: חברבורות טיי"א בלע"ז [כתם] וכן (איוב לז כא) בהיר הוא בשחקים:
[he shall be brought] to Aaron [the kohen, or to one of his sons]: It is a Scriptural decree that the uncleanness of lesions and their cleanness do not come about except by the pronouncement of a kohen. — [Torath Kohanim 13:43]   אל אהרן וגו': גזירת הכתוב היא שאין טומאת נגעים וטהרתן אלא על פי כהן:
3. The kohen shall look at the lesion on the skin of his flesh, and [if] hair in the lesion has turned white and the appearance of the lesion is deeper than the skin of his flesh, it is a lesion of tzara'ath. When the kohen sees this, he shall pronounce him unclean.   ג. וְרָאָה הַכֹּהֵן אֶת הַנֶּגַע בְּעוֹר הַבָּשָׂר וְשֵׂעָר בַּנֶּגַע הָפַךְ | לָבָן וּמַרְאֵה הַנֶּגַע עָמֹק מֵעוֹר בְּשָׂרוֹ נֶגַע צָרַעַת הוּא וְרָאָהוּ הַכֹּהֵן וְטִמֵּא אֹתוֹ:
[if] hair in the lesion has turned white: Heb. וְשֵׂעָר. At first [the hair] was black, and then it turned white in the lesion. The minimum [quantity referred to by the term] שֵׂעָר, hair, is two, [as opposed to שַׂעֲרָה, a hair, as in Jud. 20:16. Thus, there shall be a minimum of two hairs that turn white in the lesion for this law to apply]. — [Torath Kohanim 13:4547]   ושער בנגע הפך לבן: מתחלה שחור והפך ללבן בתוך הנגע, ומעוט שער שנים:
[and the appearance of the lesion] is deeper than the skin of his flesh: Anything with a white appearance seems deeper [in contrast to a darker object next to it], just as sunlight appears deeper than a shadow. — [Shev. 6b]   עמק מעור בשרו: כל מראה לבן עמוק הוא, כמראה חמה עמוקה מן הצל:
he shall pronounce him unclean: He shall say to him: “You are unclean,” for white hair is a sign of uncleanness by Scriptural decree.   וטמא אתו: יאמר לו טמא אתה, ששער לבן סימן טומאה הוא גזירת הכתוב:
4. But if it is a white bahereth on the skin of his flesh, and its appearance is not deeper than the skin, and its hair has not turned white, the kohen shall quarantine the [person with the] lesion for seven days.   ד. וְאִם בַּהֶרֶת לְבָנָה הִוא בְּעוֹר בְּשָׂרוֹ וְעָמֹק אֵין מַרְאֶהָ מִן הָעוֹר וּשְׂעָרָה לֹא הָפַךְ לָבָן וְהִסְגִּיר הַכֹּהֵן אֶת הַנֶּגַע שִׁבְעַת יָמִים:
[But if it is a white bahereth…] and its appearance is not deeper: I do not know its meaning [since a white bahereth should always appear deeper than the skin, as above, yet here the verse describes a case where it does not].   ועמק אין מראה: לא ידעתי פירושו:
quarantine: He shall have him confined to one house, and the person shall not be seen [by the kohen] until the end of the week. [Only] then will his signs indicate about him [whether he is clean or unclean].   והסגיר: יסגירנו בבית אחד ולא יראה עד סוף השבוע, ויוכיחו סימנים עליו:
5. And on the seventh day, the kohen shall see him. And, behold! the lesion has remained the same in its appearance; the lesion has not spread on the skin. So the kohen shall quarantine him for seven days a second time.   ה. וְרָאָהוּ הַכֹּהֵן בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי וְהִנֵּה הַנֶּגַע עָמַד בְּעֵינָיו לֹא פָשָׂה הַנֶּגַע בָּעוֹר וְהִסְגִּירוֹ הַכֹּהֵן שִׁבְעַת יָמִים שֵׁנִית:
in its appearance: In its original appearance and size.   בעיניו: במראהו ובשיעורו הראשון:
[The kohen] shall quarantine him… a second time: But if it [the lesion] spread in the first week, he is definitely unclean. - [See Nega’im 3:3]   והסגירו שנית: הא אם פשה בשבוע ראשון טמא מוחלט:
6. And the kohen shall see him on the seventh day a second time. And, behold! the lesion has become dimmer, and the lesion has not spread on the skin, the kohen shall pronounce him clean. It is a mispachath. He shall immerse his garments and become clean.   ו. וְרָאָה הַכֹּהֵן אֹתוֹ בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי שֵׁנִית וְהִנֵּה כֵּהָה הַנֶּגַע וְלֹא פָשָׂה הַנֶּגַע בָּעוֹר וְטִהֲרוֹ הַכֹּהֵן מִסְפַּחַת הִוא וְכִבֶּס בְּגָדָיו וְטָהֵר:
has become dimmer: [I.e.,] it became dimmer in its appearance. Hence, if it remained the same in its appearance or spread, he is unclean.   כהה: הוכהה מראיתו, הא אם עמד במראיתו או פשה טמא:
mispachath: The name of a clean lesion.   מספחת: שם נגע טהור:
He shall immerse his garments and become clean: Since he was required to be quarantined, he is considered unclean and requires immersion.   וכבס בגדיו וטהר: הואיל ונזקק להסגר נקרא טמא וצריך טבילה:
7. However, if the mispachath.spreads on the skin after it has been shown it to the kohen for its purification, it shall be shown to the kohen a second time.   ז. וְאִם פָּשׂה תִפְשֶׂה הַמִּסְפַּחַת בָּעוֹר אַחֲרֵי הֵרָאֹתוֹ אֶל הַכֹּהֵן לְטָהֳרָתוֹ וְנִרְאָה שֵׁנִית אֶל הַכֹּהֵן:
8. The kohen shall look [at it]. And, behold! the mispachath has spread on the skin. The kohen shall pronounce him unclean. It is tzara'ath.   ח. וְרָאָה הַכֹּהֵן וְהִנֵּה פָּשְׂתָה הַמִּסְפַּחַת בָּעוֹר וְטִמְּאוֹ הַכֹּהֵן צָרַעַת הִוא:
The kohen shall pronounce him unclean: And as soon as [the kohen] has pronounced him unclean, he is then “definitely” [unclean, and when he is healed, he] requires the bird offerings, shaving, and the sacrifice, specified in the section commencing: “This shall be the law of the metzora ” (תּוֹרַת הַמְצֹרָע) זֹאת תִּהֶיה. — [see Lev., Chapter 14; Meg. 8b]   וטמאו הכהן: ומשטמאו הרי הוא מוחלט וזקוק לצפרים ולתגלחת ולקרבן האמור בפרשת זאת תהיה:
It is tzara’ath: I.e., this mispachath [is tzara’ath].   צרעת הוא: המספחת הזאת:
tzara’ath: Heb. צָרַעַת. [The term] צָרַעַת is feminine [which is why the verse says צָרַעַת הִוא, using the feminine word for “it”]. [The term] נֶגַע, lesion, however, is masculine [thus in verse 3, for instance, it says צָרַעַת הוּא, using the masculine word for “it,” referring to the נֶגַע rather than to the tzara’ath].   צרעת: לשון נקבה:
9. If a man has a lesion of tzara'ath, he shall be brought to the kohen.   ט. נֶגַע צָרַעַת כִּי תִהְיֶה בְּאָדָם וְהוּבָא אֶל הַכֹּהֵן:
10. The kohen shall look [at it]. And, behold! there is a white se'eith on the skin, and either it has turned the hair white, or there is healthy, live flesh in the se'eith,   י. וְרָאָה הַכֹּהֵן וְהִנֵּה שְׂאֵת לְבָנָה בָּעוֹר וְהִיא הָפְכָה שֵׂעָר לָבָן וּמִחְיַת בָּשָׂר חַי בַּשְׂאֵת:
healthy flesh: Heb. מִחְיַת, sa(y)nement in Old French, a healing. [It means that] part of the white in the se’eith lesion reverts to appear like [healthy] flesh. This is also a sign of uncleanness. [Hence, a sign of uncleanness is] either white hair without a מִחְיַָה, or a מִחְיַָה, an area of normal flesh, even without white hair. And even though מִחְיַָה is mentioned only in connection with the se’eith, nevertheless, in all [major] manifestations [of the lesion of tzara’ath] and their related categories, it is a sign of uncleanness. — [Torath Kohanim 13:69]   ומחית: שינמינ"ט בלע"ז [רפוי], שנהפך מקצת הלובן שבתוך השאת למראה בשר, אף הוא סימן טומאה, שער לבן בלא מחיה, ומחיה בלא שער לבן, ואף על פי שלא נאמרה מחיה אלא בשאת, אף בכל המראות ותולדותיהן הוא סימן טומאה:
11. it is old tzara'ath on the skin of his flesh, and the kohen shall pronounce him unclean; he need not quarantine him because he is unclean.   יא. צָרַעַת נוֹשֶׁנֶת הִוא בְּעוֹר בְּשָׂרוֹ וְטִמְּאוֹ הַכֹּהֵן לֹא יַסְגִּרֶנּוּ כִּי טָמֵא הוּא:
it is an old tzara’ath: It is an old lesion which is under the area of normal skin. This wound appears healthy on the surface, but it is full of fluid underneath, so that one should not say, “Since healthy skin has appeared over [the lesion], I shall pronounce it clean!”   צרעת נושנת הוא: מכה ישנה היא תחת המחיה, וחבורה זו נראית בריאה מלמעלה ותחתיה מלאה לחה, שלא תאמר הואיל ועלתה מחיה אטהרנה:
12. And if the tzara'ath has spread over the skin, whereby the tzara'ath covers all the skin of the [person with the] lesion, from his head to his feet, wherever the eyes of the kohen can see it,   יב. וְאִם פָּרוֹחַ תִּפְרַח הַצָּרַעַת בָּעוֹר וְכִסְּתָה הַצָּרַעַת אֵת כָּל עוֹר הַנֶּגַע מֵרֹאשׁוֹ וְעַד רַגְלָיו לְכָל מַרְאֵה עֵינֵי הַכֹּהֵן:
from his head: [I.e., from the head] of the person [down] to his feet.   מראשו: של אדם ועד רגליו:
wherever the eyes of the kohen can see it: [This phrase] comes to exclude a kohen whose eyesight has dimmed. [I.e., a kohen with one blind eye or with impaired vision in both eyes may not pronounce the status of lesions.]- [Torath Kohanim 13:83]   לכל מראה עיני הכהן: פרט לכהן שחשך מאורו:
13. then the kohen shall look [at it]. And, behold! the tzara'ath has covered all his flesh, he shall pronounce [the person with] the lesion clean. He has turned completely white; he is clean.   יג. וְרָאָה הַכֹּהֵן וְהִנֵּה כִסְּתָה הַצָּרַעַת אֶת כָּל בְּשָׂרוֹ וְטִהַר אֶת הַנָּגַע כֻּלּוֹ הָפַךְ לָבָן טָהוֹר הוּא:
14. But on the day that live flesh appears in it, he shall become unclean.   יד. וּבְיוֹם הֵרָאוֹת בּוֹ בָּשָׂר חַי יִטְמָא:
But on the day that live flesh appears in it: If healthy flesh grows on it, [Scripture] has already explained that healthy flesh is a sign of uncleanness. [Therefore, what is this verse telling us here?] However, a case where the lesion was located on one of twenty-four tips of the limbs is not deemed unclean on account of healthy flesh because the lesion cannot be seen all at one glance [once an area of healthy flesh appears within the lesion], since these [limb tips] slope down on either side. [Therefore it is not deemed unclean.] If, however, such a tip of a limb altered [in its form], allowing its slanted facet to appear through fat-for example, when the tip of a limb became fat and broadened, and the healthy flesh (מִחְיַָה) became visible within [the lesion, thereby allowing the lesion to become visible all at one glance], Scripture teaches us [here] that it becomes unclean. — [Torath Kohanim 13:86]   וביום הראות בו בשר חי: אם צמחה בו מחיה הרי כבר פירש שהמחיה סימן טומאה, אלא הרי שהיה הנגע באחד מעשרים וארבעה ראשי איברים שאין מטמאין משום מחיה, לפי שאין נראה הנגע כולו כאחד ששופע אילך ואילך, וחזר ראש האבר ונתגלה שפועו ע"י שומן, כגון שהבריא ונעשה רחב ונראית בו המחיה, למדנו הכתוב שתטמא:
But on the day [that live flesh] appears: [The verse could have simply said, “But when live flesh appears.”] What does Scripture teach us [by saying,] “on the day”]? It [comes] to teach that there is a day on which you [the kohen] look [i.e., examine the suspected lesion], and there is a day on which you do not look [i.e., when he may not examine it]. From here [our Rabbis] say that a bridegroom is exempt [from having a lesion examined] throughout all the seven days of the wedding feast, for himself, his garments, and his house. Similarly, during a Festival [people] are exempt [from having a lesion examined] throughout all the days of the Festival. - [Torath Kohanim 13:87]   וביום: מה תלמוד לומר, ללמד יש יום שאתה רואה בו ויש יום שאין אתה רואה בו, מכאן אמרו חתן נותנין לו כל שבעת ימי המשתה לו ולכסותו ולביתו, וכן ברגל נותנין לו כל ימי הרגל:
15. When the kohen sees the healthy, live flesh, he shall pronounce him unclean. The live flesh is unclean; it is tzara'ath.   טו. וְרָאָה הַכֹּהֵן אֶת הַבָּשָׂר הַחַי וְטִמְּאוֹ הַבָּשָׂר הַחַי טָמֵא הוּא צָרַעַת הוּא:
it is tzara’ath: meaning, that flesh. Flesh (בָּשָׂר) is grammatically masculine. [Hence, the wording: צָרַעַת הוּא, rather than צָרַעַת הִיא, as in verse 8.]   צרעת הוא: הבשר ההוא. בשר לשון זכר:
16. But, if the healthy, live flesh once again turns white, he shall come to the kohen.   טז. אוֹ כִי יָשׁוּב הַבָּשָׂר הַחַי וְנֶהְפַּךְ לְלָבָן וּבָא אֶל הַכֹּהֵן:
17. And the kohen shall look at it. And, behold! the lesion has turned white; the kohen shall pronounce the lesion clean. He is clean.   יז. וְרָאָהוּ הַכֹּהֵן וְהִנֵּה נֶהְפַּךְ הַנֶּגַע לְלָבָן וְטִהַר הַכֹּהֵן אֶת הַנֶּגַע טָהוֹר הוּא:
18. If [a person's] flesh has an inflammation on its skin, and it heals,   יח. וּבָשָׂר כִּי יִהְיֶה בוֹ בְעֹרוֹ שְׁחִין וְנִרְפָּא:
an inflammation: Heb. שְׁחִין. [This term] denotes heat, that the flesh became heated by the injury caused it by a blow, not by fire. — [Chul. 8a]   שחין: לשון חמום, שנתחמם הבשר בלקוי הבא לו מחמת מכה, שלא מחמת האור:
and it heals: The inflammation healed, and in its place, another lesion appeared. [Not that the flesh healed, because, were that the case, there would be no lesion.]   ונרפא: השחין העלה ארוכה ובמקומו העלה נגע אחר:
19. and on the place of the inflammation there is a white se'eith, or a reddish white bahereth, it shall be shown to the kohen.   יט. וְהָיָה בִּמְקוֹם הַשְּׁחִין שְׂאֵת לְבָנָה אוֹ בַהֶרֶת לְבָנָה אֲדַמְדָּמֶת וְנִרְאָה אֶל הַכֹּהֵן:
A reddish-white bahereth: [meaning] that the lesion is not solid white, but streaked and blended of two colors, white and red.   או בהרת לבנה אדמדמת: שאין הנגע לבן חלק אלא פתוך ומעורב בשתי מראות לובן ואודם:
20. The kohen shall look [at it]. And, behold! its appearance is lower than the skin, and its hair has turned white; so the kohen shall pronounce him unclean. It is a lesion of tzara'ath that has erupted on the inflammation.   כ. וְרָאָה הַכֹּהֵן וְהִנֵּה מַרְאֶהָ שָׁפָל מִן הָעוֹר וּשְׂעָרָהּ הָפַךְ לָבָן וְטִמְּאוֹ הַכֹּהֵן נֶגַע צָרַעַת הִוא בַּשְּׁחִין פָּרָחָה:
it appearance is lower than the skin: But its substance is not lower. Rather, because of its whiteness, the lesion [only] appears lower and deeper [than the skin], just as sunlight appears deeper than a shadow. - [Torath Kohanim 13:50]   מראה שפל: ואין ממשה שפל, אלא מתוך לבנוניתו הוא נראה שפל ועמוק, כמראה חמה עמוקה מן הצל:
21. But if the kohen looks at it, and behold! it does not contain white hair, nor does it appear to be lower than the skin, and it is dim, the kohen shall quarantine him for seven days.   כא. וְאִם | יִרְאֶנָּה הַכֹּהֵן וְהִנֵּה אֵין בָּהּ שֵׂעָר לָבָן וּשְׁפָלָה אֵינֶנָּה מִן הָעוֹר וְהִיא כֵהָה וְהִסְגִּירוֹ הַכֹּהֵן שִׁבְעַת יָמִים:
22. And if it spreads on the skin, the kohen shall pronounce him unclean. It is a lesion.   כב. וְאִם פָּשׂה תִפְשֶׂה בָּעוֹר וְטִמֵּא הַכֹּהֵן אֹתוֹ נֶגַע הִוא:
It is a lesion: Heb. נֶגַע הִוא. [Here, the pronoun is feminine. Since נֶגַע is masculine, however, it requires the masculine pronoun הוּא. But our verse here uses the feminine הִיא because the word “it” is referring to] this se’eith or this bahereth [both of which are feminine].   נגע הוא: השאת הזאת או הבהרת:
23. But if the bahereth remains in its place, not spreading, it is the scar tissue of the inflammation, and the kohen shall pronounce him clean.   כג. וְאִם תַּחְתֶּיהָ תַּעֲמֹד הַבַּהֶרֶת לֹא פָשָׂתָה צָרֶבֶת הַשְּׁחִין הִוא וְטִהֲרוֹ הַכֹּהֵן:
in its place: Heb. תַּחְתֶּיה, [lit., “under it,” here meaning:] In its place.   תחתיה: במקומה:
it is the scar tissue of the inflamation: Heb. צָרֶבֶת הַשְּׁחִין, as the Targum [Onkelos] renders it: רוֹשַׁם שִׁיחִנָא, a residual impression of the inflammation, identifiable on the flesh [i.e., a scar]. Every expression of צָרֶבֶת [in Scripture] denotes the contraction of skin that has become shriveled because of heat. Similarly, the verse, “And all faces [from the south to the north] will be shriveled by it” (Ezek. 21:3), retrire in Old French, to contract.   צרבת השחין: כתרגומו רושם שיחנא, אינו אלא רושם החמום הניכר בבשר. כל צרבת לשון רגיעת עור הנרגע מחמת חימום, כמו (יחזקאל כא ג) ונצרבו בה כל פנים, רייטרי"ר בלע"ז [לכווץ]:
it is scar tissue: Heb. צָרֶבֶת, retriyemant in Old French, shriveling.   צרבת: ריטריימינ"ט בלע"ז [כיווץ]:

2nd Portion

Chapter 13

24. If [a person's] flesh has a fire burn on its skin, and on the healed area of the burn, there is a reddish white or white bahereth,   כד. אוֹ בָשָׂר כִּי יִהְיֶה בְעֹרוֹ מִכְוַת אֵשׁ וְהָיְתָה מִחְיַת הַמִּכְוָה בַּהֶרֶת לְבָנָה אֲדַמְדֶּמֶת אוֹ לְבָנָה:
the healed area of the burn: Saynement [in Old French]. When the burn healed, the area changed to become a blended bahereth [of white and red], or pure white one. The signs of a burn (מִכְוָה) and the signs of an inflammation (שְׁחִין) are the same. [If so,] why does Scripture separate them [into two sections]? To teach us that they do not become combined with each other, [i.e., while a griss, the area of a bean, is the minimum surface area of a lesion for it to be deemed unclean,] if a lesion the size of half a griss emerges in an inflammation, and [another] the size of half a griss in a burn, they are not judged as [though] a full griss [of lesion has emerged]. — [Chul. 8a]   מחית המכוה: שיינימנ"ט בלע"ז [רפוי] כשחיתה המכוה נהפכה לבהרת פתוכה או לבנה חלקה. וסימני מכוה וסימני שחין שוים הם, ולמה חלקן הכתוב, לומר שאין מצטרפין זה עם זה, נולד חצי גריס בשחין וחצי גריס במכוה לא ידונו כגריס:
25. the kohen shall look at it. And, behold! the hair has turned white in the bahereth, and its appearance is deeper than the skin, it is tzara'ath which has spread in the burn. So, the kohen shall pronounce him unclean. It is a lesion of tzara'ath.   כה. וְרָאָה אֹתָהּ הַכֹּהֵן וְהִנֵּה נֶהְפַּךְ שֵׂעָר לָבָן בַּבַּהֶרֶת וּמַרְאֶהָ עָמֹק מִן הָעוֹר צָרַעַת הִוא בַּמִּכְוָה פָּרָחָה וְטִמֵּא אֹתוֹ הַכֹּהֵן נֶגַע צָרַעַת הִוא:
26. But, if the kohen looks at it, and, behold! there is no white hair in the bahereth, and it is not lower than the skin and it is dim, the kohen shall quarantine him for seven days.   כו. וְאִם | יִרְאֶנָּה הַכֹּהֵן וְהִנֵּה אֵין בַּבַּהֶרֶת שֵׂעָר לָבָן וּשְׁפָלָה אֵינֶנָּה מִן הָעוֹר וְהִוא כֵהָה וְהִסְגִּירוֹ הַכֹּהֵן שִׁבְעַת יָמִים:
27. And the kohen shall look at it on the seventh day. If it has spread on the skin, the kohen shall pronounce him unclean. It is a lesion of tzara'ath.   כז. וְרָאָהוּ הַכֹּהֵן בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי אִם פָּשׂה תִפְשֶׂה בָּעוֹר וְטִמֵּא הַכֹּהֵן אֹתוֹ נֶגַע צָרַעַת הִוא:
28. But if the bahereth remains in its place, not increasing on the skin, and it is dim, it is a se'eith of the burn, and the kohen shall pronounce him clean, because it is the scar tissue of the burn.   כח. וְאִם תַּחְתֶּיהָ תַעֲמֹד הַבַּהֶרֶת לֹא פָשְׂתָה בָעוֹר וְהִוא כֵהָה שְׂאֵת הַמִּכְוָה הִוא וְטִהֲרוֹ הַכֹּהֵן כִּי צָרֶבֶת הַמִּכְוָה הִוא:
29. If a man or a woman has a lesion on the head or on the beard [area],   כט. וְאִישׁ אוֹ אִשָּׁה כִּי יִהְיֶה בוֹ נָגַע בְּרֹאשׁ אוֹ בְזָקָן:
on the head or on the beard [area]: Scripture comes to distinguish between a lesion in a place where hair grows and a lesion in a place of flesh, namely, that in one [case, i.e., on flesh], the sign [of uncleanness] is white hair, while in the other [case, i.e., on the area of hair], the sign [of uncleanness] is golden-yellow hair. — [Torath Kohanim 5:5]   בראש או בזקן: בא הכתוב לחלק בין נגע שבמקום שער לנגע שבמקום בשר, שזה סימנו בשער לבן וזה סימנו בשער צהוב:
30. the kohen shall look at the lesion, and, behold! its appearance is deeper than the skin, and in it is a thin golden yellow hair, the kohen shall pronounce him unclean. It is a nethek, which is tzara'ath of the head or the beard.   ל. וְרָאָה הַכֹּהֵן אֶת הַנֶּגַע וְהִנֵּה מַרְאֵהוּ עָמֹק מִן הָעוֹר וּבוֹ שֵׂעָר צָהֹב דָּק וְטִמֵּא אֹתוֹ הַכֹּהֵן נֶתֶק הוּא צָרַעַת הָרֹאשׁ אוֹ הַזָּקָן הוּא:
and in it is a… golden-yellow hair: [meaning] that the black hair in it has turned golden-yellow.   ובו שער צהב: שנהפך שער שחור שבו לצהוב:
It is a nethek: This is the name of the lesion [of tzara’ath when it occurs] on an area of [skin where] hair [grows].   נתק הוא: כך שמו של נגע, שבמקום שער:
31. But when the kohen looks at the nethek lesion, and, behold! its appearance is not deeper than the skin, and there is no black hair in it, the kohen shall quarantine [the person with] the nethek lesion for seven days.   לא. וְכִי יִרְאֶה הַכֹּהֵן אֶת נֶגַע הַנֶּתֶק וְהִנֵּה אֵין מַרְאֵהוּ עָמֹק מִן הָעוֹר וְשֵׂעָר שָׁחֹר אֵין בּוֹ וְהִסְגִּיר הַכֹּהֵן אֶת נֶגַע הַנֶּתֶק שִׁבְעַת יָמִים:
and there is no black hair in it: Thus, if there was black hair inside it, he is clean and does not require quarantine, for black hair in a nethek is a sign of cleanness, as the verse (37) says, “or if black hair has grown in it, [the nethek has healed; it is clean].”[Torath Kohanim 13:125]   ושער שחר אין בו: הא אם היה בו שער שחור, טהור. ואין צריך להסגר ששער שחור סימן טהרה הוא בנתקים, כמו שנאמר (פסוק לז) ושער שחור צמח בו וגו':
32. And the kohen shall look at the lesion on the seventh day. And, behold! the nethek has not spread, and no golden yellow hair was in it, and the appearance of the nethek is not deeper than the skin,   לב. וְרָאָה הַכֹּהֵן אֶת הַנֶּגַע בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי וְהִנֵּה לֹא פָשָׂה הַנֶּתֶק וְלֹא הָיָה בוֹ שֵׂעָר צָהֹב וּמַרְאֵה הַנֶּתֶק אֵין עָמֹק מִן הָעוֹר:
And, behold! the nethek did not spread: Thus, if [the nethek] did spread, or if it had golden-yellow hair in it, he is unclean.   והנה לא פשה וגו': הא אם פשה או היה בו שער צהוב טמא:
33. he shall shave himself, but adjacent to the nethek he shall not shave, and the kohen shall quarantine [the person with] the nethek again for seven days.   לג. וְהִתְגַּלָּח וְאֶת הַנֶּתֶק לֹא יְגַלֵּחַ וְהִסְגִּיר הַכֹּהֵן אֶת הַנֶּתֶק שִׁבְעַת יָמִים שֵׁנִית:
he shall shave himself: around the nethek. [but adjacent to the nethek]   והתגלח: סביבות הנתק:
he shall not shave: [I.e.,] he shall leave two hairs close to it all around, in order that any spread of the nethek will be discernible, so that, if it spreads, it will pass the hairs and go out to the shaven area. — [Torath Kohanim 13:133]   ואת הנתק לא יגלח: מניח שתי שערות סמוך לו סביב, כדי שיהא ניכר אם פשה, שאם יפשה ועבר השערות ויצא למקום הגילוח, טמא:
34. Then the kohen shall look at the nethek on the seventh day. And, behold! the nethek did not spread on the skin, and its appearance is not deeper than the skin, the kohen shall pronounce him clean, and he shall immerse his garments and become clean.   לד. וְרָאָה הַכֹּהֵן אֶת הַנֶּתֶק בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי וְהִנֵּה לֹא פָשָׂה הַנֶּתֶק בָּעוֹר וּמַרְאֵהוּ אֵינֶנּוּ עָמֹק מִן הָעוֹר וְטִהַר אֹתוֹ הַכֹּהֵן וְכִבֶּס בְּגָדָיו וְטָהֵר:
35. But if the nethek spreads on the skin, after he has been declared clean,   לה. וְאִם פָּשׂה יִפְשֶׂה הַנֶּתֶק בָּעוֹר אַחֲרֵי טָהֳרָתוֹ:
after he has been declared clean: From here, we know only that [the lesion is pronounced unclean] if it spreads after dismissal. How do we know [that it is unclean if it spreads] at the end of the first week [of quarantine] or at the end of the second week [of quarantine]? Because Scripture [uses a double expression and] says, פָּשׂה יִפְשֶׂה, “it spreads,” [denoting that he is unclean if it spreads] in any case. — [Torath Kohanim 13:134]   אחרי טהרתו: אין לי אלא פושה לאחר הפטור, מנין אף בסוף שבוע ראשון ובסוף שבוע שני, תלמוד לומר פשה יפשה:
36. the kohen shall look at it, and, behold! the nethek has spread on the skin, the kohen need not examine for golden yellow hair; it is unclean!   לו. וְרָאָהוּ הַכֹּהֵן וְהִנֵּה פָּשָׂה הַנֶּתֶק בָּעוֹר לֹא יְבַקֵּר הַכֹּהֵן לַשֵּׂעָר הַצָּהֹב טָמֵא הוּא:
37. But if the appearance of the nethek has remained the same, or if black hair has grown in it, the nethek has healed; he is clean. So the kohen shall pronounce him clean.   לז. וְאִם בְּעֵינָיו עָמַד הַנֶּתֶק וְשֵׂעָר שָׁחֹר צָמַח בּוֹ נִרְפָּא הַנֶּתֶק טָהוֹר הוּא וְטִהֲרוֹ הַכֹּהֵן:
black hair: How do we know that even yellow or red [hair], which are not golden-yellow? Because Scripture says, [שָׁחֹר] וְשֵׂעָר [lit., “ and black hair,” but here meaning, “ or if black hair.” Instead of using the expected אוֹ, “or,” the Torah used וְ, an inclusive term, which comes to include yellow and red hair in the nethek as signs of cleanness, just like black hair. See Be’er Basadeh] (Torath Kohanim 13:137). The term צָהֹב means: resembling the appearance of gold (Torath Kohanim 13:122). צָהֹב is the same as זָהֹב, golden [because צ and ז are interchangeable], orable in Old French, gold-colored, or orpale, pale gold.   ושער שחר: מנין אף הירוק והאדום שאינו צהוב, תלמוד לומר ושער. ולמה צהוב דומה, לתבנית הזהב. צהוב, כמו זהוב אורבל"א בלע"ז [זהוב]:
he is clean. So the kohen shall pronounce him clean: But, an unclean person whom the kohen pronounces clean, is not clean. - [Torath Kohanim 13:140]   טהור הוא וטהרו הכהן: הא טמא שטהרו הכהן, לא טהור:
38. If a man or a woman has spots on the skin of their flesh, white spots,   לח. וְאִישׁ אוֹ אִשָּׁה כִּי יִהְיֶה בְעוֹר בְּשָׂרָם בֶּהָרֹת בֶּהָרֹת לְבָנֹת:
spots: Spots   בהרת: חברבורות:
39. the kohen shall look, and, behold! there are dim white spots on the skin of their flesh, it is a bohak [pigmentation] which has spread on the skin. He is clean.   לט. וְרָאָה הַכֹּהֵן וְהִנֵּה בְעוֹר בְּשָׂרָם בֶּהָרֹת כֵּהוֹת לְבָנֹת בֹּהַק הוּא פָּרַח בָּעוֹר טָהוֹר הוּא:
dim white: I.e., their whiteness is not bright, but dim.   כהות לבנת: שאין לובן שלהן עז אלא כהה:
it is a bohak: Like the whiteness that appears on the flesh of a red man, called ros [in Old French, rosso in Italian], between the areas of his redness [i.e., flesh color]. This [white pigmentation] is called בֹּהַק, just like a freckled man, whose skin between one freckle and another shines brightly (מַבְהִיק) with pure whiteness.   בהק: כמין לובן הנראה בבשר אדם אדום, שקורין רו"ש [אדמוני], בין חברבורות אדמימותו, קרוי בהק, כאיש עדשן שבין עדשה לעדשה מבהיק הבשר בלובן צח:

3rd Portion

Chapter 13

40. If a man loses the hair on [the back of] his head, he is bald. He is clean.   מ. וְאִישׁ כִּי יִמָּרֵט רֹאשׁוֹ קֵרֵחַ הוּא טָהוֹר הוּא:
he is bald. He is clean: Clean of the uncleanness of nethek lesions (Torath Kohanim; Baraitha of Rabbi Ishmael 1:5). I.e., this case is not judged by the signs of the head and beard, which are places of hair (see verses 2937). Rather, [it is judged] by the signs of a lesion on the skin of the flesh, namely: 1) white hair, 2) healthy flesh, and 3) spread.   קרח הוא טהור הוא: טהור מטומאת נתקין, שאינו נדון בסימני ראש וזקן, שהם מקום שער, אלא בסימני נגע עור בשר בשער לבן, מחיה ופשיון:
41. And if he loses his hair on the side toward his face, he is bald at the front. He is clean.   מא. וְאִם מִפְּאַת פָּנָיו יִמָּרֵט רֹאשׁוֹ גִּבֵּחַ הוּא טָהוֹר הוּא:
at the front of his head: [The area] from the slope of the crown toward one’s face is called גַּבַּחַת \'82 “forehead,” and included in this are the temples on either side as well. [The area] from the slope of the crown toward one’s back is called קָרַחַת, the “back of the head.” - [Torath Kohanim 13:144]   ואם מפאת פניו: משפוע קדקד כלפי פניו קרוי גבחת, ואף הצדעין שמכאן ומכאן בכלל. ומשפוע קדקד כלפי אחוריו, קרוי קרחת:
42. If there is a reddish white lesion on the back or front bald area, it is a spreading tzara'ath in his back or front bald area.   מב. וְכִי יִהְיֶה בַקָּרַחַת אוֹ בַגַּבַּחַת נֶגַע לָבָן אֲדַמְדָּם צָרַעַת פֹּרַחַת הִוא בְּקָרַחְתּוֹ אוֹ בְגַבַּחְתּוֹ:
a reddish-white lesion: blended [of red and white]. How do we know [that the lesion is also unclean if it has] other colors? Because Scripture says, “like the appearance of tzara’ath on the skin of the flesh” (verse 43), i.e., appearing like the tzara’ath dealt with in the passage of [lesions of the] skin of the flesh, [which begins with] “If a man has [se’eith, sapachat or bahereth] on the skin of his flesh” (verse 13:2). And what is stated regarding it [i.e., regarding a lesion on the skin]? That one becomes unclean through [it, if it appears as one of] four shades [namely: 1) the snow-white of bahereth ; 2) the white as “lime of the Holy Temple” of the secondary form (sapachat) of bahereth ; 3) the white as white wool of se’eith; and 4) the white as a “membrane that covers an egg” of the secondary (sapachat) form of se’eith (Nega’im 1:1), and that it is judged with [a possible] two weeks [of quarantine], and not like the appearance of tzara’ath stated concerning inflamed areas and burns, which is judged with [only] one [possible] week [of quarantine], and is also unlike the appearance of nethek lesions, [which are tzara’ath found] in hairy places, which do not become unclean through the four shades [as above].   נגע לבן אדמדם: פתוך. מנין שאר המראות, תלמוד לומר כמראה צרעת עור בשר כמראה הצרעת האמור בפרשת עור בשר (פסוק ב) אדם כי יהיה בעור בשרו. ומה אמור בו, שמטמא בארבע מראות ונדון בשני שבועות, ולא כמראה צרעת האמור בשחין ומכוה, שהוא נדון בשבוע אחד, ולא כמראה נתקין של מקום שער שאין מטמאין בארבע מראות שאת ותולדתה, בהרת ותולדתה:
43. So the kohen shall look at it. And, behold! there is a reddish white se'eith lesion on his back or front bald area, like the appearance of tzara'ath on the skin of the flesh,   מג. וְרָאָה אֹתוֹ הַכֹּהֵן וְהִנֵּה שְׂאֵת הַנֶּגַע לְבָנָה אֲדַמְדֶּמֶת בְּקָרַחְתּוֹ אוֹ בְגַבַּחְתּוֹ כְּמַרְאֵה צָרַעַת עוֹר בָּשָׂר:
44. He is a man afflicted with tzara'ath; he is unclean. The kohen shall surely pronounce him unclean; his lesion is on his head.   מד. אִישׁ צָרוּעַ הוּא טָמֵא הוּא טַמֵּא יְטַמְּאֶנּוּ הַכֹּהֵן בְּרֹאשׁוֹ נִגְעוֹ:
His lesion is on his head: I know only that [these laws apply to those stricken with] nethek lesions [the tzara’ath of the head]. From where [do I know] to include other afflicted people? Therefore, Scripture says: טַמֵּא יְטַמְּאֶנּוּ, shall surely pronounce him unclean. [The double expression comes] to include them all. Concerning them all, Scripture says: “ his garments shall be torn…” (verses 4546). - [Torath Kohanim 13:154]   בראשו נגעו: אין לי אלא נתקין, מנין לרבות שאר המנוגעים, תלמוד לומר טמא יטמאנו, לרבות את כולן. על כולן הוא אומר בגדיו יהיו פרומים וגו':
45. And the person with tzara'ath, in whom there is the lesion, his garments shall be torn, his head shall be unshorn, he shall cover himself down to his mustache and call out, "Unclean! Unclean!"   מה. וְהַצָּרוּעַ אֲשֶׁר בּוֹ הַנֶּגַע בְּגָדָיו יִהְיוּ פְרֻמִים וְרֹאשׁוֹ יִהְיֶה פָרוּעַ וְעַל שָׂפָם יַעְטֶה וְטָמֵא | טָמֵא יִקְרָא:
torn: Heb. פְרֻמִים, torn. — [Mo’ed Katan 15a]   פרמים: קרועים:
unshorn: Heb. פָּרוּעַ, with hair grown long. — [Mo’ed Katan 15a]   פרוע: מגודל שער:
He shall cover himself down to his mustache: like a mourner. — [Torath Kohanim 13:154]   ועל שפם יעטה: כאבל:
mustache: Heb. שָָׂפָם, the hair on the lips (שְׂפָתַיִם) [i.e., the mustache], grenon in Old French.   שפם: שער השפתים גירנו"ן בלע"ז [שפם]:
and he shall call out,“ Unclean! Unclean!”: He announces that he is unclean, so that everyone should stay away from him. — [Torath Kohanim 13:155]   וטמא טמא יקרא: משמיע שהוא טמא ויפרשו ממנו:
46. All the days the lesion is upon him, he shall remain unclean. He is unclean; he shall dwell isolated; his dwelling shall be outside the camp.   מו. כָּל יְמֵי אֲשֶׁר הַנֶּגַע בּוֹ יִטְמָא טָמֵא הוּא בָּדָד יֵשֵׁב מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה מוֹשָׁבוֹ:
He shall dwell isolated: [meaning] that other unclean people [not stricken with tzara’ath] shall not abide with him. Our Sages said: “Why is he different from other unclean people, that he must remain isolated? Since, with his slander, he caused a separation [i.e., a rift] between man and wife or between man and his fellow, he too, shall be separated [from society].”- [Arachin 16b] [This rationale is based on the premise that a person is stricken with tzara’ath as a result of his talking לְשׁוֹן הָרַע, i.e., speaking derogatorily of others, although he may be telling the truth.]   בדד ישב: שלא יהיו שאר טמאים יושבים עמו. ואמרו רבותינו מה נשתנה משאר טמאים לישב בדד, הואיל והוא הבדיל בלשון הרע בין איש לאשתו ובין איש לרעהו, אף הוא יבדל:
outside the camp: Outside the three camps [of Israel, namely: 1) the camp of the Shechinah, in which the Mishkan was located; 2) the Levite camp, and 3) the camp of the Israelites]. — [Torath Kohanim 13:157, Pes. 67a]   מחוץ למחנה: חוץ לשלש מחנות:
47. [And as for] the garment that has the lesion of tzara'ath upon it, on a woolen garment, or on a linen garment,   מז. וְהַבֶּגֶד כִּי יִהְיֶה בוֹ נֶגַע צָרָעַת בְּבֶגֶד צֶמֶר אוֹ בְּבֶגֶד פִּשְׁתִּים:
48. or on [threads prepared for the] warp or the woof of linen or of wool, or on leather or on anything made from leather.   מח. אוֹ בִשְׁתִי אוֹ בְעֵרֶב לַפִּשְׁתִּים וְלַצָּמֶר אוֹ בְעוֹר אוֹ בְּכָל מְלֶאכֶת עוֹר:
of linen or of wool: Heb. וְלַצָּמֶר לַפִּשְׁתִּים, of linen or of wool. [Here the ל, usually meaning “to,” means “of.”]   לפשתים ולצמר: של פשתים או של צמר:
or the leather: This [refers to] leather upon which no work has been performed.   או בעור: זה עור שלא נעשה בו מלאכה:
or anything made from leather: This [refers] to leather upon which work has been performed.   או בכל מלאכת עור: זה עור שנעשה בו מלאכה:
49. If the lesion on the garment, the leather, the warp or woof [threads] or on any leather article, is deep green or deep red, it is a lesion of tzara'ath, and it shall be shown to the kohen.   מט. וְהָיָה הַנֶּגַע יְרַקְרַק | אוֹ אֲדַמְדָּם בַּבֶּגֶד אוֹ בָעוֹר אוֹ בַשְּׁתִי אוֹ בָעֵרֶב אוֹ בְכָל כְּלִי עוֹר נֶגַע צָרַעַת הוּא וְהָרְאָה אֶת הַכֹּהֵן:
deep green: Heb. יְרַקְרַק, the greenest of greens. — [Torath Kohanim 13:161]   ירקרק: ירוק שבירוקין:
deep red: אֲדַמְדָָּם, the reddest of reds. — [Torath Kohanim 13:161]   אדמדם: אדום שבאדומים:
50. The kohen shall look at the lesion, and he shall quarantine [the article with] the lesion for seven days.   נ. וְרָאָה הַכֹּהֵן אֶת הַנָּגַע וְהִסְגִּיר אֶת הַנֶּגַע שִׁבְעַת יָמִים:
51. And he shall look at the lesion on the seventh day. [If] the lesion has spread on the garment, or on the warp or woof [threads], or on the leather or on any article made from leather, the lesion is a malignant tzara'ath; it is unclean.   נא. וְרָאָה אֶת הַנֶּגַע בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי כִּי פָשָׂה הַנֶּגַע בַּבֶּגֶד אוֹ בַשְּׁתִי אוֹ בָעֵרֶב אוֹ בָעוֹר לְכֹל אֲשֶׁר יֵעָשֶׂה הָעוֹר לִמְלָאכָה צָרַעַת מַמְאֶרֶת הַנֶּגַע טָמֵא הוּא:
a malignant tzara’th: Heb. צָרַעַת מַמְאֶרֶת, an expression similar to “a pricking briar (סִלּוֹן מַמְאִיר), (Ezek. 28: 24),” point in Old French, stinging, pricking. The midrashic explanation is: Place a curse (מְאֵרָה) upon it [the item afflicted with tzara’ath], that you shall not derive benefit from it. — [Torath Kohanim 13:166]   צרעת ממארת: לשון סילון ממאיר (יחזקאל כח כד). פוינינ"ט בלע"ז [דוקר]. ומדרשו תן בו מארה שלא תהנה הימנו:
52. And he shall burn the garment, the warp or woof [threads] of wool or of linen, or any leather article which has the lesion upon it, for it is a malignant tzara'ath ; it shall be burned in fire.   נב. וְשָׂרַף אֶת הַבֶּגֶד אוֹ אֶת הַשְּׁתִי | אוֹ אֶת הָעֵרֶב בַּצֶּמֶר אוֹ בַפִּשְׁתִּים אוֹ אֶת כָּל כְּלִי הָעוֹר אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה בוֹ הַנָּגַע כִּי צָרַעַת מַמְאֶרֶת הִוא בָּאֵשׁ תִּשָּׂרֵף:
of wool or of linen: Heb. בַּצֶּמֶר אוֹ בַפִּשְׁתִּים, of wool or of linen. [The ב, which usually means “in,” here means “of.”] This is its simple meaning. Its midrashic explanation is, however: [The words, בַּצֶּמֶר אוֹ בַפִּשְׁתִּים וְשָָׂרַף אֶת בֶּגֶד, can be understood literally, as: “And he shall burn the garment…in the wool or in the linen.” Thus,] one might think that [when burning the unclean garment,] one is required to bring wool shearings and stalks of flax and burn them along with it. Scripture, therefore, says [at the end of this verse], “for it…; it shall be burned in fire. ” [I.e., it alone] it does not require anything else [to be burned] along with it. If so, why does Scripture say, “in the wool or the linen”? To exclude [from the requirement of burning] the edges (אִימְרִיּוֹת) if they are of another material (Torath Kohanim 13:167). אִימְרִיּוֹת means “edges,” like אִימְרָא, border.   בצמר או בפשתים: של צמר או של פשתים, זהו פשוטו. ומדרשו יכול יביא גיזי צמר ואניצי פשתן וישרפם עמו, תלמוד לומר היא באש תשרף, אינה צריכה דבר אחר עמה. אם כן מה תלמוד לומר בצמר או בפשתים, להוציא את האימריות שבו, שהן ממין אחר. אימריות לשון שפה, כמו אימרא:
53. But if the kohen looks, and, behold! the lesion has not spread on the garment, the warp or woof [threads], or any leather article,   נג. וְאִם יִרְאֶה הַכֹּהֵן וְהִנֵּה לֹא פָשָׂה הַנֶּגַע בַּבֶּגֶד אוֹ בַשְּׁתִי אוֹ בָעֵרֶב אוֹ בְּכָל כְּלִי עוֹר:
54. the kohen shall order, and they shall wash what the lesion is upon, and he shall quarantine it again for seven days.   נד. וְצִוָּה הַכֹּהֵן וְכִבְּסוּ אֵת אֲשֶׁר בּוֹ הַנָּגַע וְהִסְגִּירוֹ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים שֵׁנִית:
what the lesion is upon: One might think that [one need wash] the area of the lesion alone. Scripture, therefore, says, “what the lesion is upon,” [meaning, the garment upon which the lesion is found. But if so,] one might think that the entire garment requires washing. Scripture, therefore, says, “[after] the lesion [has been washed],” (verse 55) [teaching us that only the lesion must be washed, not the entire garment]. So how [do we reconcile this apparent discrepancy]? He must wash part of the garment with it. — [see Torath Kohanim 13:169]   את אשר בו הנגע : יכול מקום הנגע בלבד, תלמוד לומר את אשר בו הנגע, יכול כל הבגד כולו טעון כבוס, תלמוד לומר הנגע, הא כיצד, יכבס מן הבגד עמו

4th Portion

Chapter 13

55. Then the kohen shall look [at it] after the lesion has been washed. And, behold! the lesion has not changed in appearance, and the lesion has not spread; it is unclean. You shall burn it in fire. It is a penetrating lesion on the worn or new [article].   נה. וְרָאָה הַכֹּהֵן אַחֲרֵי | הֻכַּבֵּס אֶת הַנֶּגַע וְהִנֵּה לֹא הָפַךְ הַנֶּגַע אֶת עֵינוֹ וְהַנֶּגַע לֹא פָשָׂה טָמֵא הוּא בָּאֵשׁ תִּשְׂרְפֶנּוּ פְּחֶתֶת הִוא בְּקָרַחְתּוֹ אוֹ בְגַבַּחְתּוֹ:
after [the lesion] has been washed: Heb. הֻכַּבֵּס. This is an expression of “having been done,” [i.e., the passive voice].   אחרי הכבס: לשון העשות:
the lesion has not changed in appearance: i.e., it has not become dimmer in color.   לא הפך הנגע את עינו: לא הוכהה ממראיתו:
and the lesion has not spread: We understand that if the lesion neither changed [in color] nor spread, it is unclean, and it goes without saying that if it did not change in color but did spread, [it is unclean]. If it changed in color [but still was a shade that makes it unclean] yet did not spread, we do not know what one should do with it. Therefore, Scripture says, “he shall quarantine [the article with] the lesion” (verse 50), in any case. That is what Rabbi Judah says. [However,] the Sages say [that since the change in color was still within the unclean shades, the lesion is not considered to be changed at all; it is the same lesion that has already had two weeks of quarantine, and is now deemed definitely unclean], as is stated in Torath Kohanim (13:171). I have alluded to [only a portion of] this [Midrash] here in order to explain all the different aspects of this verse.   והנגע לא פשה: שמענו שאם לא הפך ולא פשה טמא, ואין צריך לומר לא הפך ופשה. הפך ולא פשה איני יודע מה יעשה לו, תלמוד לומר והסגיר את הנגע, מכל מקום, דברי רבי יהודה. וחכמים אומרים וכו', כדאיתא בתורת כהנים. ורמזתיה כאן ליישב המקרא על אופניו:
it is a penetrating lesion: Heb. פְּחֶתֶת הִוא. [This expression] denotes holes [i.e., penetrations], as the verse says, “in one of the pits (פְּחָתִים)” (II Sam. 17:9). That is to say, [in this context it means that the lesion] is deep, [i.e.,] it appears as if it is sunken. — [Torath Kohanim 13:172]   פחתת היא: לשון גומא, כמו (שמואל ב' יז ט) באחת הפחתים, כלומר שפלה היא, נגע שמראיו שוקעין:
on the worn or new [article]: בְּקָרַחְתּוֹ אוֹ בְגַבַּחְתּוֹ, as the Targum [Onkelos] renders: בִּשְׁחִיקוּתֵיהּ אוֹ בְּחַדְתּוּתֵהּ, “in its worn state or in its new state.”   בקרחתו או בגבחתו: כתרגומו בשחיקותיה או בחדתותיה:
the worn: Heb. בְּקָרַחְתּוֹ. Old, worn out garments, and because of the midrashic explanation, that this language is necessary for a שָׁוָה גְּזֵרָה here [i.e., a link between two seemingly unrelated passages through common terms, thereby inferring the laws of one passage from the laws of the other, as follows]: How do we know that if a lesion on a garment spreads [throughout the entire garment], it is clean? Because [Scripture] states קָרַחַת and גַּבַּחַת in the context of [lesions that appear on] man (verse 42), and here, in the context of [lesion on] garments, [Scripture] also states קָרַחַת and גַּבַּחַת; just as there [in the case of lesions on man], if it spread over the entire body, he is clean (verses 1213), so too, here, [in the case of lesion on garments,] if it spread over the entire garment, it is clean (San. 88a), Scripture adopts the [unusual] expressions קָרַחַת and גַּבַּחַת. However, concerning the explanation and translation [of these terms], the simple meaning is that קָרַחַת means “old” and גַּבַּחַת means “new.” It is as though it were written, “[It is a lesion on] its end or its beginning,” for קָרַחַת means “back” [i.e., at the end of the garment’s life, when it is old,] and גַּבַּחַת means “front” [i.e., the beginning of its life, when it is new]. This is just as is written, “And if [he loses hair] at the front of his head, [he is bald at the front (גַּבַּח)]” (verse 41). And קָרַחַת refers from the crown toward his back. Thus it is explained in Torath Kohanim (13:144).   קרחתו: שחקים ישנים. ומפני המדרש שהוצרך לגזרה שוה מנין לפריחה בבגדים שהיא טהורה, נאמרה קרחת וגבחת באדם, ונאמרה קרחת וגבחת בבגדים, מה להלן פרח בכולו טהור, אף כאן פרח בכולו טהור, לכך אחז הכתוב לשון קרחת וגבחת. ולענין פירושו ותרגומו זהו משמעו קרחת לשון ישנים, וגבחת לשון חדשים, כאלו נכתב באחריתו או בקדמותו, שהקרחת לשון אחוריים והגבחת לשון פנים, כמו שכתוב (פסוק מא) ואם מפאת פניו וגו', והקרחת כל ששופע ויורד מן הקדקד ולאחריו, כך מפורש בתורת כהנים:
56. But if the kohen looks [at it] after it has been washed, and behold! the lesion has become dimmer, he shall tear it out of the garment, out of the leather, or out of the warp or woof [threads].   נו. וְאִם רָאָה הַכֹּהֵן וְהִנֵּה כֵּהָה הַנֶּגַע אַחֲרֵי הֻכַּבֵּס אֹתוֹ וְקָרַע אֹתוֹ מִן הַבֶּגֶד אוֹ מִן הָעוֹר אוֹ מִן הַשְּׁתִי אוֹ מִן הָעֵרֶב:
he shall tear it: He shall tear the afflicted area from the garment and burn that area [of garment]. — [Torath Kohanim 13:174]   וקרע אתו: יקרע מקום הנגע מן הבגד וישרפנו:
57. And if it appears again on the garment, the warp or woof [threads] or any leather article, it is a recurrent growth [of the lesion]. You shall burn it in fire [the article] upon which the lesion is [found].   נז. וְאִם תֵּרָאֶה עוֹד בַּבֶּגֶד אוֹ בַשְּׁתִי אוֹ בָעֵרֶב אוֹ בְכָל כְּלִי עוֹר פֹּרַחַת הִוא בָּאֵשׁ תִּשְׂרְפֶנּוּ אֵת אֲשֶׁר בּוֹ הַנָּגַע:
it is a recurrent growth: פֹּרַחַת, something that grows recurrently.   פרחת הוא: דבר החוזר וצומח:
You shall burn it in fire: the entire garment.   באש תשרפנו: את כל הבגד:
58. But the garment, the warp or woof [threads] or any leather article which is washed, and the lesion disappears from them, shall be immersed a second time, and it shall be clean.   נח. וְהַבֶּגֶד אוֹ הַשְּׁתִי אוֹ הָעֵרֶב אוֹ כָל כְּלִי הָעוֹר אֲשֶׁר תְּכַבֵּס וְסָר מֵהֶם הַנָּגַע וְכֻבַּס שֵׁנִית וְטָהֵר:
and the lesion disappears from them: If, after they first washed [the article] by order of the kohen, the lesion disappeared completely from it… [then]   וסר מהם הנגע: אם כשכבסוהו בתחלה על פי כהן, סר ממנו הנגע לגמרי:
shall be immersed a second time: [The word וְכֻבַּס in this verse] means immersion [in a mikvah. See Torath Kohanim 13:179]. In Targum [Onkelos], the translation of all the instances of כִּבּוּס in this whole section is “to cleanse, clean” (וְיִתְחַוֵּר), with this one exception [in our verse]. Here the meaning is not “cleansing” but rather “immersion [in a mikvah].” Thus Targum [Onkelos] here [in translating the word וְכֻבַּס] says וְיִצְטַבַּע, “and it shall be immersed.” Likewise, wherever the כִבּוּס of garments refers to immersion [in a mikvah], it is translated in the Targum as וְיִצְטַבַּע.   וכבס שנית: לשון טבילה. תרגום של כבוסין שבפרשה זו לשון לבון ויתחוור, חוץ מזה שאינו ללבון אלא לטבול, לכך תרגומו ויצטבע, וכן כל כבוסי בגדים שהן לטבילה מתורגמין ויצטבע:
59. This is the law of a lesion of tzara'ath on a woolen or linen garment, warp or woof threads, or any leather article, to render it clean or unclean.   נט. זֹאת תּוֹרַת נֶגַע צָרַעַת בֶּגֶד הַצֶּמֶר | אוֹ הַפִּשְׁתִּים אוֹ הַשְּׁתִי אוֹ הָעֵרֶב אוֹ כָּל כְּלִי עוֹר לְטַהֲרוֹ אוֹ לְטַמְּאוֹ:

Chapter 14

1. And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying,   א. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהֹוָה אֶל משֶׁה לֵּאמֹר:
2. This shall be the law of the person afflicted with tzara'ath, on the day of his cleansing: He shall be brought to the kohen.   ב. זֹאת תִּהְיֶה תּוֹרַת הַמְּצֹרָע בְּיוֹם טָהֳרָתוֹ וְהוּבָא אֶל הַכֹּהֵן:
This shall be the law of the person afflicted with tzara’ath…: This teaches [us] that [one afflicted with tzara’ath] is not [pronounced] clean at night. — [Torath Kohanim 14:3, Meg. 21a]   זאת תהיה תורת המצורע וגו': מלמד שאין מטהרין אותו בלילה:
3. The kohen shall go outside the camp, and the kohen shall look, and behold, the lesion of tzara'ath has healed in the afflicted person.   ג. וְיָצָא הַכֹּהֵן אֶל מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה וְרָאָה הַכֹּהֵן וְהִנֵּה נִרְפָּא נֶגַע הַצָּרַעַת מִן הַצָּרוּעַ:
outside the camp: [I.e.,] outside the three camps, [namely, a) the camp of the Shechinah , in which the sanctuary is situated, b) the Levite camp, and c) the camp of Israel, where the ordinary Israelites encamped], where he was sent during the time of his “definite” uncleanness. (See 13:46.)   אל מחוץ למחנה: חוץ לשלש מחנות שנשתלח שם בימי חלוטו:
4. Then the kohen shall order, and the person to be cleansed shall take two live, clean birds, a cedar stick, a strip of crimson [wool], and hyssop.   ד. וְצִוָּה הַכֹּהֵן וְלָקַח לַמִּטַּהֵר שְׁתֵּי צִפֳּרִים חַיּוֹת טְהֹרוֹת וְעֵץ אֶרֶז וּשְׁנִי תוֹלַעַת וְאֵזֹב:
live [birds]: Heb., חַיּוֹת, excluding [birds] that have a fatal disease or injury. — [See Chul. 140a]   חיות: פרט לטרפות:
clean [birds]: Excluding an unclean bird, [i.e., forbidden to be eaten] (see Chul. 140a). [Why are birds required for this cleansing rite?] Because lesions of tzara’ath come as a result of derogatory speech, which is done by chattering. Therefore, for his cleansing, this person is required to bring birds, which twitter constantly with chirping sounds. — [Arachin 16b]   טהרות: פרט לעוף טמא. לפי שהנגעים באין על לשון הרע, שהוא מעשה פטפוטי דברים, לפיכך הוזקקו לטהרתו צפרים, שמפטפטין תמיד בצפצוף קול:
a cedar stick: Because lesions of tzara’ath come because of haughtiness [symbolized by the tall cedar]. — [Arachin 16a]   ועץ ארז: לפי שהנגעים באין על גסות הרוח:
a strip of crimson [wool], and hyssop: What is the remedy that he may be healed [of his tzara’ath]? He must humble himself from his haughtiness, just as [symbolized by] the תּוֹלַעַת [lit., “a worm,” which infested the berries from which the crimson dye was extracted to color wool], and the [lowly] hyssop. — [Tanchuma 3]   ושני תולעת ואזב: מה תקנתו ויתרפא, ישפיל עצמו מגאותו, כתולעת וכאזוב:
cedar stick: Heb. וְעֵץ אֶרֶז, a stick of cedar wood. — [Torath Kohanim 13:12]   עץ ארז: מקל של ארז:
a strip of crimson [wool]: Heb. וּשְׁנִי תוֹלַעַת, a tongue-like strip of wool dyed crimson. — [Torath Kohanim 14:13]   ושני תולעת: לשון של צמר צבוע זהורית:
5. The kohen shall order, and one shall slaughter the one bird into an earthenware vessel, over spring water.   ה. וְצִוָּה הַכֹּהֵן וְשָׁחַט אֶת הַצִּפּוֹר הָאֶחָת אֶל כְּלִי חֶרֶשׂ עַל מַיִם חַיִּים:
over spring water: He places [i.e., pours] it into the vessel first, in order that the blood of the bird should be recognizable in it. And how much [water is necessary]? A revi’ith [a quarter of a log]. — [Torath Kohanim 14:21; Sotah 16b]   על מים חיים: נותן אותם תחלה בכלי, כדי שיהא דם צפור ניכר בהם. וכמה הם, רביעית:
6. [As for] the live bird, he shall take it, and then the cedar stick, the strip of crimson [wool], and the hyssop, and, along with the live bird, he shall dip them into the blood of the slaughtered bird, over the spring water.   ו. אֶת הַצִּפֹּר הַחַיָּה יִקַּח אֹתָהּ וְאֶת עֵץ הָאֶרֶז וְאֶת שְׁנִי הַתּוֹלַעַת וְאֶת הָאֵזֹב וְטָבַל אוֹתָם וְאֵת | הַצִּפֹּר הַחַיָּה בְּדַם הַצִּפֹּר הַשְּׁחֻטָה עַל הַמַּיִם הַחַיִּים:
[As for] the live bird, he shall take it: [Scripture separates the taking of the bird from that of the other items.] This teaches [us] that he does not bind it with them, but separates it, by itself. The cedar stick and the hyssop, however, are bound together with the tongue-like strip of crimson wool, as the matter is stated, “and then the cedar stick, the strip of crimson [wool], and the hyssop,” i.e., one [act of] taking for the three of them. [I.e., the cedar stick and the hyssop are bound together with one end of the tongue of crimson wool, and the loose end is dipped into the blood together with them (Torath Kohanim 14:21). Now, one might think that since it [the bird] is not included in the binding, it is not to be included in the dipping [in the blood]. Therefore, Scripture says here, “and, along with the live bird, he shall dip them,” thereby, re-including the bird for the dipping. — [Torath Kohanim 14:24]   את הצפר החיה יקח אתה: מלמד שאינו אוגדה עמהם, אלא מפרישה לעצמה, אבל העץ והאזוב כרוכים יחד בלשון הזהורית, כענין שנאמר ואת עץ הארז ואת שני התולעת ואת האזוב, קיחה אחת לשלשתן. יכול כשם שאינה בכלל אגודה כן לא תהא בכלל טבילה, תלמוד לומר וטבל אותם ואת הצפור החיה, החזיר את הצפור לכלל טבילה:
7. He shall then sprinkle seven times upon the person being cleansed from tzara'ath, and he shall cleanse him. He shall then send away the live bird into the [open] field.   ז. וְהִזָּה עַל הַמִּטַּהֵר מִן הַצָּרַעַת שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים וְטִהֲרוֹ וְשִׁלַּח אֶת הַצִּפֹּר הַחַיָּה עַל פְּנֵי הַשָּׂדֶה:
8. The person being cleansed shall then immerse his garments, shave off all his hair, and immerse [himself] in water, and become clean. After this, he may enter the camp, but he shall remain outside his tent for seven days.   ח. וְכִבֶּס הַמִּטַּהֵר אֶת בְּגָדָיו וְגִלַּח אֶת כָּל שְׂעָרוֹ וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָהֵר וְאַחַר יָבוֹא אֶל הַמַּחֲנֶה וְיָשַׁב מִחוּץ לְאָהֳלוֹ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים:
but he shall remain outside his tent [for seven days]: This teaches [us] that [during this period,] he is prohibited to have marital relations. — [Torath Kohanim 14:34; Mo’ed Katan 15b]   וישב מחוץ לאהלו: מלמד שאסור בתשמיש המטה:
9. And it shall be, on the seventh day, that he shall shave off all his hair: [that of] his head, his beard, his eyebrows; indeed, all his hair, he shall shave off. He shall then immerse his garments and immerse his flesh in water, thus becoming clean.   ט. וְהָיָה בַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי יְגַלַּח אֶת כָּל שְׂעָרוֹ אֶת רֹאשׁוֹ וְאֶת זְקָנוֹ וְאֵת גַּבֹּת עֵינָיו וְאֶת כָּל שְׂעָרוֹ יְגַלֵּחַ וְכִבֶּס אֶת בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ אֶת בְּשָׂרוֹ בַּמַּיִם וְטָהֵר:
all his hair…: [This is] a general statement, followed by a specific statement [namely, “that of his head, his beard, his eyebrows,”] followed, in turn, by another general statement [namely, “all his hair,]” to include [the shaving of] every place where hair grows in a bunch and is visible, [bearing a similarity to the hair of the head, the beard, and the eyebrows]. — [Sotah 16a]   את כל שערו וגו': כלל ופרט וכלל. להביא כל מקום כנוס שער ונראה:
10. And on the eighth day, he shall take two unblemished [male] lambs, one unblemished ewe lamb in its [first] year, three tenths [of an ephah] of fine flour mixed with [olive] oil as a meal offering, and one log of [olive] oil.   י. וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי יִקַּח שְׁנֵי כְבָשִׂים תְּמִימִם וְכַבְשָׂה אַחַת בַּת שְׁנָתָהּ תְּמִימָה וּשְׁלשָׁה עֶשְׂרֹנִים סֹלֶת מִנְחָה בְּלוּלָה בַשֶּׁמֶן וְלֹג אֶחָד שָׁמֶן:
one… ewe lamb: [One male lamb and one ewe lamb were to be sacrificed, one as a burnt offering and one as a sin-offering (see verse 19), although Scripture does not specify which animal was for which sacrifice. However, since a female animal is never brought as a burnt offering (see Lev. 1:3), it is obvious that this ewe lamb was to be sacrificed] as the sin-offering.   וכבשה אחת: לחטאת:
three tenths [of an ephah of… flour]: for the libations [i.e., to accompany the libations] of these three lambs, for [unlike other sin-offerings and guilt-offerings,] the sin-offering and the guilt-offering of one stricken with tzara’ath require libations. — [Men. 91a]   ושלשה עשרנים: לנסכי שלשה כבשים הללו, שחטאתו ואשמו של מצורע טעונין נסכים:
and one log of [olive] oil: to sprinkle on his behalf [Heb. עָלָיו, lit. on him, absent in all incunabula editions (Yosef Hallel)] seven times (see verse 16), and to place some of it on the cartilage of his ear, and for the applications on the thumb and big toe (see verses 16, 17).   ולג אחד שמן: להזות עליו שבע וליתן ממנו על תנוך אזנו ומתן בהונות:
11. And the kohen who is performing the cleansing shall place the person being cleansed [together] with these [things], before the Lord, at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting.   יא. וְהֶעֱמִיד הַכֹּהֵן הַמְטַהֵר אֵת הָאִישׁ הַמִּטַּהֵר וְאֹתָם לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד:
before the Lord: [This expression usually means within the Temple courtyard. In this case, however, it means that he is to be placed] at The Nicanor gate, but not within the courtyard itself, since he is lacking atonement. [The Nicanor gate was at the eastern end of the courtyard, directly facing the Holy; thus, when standing inside the gateway, the person was placed “before the Lord” without entering the courtyard. For this purpose, the space under The Nicanor gate was left unsanctified.]- [Torath Kohanim 14:44; Sotah 7a]   לפני ה': בשער נקנור, ולא בעזרה עצמה, לפי שהוא מחוסר כפורים:
12. And the kohen shall take one [male] lamb and bring it as a guilt offering, along with the log of oil, and wave them as a waving before the Lord.   יב. וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן אֶת הַכֶּבֶשׂ הָאֶחָד וְהִקְרִיב אֹתוֹ לְאָשָׁם וְאֶת לֹג הַשָּׁמֶן וְהֵנִיף אֹתָם תְּנוּפָה לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה:
and bring it as a guilt-offering: He shall bring it inside the courtyard for the purpose of a guilt-offering, in order to wave it, for it requires waving [while it was still] alive. — [Men. 61a]   והקריב אתו לאשם: יקריבנו לתוך העזרה לשם אשם:
and he shall wave them: i.e., the guilt-offering and the log. — [Men. 61a]   והניף: שהוא טעון תנופה חי:
13. He shall slaughter the lamb in the place where one slaughters the sin offering and the burnt offering, in a holy place. For regarding the kohen['s service], the guilt offering is like the sin offering. It is a holy of holies.   יג. וְשָׁחַט אֶת הַכֶּבֶשׂ בִּמְקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁחַט אֶת הַחַטָּאת וְאֶת הָעֹלָה בִּמְקוֹם הַקֹּדֶשׁ כִּי כַּחַטָּאת הָאָשָׁם הוּא לַכֹּהֵן קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים הוּא:
In the place where one slaughters the sin-offering and the burnt offering: Namely, on the side of the [copper] altar, at the north [of the sanctuary courtyard]. But what is this verse coming to teach us? Was it not already stated regarding the law of the guilt-offering in the parashah of אֶתאַהֲרֹן ַצַו (Lev. 7:2) that the guilt-offering was required to be slaughtered in the north? But since this guilt-offering differs from other guilt-offerings insofar as it requires placing [together with the one bringing it], one might think that the animal should be slaughtered where it is placed [i.e., at The Nicanor gate and not at the northern side of the altar]. Scripture, therefore, says, “He shall slaughter the lamb in the place where one slaughters the sin-offering and the burnt offering.” - [Torath Kohanim 14:46]   במקום אשר ישחט וגו': על ירך המזבח בצפון. ומה תלמוד לומר, והלא כבר נאמר בתורת אשם בפרשת צו את אהרן שהאשם טעון שחיטה בצפון, לפי שיצא זה מכלל אשמות לידון בהעמדה, יכול תהא שחיטתו במקום העמדתו, לכך נאמר ושחט במקום אשר ישחט וגו':
For…it is like the sin-offering: [I.e.,] For it is like all sin-offerings.   כי כחטאת: כי ככל החטאות:
the guilt-offering: [I.e.,] this guilt- offering [is like a sin-offering, insofar as:]   האשם: הזה:
it is to the kohen: In all the procedures of holy service [performed] by the kohen, this guilt-offering is likened to a sin-offering. [This is specified] so that one should not say that, since the blood of this guilt-offering is unlike that of other guilt-offerings, insofar as it is placed on the cartilage of the ear and on the thumb and big toe (see verse 14), it should also [be an exception in that it] should not require applications of blood and the prescribed fats upon the altar. Therefore, it is said, “regarding the [service of the] kohen, the guilt-offering is just like the sin-offering.” [However, if this is so,] one might think that its blood is applied above [the red line demarcating the upper and lower parts of the altar (see Rashi Lev. 1:5)], like [the blood of] a sin-offering. Scripture, therefore, says [(Lev. 7:1): “And this is the law of a guilt-offering,” where the term תּוֹרָה, “law,” is an inclusive term, coming here to include this special guilt-offering, that its blood should be applied below the red line as with other guilt-offerings, [even though in all other respects this sacrifice is similar to a sin-offering]. — [Torath Kohanim 14:47; Zev. 49a]   הוא לכהן: בכל עבודות התלויות בכהן הושוה אשם זה לחטאת, שלא תאמר הואיל ויצא דמו מכלל שאר אשמות לינתן על תנוך ובהונות, לא יהא טעון מתן דמים ואימורים לגבי מזבח, לכך נאמר כי כחטאת האשם הוא לכהן. יכול יהא דמו ניתן למעלה כחטאת, תלמוד לומר וכו', בתורת כהנים:
14. The kohen shall take some of the blood of the guilt offering, and the kohen shall place it above the cartilage of the right ear of the person being cleansed, on the thumb of his right hand, and on the big toe of his right foot.   יד. וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן מִדַּם הָאָשָׁם וְנָתַן הַכֹּהֵן עַל תְּנוּךְ אֹזֶן הַמִּטַּהֵר הַיְמָנִית וְעַל בֹּהֶן יָדוֹ הַיְמָנִית וְעַל בֹּהֶן רַגְלוֹ הַיְמָנִית:
cartilage: Heb. תְּנוּ. The middle wall of the ear (Torath Kohanim 14:50). The actual etymology of the term תְּנוּ is unknown to me [i.e., whether it is Hebrew or Aramaic], but the interpreters call it tendron [or tandrum].   תנוך: גדר אמצעי שבאוזן. ולשון תנוך לא נודע לי, והפותרים קורים לו טנדרו"ס [חסחוס]:
thumb: Heb. בֹּהֶן. The thumb [or the big toe]   בהן: גודל:
15. And the kohen shall take some of the log of oil, and pour [it] onto the kohen's left palm.   טו. וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן מִלֹּג הַשָּׁמֶן וְיָצַק עַל כַּף הַכֹּהֵן הַשְּׂמָאלִית:
16. The kohen shall then dip his right index finger into some of the oil that is on his left palm, and sprinkle some of the oil with his index finger seven times, before the Lord.   טז. וְטָבַל הַכֹּהֵן אֶת אֶצְבָּעוֹ הַיְמָנִית מִן הַשֶּׁמֶן אֲשֶׁר עַל כַּפּוֹ הַשְּׂמָאלִית וְהִזָּה מִן הַשֶּׁמֶן בְּאֶצְבָּעוֹ שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה:
[And sprinkle…] before the Lord: opposite, [i.e., in the direction of] the Holy of Holies. — [Torath Kohanim 14:53]   לפני ה': כנגד בית קדשי הקדשים:
17. And some of the remainder of the oil that is in his palm, the kohen shall place on the cartilage of the right ear of the person being cleansed, on the thumb of his right hand and on the big toe of his right foot, on [top of] the blood of the guilt offering.   יז. וּמִיֶּתֶר הַשֶּׁמֶן אֲשֶׁר עַל כַּפּוֹ יִתֵּן הַכֹּהֵן עַל תְּנוּךְ אֹזֶן הַמִּטַּהֵר הַיְמָנִית וְעַל בֹּהֶן יָדוֹ הַיְמָנִית וְעַל בֹּהֶן רַגְלוֹ הַיְמָנִית עַל דַּם הָאָשָׁם:
18. And what is left over from the oil that is in the kohen's palm, he shall place upon the head of the person being cleansed, and the kohen shall effect atonement for him before the Lord.   יח. וְהַנּוֹתָר בַּשֶּׁמֶן אֲשֶׁר עַל כַּף הַכֹּהֵן יִתֵּן עַל רֹאשׁ הַמִּטַּהֵר וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה:
19. The kohen shall then perform [the service of] the sin offering and effect atonement for the person being cleansed of his uncleanness. After this, he shall slaughter the burnt offering.   יט. וְעָשָׂה הַכֹּהֵן אֶת הַחַטָּאת וְכִפֶּר עַל הַמִּטַּהֵר מִטֻּמְאָתוֹ וְאַחַר יִשְׁחַט אֶת הָעֹלָה:
20. And the kohen shall bring up the burnt offering and the meal offering to the altar. The kohen shall thus effect atonement for him, and he shall be [completely] clean.   כ. וְהֶעֱלָה הַכֹּהֵן אֶת הָעֹלָה וְאֶת הַמִּנְחָה הַמִּזְבֵּחָה וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן וְטָהֵר:
and the meal offering: [A collective term, referring to all three] libation meal offerings of [these] animals. [See Rashi on verse 10.]   ואת המנחה: מנחת נסכים של בהמה:

5th Portion

Chapter 14

21. But if he is poor and cannot afford [these sacrifices], he shall take one [male] lamb as a guilt offering for a waving to effect atonement for him, and one tenth [of an ephah] of fine flour mixed with oil as a meal offering, and a log of oil.   כא. וְאִם דַּל הוּא וְאֵין יָדוֹ מַשֶּׂגֶת וְלָקַח כֶּבֶשׂ אֶחָד אָשָׁם לִתְנוּפָה לְכַפֵּר עָלָיו וְעִשָּׂרוֹן סֹלֶת אֶחָד בָּלוּל בַּשֶּׁמֶן לְמִנְחָה וְלֹג שָׁמֶן:
and one tenth [of an ephah] of fine flour: for [the libation meal offering to accompany] this lamb, which is one, he shall bring one “tenth” [of an ephah of flour] for his libation offering [to accompany his one lamb].   ועשרון סלת אחד: לכבש זה שהוא אחד יביא עשרון אחד לנסכיו:
and a log of oil: to place some of it [upon the cartilage of the ear and] on the thumb and big toe. However, as far as the [amount of] oil required for the libation meal offerings, Scripture did not need to specify [for we know it from another passage (see Num. 15)].   ולוג שמן: לתת ממנו על הבהונות ושמן של נסכי המנחה לא הוזקק הכתוב לפרש:
22. And two turtle doves or two young doves, according to what he can afford; one shall be a sin offering, and one a burnt offering.   כב. וּשְׁתֵּי תֹרִים אוֹ שְׁנֵי בְּנֵי יוֹנָה אֲשֶׁר תַּשִּׂיג יָדוֹ וְהָיָה אֶחָד חַטָּאת וְהָאֶחָד עֹלָה:
23. And he shall bring them on the eighth day of his cleansing, to the kohen, to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting, before the Lord.   כג. וְהֵבִיא אֹתָם בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי לְטָהֳרָתוֹ אֶל הַכֹּהֵן אֶל פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה:
on the eighth day of his cleansing: [I.e.,] on the eighth day after [he had brought] the birds and been sprinkled with the cedar stick, the hyssop, and the strip of crimson wool [for that procedure is also called a “cleansing,” albeit interim].   ביום השמיני לטהרתו: שמיני לצפרים ולהזאת עץ ארז ואזוב ושני תולעת:
24. And the kohen shall take the guilt offering lamb and the log of oil, and the kohen shall wave them as a waving, before the Lord.   כד. וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן אֶת כֶּבֶשׂ הָאָשָׁם וְאֶת לֹג הַשָּׁמֶן וְהֵנִיף אֹתָם הַכֹּהֵן תְּנוּפָה לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה:
25. And he shall slaughter the guilt offering lamb, and the kohen shall take some of the blood of the guilt offering's and place it on the cartilage of the right ear of the person being cleansed, on the thumb of his right hand, and on the big toe of his right foot.   כה. וְשָׁחַט אֶת כֶּבֶשׂ הָאָשָׁם וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן מִדַּם הָאָשָׁם וְנָתַן עַל תְּנוּךְ אֹזֶן הַמִּטַּהֵר הַיְמָנִית וְעַל בֹּהֶן יָדוֹ הַיְמָנִית וְעַל בֹּהֶן רַגְלוֹ הַיְמָנִית:
26. And the kohen shall then pour some of the oil into the left palm of the kohen.   כו. וּמִן הַשֶּׁמֶן יִצֹק הַכֹּהֵן עַל כַּף הַכֹּהֵן הַשְּׂמָאלִית:
27. And the kohen shall sprinkle with his right index finger some of the oil that is in his left palm, seven times before the Lord.   כז. וְהִזָּה הַכֹּהֵן בְּאֶצְבָּעוֹ הַיְמָנִית מִן הַשֶּׁמֶן אֲשֶׁר עַל כַּפּוֹ הַשְּׂמָאלִית שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה:
28. And the kohen shall place some of the oil that is in his palm, on the cartilage of the right ear of the person being cleansed, on the thumb of his right hand and on the big toe of his right foot, on the place of the blood of the guilt offering.   כח. וְנָתַן הַכֹּהֵן מִן הַשֶּׁמֶן | אֲשֶׁר עַל כַּפּוֹ עַל תְּנוּךְ אֹזֶן הַמִּטַּהֵר הַיְמָנִית וְעַל בֹּהֶן יָדוֹ הַיְמָנִית וְעַל בֹּהֶן רַגְלוֹ הַיְמָנִית עַל מְקוֹם דַּם הָאָשָׁם:
on the place of the blood of the guilt-offering: Even if the blood had been wiped off. This teaches us that the blood is not the determining factor, but the place is the determining factor. — [Torath Kohanim 14:54; Men. 10a]   על מקום דם האשם: אפילו נתקנח הדם, למד שאין הדם גורם אלא המקום גורם:
29. And what is left over from the oil that is in the kohen's palm, he shall place upon the head of the person being cleansed, to effect atonement for him, before the Lord.   כט. וְהַנּוֹתָר מִן הַשֶּׁמֶן אֲשֶׁר עַל כַּף הַכֹּהֵן יִתֵּן עַל רֹאשׁ הַמִּטַּהֵר לְכַפֵּר עָלָיו לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה:
30. He shall then perform [the service of] one of the turtle doves or of the young doves, from whatever he can afford,   ל. וְעָשָׂה אֶת הָאֶחָד מִן הַתֹּרִים אוֹ מִן בְּנֵי הַיּוֹנָה מֵאֲשֶׁר תַּשִּׂיג יָדוֹ:
31. [from] what he can afford, one as a sin offering, and one as a burnt offering, besides the meal offering, and the kohen shall effect atonement for the person being cleansed, before the Lord.   לא. אֵת אֲשֶׁר תַּשִּׂיג יָדוֹ אֶת הָאֶחָד חַטָּאת וְאֶת הָאֶחָד עֹלָה עַל הַמִּנְחָה וְכִפֶּר הַכֹּהֵן עַל הַמִּטַּהֵר לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה:
32. This is the law of one in whom there is a lesion of tzara'ath, who cannot afford [the full array of sacrifices], when he is to be cleansed.   לב. זֹאת תּוֹרַת אֲשֶׁר בּוֹ נֶגַע צָרָעַת אֲשֶׁר לֹא תַשִּׂיג יָדוֹ בְּטָהֳרָתוֹ:

6th Portion

Chapter 14

33. And the Lord spoke to Moses and to Aaron, saying,   לג. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהֹוָה אֶל משֶׁה וְאֶל אַהֲרֹן לֵאמֹר:
34. When you come to the land of Canaan, which I am giving you as a possession, and I place a lesion of tzara'ath upon a house in the land of your possession,   לד. כִּי תָבֹאוּ אֶל אֶרֶץ כְּנַעַן אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי נֹתֵן לָכֶם לַאֲחֻזָּה וְנָתַתִּי נֶגַע צָרַעַת בְּבֵית אֶרֶץ אֲחֻזַּתְכֶם:
and I place a lesion of tzara’ath: Heb. וְנָתַתִּי, lit. and I will give. This is [good] news for them that lesions of tzara’ath will come upon them, (Torath Kohanim 14:75), because the Amorites had hidden away treasures of gold inside the walls of their houses during the entire forty years that the Israelites were in the desert, and through the lesion, he will demolish the house (see verses 43-45) and find them. — [Vayikra Rabbah 17:6]   ונתתי נגע צרעת: בשורה היא להם שהנגעים באים עליהם, לפי שהטמינו אמוריים מטמוניות של זהב בקירות בתיהם כל ארבעים שנה שהיו ישראל במדבר, ועל ידי הנגע נותץ הבית ומוצאן:
35. and the one to whom the house belongs comes and tells the kohen, saying, "Something like a lesion has appeared to me in the house,"   לה. וּבָא אֲשֶׁר לוֹ הַבַּיִת וְהִגִּיד לַכֹּהֵן לֵאמֹר כְּנֶגַע נִרְאָה לִי בַּבָּיִת:
Something like a lesion has appeared to me in the house: Even a Torah scholar, who knows that it is definitely a lesion [of tzara’ath], shall not make his statement using a decisive expression, saying, “A lesion has appeared to me,” but, “Something like an lesion has appeared to me” [out of respect for the kohen, who is to make the decision]. — [Nega’im 12:5]   כנגע נראה לי בבית: אפילו תלמיד חכם שיודע שהוא נגע ודאי לא יפסוק דבר ברור לומר נגע נראה לי, אלא כנגע נראה לי:
36. the kohen shall order that they clear out the house, before the kohen comes to look at the lesion, so that everything in the house should not become unclean. After this, the kohen shall come to look at the house.   לו. וְצִוָּה הַכֹּהֵן וּפִנּוּ אֶת הַבַּיִת בְּטֶרֶם יָבֹא הַכֹּהֵן לִרְאוֹת אֶת הַנֶּגַע וְלֹא יִטְמָא כָּל אֲשֶׁר בַּבָּיִת וְאַחַר כֵּן יָבֹא הַכֹּהֵן לִרְאוֹת אֶת הַבָּיִת:
before the kohen comes…: since as long as the kohen has not yet become involved with the house [in question], the law of uncleanness does not yet apply to it.   בטרם יבא הכהן וגו': שכל זמן שאין כהן נזקק לו, אין שם תורת טומאה:
so that everything in the house should not become unclean: For if they do not clear it out, and the kohen comes and sees the lesion, the house will have to be quarantined and everything inside it will become unclean. Now, for what objects did the Torah have consideration? If it was upon vessels that require immersion [in a mikvah to cleanse them], then [instead of having them removed,] let him immerse them, and they will become clean. And if it was upon food and drink, then [instead of removing them, let them become unclean] and he can eat and drink them during his period of uncleanness. Hence, the Torah has consideration only for earthenware vessels, which cannot be cleansed by [immersion in] a mikvah [and would thus undergo permanent damage if they became unclean]. — [Nega’im 12:5]   ולא יטמא כל אשר בבית: שאם לא יפנהו ויבא הכהן ויראה הנגע, נזקק להסגר, וכל מה שבתוכו יטמא. ועל מה חסה תורה, אם על כלי שטף, יטבילם ויטהרו, ואם על אוכלין ומשקין, יאכלם בימי טומאתו, הא לא חסה התורה אלא על כלי חרס, שאין להם טהרה במקוה:
37. And he shall look at the lesion. Now, [if] the lesion in the walls of the house consists of dark green or dark red sunken looking stains, appearing as if deeper than the wall,   לז. וְרָאָה אֶת הַנֶּגַע וְהִנֵּה הַנֶּגַע בְּקִירֹת הַבַּיִת שְׁקַעֲרוּרֹת יְרַקְרַקֹּת אוֹ אֲדַמְדַּמֹּת וּמַרְאֵיהֶן שָׁפָל מִן הַקִּיר:
sunken-looking stains: Heb., שְׁקַעֲרוּרֹת, sunken (שׁוֹקְעוֹת) in their appearance (בְּמַרְאֵיהֶן). - [Torath Kohanim 14:89]   שקערורת: שוקעות במראיהן:
38. then the kohen shall go out of the house to the entrance of the house, and he shall quarantine the house for seven days.   לח. וְיָצָא הַכֹּהֵן מִן הַבַּיִת אֶל פֶּתַח הַבָּיִת וְהִסְגִּיר אֶת הַבַּיִת שִׁבְעַת יָמִים:
39. Then the kohen shall return on the seventh day and look [at the house]. Now, [if] the lesion has spread in the walls of the house,   לט. וְשָׁב הַכֹּהֵן בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי וְרָאָה וְהִנֵּה פָּשָׂה הַנֶּגַע בְּקִירֹת הַבָּיִת:
40. the kohen shall order that they remove the stones upon which the lesion is [found], and they shall cast them away outside the city, to an unclean place.   מ. וְצִוָּה הַכֹּהֵן וְחִלְּצוּ אֶת הָאֲבָנִים אֲשֶׁר בָּהֵן הַנָּגַע וְהִשְׁלִיכוּ אֶתְהֶן אֶל מִחוּץ לָעִיר אֶל מָקוֹם טָמֵא:
they remove the stones: Heb. וְחִלְּצוּ, as the Targum [Onkelos] renders: וְיִשְׁלְפוּן, “they shall remove them from there,” similar to, “[Then his brother’s wife shall…] remove (וְחָלְצָה) his shoe” (Deut. 25:9), an expression of removal.   וחלצו את האבנים: כתרגומו וישלפון, יטלום משם, כמו (דברים כה ט) וחלצה נעלו, לשון הסרה:
to an unclean place: [I.e.,] a place where clean things are not used. This verse teaches us that these [unclean] stones contaminate their place as long as they are there. - [Torath Kohanim 4:96]   אל מקום טמא: מקום שאין טהרות משתמשות שם, למדך הכתוב שהאבנים הללו מטמאות מקומן בעודן בו:
41. And he shall scrape out the house from the inside, all around, and they shall pour out the [mortar] dust from what they scraped, outside the city, into an unclean place.   מא. וְאֶת הַבַּיִת יַקְצִעַ מִבַּיִת סָבִיב וְשָׁפְכוּ אֶת הֶעָפָר אֲשֶׁר הִקְצוּ אֶל מִחוּץ לָעִיר אֶל מָקוֹם טָמֵא:
scraped out: Heb. יַקְצִעַ, rogner in French, or rodoniyer in Old French, to clip, to trim. This term occurs many times in the language of the Mishnah, [for example, Kelim 27:4, 5, B.K. 66b, Chul. 123b]. [Note that the spelling in Mikraoth Gedoloth is different. I have not found such a spelling in any dictionary. Greenberg, however, writes that Tobler and Lommatszch, Altfranzösisches Wörterbuch gives fifteen spellings for this word.]   יקצע: רודוניי"ר בלע"ז [להקציע]. ובלשון משנה יש הרבה:
inside: Heb., מִבַּיִת, inside.   מבית: מבפנים:
all around: Heb. סָבִיב, around the lesion. In Midrash Torath Kohanim, it is thus expounded, namely, that he shall scrape out the plaster surrounding the afflicted stones.   סביב: סביבות הנגע, בתורת כהנים נדרש כן, שיקלוף הטיח שסביב אבני הנגע:
they scraped: Heb. הִקְצוּ, an expression denoting an edge (קָצֶה). [I.e.,] that they scrape off (קִצְּעוּ) around the edges (קְצוֹת) of the lesion.   הקצו: לשון קצה, אשר קצעו בקצות הנגע סביב:
42. And they shall take other stones and bring them instead of those stones. And he shall take other [mortar] dust, and plaster the house.   מב. וְלָקְחוּ אֲבָנִים אֲחֵרוֹת וְהֵבִיאוּ אֶל תַּחַת הָאֲבָנִים וְעָפָר אַחֵר יִקַּח וְטָח אֶת הַבָּיִת:
43. And if the lesion returns and erupts in the house, after he had removed the stones, and after the house had been scraped around and after it had been plastered,   מג. וְאִם יָשׁוּב הַנֶּגַע וּפָרַח בַּבַּיִת אַחַר חִלֵּץ אֶת הָאֲבָנִים וְאַחֲרֵי הִקְצוֹת אֶת הַבַּיִת וְאַחֲרֵי הִטּוֹחַ:
had been scraped: an expression of having been done, [i.e., the passive], and so is "it had been plastered". However, [in] “he had removed "the stones,” the expression refers to the person who had removed them, and this is [an example of] the intensive verb form [called pi’el, which has a dagesh in the middle letter of the root form], like [the verbs][with a dagesh in the] and[with a dagesh in the ].   הקצות: לשון העשות וכן הטוח, אבל חלץ את האבנים מוסב הלשון אל האדם שחלצן והוא משקל לשון כבד, כמו כפר, דבר:
And if…the lesion returns“: One might think that if it returned on that same day, it would be deemed unclean. Scripture, therefore, states (verse 39), “Then the kohen shall return (וְשָׁב הַכֹּהֵן),” [the same term as in our verse, namely,], “and if… [the lesion] returns (וְאִם יָשׁוּב).” Just as the return (שִׁיבָה) of the kohen mentioned there, is at the end of a week, so is the return [of the lesion] mentioned here, at the end of a week. — [Torath Kohanim 14:105]   ואם ישוב הנגע וגו': יכול חזר בו ביום יהא טמא, תלמוד לומר ושב הכהן ואם ישוב, מה שיבה האמורה להלן לסוף שבוע, אף שיבה האמורה כאן בסוף שבוע:
44. then the kohen shall come and look [at it]. Now, [if] the lesion in the house has spread, it is malignant tzara'ath in the house; it is unclean.   מד. וּבָא הַכֹּהֵן וְרָאָה וְהִנֵּה פָּשָׂה הַנֶּגַע בַּבָּיִת צָרַעַת מַמְאֶרֶת הִוא בַּבַּיִת טָמֵא הוּא:
Then the kohen shall come and look [at it]. Now, [if] the lesion… has spread: [From here,] one might think that a recurrent lesion [in a house] can be deemed unclean only if it spreads. However, the term צָרַעַת מַמְאֶרֶת, “malignant tzara’ath,” is mentioned in reference to houses, and צָרַעַת מַמְאֶרֶת is mentioned in reference to garments (see verse 13:52). [Through the exposition of a גְזֵרָה שָׁוָה we derive that] just as over there [in the case of garments,] a recurrent lesion is deemed unclean even if it had not spread, here too, [in the case of houses,] a recurrent lesion is deemed unclean even if it has not spread. If so, what does Scripture teach us here when it says, “Now, [if] the lesion… has spread…”? [in answer to this question, Rashi explains that the verses here should not be understood in the order in which they are written. Rather, they should be read in a different order, because] this is not the place for this verse. [I.e., the first section of this verse, namely, “Then the kohen shall come and look [at it]. Now [if] the lesion in the house has spread,” is to be understood by inserting it elsewhere within these verses, as follows]: “He shall demolish the house…” (verse 45), should be [understood as if] written after “And if… the lesion returns…” (verse 43), [skipping over the first section of verse 44], and then [reinserting this first section of our verse] “Then the kohen shall come and look… the lesion in the house has spread.” Thus, [when our verse says that the kohen looks at the lesion, the phrase, “[if] the lesion…has spread”] comes to teach [us] only about a lesion which remains the same during the first week [of quarantine], but when he came at the end of the second week [of quarantine], he found that it had spread. For in the earlier verses, Scripture does not explicitly tell us about a case where the lesion had remained with the same appearance after the first week [of quarantine]. Here, though, Scripture teaches you with this mention of spreading, that it is referring only to a lesion that has remained the same for the first week but spread during the second [week]. So what shall he do to it? I may think that he should demolish it, as is written immediately following it, “He shall demolish the house….” (verse 45). Scripture, therefore, says (verse 39), “the kohen shall return,” and [here], “the kohen shall come.” Just as in the case of “returning” [i.e., when the kohen returned after one week and the lesion had spread], he must remove [the unclean stones], scrape, and plaster, and give it another week [of quarantine], likewise, in the case of “coming” [i.e., where the lesion has remained the same for the first week, but spread during the second week], he must remove [the unclean stones], scrape, and plaster and then give it a week [of quarantine]. And, if it recurs again, he must demolish [the house]. If it does not recur, [however,] it is clean. Now, how do we know that if it remained the same during this and this, [i.e., during the first and second weeks], he must [also] remove [the unclean stones], scrape, plaster, and give it a [third] week [of quarantine]? Therefore, Scripture [here] says, “the kohen shall come (וּבָא),” and [in verse 48, it says], “if the kohen comes and comes [again] (בֹּא יָבֹא) ” What is Scripture referring to? If [you suggest that it means a lesion] that spread during the first week [of quarantine], this has already been mentioned [in verse 43]; if [you suggest that verse 48 is referring to a lesion] that spread during the second [week], this has already been mentioned [in our verse]; so [one must conclude that verse 48], “if the kohen comes and comes [again],” [is referring to the case that] he comes (בֹּא) at the end of the first week [of quarantine] and comes [again] (יָבֹא) at the end of the second week [of quarantine], and looks, and [as is continued in verse 48], “behold, the lesion did not spread” [i.e., it has remained the same throughout]. What shall he do to it? One might think that he should dismiss [the case] and depart, as it is written here (48) “the kohen shall pronounce the house clean.” Scripture, however, continues there, “because the lesion has healed.” [God says:] I deemed clean only what was healed. What shall be done with it [if the lesion has remained the same during the first and second weeks, and has not yet healed]? “Coming” is stated above [in verse 44, “the kohen shall come”], and “coming” is stated here [in verse 48, “if the kohen comes…and comes [again]”]; just as in the case above (verse 44), he must remove [the unclean stones], scrape, plaster, and give it a week [of quarantine], a law which we learned through the link made between the terms “returning” and “coming,” likewise, in the case below, [in the question of a lesion that has remained the same through the two weeks, the owner shall remove the unclean stones, scrape, plaster, and observe a week of quarantine]. The above is taught in Torath Kohanim (14:105). The conclusion of this matter is: Demolition [of an afflicted house] is required only when the lesion recurs after the removal [of the unclean stones], scraping, and plastering. The recurring lesion does not require spreading [to necessitate demolition]. Hence, the sequence of the verses is as follows: (Verse 43), “And if [after he had removed the stones, and after the house had been scraped around and after it had been plastered, the lesion] returns” ; then (verse 44, second section),“it is malignant tzara’ath …it is unclean”]; then (verse 45), “He shall demolish the house…,” and (verse 46), “Anyone entering the house […shall become unclean],” and (verse 47), “[And one who lies down…] and one who eats in the house [shall immerse…]” ; [at this juncture, just before verse 48, the second section of our verse (44) is now inserted in the sequence, namely,] “Then the kohen shall come and look…the lesion in the house has spread”- [and, as above, now we know that] Scripture here is referring to a case where the lesion remained the same during the first week [of quarantine], so a second week of quarantine is applied, and at the end of this second week of its quarantine, he comes and sees that it has spread. What should he do with it? The owner must remove [the unclean stones], scrape, plaster, and give it another [i.e., a third] week [of quarantine]. Now, if the lesion recurs, he must demolish, but if it does not recur, [the house is deemed clean, and] birds are required [along with the whole cleansing procedure, because lesions are never quarantined for more than three weeks. [See Rashi on verse 48 below, which is understood in light of this Rashi.]   ובא הכהן וראה והנה פשה: יכול לא יהא החוזר טמא אלא אם כן פשה, נאמר צרעת ממארת בבתים ונאמר צרעת ממארת בבגדים, מה להלן טמא את החוזר אף על פי שאינו פושה, אף כאן טמא את החוזר אף על פי שאינו פושה, אם כן מה תלמוד לומר והנה פשה, אין כאן מקומו של מקרא זה, אלא ונתץ את הבית היה לו לכתוב אחר ואם ישוב הנגע וראה והנה פשה, הא לא בא ללמד אלא על נגע העומד בעיניו בשבוע ראשון ובא בסוף שבוע שני ומצאו שפשה, שלא פירש בו הכתוב למעלה כלום בעומד בעיניו בשבוע ראשון, ולמדך כאן בפשיון זה שאינו מדבר אלא בעומד בראשון ופשה בשני ומה יעשה לו, יכול יתצנו, כמו שסמך לו ונתץ את הבית, תלמוד לומר ושב הכהן ובא הכהן, נלמד ביאה משיבה, מה שיבה חולץ וקוצה וטח ונותן לו שבוע, אף ביאה חולץ וקוצה וטח ונותן לו שבוע. ואם חוזר, נותץ. לא חזר, טהור. ומנין שאם עמד בזה ובזה חולץ וקוצה וטח ונותן לו שבוע, תלמוד לומר ובא ואם בא יבא, במה הכתוב מדבר, אם בפושה בראשון הרי כבר אמור, אם בפושה בשני הרי כבר אמור, הא אינו אומר [ובא], ואם בא יבא, אלא את שבא בסוף שבוע ראשון ובא בסוף שבוע שני וראה והנה לא פשה. זה העומד מה יעשה לו, יכול יפטר וילך, כמו שכתוב כאן וטהר את הבית, תלמוד לומר כי נרפא הנגע, לא טהרתי אלא את הרפוי, מה יעשה לו, ביאה אמורה למעלה וביאה אמורה למטה, מה בעליונה חולץ וקוצה וטח ונותן לו שבוע, דגמר לה זהו שיבה זהו ביאה, אף בתחתונה כן וכו', כדאיתא בתורת כהנים. גמרו של דבר אין נתיצה אלא בנגע החוזר אחר חליצה וקצוע וטיחה ואין החוזר צריך פשיון. וסדר המקראות כך הוא ואם ישוב, ונתץ, והבא אל הבית, והאוכל בבית, ובא הכהן וראה והנה פשה. ודבר הכתוב בעומד בראשון שנותן לו שבוע שני להסגרו, ובסוף שבוע שני להסגרו בא וראהו שפשה, ומה יעשה לו, חולץ וקוצה וטח ונותן לו שבוע. חזר, נותץ. לא חזר, טעון צפרים, שאין בנגעים יותר משלשה שבועות:
45. He shall demolish the house, its stones, its wood, and all the [mortar] dust of the house, and he shall take [them] outside the city, to an unclean place.   מה. וְנָתַץ אֶת הַבַּיִת אֶת אֲבָנָיו וְאֶת עֵצָיו וְאֵת כָּל עֲפַר הַבָּיִת וְהוֹצִיא אֶל מִחוּץ לָעִיר אֶל מָקוֹם טָמֵא:
46. And anyone entering the house during all the days of its quarantine shall become unclean until the evening.   מו. וְהַבָּא אֶל הַבַּיִת כָּל יְמֵי הִסְגִּיר אֹתוֹ יִטְמָא עַד הָעָרֶב:
during all the days of its quarantine: However, not [someone entering the house] during the days that he scrapes off the lesion [during which time the house does not defile those who enter it, until the quarantine period begins]. But [if this is so,] one might think, if a lesion is pronounced definitely unclean [and the house is slated for demolition], that if the owner [disregards the order to demolish the house, but instead, removes the unclean stones and] scrapes off its lesion, that this case is also excluded [i.e., this house shall also not defile those entering it]. Scripture, therefore, says: “during all the days” [in which the seemingly superfluous word “all” comes to include this case, that since this house is unclean and must be demolished, it will always defile those who enter it]. — [Torath Kohanim 14:110].   כל ימי הסגיר אותו: ולא ימים שקלף את נגעו, יכול שאני מוציא המוחלט שקלף את נגעו, תלמוד לומר כל ימי:
[And anyone entering the house…] shall become unclean until the evening: [Since no mention of immersing garments is made here, Scripture] teaches us that [the one who enters] the house does not defile [his] garments. One might think that even if he remained in the house for the time of פְּרָס כְּדֵּי אִכִילַת -the length of time it takes someone to eat an average meal [i.e., half a loaf-that his garments would also remain undefiled]. Scripture, therefore, says: “(verse 47) ”one who eats in the house shall immerse his garments.“ We know only if one eats [that his garments become unclean]. How do we know that if someone lies down [in the house, his garments become unclean]? Therefore, Scripture says (verse 47),”And whoever lies down in the house, [shall immerse his garments].“ I know only [that this law applies to] someone who either eats or lies down. How do we know that [this law applies also to] someone who did not eat or lie down [in the house]? Therefore, Scripture (verse 47),”shall immerse… shall immerse." [The repetition of this expression] includes [the case where the person merely stayed in the house, that his garments become unclean]. If so, why are eating and lying down mentioned? To give a measurement [of time] that it takes to eat half a loaf for one who lies down [i.e., only if someone lies down in the house for that period do his garments become unclean]. — [Torath Kohanim 14:111]   יטמא עד הערב: מלמד שאין מטמא בגדים, יכול אפילו שהה בכדי אכילת פרס, תלמוד לומר והאוכל בבית יכבס את בגדיו. אין לי אלא אוכל, שוכב מנין, תלמוד לומר והשוכב. אין לי אלא אוכל ושוכב, לא אוכל ולא שוכב מנין, תלמוד לומר יכבס יכבס, ריבה. אם כן למה נאמר אוכל ושוכב, ליתן שיעור לשוכב כדי אכילת פרס:
47. And whoever lies down in the house, shall immerse his garments, and whoever eats in the house, shall immerse his garments.   מז. וְהַשֹּׁכֵב בַּבַּיִת יְכַבֵּס אֶת בְּגָדָיו וְהָאֹכֵל בַּבַּיִת יְכַבֵּס אֶת בְּגָדָיו:
48. But if the kohen comes and comes again and looks [at the lesion], and behold, the lesion did not spread in the house, after the house has been plastered, the kohen shall pronounce the house clean, because the lesion has healed.   מח. וְאִם בֹּא יָבֹא הַכֹּהֵן וְרָאָה וְהִנֵּה לֹא פָשָׂה הַנֶּגַע בַּבַּיִת אַחֲרֵי הִטֹּחַ אֶת הַבָּיִת וְטִהַר הַכֹּהֵן אֶת הַבַּיִת כִּי נִרְפָּא הַנָּגַע:
But if the kohen comes […] and comes [again]: At the end of the second week [of quarantine],   ואם בא יבא: לסוף שבוע שני:
and looks [at the lesion], and behold, the lesion did not spread: This verse comes to teach [us] about a lesion that has remained the same throughout [both] the first and second weeks [of quarantine]. And what should be done to it]? One might think that it should be pronounced clean, as is apparent from the plain meaning of this verse, which continues: “the kohen shall pronounce the house clean.” Scripture, however, concludes the verse with, “because the lesion has healed.” [God says:] I deem clean only [the lesion] that has healed. And “healed” means only a house which has been scraped and plastered, and the lesion did not recur. But this [house, in which the lesion has neither disappeared nor spread], requires removal [of the unclean stones], scraping, plastering, and a third week [of quarantine]. Thus, the following is how our verse is to be understood: “But if the kohen comes […] and comes [again] at the end of the second [week of quarantine] and beholds, the lesion did not spread, he must plaster it, and there is no plastering without removing [the unclean stones] and scraping. [Then] after the house has been plastered, the kohen shall [pronounce] the house clean if the lesion did not recur at the end of the week [of quarantine], because the lesion has healed.” But if it recurs, Scripture has already explained regarding a [house with a] recurring lesion, that it requires demolition.   וראה והנה לא פשה: מקרא זה בא ללמד בעומד בעיניו בראשון ובשני מה יעשה לו, יכול יטהרנו כמשמעו של מקרא וטהר הכהן את הבית, תלמוד לומר כי נרפא הנגע, לא טהרתי אלא את הרפוי, ואין רפוי אלא הבית שהוקצה והוטח ולא חזר הנגע, אבל זה טעון חליצה וקצוי וטיחה ושבוע שלישי. וכן המקרא נדרש ואם בא יבא בשני, וראה והנה לא פשה יטיחנו, ואין טיחה בלא חלוץ וקצוי. ואחרי הטוח את הבית וטהר הכהן את הבית אם לא חזר לסוף השבוע, כי נרפא הנגע, ואם חזר כבר פירש על החוזר שטעון נתיצה:
49. To [ritually] cleanse the house, he shall take two birds, a cedar stick, a strip of crimson [wool], and hyssop.   מט. וְלָקַח לְחַטֵּא אֶת הַבַּיִת שְׁתֵּי צִפֳּרִים וְעֵץ אֶרֶז וּשְׁנִי תוֹלַעַת וְאֵזֹב:
50. He shall slaughter one bird into an earthenware vessel, over spring water.   נ. וְשָׁחַט אֶת הַצִּפֹּר הָאֶחָת אֶל כְּלִי חֶרֶשׂ עַל מַיִם חַיִּים:
51. And he shall take the cedar stick, the hyssop, the strip of crimson [wool], and the live bird, and he shall dip them into the blood of slaughtered bird and into the spring water and sprinkle towards the house seven times.   נא. וְלָקַח אֶת עֵץ הָאֶרֶז וְאֶת הָאֵזֹב וְאֵת | שְׁנִי הַתּוֹלַעַת וְאֵת הַצִּפֹּר הַחַיָּה וְטָבַל אֹתָם בְּדַם הַצִּפֹּר הַשְּׁחוּטָה וּבַמַּיִם הַחַיִּים וְהִזָּה אֶל הַבַּיִת שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים:
52. And he shall [thus] cleanse the house with the blood of the bird, the spring water, the live bird, the cedar wood, the hyssop and the strip of crimson [wool].   נב. וְחִטֵּא אֶת הַבַּיִת בְּדַם הַצִּפּוֹר וּבַמַּיִם הַחַיִּים וּבַצִּפֹּר הַחַיָּה וּבְעֵץ הָאֶרֶז וּבָאֵזֹב וּבִשְׁנִי הַתּוֹלָעַת:
53. He shall then send away the live bird outside the city, onto the [open] field. He shall thus effect atonement for the house, and it will be clean.   נג. וְשִׁלַּח אֶת הַצִּפֹּר הַחַיָּה אֶל מִחוּץ לָעִיר אֶל פְּנֵי הַשָּׂדֶה וְכִפֶּר עַל הַבַּיִת וְטָהֵר:
54. [All] this is the law for every lesion of tzara'ath, and for a nethek,   נד. זֹאת הַתּוֹרָה לְכָל נֶגַע הַצָּרַעַת וְלַנָּתֶק:
55. And for tzara'ath of garments and houses,   נה. וּלְצָרַעַת הַבֶּגֶד וְלַבָּיִת:
56. And for a se'eith and for a sapachath and for a bahereth;   נו. וְלַשְׂאֵת וְלַסַּפַּחַת וְלַבֶּהָרֶת:
57. To render decisions regarding the day of uncleanness and the day of cleanness. This is the law of tzara'ath.   נז. לְהוֹרֹת בְּיוֹם הַטָּמֵא וּבְיוֹם הַטָּהֹר זֹאת תּוֹרַת הַצָּרָעַת:
To render decisions regarding the day of uncleanness: [I.e., to determine] which day renders it clean and which day renders it unclean.   להורת ביום הטמא: איזה יום מטהרו ואיזה יום מטמאו:

Chapter 15

1. And the Lord spoke to Moses and to Aaron, saying,   א. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהֹוָה אֶל משֶׁה וְאֶל אַהֲרֹן לֵאמֹר:
2. Speak to the children of Israel, and say to them, If any man has a discharge from his flesh, his discharge is unclean.   ב. דַּבְּרוּ אֶל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַאֲמַרְתֶּם אֲלֵהֶם אִישׁ אִישׁ כִּי יִהְיֶה זָב מִבְּשָׂרוֹ זוֹבוֹ טָמֵא הוּא:
If [any man] has a discharge: One might think that if he had a discharge from any place [in the body], he becomes unclean. Scripture, therefore, says: “from his flesh,” meaning not all his flesh. Since Scripture made a distinction between flesh and flesh, I am entitled to reason: [Scripture] renders unclean a man who has a discharge, and it renders unclean a woman who has a discharge. Just as with a woman who has a discharge, from the very place [in her body] from which she becomes unclean with a minor degree of uncleanness, namely, נִדָּה, “menstrual uncleanness,” she becomes unclean with a major degree of uncleanness, namely, זִיבָה, a flow outside the menstrual period, likewise, in the case of a man who has a discharge, from the very place [in his body] from which he becomes unclean with a minor degree of uncleanness, namely, קֶרִי, a seminal emission, he becomes unclean with a major degree of uncleanness, namely, זִיבָה, an abnormal discharge. — [Torath Kohanim 15:122] [Menstruation and seminal emission both cause a minor degree of uncleanness, one that does not require seven clean days before purification, as opposed to the uncleanness of a discharge of a zav or zavah (gedolah), which do require this and are thus referred to as a major degree of uncleanness.]   כי יהיה זב: יכול זב מכל מקום יהא טמא, תלמוד לומר מבשרו ולא כל בשרו. אחר שחלק הכתוב בין בשר לבשר זכיתי לדין, טמא בזב וטמא בזבה, מה זבה ממקום שהיא מטמאה טומאה קלה, נדה, מטמאה טומאה חמורה, זיבה, אף הזב ממקום שמטמא טומאה קלה, קרי, מטמא טומאה חמורה, זיבה:
his discharge is unclean: [Apart from the discharge rendering the man unclean,] this teaches us that [the discharge itself is also unclean, i.e., that even] one drop defiles [other people, and vessels] (Torath Kohanim 15:123; Niddah 55a). [What is the difference between discharge and semen?] A [male] discharge resembles the moisture [that separates itself from and appears on] barley dough, and is a thin liquid, resembling the white of an unfertilized (מוּזֶרֶת) egg, whereas semen is thick, like the white of an egg which is מוּזֶרֶת [i.e., which has been fertilized by a male.]. — [Niddah 35b]   זובו טמא: למד על הטפה שהיא מטמאה. זוב דומה למי בצק של שעורין ודחוי, ודומה ללובן ביצה המוזרת. שכבת זרע קשור כלובן ביצה שאינה מוזרת:
3. And this shall be [the nature of] his uncleanness due to his discharge: [if] his flesh runs with his discharge, or [if] his flesh is plugged up by his discharge, that is his uncleanness.   ג. וְזֹאת תִּהְיֶה טֻמְאָתוֹ בְּזוֹבוֹ רָר בְּשָׂרוֹ אֶת זוֹבוֹ אוֹ הֶחְתִּים בְּשָׂרוֹ מִזּוֹבוֹ טֻמְאָתוֹ הִוא:
runs: Heb. רָר, an expression related to רִיר, saliva, which flows from his flesh.   רר: לשון ריר שזב את בשרו:
with his discharge: like saliva, which comes out clear.   את זובו: כמו ריר שיוצא צלול:
or [his flesh is] plugged up: that the discharge comes out thick, and thus seals up (חוֹתָם) the orifice of the member, so that his flesh is plugged up on account of a drop of his discharge. This is its simple meaning. The midrashic explanation, however, [is as follows]: The first verse (verse 2) counts two perceptions [of a discharge] and calls him unclean, as it says, “a discharge from his flesh, his discharge is unclean.” Then, the second verse (verse 3) counts out three perceptions [of a discharge] and calls him unclean, as it says, “And this shall be [the nature of] his uncleanness due to his discharge: [if] his flesh runs with his discharge, or [if] his flesh is plugged up by his discharge, that is his uncleanness.” Now, how is this so? Two are for uncleanness, and the third requires him to [bring] a sacrifice. — [Meg. 8a; Niddah 43b]   או החתים: שיוצא עב וסותם את פי האמה ונסתם בשרו מטפת זובו, זהו פשוטו. ומדרשו מנה הכתוב הראשון ראיות שתים וקראו טמא, שנאמר זב מבשרו זובו טמא הוא, ומנה הכתוב השני ראיות שלש וקראו טמא, שנאמר טומאתו בזובו רר בשרו את זובו או החתים בשרו מזובו טומאתו היא. הא כיצד, שתים לטומאה והשלישית מזקיקתו לקרבן:
4. Any bedding upon which the man with the discharge will lie, shall become unclean, and any object upon which he will sit, shall become unclean.   ד. כָּל הַמִּשְׁכָּב אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁכַּב עָלָיו הַזָּב יִטְמָא וְכָל הַכְּלִי אֲשֶׁר יֵשֵׁב עָלָיו יִטְמָא:
Any bedding: Heb. כָּלהַמִּשְׁכָּב, anything fit for bedding. One might think [that this would include] even if it is designated for another purpose. Scripture, therefore, says, “upon which [the man…] will lie”; it does not say, “upon which [the man…] lay” [in the past tense,] but rather, [in the future tense,] “will lie,” which is always designated for this. It excludes this [object], about which they say to him, “Get up and let us do our work [for which purpose it was designated]!” - [Torath Kohanim 15:128]   כל המשכב: הראוי למשכב, יכול אפילו מיוחד למלאכה אחרת, תלמוד לומר אשר ישכב, אשר שכב לא נאמר, אלא אשר ישכב, המיוחד תמיד לכך, יצא זה שאומרים לו עמוד ונעשה מלאכתנו:
[And any object upon which] he will sit: [Just like the case above of the bedding,] It does not say “[upon which] he sat,” but, “upon which he will sit,” [thus referring to an article] that is always designated for this. — [Torath Kohanim 15:128; Shab. 59a]   אשר ישב: ישב לא נאמר אלא אשר ישב עליו הזב, במיוחד תמיד לכך:
5. And a man who touches his bedding, shall immerse his garments and immerse himself in water and he remain unclean until evening.   ה. וְאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יִגַּע בְּמִשְׁכָּבוֹ יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד הָעָרֶב:
And a man who touches his bedding: This teaches us that the [uncleanness of] bedding is more stringent than [the uncleanness caused by] touching [an object], insofar as this [a bedding or a seat] becomes an אַב הַטֻּמְאָה [a major source of uncleanness], which can defile a person to render his garments unclean, whereas, touching an object which is not bedding, this [object] becomes only a וְלַד הַטֻּמְאָה [a secondary source of uncleanness, i.e., a degree less than אַב הַטֻּמְאָה], and it can defile only food and drink [but not people or objects].   ואיש אשר יגע במשכבו: לימד על המשכב שחמור מן המגע, שזה נעשה אב הטומאה לטמא אדם לטמא בגדים, והמגע שאינו משכב אינו אלא ולד הטומאה, ואינו מטמא אלא אוכלין ומשקין:
6. And anyone who sits on an object, upon which the man with the discharge will sit, shall immerse his garments and immerse himself in water, and he shall remain unclean until evening.   ו. וְהַיּשֵׁב עַל הַכְּלִי אֲשֶׁר יֵשֵׁב עָלָיו הַזָּב יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד הָעָרֶב:
And anyone who sits on an object: Even if he did not touch it, even if there were ten objects one on top of the other [and the man with the discharge had sat on the top one]-they all [even the bottom seat] become defiled because of מוֹשָׁב [the law of uncleanness concerning seats. Thus, just as the man with the discharge defiles the bottom seat of the pile without touching it, so too, a clean man can become defiled by that bottom seat without touching it]. And the same [applies] to מִשְׁכָּב [defilement of beds]. — [Torath Kohanim 15:134]   והישב על הכלי: אפילו לא נגע, אפילו עשרה כלים זה על זה, כולן מטמאין משום מושב וכן במשכב:
7. And anyone who touches the flesh of the man with a discharge, shall immerse his garments and immerse himself in water, and he shall remain unclean until evening.   ז. וְהַנֹּגֵעַ בִּבְשַׂר הַזָּב יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד הָעָרֶב:
8. And if the man with the discharge spits upon a clean person, [that person] shall immerse his garments and immerse himself in water, and he shall remain unclean until evening.   ח. וְכִי יָרֹק הַזָּב בַּטָּהוֹר וְכִבֶּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד הָעָרֶב:
And if the man with the discharge spits upon a clean person: And he touches it or lifts it up [without touching it, for saliva defiles if lifted up [even without direct contact]. — [Niddah 55b]   וכי ירק הזב בטהור: ונגע בו או נשאו, שהרוק מטמא במשא:
9. Any riding gear upon which the man with the discharge will ride, becomes unclean.   ט. וְכָל הַמֶּרְכַּב אֲשֶׁר יִרְכַּב עָלָיו הַזָּב יִטְמָא:
Any riding gear: Although he did not sit on it, for example, the saddlebow, called arcon [in French. It] becomes unclean because of מֶרְכָּב [riding gear]. [However], the saddle itself, called alves [in Old French], a board connecting the two uprights of a saddle,(according to Gukovitzki, or) saddle-girth, belly-band, (according to Greenberg,) becomes unclean because of מוֹשָׁב [a seat]. — [Eruvin 27a]   וכל המרכב: אף על פי שלא ישב עליו, כגון התפוס של סרגא שקורין ארצו"ן [שלד האוכף] טמא משום מרכב. והאוכף, שקורין אלוו"ש [אוכף] טמא טומאת מושב:
10. And whoever touches anything what will be under him, becomes unclean until evening. And whoever lifts them up shall immerse his garments and immerse himself in water, and he shall remain unclean until evening.   י. וְכָל הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה תַחְתָּיו יִטְמָא עַד הָעָרֶב וְהַנּוֹשֵׂא אוֹתָם יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד הָעָרֶב:
And whoever touches anything that will be under him: [i.e.,] [under] the man with the discharge (Torath Kohanim 15:139). [This verse] comes to teach us about riding gear, that anyone touching it becomes unclean; he is [however,] not required to immerse his garments. This is a feature of the stringency of מִשְׁכָּב as opposed to מֶרְכָּב.   וכל הנגע בכל אשר יהיה תחתיו: של זב. בא ולימד על המרכב, שיהא הנוגע בו טמא ואין טעון כבוס בגדים, והוא חומר במשכב מבמרכב:
And whoever lifts them up: [I.e.,] any of the items mentioned above in this passage discussing [the laws of] a man with a discharge, [namely:] his discharge, his saliva, his semen, his urine, the bedding, riding gear, [or seat (Reggio ed.)] [defiled by the man with the discharge]-if any of these items is lifted, it defiles the person [who lifted it, together] with his garments. — [Torath Kohanim 15: 140]   והנושא אותם: את כל האמור בענין הזב, זובו ורוקו ושכבת זרעו ומימי רגליו והמשכב והמרכב והמושב, שיהא משאן מטמא אדם לטמא בגדים:
11. And whomever the man with the discharge touches, without [the latter] having rinsed his hands, shall immerse his garments and immerse himself in he waters, and he shall remain unclean until evening.   יא. וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר יִגַּע בּוֹ הַזָּב וְיָדָיו לֹא שָׁטַף בַּמָּיִם וְכִבֶּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד הָעָרֶב:
[And whomever the man with the discharge touches,] without [the latter] having rinsed his hands: While [the man with the discharge] has not yet immersed himself from his uncleanness. And even if the discharge has ceased, and the man counts seven [days], as long as he has not yet immersed himself [in a mikvah,] he defiles with all [the aspects] of his uncleanness. And the reason Scripture expresses the immersion of a man with a discharge as “rinsing hands,” is to teach you that the hidden parts of the body [e. g., the mouth,] are not required to be immersed, only the uncovered parts of the body, like the hands. — [Torath Kohanim 15:142]   וידיו לא שטף במים: בעוד שלא טבל מטומאתו, ואפילו פסק מזובו וספר שבעה ומחוסר טבילה, מטמא בכל טומאותיו. וזה שהוציא הכתוב טבילת גופו של זב בלשון שטיפת ידים, ללמדך שאין בית הסתרים טעון ביאת מים, אלא אבר הגלוי, כמו הידים:
12. And an earthenware vessel which the man with the discharge will touch, shall be broken. And any wooden vessel shall be rinsed in water.   יב. וּכְלִי חֶרֶשׂ אֲשֶׁר יִגַּע בּוֹ הַזָּב יִשָּׁבֵר וְכָל כְּלִי עֵץ יִשָּׁטֵף בַּמָּיִם:
And an earthenware vessel which the man with the discharge will touch: One might think that even if he touches it from the outside [of the vessel, “it will also become unclean….” [However, the conclusion of the Midrash is that an earthenware vessel can become defiled only by the entry of an unclean object into its inner space], as is taught in Torath Kohanim (15:143), [where the passage there continues: “So if the verse indeed is referring to entry into the inner space of an earthenware vessel, why does it use the expression of touching?” And this passage] concludes: “Well, what touching is referred to here? When he touches the whole vessel. [And what does this mean?] When he moves it.” [I.e., in addition to the case of entry into the inner space, if a man with a discharge moves a vessel, it becomes unclean].   וכלי חרש אשר יגע בו הזב: יכול אפילו נגע בו מאחוריו וכו', כדאיתא בתורת כהנים, עד איזהו מגעו שהוא בכולו הוי אומר זה הסיטו:
13. When the man with the discharge is cleansed of his discharge, he shall count seven days for himself for his purification, and then immerse his garments and immerse his flesh in spring water, and he shall be clean.   יג. וְכִי יִטְהַר הַזָּב מִזּוֹבוֹ וְסָפַר לוֹ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים לְטָהֳרָתוֹ וְכִבֶּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בְּשָׂרוֹ בְּמַיִם חַיִּים וְטָהֵר:
When…is cleansed: [I.e.,] when [the discharge] ceases. — [Torath Kohanim 15:146; Meg. 8a]   וכי יטהר: כשיפסוק:
seven days…for his purification: Seven clean days free of the uncleanness of a discharge, i.e., he must not see any discharge [during these seven days]. And all of them [must be] consecutive [i.e., without any interruption of a discharge during these seven days]. — [Torath Kohanim 15:150; Niddah 33b]   שבעת ימים לטהרתו: שבעת ימים טהורים מטומאת זיבה, שלא יראה זוב, וכולן רצופין:
14. And on the eighth day, he shall take for himself two turtle doves or two young doves, and come before the Lord, to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting, and give them to the kohen.   יד. וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי יִקַּח לוֹ שְׁתֵּי תֹרִים אוֹ שְׁנֵי בְּנֵי יוֹנָה וּבָא | לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה אֶל פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וּנְתָנָם אֶל הַכֹּהֵן:
15. And the kohen shall make them: one into a sin offering and one into a burnt offering, and the kohen shall effect atonement for him from his discharge, before the Lord.   טו. וְעָשָׂה אֹתָם הַכֹּהֵן אֶחָד חַטָּאת וְהָאֶחָד עֹלָה וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה מִזּוֹבוֹ:

7th Portion

Chapter 15

16. A man from whom there is a discharge of semen, shall immerse all his flesh in water, and he shall remain unclean until evening.   טז. וְאִישׁ כִּי תֵצֵא מִמֶּנּוּ שִׁכְבַת זָרַע וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם אֶת כָּל בְּשָׂרוֹ וְטָמֵא עַד הָעָרֶב:
17. And any garment or any leather [object] which has semen on it, shall be immersed in water, and shall remain unclean until evening.   יז. וְכָל בֶּגֶד וְכָל עוֹר אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה עָלָיו שִׁכְבַת זָרַע וְכֻבַּס בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד הָעָרֶב:
18. A woman with whom a man cohabits, whereby there was [a discharge of] semen, they shall immerse in water, and they shall remain unclean until evening.   יח. וְאִשָּׁה אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁכַּב אִישׁ אֹתָהּ שִׁכְבַת זָרַע וְרָחֲצוּ בַמַּיִם וְטָמְאוּ עַד הָעָרֶב:
[Both of] these must immerse in water: It is the Divine King’s decree that the woman becomes defiled through cohabitation, and the reason is not that she came into contact with semen, for this constitutes contact with hidden parts of the body [which does not defile]. — [Niddah 41b]   ורחצו במים: גזירת מלך היא שתטמא האשה בביאה. ואין הטעם משום נוגע בשכבת זרע, שהרי מגע בית הסתרים הוא:
19. If a woman has a discharge, her flesh discharging blood, she shall remain in her state of menstrual separation for seven days, and whoever touches her shall become unclean until evening.   יט. וְאִשָּׁה כִּי תִהְיֶה זָבָה דָּם יִהְיֶה זֹבָהּ בִּבְשָׂרָהּ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים תִּהְיֶה בְנִדָּתָהּ וְכָל הַנֹּגֵעַ בָּהּ יִטְמָא עַד הָעָרֶב:
[If a woman] has a discharge: One might think that this means from any of her organs. Scripture, therefore, says “and she revealed the fountain of her blood” (Lev. 20:18). [Scripture here teaches us that] the only blood that defiles is what comes from her “fountain” [i.e., her womb]. — [Torath Kohanim 15:169]   כי תהיה זבה: יכול מאחד מכל איבריה, תלמוד לומר (ויקרא כ יח) והיא גלתה את מקור דמיה, אין דם מטמא אלא הבא מן המקור:
her flesh discharging blood: A woman’s discharge is not called a defiling discharge unless it is red. — [Niddah 19a]   דם יהיה זבה בבשרה: אין זובה קרוי זוב לטמא אלא אם כן הוא אדום:
in her state of menstrual separation: Heb. נִדָּתָהּ, like, “and chase him (יְנִדֻּהוּ) from the world” (Job 18:18), for she is separated (מְנֻדָּה) from contact with any man.   בנדתה: כמו (איוב יח יח) ומתבל ינידוהו, שהיא מנודה ממגע כל אדם:
she shall remain in her state of menstrual separation: Even if she saw only the first sighting. — [Torath Kohanim 15:171]   תהיה בנדתה: אפילו לא ראתה אלא ראיה ראשונה:
20. And whatever she lies on during her menstrual separation, shall become unclean, and whatever she sits on, shall become unclean.   כ. וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר תִּשְׁכַּב עָלָיו בְּנִדָּתָהּ יִטְמָא וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר תֵּשֵׁב עָלָיו יִטְמָא:
21. And anyone who touches her bedding, shall immerse his garments and immerse [himself] in water, and he shall remain unclean until evening.   כא. וְכָל הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּמִשְׁכָּבָהּ יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד הָעָרֶב:
22. And anyone who touches any object upon which she will sit, shall immerse his garments and immerse himself in water, and he shall remain unclean until evening.   כב. וְכָל הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּכָל כְּלִי אֲשֶׁר תֵּשֵׁב עָלָיו יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד הָעָרֶב:
23. And if he is on the bedding or on the object, upon which she is sitting, when he touches it, he becomes unclean until evening.   כג. וְאִם עַל הַמִּשְׁכָּב הוּא אוֹ עַל הַכְּלִי אֲשֶׁר הִוא ישֶׁבֶת עָלָיו בְּנָגְעוֹ בוֹ יִטְמָא עַד הָעָרֶב:
And if he is on the bedding: [I.e.,] someone who lies or sits upon her bedding or upon her seat, even if he does not touch it [if he sits on a seat that is on that seat - see Rashi on verse 6], this person is nevertheless also included in the law of uncleanness stated in the previous verse, and he requires immersion of his garments [in a mikvah]. — [Torath Kohanim 15:134]   ואם על המשכב הוא: השוכב או היושב על משכבה או על מושבה, אפילו לא נגע בה, אף הוא בדת טומאה האמורה במקרא העליון שטעון כבוס בגדים:
or on the object: [This comes] to include riding gear. — [Torath Kohanim 15:176]   על הכלי: לרבות את המרכב:
when he touches it, he becomes unclean: [This clause] refers exclusively to riding gear, which is included by [the words] “or object.”   בנגעו בו יטמא: אינו מדבר אלא על המרכב שנתרבה מעל הכלי:
when he touches it, he becomes unclean: But he does not require immersion of garments, for touching unclean riding gear does not defile people to defile their garments. — [Keilim 23:3]   בנגעו בו יטמא: ואינו טעון כבוס בגדים שהמרכב אין מגעו מטמא אדם לטמא בגדים:
24. If a man cohabits with her, [the uncleanness of] her menstruation shall be upon him, and he shall be unclean for seven days, and any bedding he lies upon, shall become unclean.   כד. וְאִם שָׁכֹב יִשְׁכַּב אִישׁ אֹתָהּ וּתְהִי נִדָּתָהּ עָלָיו וְטָמֵא שִׁבְעַת יָמִים וְכָל הַמִּשְׁכָּב אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁכַּב עָלָיו יִטְמָא:
[the uncleanness of] her menstruation shall be upon him: One might think that he follows in her footsteps, [i.e.,] if he had relations with her on the fifth day of her menstruation, he, too, will be unclean only for three days, like her. Scripture, therefore, continues, “and he shall be unclean for seven days.” So what does this clause here, “then [the uncleanness of] her menstruation shall be upon him,” come to teach us? [It means that the same laws of her uncleanness apply, insofar as] just as she defiles people and earthenware vessels, so does he defile people and earthenware vessels. — [Torath Kohanim 15:180; Niddah 33a]   ותהי נדתה עליו: יכול יעלה לרגלה, שאם בא עליה בחמישי לנדתה לא יטמא אלא שלשה ימים כמותה, תלמוד לומר וטמא שבעת ימים. ומה תלמוד לומר ותהי נדתה עליו, מה היא מטמאה אדם וכלי חרס, אף הוא מטמא אדם וכלי חרס:
25. And a woman whose flow of blood flows for many days, outside of the time of her menstrual separation, or she has a discharge after her menstrual separation, then all the days she has her unclean discharge, she shall be unclean just like the days of her menstrual separation.   כה. וְאִשָּׁה כִּי יָזוּב זוֹב דָּמָהּ יָמִים רַבִּים בְּלֹא עֶת נִדָּתָהּ אוֹ כִי תָזוּב עַל נִדָּתָהּ כָּל יְמֵי זוֹב טֻמְאָתָהּ כִּימֵי נִדָּתָהּ תִּהְיֶה טְמֵאָה הִוא:
many days: Three days. — [Torath Kohanim 15:186]   ימים רבים: שלשה ימים:
outside of the time of her menstrual separation: [I.e., after the seven days of her menstrual uncleanness had passed [not within the period of her menstrual uncleanness]. — [Torath Kohanim 8:187, Niddah 73a]   בלא עת נדתה: אחר שיצאו שבעת ימי נדתה:
or she has a discharge: [of] these three days.   או כי תזוב: את שלשת הימים הללו:
after her menstrual separation: i.e., separated from [the period of] her menstruation by one day, this is a zavah, whose law is decreed in this passage, unlike the laws of the menstruant, insofar as this one [the zavah gedolah A woman who discharges for three consecutive days,] requires a counting of seven [days] clean [of blood] and a sacrifice [for her purification], whereas the menstruant is not required [by Torah law] to count clean days. Rather, [the menstruant] need only remain in her state of menstrual separation for seven days (verse 19), whether she sees [an issue of blood] or not. And our Rabbis expounded this passage (Torath Kohanim 15:187; Niddah 73) as follows: Between the end of one period of menstruation to the beginning of the next, there is an eleven-day interval, so that if during these eleven days, she sees an issue of blood for three consecutive [days], she becomes a zavah [gedolah].   על נדתה: מופלג מנדתה יום אחד, זו היא זבה ומשפטה חרוץ בפרשה זו, ולא כדת הנדה, שזו טעונה ספירת שבעה נקיים וקרבן, והנדה אינה טעונה ספירת שבעה נקיים, אלא שבעת ימים תהיה בנדתה בין רואה בין שאינה רואה. ודרשו רבותינו בפרשה זו, אחד עשר יום יש בין סוף נדה לתחלת נדה, שכל שלשה רצופין שתראה באחד עשר יום הללו, תהא זבה:
26. Any bedding upon which she lies during all the time of her discharge, will have the same [uncleanness] for her, as the bedding of her menstruation. And any object upon which she will sit, shall become unclean. like her menstrual uncleanness.   כו. כָּל הַמִּשְׁכָּב אֲשֶׁר תִּשְׁכַּב עָלָיו כָּל יְמֵי זוֹבָהּ כְּמִשְׁכַּב נִדָּתָהּ יִהְיֶה לָּהּ וְכָל הַכְּלִי אֲשֶׁר תֵּשֵׁב עָלָיו טָמֵא יִהְיֶה כְּטֻמְאַת נִדָּתָהּ:
27. And anyone who touches them shall become unclean; he shall immerse his garments and immerse [himself] in water, and he shall remain unclean until evening.   כז. וְכָל הַנּוֹגֵעַ בָּם יִטְמָא וְכִבֶּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד הָעָרֶב:
28. And if she becomes clean of her discharge, she shall count for herself seven days, and after this, she may be cleansed.   כח. וְאִם טָהֲרָה מִזּוֹבָהּ וְסָפְרָה לָּהּ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים וְאַחַר תִּטְהָר:
29. And on the eighth day, she shall take for herself two turtle doves or two young doves, and bring them to the kohen, to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting.   כט. וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי תִּקַּח לָהּ שְׁתֵּי תֹרִים אוֹ שְׁנֵי בְּנֵי יוֹנָה וְהֵבִיאָה אוֹתָם אֶל הַכֹּהֵן אֶל פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד:
30. And the kohen shall make one into a sin offering and one into a burnt offering, and the kohen shall effect atonement for her, before the Lord, from the uncleanness of her discharge.   ל. וְעָשָׂה הַכֹּהֵן אֶת הָאֶחָד חַטָּאת וְאֶת הָאֶחָד עֹלָה וְכִפֶּר עָלֶיהָ הַכֹּהֵן לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה מִזּוֹב טֻמְאָתָהּ:
31. And you shall separate the children of Israel from their uncleanness, so that they will not die on account of their uncleanness, if they defile My Sanctuary which is in their midst.   לא. וְהִזַּרְתֶּם אֶת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל מִטֻּמְאָתָם וְלֹא יָמֻתוּ בְּטֻמְאָתָם בְּטַמְּאָם אֶת מִשְׁכָּנִי אֲשֶׁר בְּתוֹכָם:
And you shall separate: Heb. וְהִזַּרְתֶּם. The term נְזִירָה always denotes separation (Torath Kohanim 15:196); similarly, “they drew (נָזרוּ) backwards” (Isa. 1:4); and similarly, “the one separated (נְזִיר) from his brothers” (Gen. 49:26).   והזרתם: אין נזירה אלא פרישה, וכן (ישעיה א ד) נזורו אחור, וכן (בראשית מט כו) נזיר אחיו:
so that they will not die on account of their uncleanness: [The punishment כָּרֵת the death of the perpetrator and his offspring-is attached to an unclean person who enters the sanctuary, thus defiling it. See Num. 19:13.] We see [from here] that this כָּרֵת incurred by someone [unclean] who defiles the sanctuary is also referred to as מִיתָה [meaning “the death penalty from Heaven,” although in other contexts, מִיתָה refers to the death of the perpetrator but not his offspring.]. — [Sifrei Bamidbar 19:45]   ולא ימתו בטמאתם: הרי הכרת של מטמא מקדש קרוי מיתה:
32. This is the law for one who has a discharge, and one from whom semen issues, through which he becomes unclean,   לב. זֹאת תּוֹרַת הַזָּב וַאֲשֶׁר תֵּצֵא מִמֶּנּוּ שִׁכְבַת זֶרַע לְטָמְאָה בָהּ:
This is the law for one who has a discharge: [I.e.,] a person who sees one discharge. And what is the law governing him? [As the Torah continues:]   זאת תורת הזב: בעל ראיה אחת, ומהו תורתו ואשר תצא ממנו שכבת זרע - הרי הוא כבעל קרי טמא טומאת ערב:
and one from whom semen issues: He is like one who has experienced a seminal emission, that he becomes unclean until evening. — [Torath Kohanim 15:194]   :
33. And for a woman who has her menstrual flow, and for one who has a discharge, whether male or female, and a man who cohabits with an unclean woman.   לג. וְהַדָּוָה בְּנִדָּתָהּ וְהַזָּב אֶת זוֹבוֹ לַזָּכָר וְלַנְּקֵבָה וּלְאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁכַּב עִם טְמֵאָה:
and for one who has a discharge: [This expression refers to] someone who has seen two discharges and someone who has seen three discharges, whose law is specified above [in this whole passage, beginning with verse 3]. — [Torath Kohanim 15:194]   והזב את זובו: בעל שתי ראיות ובעל שלש ראיות, שתורתן מפורשת למעלה:
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