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Parshat Tazria
Shabbat, 1 Nissan, 5776
9 April, 2016
Select a portion:
Complete: (Leviticus 12:1 - 13:59; Numbers 28:9-15; Exodus 12:1-20; Ezekiel 45:18 - 46:15; Isaiah 66:1; Isaiah 66:23-24; Isaiah 66:23)

First Portion

Leviticus Chapter 12

1And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying:   אוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
2Speak to the children of Israel, saying: If a woman conceives and gives birth to a male, she shall be unclean for seven days; as [in] the days of her menstrual flow, she shall be unclean.   בדַּבֵּ֞ר אֶל־בְּנֵ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר אִשָּׁה֙ כִּ֣י תַזְרִ֔יעַ וְיָֽלְדָ֖ה זָכָ֑ר וְטָֽמְאָה֙ שִׁבְעַ֣ת יָמִ֔ים כִּימֵ֛י נִדַּ֥ת דְּו‍ֹתָ֖הּ תִּטְמָֽא:
If a woman conceives: Rabbi Simlai said: “Just as in the Creation, man was created after all domestic animals, wild beasts, and birds, so too, the law [concerning the cleanness] of man is stated after the law [concerning the cleanness] of domestic animals, wild beasts, and birds.”- [Vayikra Rabbah 14:1]   אשה כי תזריע: אמר ר' שמלאי כשם שיצירתו של אדם אחר כל בהמה חיה ועוף במעשה בראשית, כך תורתו נתפרשה אחר תורת בהמה חיה ועוף:
If [a woman] conceives: Heb. כִּי תַזְרִיעַ. [These words are stated] to include the case of [a woman] who gave birth to a dissolved [fetus, i.e., the fetus had matured, but had subsequently] dissolved [in the womb], resulting in a semen-like mass (זֶרַע akin to תַזְרִיע), its mother has the impurity of birth. — [Niddah 27b]   כי תזריע: לרבות שאפילו ילדתו מחוי, שנמחה ונעשה כעין זרע, אמו טמאה לידה:
as [in] the days of her menstrual flow: According to the order of all the uncleanness mentioned in regard to the menstruating woman (נִדָּה), she becomes unclean on account of giving birth. [This is true] even if the womb opens without [any issue of] blood.   כימי נדת דותה תטמא: כסדר כל טומאה האמורה בנדה מטמאה בטומאת לידה, ואפילו נפתח הקבר בלא דם:
flow: Heb. דְּוֹתָהּ This expression denotes a substance that flows from her body. Another explanation: It denotes illness (מַדְוֶה) and sickness, for there is not a woman who sees [menstrual] blood without feeling ill, [since] her head and limbs become heavy upon her.   דותה: לשון דבר הזב מגופה. לשון אחר לשון מדוה וחולי, שאין אשה רואה דם שלא תחלה ראשה ואבריה כבדין עליה:
3And on the eighth day, the flesh of his foreskin shall be circumcised.   גוּבַיּ֖וֹם הַשְּׁמִינִ֑י יִמּ֖וֹל בְּשַׂ֥ר עָרְלָתֽוֹ:
4And for thirty three days, she shall remain in the blood of purity; she shall not touch anything holy, nor may she enter the Sanctuary, until the days of her purification have been completed.   דוּשְׁלשִׁ֥ים יוֹם֙ וּשְׁל֣שֶׁת יָמִ֔ים תֵּשֵׁ֖ב בִּדְמֵ֣י טָֽהֳרָ֑ה בְּכָל־קֹ֣דֶשׁ לֹֽא־תִגָּ֗ע וְאֶל־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ֙ לֹ֣א תָבֹ֔א עַד־מְלֹ֖את יְמֵ֥י טָֽהֳרָֽהּ:
she shall remain: The word תֵּשֵׁב means only staying [or remaining], like, “And you dwelled (וַתֵּשְׁבוּ) in Kadesh” (Deut. 1:46), “and he dwelt (וַיֵּשֶׁב) in the plain of Mamre” (Gen. 13:18).   תשב: אין תשב אלא לשון עכבה, כמו (דברים א מו) ותשבו בקדש, וישב באלוני ממרא (בראשית יג יח):
in the blood of purity: [I. e., during this interim period,] although she may see blood [issued from her], she is ritually clean. — [Torath Kohanim 12:15]   בדמי טהרה: אף על פי שרואה דם טהורה. בדמי טהרה לא מפיק ה"א, והוא שם דבר, כמו טוהר. ימי טהרה מפיק ה"א, ימי טוהר שלה:
in the blood of purity: Heb. טָהֳרָה. [This could be mistakenly understood as “in the blood of her purity.” However,] this is not an aspirate “hey,” [as is evidenced by the absence of a dot in the final letter ה]. Therefore, it is an [unqualified] noun, like the word טֹהַר [meaning “purity”].   בדמי טהרה: לא מפיק ה"א, והוא שם דבר, כמו טוהר. ימי טהרה מפיק ה"א, ימי טוהר שלה:
the days of her purification: Heb. טָהֳרָהּ. [Here,] this is an aspirate “hey,” meaning “the days of her purification.”   ימי טהרה: מפיק ה"א, ימי טוהר שלה:
she shall not touch [anything holy]: [Although the verse says “shall not touch,” this is] a warning against one eating [anything holy] as is taught in Tractate Yev. (75a).   לא תגע: אזהרה לאוכל, כמו ששנויה ביבמות (עה א):
[she shall not touch] anything holy: This comes to include terumah [being prohibited to this woman, before she is ritually clean (Torath Kohanim 12:16). This woman is considered a טְבוּל יוֹם, i.e., someone who has immerses in a mikvah, but must still wait for that day to elapse in order to become completely clean. Now, how is she considered a טְבוּל יוֹם ? We are talking here about a thirty-three day period. However, she does fall under this category] because she is considered a טְבוּלַת יוֹם אָרֹ [i.e., she must wait a “prolonged day,” insofar as] she immerses after seven [days], but the sunset that she must wait for [in order to become pure is not the sunset of the day of her immersion, but rather, it] is the sunset of the fortieth day [from birth], since it is [only] on the following day that she may bring the atonement [sacrifice] of her purification. [Thus, the whole period is to be considered one prolonged day, in the context of the law regarding her eating anything holy.]   בכל קדש וגו': לרבות את התרומה, לפי שזו טבולת יום ארוך, שטבלה לסוף שבעה ואין שמשה מעריב לטהרה עד שקיעת החמה של יום ארבעים, שלמחר תביא את כפרת טהרתה:
5And if she gives birth to a female, she shall be unclean for two weeks, like her menstruation [period]. And for sixty six days, she shall remain in the blood of purity.   הוְאִם־נְקֵבָ֣ה תֵלֵ֔ד וְטָֽמְאָ֥ה שְׁבֻעַ֖יִם כְּנִדָּתָ֑הּ וְשִׁשִּׁ֥ים יוֹם֙ וְשֵׁ֣שֶׁת יָמִ֔ים תֵּשֵׁ֖ב עַל־דְּמֵ֥י טָֽהֳרָֽה:
6And when the days of her purification have been completed, whether for a son or for a daughter, she shall bring a sheep in its first year as a burnt offering, and a young dove or a turtle dove as a sin offering, to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting, to the kohen.   ווּבִמְלֹ֣את | יְמֵ֣י טָֽהֳרָ֗הּ לְבֵן֘ א֣וֹ לְבַת֒ תָּבִ֞יא כֶּ֤בֶשׂ בֶּן־שְׁנָתוֹ֙ לְעֹלָ֔ה וּבֶן־יוֹנָ֥ה אוֹ־תֹ֖ר לְחַטָּ֑את אֶל־פֶּ֥תַח אֹֽהֶל־מוֹעֵ֖ד אֶל־הַכֹּהֵֽן:
7And he shall offer it up before the Lord and effect atonement for her, and thus, she will be purified from the source of her blood. This is the law of a woman who gives birth to a male or to a female.   זוְהִקְרִיב֞וֹ לִפְנֵ֤י יְהֹוָה֙ וְכִפֶּ֣ר עָלֶ֔יהָ וְטָֽהֲרָ֖ה מִמְּקֹ֣ר דָּמֶ֑יהָ זֹ֤את תּוֹרַת֙ הַיֹּלֶ֔דֶת לַזָּכָ֖ר א֥וֹ לַנְּקֵבָֽה:
And he shall offer it up: Heb. וְהִקְרִיבוֹ. This [singular object comes] to teach you that only one [of these sacrifices, if it has not yet been brought], holds her back from eating anything holy. And which one is it? It is the sin-offering, for it says, “a sin-offering. And [the kohen] shall effect atonement for her, and thus, she will be purified” (verse 8). The one through which her atonement is effected [namely, the sin-offering], is the same one upon which her purification is dependent. — [Torath Kohanim 12:27]   והקריבו: למדך שאין מעכבה לאכול בקדשים אלא אחד מהם. ואי זה הוא, זה חטאת, שנאמר וכפר עליה הכהן וטהרה, מי שהוא בא לכפר, בו הטהרה תלוייה:
and she will thus become clean: From here, [we can conclude] that until here [namely, the offering up of her sacrifices, she is called unclean [and may not eat sacrificial flesh or enter the Sanctuary]. - [Yeb. 74b]   וטהרה: מכלל שעד כאן קרוייה טמאה:
8And if she cannot afford a sheep, she shall take two turtle doves or two young doves: one as a burnt offering and one as a sin offering. And the kohen shall effect atonement for her, and she shall become clean.   חוְאִם־לֹ֨א תִמְצָ֣א יָדָהּ֘ דֵּ֣י שֶׂה֒ וְלָֽקְחָ֣ה שְׁתֵּֽי־תֹרִ֗ים א֤וֹ שְׁנֵי֙ בְּנֵ֣י יוֹנָ֔ה אֶחָ֥ד לְעֹלָ֖ה וְאֶחָ֣ד לְחַטָּ֑את וְכִפֶּ֥ר עָלֶ֛יהָ הַכֹּהֵ֖ן וְטָהֵֽרָה:
One as a burnt-offering and one as a sin-offering: Scripture places [the burnt-offering] before [the sin-offering] only insofar as how they must be read [in the Torah. This is due to the higher esteem of the burnt-offering, because it is burned in its entirety (Maskil LeDavid).] But the sacrificing of the sin-offering precedes [that of]the burnt-offering. Thus we learned in Zevachim, in the chapter entitled כָּל-הַתָּדִיר (90a).   אחד לעלה ואחד לחטאת: לא הקדימה הכתוב אלא למקראה, אבל הקרבת חטאת קודם לעולה, כך שנינו בזבחים בפרק כל התדיר (זבחים צ א):

Leviticus Chapter 13

1And the Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron, saying:   אוַיְדַבֵּ֣ר יְהֹוָ֔ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה וְאֶל־אַֽהֲרֹ֖ן לֵאמֹֽר:
2If a man has a se'eith, a sappachath, or a bahereth on the skin of his flesh, and it forms a lesion of tzara'ath on the skin of his flesh, he shall be brought to Aaron the kohen, or to one of his sons, the kohanim.   באָדָ֗ם כִּי־יִֽהְיֶ֤ה בְעֽוֹר־בְּשָׂרוֹ֙ שְׂאֵ֤ת אֽוֹ־סַפַּ֨חַת֙ א֣וֹ בַהֶ֔רֶת וְהָיָ֥ה בְעֽוֹר־בְּשָׂר֖וֹ לְנֶ֣גַע צָרָ֑עַת וְהוּבָא֙ אֶל־אַֽהֲרֹ֣ן הַכֹּהֵ֔ן א֛וֹ אֶל־אַחַ֥ד מִבָּנָ֖יו הַכֹּֽהֲנִֽים:
se’eith, a sappachath, [or a bahereth]: Heb. The [terms se’eith and bahereth] are the names of two [major] lesions [and the term sappachath refers to categories related to these two major lesions], and one [major lesion, namely, bahereth] is whiter than the other [se’eith].-[Shev. 6b].   שאת או ספחת וגו': שמות נגעים הם ולבנות זו מזו:
bahereth: Heb. בַּהֶרֶת, spot, taye in Old French. This is similar to the verse, “it is [like] bright [clouds] (בָּהִיר) in the skies” (Job 37:21) [i.e., like the spots created by bright clouds in the blue sky].   בהרת: חברבורות טיי"א בלע"ז [כתם] וכן (איוב לז כא) בהיר הוא בשחקים:
[he shall be brought] to Aaron [the kohen, or to one of his sons]: It is a Scriptural decree that the uncleanness of lesions and their cleanness do not come about except by the pronouncement of a kohen. — [Torath Kohanim 13:43]   אל אהרן וגו': גזירת הכתוב היא שאין טומאת נגעים וטהרתן אלא על פי כהן:
3The kohen shall look at the lesion on the skin of his flesh, and [if] hair in the lesion has turned white and the appearance of the lesion is deeper than the skin of his flesh, it is a lesion of tzara'ath. When the kohen sees this, he shall pronounce him unclean.   גוְרָאָ֣ה הַכֹּהֵ֣ן אֶת־הַנֶּ֣גַע בְּעֽוֹר־הַ֠בָּשָׂ֠ר וְשֵׂעָ֨ר בַּנֶּ֜גַע הָפַ֣ךְ | לָבָ֗ן וּמַרְאֵ֤ה הַנֶּ֨גַע֙ עָמֹק֙ מֵע֣וֹר בְּשָׂר֔וֹ נֶ֥גַע צָרַ֖עַת ה֑וּא וְרָאָ֥הוּ הַכֹּהֵ֖ן וְטִמֵּ֥א אֹתֽוֹ:
[if] hair in the lesion has turned white: Heb. וְשֵׂעָר. At first [the hair] was black, and then it turned white in the lesion. The minimum [quantity referred to by the term] שֵׂעָר, hair, is two, [as opposed to שַׂעֲרָה, a hair, as in Jud. 20:16. Thus, there shall be a minimum of two hairs that turn white in the lesion for this law to apply]. — [Torath Kohanim 13:4547]   ושער בנגע הפך לבן: מתחלה שחור והפך ללבן בתוך הנגע, ומעוט שער שנים:
[and the appearance of the lesion] is deeper than the skin of his flesh: Anything with a white appearance seems deeper [in contrast to a darker object next to it], just as sunlight appears deeper than a shadow. — [Shev. 6b]   עמק מעור בשרו: כל מראה לבן עמוק הוא, כמראה חמה עמוקה מן הצל:
he shall pronounce him unclean: He shall say to him: “You are unclean,” for white hair is a sign of uncleanness by Scriptural decree.   וטמא אתו: יאמר לו טמא אתה, ששער לבן סימן טומאה הוא גזירת הכתוב:
4But if it is a white bahereth on the skin of his flesh, and its appearance is not deeper than the skin, and its hair has not turned white, the kohen shall quarantine the [person with the] lesion for seven days.   דוְאִם־בַּהֶ֩רֶת֩ לְבָנָ֨ה הִ֜וא בְּע֣וֹר בְּשָׂר֗וֹ וְעָמֹק֙ אֵֽין־מַרְאֶ֣הָ מִן־הָע֔וֹר וּשְׂעָרָ֖ה לֹֽא־הָפַ֣ךְ לָבָ֑ן וְהִסְגִּ֧יר הַכֹּהֵ֛ן אֶת־הַנֶּ֖גַע שִׁבְעַ֥ת יָמִֽים:
[But if it is a white bahereth…] and its appearance is not deeper: I do not know its meaning [since a white bahereth should always appear deeper than the skin, as above, yet here the verse describes a case where it does not].   ועמק אין מראה: לא ידעתי פירושו:
quarantine: He shall have him confined to one house, and the person shall not be seen [by the kohen] until the end of the week. [Only] then will his signs indicate about him [whether he is clean or unclean].   והסגיר: יסגירנו בבית אחד ולא יראה עד סוף השבוע, ויוכיחו סימנים עליו:
5And on the seventh day, the kohen shall see him. And, behold! the lesion has remained the same in its appearance; the lesion has not spread on the skin. So the kohen shall quarantine him for seven days a second time.   הוְרָאָ֣הוּ הַכֹּהֵן֘ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי֒ וְהִנֵּ֤ה הַנֶּ֨גַע֙ עָמַ֣ד בְּעֵינָ֔יו לֹֽא־פָשָׂ֥ה הַנֶּ֖גַע בָּע֑וֹר וְהִסְגִּיר֧וֹ הַכֹּהֵ֛ן שִׁבְעַ֥ת יָמִ֖ים שֵׁנִֽית:
in its appearance: In its original appearance and size.   בעיניו: במראהו ובשיעורו הראשון:
[The kohen] shall quarantine him… a second time: But if it [the lesion] spread in the first week, he is definitely unclean. - [See Nega’im 3:3]   והסגירו שנית: הא אם פשה בשבוע ראשון טמא מוחלט:

Second Portion

Leviticus Chapter 13

6And the kohen shall see him on the seventh day a second time. And, behold! the lesion has become dimmer, and the lesion has not spread on the skin, the kohen shall pronounce him clean. It is a mispachath. He shall immerse his garments and become clean.   ווְרָאָה֩ הַכֹּהֵ֨ן אֹת֜וֹ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי֘ שֵׁנִית֒ וְהִנֵּה֙ כֵּהָ֣ה הַנֶּ֔גַע וְלֹֽא־פָשָׂ֥ה הַנֶּ֖גַע בָּע֑וֹר וְטִֽהֲר֤וֹ הַכֹּהֵן֙ מִסְפַּ֣חַת הִ֔וא וְכִבֶּ֥ס בְּגָדָ֖יו וְטָהֵֽר:
has become dimmer: [I.e.,] it became dimmer in its appearance. Hence, if it remained the same in its appearance or spread, he is unclean.   כהה: הוכהה מראיתו, הא אם עמד במראיתו או פשה טמא:
mispachath: The name of a clean lesion.   מספחת: שם נגע טהור:
He shall immerse his garments and become clean: Since he was required to be quarantined, he is considered unclean and requires immersion.   וכבס בגדיו וטהר: הואיל ונזקק להסגר נקרא טמא וצריך טבילה:
7However, if the mispachath.spreads on the skin after it has been shown it to the kohen for its purification, it shall be shown to the kohen a second time.   זוְאִם־פָּשׂ֨ה תִפְשֶׂ֤ה הַמִּסְפַּ֨חַת֙ בָּע֔וֹר אַֽחֲרֵ֧י הֵרָֽאֹת֛וֹ אֶל־הַכֹּהֵ֖ן לְטָֽהֳרָת֑וֹ וְנִרְאָ֥ה שֵׁנִ֖ית אֶל־הַכֹּהֵֽן:
8The kohen shall look [at it]. And, behold! the mispachath has spread on the skin. The kohen shall pronounce him unclean. It is tzara'ath.   חוְרָאָה֙ הַכֹּהֵ֔ן וְהִנֵּ֛ה פָּֽשְׂתָ֥ה הַמִּסְפַּ֖חַת בָּע֑וֹר וְטִמְּא֥וֹ הַכֹּהֵ֖ן צָרַ֥עַת הִֽוא:
The kohen shall pronounce him unclean: And as soon as [the kohen] has pronounced him unclean, he is then “definitely” [unclean, and when he is healed, he] requires the bird offerings, shaving, and the sacrifice, specified in the section commencing: “This shall be the law of the metzora ” (תּוֹרַת הַמְצֹרָע) זֹאת תִּהֶיה. — [see Lev., Chapter 14; Meg. 8b]   וטמאו הכהן: ומשטמאו הרי הוא מוחלט וזקוק לצפרים ולתגלחת ולקרבן האמור בפרשת זאת תהיה:
It is tzara’ath: I.e., this mispachath [is tzara’ath].   צרעת הוא: המספחת הזאת:
tzara’ath: Heb. צָרַעַת. [The term] צָרַעַת is feminine [which is why the verse says צָרַעַת הִוא, using the feminine word for “it”]. [The term] נֶגַע, lesion, however, is masculine [thus in verse 3, for instance, it says צָרַעַת הוּא, using the masculine word for “it,” referring to the נֶגַע rather than to the tzara’ath].   צרעת: לשון נקבה:
9If a man has a lesion of tzara'ath, he shall be brought to the kohen.   טנֶ֣גַע צָרַ֔עַת כִּ֥י תִֽהְיֶ֖ה בְּאָדָ֑ם וְהוּבָ֖א אֶל־הַכֹּהֵֽן:
10The kohen shall look [at it]. And, behold! there is a white se'eith on the skin, and either it has turned the hair white, or there is healthy, live flesh in the se'eith,   יוְרָאָ֣ה הַכֹּהֵ֗ן וְהִנֵּ֤ה שְׂאֵֽת־לְבָנָה֙ בָּע֔וֹר וְהִ֕יא הָֽפְכָ֖ה שֵׂעָ֣ר לָבָ֑ן וּמִחְיַ֛ת בָּשָׂ֥ר חַ֖י בַּשְׂאֵֽת:
healthy flesh: Heb. מִחְיַת, sa(y)nement in Old French, a healing. [It means that] part of the white in the se’eith lesion reverts to appear like [healthy] flesh. This is also a sign of uncleanness. [Hence, a sign of uncleanness is] either white hair without a מִחְיַָה, or a מִחְיַָה, an area of normal flesh, even without white hair. And even though מִחְיַָה is mentioned only in connection with the se’eith, nevertheless, in all [major] manifestations [of the lesion of tzara’ath] and their related categories, it is a sign of uncleanness. — [Torath Kohanim 13:69]   ומחית: שינמינ"ט בלע"ז [רפוי], שנהפך מקצת הלובן שבתוך השאת למראה בשר, אף הוא סימן טומאה, שער לבן בלא מחיה, ומחיה בלא שער לבן, ואף על פי שלא נאמרה מחיה אלא בשאת, אף בכל המראות ותולדותיהן הוא סימן טומאה:
11it is old tzara'ath on the skin of his flesh, and the kohen shall pronounce him unclean; he need not quarantine him because he is unclean.   יאצָרַ֨עַת נוֹשֶׁ֤נֶת הִוא֙ בְּע֣וֹר בְּשָׂר֔וֹ וְטִמְּא֖וֹ הַכֹּהֵ֑ן לֹ֣א יַסְגִּרֶ֔נּוּ כִּ֥י טָמֵ֖א הֽוּא:
it is an old tzara’ath: It is an old lesion which is under the area of normal skin. This wound appears healthy on the surface, but it is full of fluid underneath, so that one should not say, “Since healthy skin has appeared over [the lesion], I shall pronounce it clean!”   צרעת נושנת הוא: מכה ישנה היא תחת המחיה, וחבורה זו נראית בריאה מלמעלה ותחתיה מלאה לחה, שלא תאמר הואיל ועלתה מחיה אטהרנה:
12And if the tzara'ath has spread over the skin, whereby the tzara'ath covers all the skin of the [person with the] lesion, from his head to his feet, wherever the eyes of the kohen can see it,   יבוְאִם־פָּר֨וֹחַ תִּפְרַ֤ח הַצָּרַ֨עַת֙ בָּע֔וֹר וְכִסְּתָ֣ה הַצָּרַ֗עַת אֵ֚ת כָּל־ע֣וֹר הַנֶּ֔גַע מֵֽרֹאשׁ֖וֹ וְעַד־רַגְלָ֑יו לְכָל־מַרְאֵ֖ה עֵינֵ֥י הַכֹּהֵֽן:
from his head: [I.e., from the head] of the person [down] to his feet.   מראשו: של אדם ועד רגליו:
wherever the eyes of the kohen can see it: [This phrase] comes to exclude a kohen whose eyesight has dimmed. [I.e., a kohen with one blind eye or with impaired vision in both eyes may not pronounce the status of lesions.]- [Torath Kohanim 13:83]   לכל מראה עיני הכהן: פרט לכהן שחשך מאורו:
13then the kohen shall look [at it]. And, behold! the tzara'ath has covered all his flesh, he shall pronounce [the person with] the lesion clean. He has turned completely white; he is clean.   יגוְרָאָ֣ה הַכֹּהֵ֗ן וְהִנֵּ֨ה כִסְּתָ֤ה הַצָּרַ֨עַת֙ אֶת־כָּל־בְּשָׂר֔וֹ וְטִהַ֖ר אֶת־הַנָּ֑גַע כֻּלּ֛וֹ הָפַ֥ךְ לָבָ֖ן טָה֥וֹר הֽוּא:
14But on the day that live flesh appears in it, he shall become unclean.   ידוּבְי֨וֹם הֵֽרָא֥וֹת בּ֛וֹ בָּשָׂ֥ר חַ֖י יִטְמָֽא:
But on the day that live flesh appears in it: If healthy flesh grows on it, [Scripture] has already explained that healthy flesh is a sign of uncleanness. [Therefore, what is this verse telling us here?] However, a case where the lesion was located on one of twenty-four tips of the limbs is not deemed unclean on account of healthy flesh because the lesion cannot be seen all at one glance [once an area of healthy flesh appears within the lesion], since these [limb tips] slope down on either side. [Therefore it is not deemed unclean.] If, however, such a tip of a limb altered [in its form], allowing its slanted facet to appear through fat-for example, when the tip of a limb became fat and broadened, and the healthy flesh (מִחְיַָה) became visible within [the lesion, thereby allowing the lesion to become visible all at one glance], Scripture teaches us [here] that it becomes unclean. — [Torath Kohanim 13:86]   וביום הראות בו בשר חי: אם צמחה בו מחיה הרי כבר פירש שהמחיה סימן טומאה, אלא הרי שהיה הנגע באחד מעשרים וארבעה ראשי איברים שאין מטמאין משום מחיה, לפי שאין נראה הנגע כולו כאחד ששופע אילך ואילך, וחזר ראש האבר ונתגלה שפועו ע"י שומן, כגון שהבריא ונעשה רחב ונראית בו המחיה, למדנו הכתוב שתטמא:
But on the day [that live flesh] appears: [The verse could have simply said, “But when live flesh appears.”] What does Scripture teach us [by saying,] “on the day”]? It [comes] to teach that there is a day on which you [the kohen] look [i.e., examine the suspected lesion], and there is a day on which you do not look [i.e., when he may not examine it]. From here [our Rabbis] say that a bridegroom is exempt [from having a lesion examined] throughout all the seven days of the wedding feast, for himself, his garments, and his house. Similarly, during a Festival [people] are exempt [from having a lesion examined] throughout all the days of the Festival. - [Torath Kohanim 13:87]   וביום: מה תלמוד לומר, ללמד יש יום שאתה רואה בו ויש יום שאין אתה רואה בו, מכאן אמרו חתן נותנין לו כל שבעת ימי המשתה לו ולכסותו ולביתו, וכן ברגל נותנין לו כל ימי הרגל:
15When the kohen sees the healthy, live flesh, he shall pronounce him unclean. The live flesh is unclean; it is tzara'ath.   טווְרָאָ֧ה הַכֹּהֵ֛ן אֶת־הַבָּשָׂ֥ר הַחַ֖י וְטִמְּא֑וֹ הַבָּשָׂ֥ר הַחַ֛י טָמֵ֥א ה֖וּא צָרַ֥עַת הֽוּא:
it is tzara’ath: meaning, that flesh. Flesh (בָּשָׂר) is grammatically masculine. [Hence, the wording: צָרַעַת הוּא, rather than צָרַעַת הִיא, as in verse 8.]   צרעת הוא: הבשר ההוא. בשר לשון זכר:
16But, if the healthy, live flesh once again turns white, he shall come to the kohen.   טזא֣וֹ כִ֥י יָשׁ֛וּב הַבָּשָׂ֥ר הַחַ֖י וְנֶהְפַּ֣ךְ לְלָבָ֑ן וּבָ֖א אֶל־הַכֹּהֵֽן:
17And the kohen shall look at it. And, behold! the lesion has turned white; the kohen shall pronounce the lesion clean. He is clean.   יזוְרָאָ֨הוּ֙ הַכֹּהֵ֔ן וְהִנֵּ֛ה נֶהְפַּ֥ךְ הַנֶּ֖גַע לְלָבָ֑ן וְטִהַ֧ר הַכֹּהֵ֛ן אֶת־הַנֶּ֖גַע טָה֥וֹר הֽוּא:

Third Portion

Leviticus Chapter 13

18If [a person's] flesh has an inflammation on its skin, and it heals,   יחוּבָשָׂ֕ר כִּי־יִֽהְיֶ֥ה בֽוֹ־בְעֹר֖וֹ שְׁחִ֑ין וְנִרְפָּֽא:
an inflammation: Heb. שְׁחִין. [This term] denotes heat, that the flesh became heated by the injury caused it by a blow, not by fire. — [Chul. 8a]   שחין: לשון חמום, שנתחמם הבשר בלקוי הבא לו מחמת מכה, שלא מחמת האור:
and it heals: The inflammation healed, and in its place, another lesion appeared. [Not that the flesh healed, because, were that the case, there would be no lesion.]   ונרפא: השחין העלה ארוכה ובמקומו העלה נגע אחר:
19and on the place of the inflammation there is a white se'eith, or a reddish white bahereth, it shall be shown to the kohen.   יטוְהָיָ֞ה בִּמְק֤וֹם הַשְּׁחִין֙ שְׂאֵ֣ת לְבָנָ֔ה א֥וֹ בַהֶ֖רֶת לְבָנָ֣ה אֲדַמְדָּ֑מֶת וְנִרְאָ֖ה אֶל־הַכֹּהֵֽן:
A reddish-white bahereth: [meaning] that the lesion is not solid white, but streaked and blended of two colors, white and red.   או בהרת לבנה אדמדמת: שאין הנגע לבן חלק אלא פתוך ומעורב בשתי מראות לובן ואודם:
20The kohen shall look [at it]. And, behold! its appearance is lower than the skin, and its hair has turned white; so the kohen shall pronounce him unclean. It is a lesion of tzara'ath that has erupted on the inflammation.   כוְרָאָ֣ה הַכֹּהֵ֗ן וְהִנֵּ֤ה מַרְאֶ֨הָ֙ שָׁפָ֣ל מִן־הָע֔וֹר וּשְׂעָרָ֖הּ הָפַ֣ךְ לָבָ֑ן וְטִמְּא֧וֹ הַכֹּהֵ֛ן נֶֽגַע־צָרַ֥עַת הִ֖וא בַּשְּׁחִ֥ין פָּרָֽחָה:
it appearance is lower than the skin: But its substance is not lower. Rather, because of its whiteness, the lesion [only] appears lower and deeper [than the skin], just as sunlight appears deeper than a shadow. - [Torath Kohanim 13:50]   מראה שפל: ואין ממשה שפל, אלא מתוך לבנוניתו הוא נראה שפל ועמוק, כמראה חמה עמוקה מן הצל:
21But if the kohen looks at it, and behold! it does not contain white hair, nor does it appear to be lower than the skin, and it is dim, the kohen shall quarantine him for seven days.   כאוְאִ֣ם | יִרְאֶ֣נָּה הַכֹּהֵ֗ן וְהִנֵּ֤ה אֵֽין־בָּהּ֙ שֵׂעָ֣ר לָבָ֔ן וּשְׁפָלָ֥ה אֵינֶ֛נָּה מִן־הָע֖וֹר וְהִ֣יא כֵהָ֑ה וְהִסְגִּיר֥וֹ הַכֹּהֵ֖ן שִׁבְעַ֥ת יָמִֽים:
22And if it spreads on the skin, the kohen shall pronounce him unclean. It is a lesion.   כבוְאִם־פָּשׂ֥ה תִפְשֶׂ֖ה בָּע֑וֹר וְטִמֵּ֧א הַכֹּהֵ֛ן אֹת֖וֹ נֶ֥גַע הִֽוא:
It is a lesion: Heb. נֶגַע הִוא. [Here, the pronoun is feminine. Since נֶגַע is masculine, however, it requires the masculine pronoun הוּא. But our verse here uses the feminine הִיא because the word “it” is referring to] this se’eith or this bahereth [both of which are feminine].   נגע הוא: השאת הזאת או הבהרת:
23But if the bahereth remains in its place, not spreading, it is the scar tissue of the inflammation, and the kohen shall pronounce him clean.   כגוְאִם־תַּחְתֶּ֜יהָ תַּֽעֲמֹ֤ד הַבַּהֶ֨רֶת֙ לֹ֣א פָשָׂ֔תָה צָרֶ֥בֶת הַשְּׁחִ֖ין הִ֑וא וְטִֽהֲר֖וֹ הַכֹּהֵֽן:
in its place: Heb. תַּחְתֶּיה, [lit., “under it,” here meaning:] In its place.   תחתיה: במקומה:
it is the scar tissue of the inflamation: Heb. צָרֶבֶת הַשְּׁחִין, as the Targum [Onkelos] renders it: רוֹשַׁם שִׁיחִנָא, a residual impression of the inflammation, identifiable on the flesh [i.e., a scar]. Every expression of צָרֶבֶת [in Scripture] denotes the contraction of skin that has become shriveled because of heat. Similarly, the verse, “And all faces [from the south to the north] will be shriveled by it” (Ezek. 21:3), retrire in Old French, to contract.   צרבת השחין: כתרגומו רושם שיחנא, אינו אלא רושם החמום הניכר בבשר. כל צרבת לשון רגיעת עור הנרגע מחמת חימום, כמו (יחזקאל כא ג) ונצרבו בה כל פנים, רייטרי"ר בלע"ז [לכווץ]:
it is scar tissue: Heb. צָרֶבֶת, retriyemant in Old French, shriveling.   צרבת: ריטריימינ"ט בלע"ז [כיווץ]:

Fourth Portion

Leviticus Chapter 13

24If [a person's] flesh has a fire burn on its skin, and on the healed area of the burn, there is a reddish white or white bahereth,   כדא֣וֹ בָשָׂ֔ר כִּי־יִֽהְיֶ֥ה בְעֹר֖וֹ מִכְוַת־אֵ֑שׁ וְהָֽיְתָ֞ה מִחְיַ֣ת הַמִּכְוָ֗ה בַּהֶ֛רֶת לְבָנָ֥ה אֲדַמְדֶּ֖מֶת א֥וֹ לְבָנָֽה:
the healed area of the burn: Saynement [in Old French]. When the burn healed, the area changed to become a blended bahereth [of white and red], or pure white one. The signs of a burn (מִכְוָה) and the signs of an inflammation (שְׁחִין) are the same. [If so,] why does Scripture separate them [into two sections]? To teach us that they do not become combined with each other, [i.e., while a griss, the area of a bean, is the minimum surface area of a lesion for it to be deemed unclean,] if a lesion the size of half a griss emerges in an inflammation, and [another] the size of half a griss in a burn, they are not judged as [though] a full griss [of lesion has emerged]. — [Chul. 8a]   מחית המכוה: שיינימנ"ט בלע"ז [רפוי] כשחיתה המכוה נהפכה לבהרת פתוכה או לבנה חלקה. וסימני מכוה וסימני שחין שוים הם, ולמה חלקן הכתוב, לומר שאין מצטרפין זה עם זה, נולד חצי גריס בשחין וחצי גריס במכוה לא ידונו כגריס:
25the kohen shall look at it. And, behold! the hair has turned white in the bahereth, and its appearance is deeper than the skin, it is tzara'ath which has spread in the burn. So, the kohen shall pronounce him unclean. It is a lesion of tzara'ath.   כהוְרָאָ֣ה אֹתָ֣הּ הַכֹּהֵ֡ן וְהִנֵּ֣ה נֶהְפַּךְ֩ שֵׂעָ֨ר לָבָ֜ן בַּבַּהֶ֗רֶת וּמַרְאֶ֨הָ֙ עָמֹ֣ק מִן־הָע֔וֹר צָרַ֣עַת הִ֔וא בַּמִּכְוָ֖ה פָּרָ֑חָה וְטִמֵּ֤א אֹתוֹ֙ הַכֹּהֵ֔ן נֶ֥גַע צָרַ֖עַת הִֽוא:
26But, if the kohen looks at it, and, behold! there is no white hair in the bahereth, and it is not lower than the skin and it is dim, the kohen shall quarantine him for seven days.   כווְאִ֣ם | יִרְאֶ֣נָּה הַכֹּהֵ֗ן וְהִנֵּ֤ה אֵֽין־בַּבַּהֶ֨רֶת֙ שֵׂעָ֣ר לָבָ֔ן וּשְׁפָלָ֥ה אֵינֶ֛נָּה מִן־הָע֖וֹר וְהִ֣וא כֵהָ֑ה וְהִסְגִּיר֥וֹ הַכֹּהֵ֖ן שִׁבְעַ֥ת יָמִֽים:
27And the kohen shall look at it on the seventh day. If it has spread on the skin, the kohen shall pronounce him unclean. It is a lesion of tzara'ath.   כזוְרָאָ֥הוּ הַכֹּהֵ֖ן בַּיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִ֑י אִם־פָּשׂ֤ה תִפְשֶׂה֙ בָּע֔וֹר וְטִמֵּ֤א הַכֹּהֵן֙ אֹת֔וֹ נֶ֥גַע צָרַ֖עַת הִֽוא:
28But if the bahereth remains in its place, not increasing on the skin, and it is dim, it is a se'eith of the burn, and the kohen shall pronounce him clean, because it is the scar tissue of the burn.   כחוְאִם־תַּחְתֶּ֩יהָ֩ תַֽעֲמֹ֨ד הַבַּהֶ֜רֶת לֹא־פָֽשְׂתָ֤ה בָעוֹר֙ וְהִ֣וא כֵהָ֔ה שְׂאֵ֥ת הַמִּכְוָ֖ה הִ֑וא וְטִֽהֲרוֹ֙ הַכֹּהֵ֔ן כִּֽי־צָרֶ֥בֶת הַמִּכְוָ֖ה הִֽוא:

Fifth Portion

Leviticus Chapter 13

29If a man or a woman has a lesion on the head or on the beard [area],   כטוְאִישׁ֙ א֣וֹ אִשָּׁ֔ה כִּי־יִֽהְיֶ֥ה ב֖וֹ נָ֑גַע בְּרֹ֖אשׁ א֥וֹ בְזָקָֽן:
on the head or on the beard [area]: Scripture comes to distinguish between a lesion in a place where hair grows and a lesion in a place of flesh, namely, that in one [case, i.e., on flesh], the sign [of uncleanness] is white hair, while in the other [case, i.e., on the area of hair], the sign [of uncleanness] is golden-yellow hair. — [Torath Kohanim 5:5]   בראש או בזקן: בא הכתוב לחלק בין נגע שבמקום שער לנגע שבמקום בשר, שזה סימנו בשער לבן וזה סימנו בשער צהוב:
30the kohen shall look at the lesion, and, behold! its appearance is deeper than the skin, and in it is a thin golden yellow hair, the kohen shall pronounce him unclean. It is a nethek, which is tzara'ath of the head or the beard.   לוְרָאָ֨ה הַכֹּהֵ֜ן אֶת־הַנֶּ֗גַע וְהִנֵּ֤ה מַרְאֵ֨הוּ֙ עָמֹ֣ק מִן־הָע֔וֹר וּב֛וֹ שֵׂעָ֥ר צָהֹ֖ב דָּ֑ק וְטִמֵּ֨א אֹת֤וֹ הַכֹּהֵן֙ נֶ֣תֶק ה֔וּא צָרַ֧עַת הָרֹ֛אשׁ א֥וֹ הַזָּקָ֖ן הֽוּא:
and in it is a… golden-yellow hair: [meaning] that the black hair in it has turned golden-yellow.   ובו שער צהב: שנהפך שער שחור שבו לצהוב:
It is a nethek: This is the name of the lesion [of tzara’ath when it occurs] on an area of [skin where] hair [grows].   נתק הוא: כך שמו של נגע, שבמקום שער:
31But when the kohen looks at the nethek lesion, and, behold! its appearance is not deeper than the skin, and there is no black hair in it, the kohen shall quarantine [the person with] the nethek lesion for seven days.   לאוְכִֽי־יִרְאֶ֨ה הַכֹּהֵ֜ן אֶת־נֶ֣גַע הַנֶּ֗תֶק וְהִנֵּ֤ה אֵֽין־מַרְאֵ֨הוּ֙ עָמֹ֣ק מִן־הָע֔וֹר וְשֵׂעָ֥ר שָׁחֹ֖ר אֵ֣ין בּ֑וֹ וְהִסְגִּ֧יר הַכֹּהֵ֛ן אֶת־נֶ֥גַע הַנֶּ֖תֶק שִׁבְעַ֥ת יָמִֽים:
and there is no black hair in it: Thus, if there was black hair inside it, he is clean and does not require quarantine, for black hair in a nethek is a sign of cleanness, as the verse (37) says, “or if black hair has grown in it, [the nethek has healed; it is clean].”[Torath Kohanim 13:125]   ושער שחר אין בו: הא אם היה בו שער שחור, טהור. ואין צריך להסגר ששער שחור סימן טהרה הוא בנתקים, כמו שנאמר (פסוק לז) ושער שחור צמח בו וגו':
32And the kohen shall look at the lesion on the seventh day. And, behold! the nethek has not spread, and no golden yellow hair was in it, and the appearance of the nethek is not deeper than the skin,   לבוְרָאָ֨ה הַכֹּהֵ֣ן אֶת־הַנֶּ֘גַע֘ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי֒ וְהִנֵּה֙ לֹֽא־פָשָׂ֣ה הַנֶּ֔תֶק וְלֹא־הָ֥יָה ב֖וֹ שֵׂעָ֣ר צָהֹ֑ב וּמַרְאֵ֣ה הַנֶּ֔תֶק אֵ֥ין עָמֹ֖ק מִן־הָעֽוֹר:
And, behold! the nethek did not spread: Thus, if [the nethek] did spread, or if it had golden-yellow hair in it, he is unclean.   והנה לא פשה וגו': הא אם פשה או היה בו שער צהוב טמא:
33he shall shave himself, but adjacent to the nethek he shall not shave, and the kohen shall quarantine [the person with] the nethek again for seven days.   לגוְהִ֨תְגַּלָּ֔ח וְאֶת־הַנֶּ֖תֶק לֹ֣א יְגַלֵּ֑חַ וְהִסְגִּ֨יר הַכֹּהֵ֧ן אֶת־הַנֶּ֛תֶק שִׁבְעַ֥ת יָמִ֖ים שֵׁנִֽית:
he shall shave himself: around the nethek. [but adjacent to the nethek]   והתגלח: סביבות הנתק:
he shall not shave: [I.e.,] he shall leave two hairs close to it all around, in order that any spread of the nethek will be discernible, so that, if it spreads, it will pass the hairs and go out to the shaven area. — [Torath Kohanim 13:133]   ואת הנתק לא יגלח: מניח שתי שערות סמוך לו סביב, כדי שיהא ניכר אם פשה, שאם יפשה ועבר השערות ויצא למקום הגילוח, טמא:
34Then the kohen shall look at the nethek on the seventh day. And, behold! the nethek did not spread on the skin, and its appearance is not deeper than the skin, the kohen shall pronounce him clean, and he shall immerse his garments and become clean.   לדוְרָאָה֩ הַכֹּהֵ֨ן אֶת־הַנֶּ֜תֶק בַּיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִ֗י וְ֠הִנֵּ֠ה לֹֽא־פָשָׂ֤ה הַנֶּ֨תֶק֙ בָּע֔וֹר וּמַרְאֵ֕הוּ אֵינֶ֥נּוּ עָמֹ֖ק מִן־הָע֑וֹר וְטִהַ֤ר אֹתוֹ֙ הַכֹּהֵ֔ן וְכִבֶּ֥ס בְּגָדָ֖יו וְטָהֵֽר:
35But if the nethek spreads on the skin, after he has been declared clean,   להוְאִם־פָּשׂ֥ה יִפְשֶׂ֛ה הַנֶּ֖תֶק בָּע֑וֹר אַֽחֲרֵ֖י טָֽהֳרָתֽוֹ:
after he has been declared clean: From here, we know only that [the lesion is pronounced unclean] if it spreads after dismissal. How do we know [that it is unclean if it spreads] at the end of the first week [of quarantine] or at the end of the second week [of quarantine]? Because Scripture [uses a double expression and] says, פָּשׂה יִפְשֶׂה, “it spreads,” [denoting that he is unclean if it spreads] in any case. — [Torath Kohanim 13:134]   אחרי טהרתו: אין לי אלא פושה לאחר הפטור, מנין אף בסוף שבוע ראשון ובסוף שבוע שני, תלמוד לומר פשה יפשה:
36the kohen shall look at it, and, behold! the nethek has spread on the skin, the kohen need not examine for golden yellow hair; it is unclean!   לווְרָאָ֨הוּ֙ הַכֹּהֵ֔ן וְהִנֵּ֛ה פָּשָׂ֥ה הַנֶּ֖תֶק בָּע֑וֹר לֹֽא־יְבַקֵּ֧ר הַכֹּהֵ֛ן לַשֵּׂעָ֥ר הַצָּהֹ֖ב טָמֵ֥א הֽוּא:
37But if the appearance of the nethek has remained the same, or if black hair has grown in it, the nethek has healed; he is clean. So the kohen shall pronounce him clean.   לזוְאִם־בְּעֵינָיו֩ עָמַ֨ד הַנֶּ֜תֶק וְשֵׂעָ֨ר שָׁחֹ֧ר צָֽמַח־בּ֛וֹ נִרְפָּ֥א הַנֶּ֖תֶק טָה֣וֹר ה֑וּא וְטִֽהֲר֖וֹ הַכֹּהֵֽן:
black hair: How do we know that even yellow or red [hair], which are not golden-yellow? Because Scripture says, [שָׁחֹר] וְשֵׂעָר [lit., “ and black hair,” but here meaning, “ or if black hair.” Instead of using the expected אוֹ, “or,” the Torah used וְ, an inclusive term, which comes to include yellow and red hair in the nethek as signs of cleanness, just like black hair. See Be’er Basadeh] (Torath Kohanim 13:137). The term צָהֹב means: resembling the appearance of gold (Torath Kohanim 13:122). צָהֹב is the same as זָהֹב, golden [because צ and ז are interchangeable], orable in Old French, gold-colored, or orpale, pale gold.   ושער שחר: מנין אף הירוק והאדום שאינו צהוב, תלמוד לומר ושער. ולמה צהוב דומה, לתבנית הזהב. צהוב, כמו זהוב אורבל"א בלע"ז [זהוב]:
he is clean. So the kohen shall pronounce him clean: But, an unclean person whom the kohen pronounces clean, is not clean. - [Torath Kohanim 13:140]   טהור הוא וטהרו הכהן: הא טמא שטהרו הכהן, לא טהור:
38If a man or a woman has spots on the skin of their flesh, white spots,   לחוְאִישׁ֙ אֽוֹ־אִשָּׁ֔ה כִּי־יִֽהְיֶ֥ה בְעֽוֹר־בְּשָׂרָ֖ם בֶּֽהָרֹ֑ת בֶּֽהָרֹ֖ת לְבָנֹֽת:
spots: Spots   בהרת: חברבורות:
39the kohen shall look, and, behold! there are dim white spots on the skin of their flesh, it is a bohak [pigmentation] which has spread on the skin. He is clean.   לטוְרָאָ֣ה הַכֹּהֵ֗ן וְהִנֵּ֧ה בְעֽוֹר־בְּשָׂרָ֛ם בֶּֽהָרֹ֖ת כֵּה֣וֹת לְבָנֹ֑ת בֹּ֥הַק ה֛וּא פָּרַ֥ח בָּע֖וֹר טָה֥וֹר הֽוּא:
dim white: I.e., their whiteness is not bright, but dim.   כהות לבנת: שאין לובן שלהן עז אלא כהה:
it is a bohak: Like the whiteness that appears on the flesh of a red man, called ros [in Old French, rosso in Italian], between the areas of his redness [i.e., flesh color]. This [white pigmentation] is called בֹּהַק, just like a freckled man, whose skin between one freckle and another shines brightly (מַבְהִיק) with pure whiteness.   בהק: כמין לובן הנראה בבשר אדם אדום, שקורין רו"ש [אדמוני], בין חברבורות אדמימותו, קרוי בהק, כאיש עדשן שבין עדשה לעדשה מבהיק הבשר בלובן צח:

Sixth Portion

Leviticus Chapter 13

40If a man loses the hair on [the back of] his head, he is bald. He is clean.   מוְאִ֕ישׁ כִּ֥י יִמָּרֵ֖ט רֹאשׁ֑וֹ קֵרֵ֥חַ ה֖וּא טָה֥וֹר הֽוּא:
he is bald. He is clean: Clean of the uncleanness of nethek lesions (Torath Kohanim; Baraitha of Rabbi Ishmael 1:5). I.e., this case is not judged by the signs of the head and beard, which are places of hair (see verses 2937). Rather, [it is judged] by the signs of a lesion on the skin of the flesh, namely: 1) white hair, 2) healthy flesh, and 3) spread.   קרח הוא טהור הוא: טהור מטומאת נתקין, שאינו נדון בסימני ראש וזקן, שהם מקום שער, אלא בסימני נגע עור בשר בשער לבן, מחיה ופשיון:
41And if he loses his hair on the side toward his face, he is bald at the front. He is clean.   מאוְאִם֙ מִפְּאַ֣ת פָּנָ֔יו יִמָּרֵ֖ט רֹאשׁ֑וֹ גִּבֵּ֥חַ ה֖וּא טָה֥וֹר הֽוּא:
at the front of his head: [The area] from the slope of the crown toward one’s face is called גַּבַּחַת \'82 “forehead,” and included in this are the temples on either side as well. [The area] from the slope of the crown toward one’s back is called קָרַחַת, the “back of the head.” - [Torath Kohanim 13:144]   ואם מפאת פניו: משפוע קדקד כלפי פניו קרוי גבחת, ואף הצדעין שמכאן ומכאן בכלל. ומשפוע קדקד כלפי אחוריו, קרוי קרחת:
42If there is a reddish white lesion on the back or front bald area, it is a spreading tzara'ath in his back or front bald area.   מבוְכִי־יִֽהְיֶ֤ה בַקָּרַ֨חַת֙ א֣וֹ בַגַּבַּ֔חַת נֶ֖גַע לָבָ֣ן אֲדַמְדָּ֑ם צָרַ֤עַת פֹּרַ֨חַת֙ הִ֔וא בְּקָֽרַחְתּ֖וֹ א֥וֹ בְגַבַּחְתּֽוֹ:
a reddish-white lesion: blended [of red and white]. How do we know [that the lesion is also unclean if it has] other colors? Because Scripture says, “like the appearance of tzara’ath on the skin of the flesh” (verse 43), i.e., appearing like the tzara’ath dealt with in the passage of [lesions of the] skin of the flesh, [which begins with] “If a man has [se’eith, sapachat or bahereth] on the skin of his flesh” (verse 13:2). And what is stated regarding it [i.e., regarding a lesion on the skin]? That one becomes unclean through [it, if it appears as one of] four shades [namely: 1) the snow-white of bahereth ; 2) the white as “lime of the Holy Temple” of the secondary form (sapachat) of bahereth ; 3) the white as white wool of se’eith; and 4) the white as a “membrane that covers an egg” of the secondary (sapachat) form of se’eith (Nega’im 1:1), and that it is judged with [a possible] two weeks [of quarantine], and not like the appearance of tzara’ath stated concerning inflamed areas and burns, which is judged with [only] one [possible] week [of quarantine], and is also unlike the appearance of nethek lesions, [which are tzara’ath found] in hairy places, which do not become unclean through the four shades [as above].   נגע לבן אדמדם: פתוך. מנין שאר המראות, תלמוד לומר כמראה צרעת עור בשר כמראה הצרעת האמור בפרשת עור בשר (פסוק ב) אדם כי יהיה בעור בשרו. ומה אמור בו, שמטמא בארבע מראות ונדון בשני שבועות, ולא כמראה צרעת האמור בשחין ומכוה, שהוא נדון בשבוע אחד, ולא כמראה נתקין של מקום שער שאין מטמאין בארבע מראות שאת ותולדתה, בהרת ותולדתה:
43So the kohen shall look at it. And, behold! there is a reddish white se'eith lesion on his back or front bald area, like the appearance of tzara'ath on the skin of the flesh,   מגוְרָאָ֨ה אֹת֜וֹ הַכֹּהֵ֗ן וְהִנֵּ֤ה שְׂאֵֽת־הַנֶּ֨גַע֨ לְבָנָ֣ה אֲדַמְדֶּ֔מֶת בְּקָֽרַחְתּ֖וֹ א֣וֹ בְגַבַּחְתּ֑וֹ כְּמַרְאֵ֥ה צָרַ֖עַת ע֥וֹר בָּשָֽׂר:
44He is a man afflicted with tzara'ath; he is unclean. The kohen shall surely pronounce him unclean; his lesion is on his head.   מדאִֽישׁ־צָר֥וּעַ ה֖וּא טָמֵ֥א ה֑וּא טַמֵּ֧א יְטַמְּאֶ֛נּוּ הַכֹּהֵ֖ן בְּרֹאשׁ֥וֹ נִגְעֽוֹ:
His lesion is on his head: I know only that [these laws apply to those stricken with] nethek lesions [the tzara’ath of the head]. From where [do I know] to include other afflicted people? Therefore, Scripture says: טַמֵּא יְטַמְּאֶנּוּ, shall surely pronounce him unclean. [The double expression comes] to include them all. Concerning them all, Scripture says: “ his garments shall be torn…” (verses 4546). - [Torath Kohanim 13:154]   בראשו נגעו: אין לי אלא נתקין, מנין לרבות שאר המנוגעים, תלמוד לומר טמא יטמאנו, לרבות את כולן. על כולן הוא אומר בגדיו יהיו פרומים וגו':
45And the person with tzara'ath, in whom there is the lesion, his garments shall be torn, his head shall be unshorn, he shall cover himself down to his mustache and call out, "Unclean! Unclean!"   מהוְהַצָּר֜וּעַ אֲשֶׁר־בּ֣וֹ הַנֶּ֗גַע בְּגָדָ֞יו יִֽהְי֤וּ פְרֻמִים֙ וְרֹאשׁוֹ֙ יִֽהְיֶ֣ה פָר֔וּעַ וְעַל־שָׂפָ֖ם יַעְטֶ֑ה וְטָמֵ֥א | טָמֵ֖א יִקְרָֽא:
torn: Heb. פְרֻמִים, torn. — [Mo’ed Katan 15a]   פרמים: קרועים:
unshorn: Heb. פָּרוּעַ, with hair grown long. — [Mo’ed Katan 15a]   פרוע: מגודל שער:
He shall cover himself down to his mustache: like a mourner. — [Torath Kohanim 13:154]   ועל שפם יעטה: כאבל:
mustache: Heb. שָָׂפָם, the hair on the lips (שְׂפָתַיִם) [i.e., the mustache], grenon in Old French.   שפם: שער השפתים גירנו"ן בלע"ז [שפם]:
and he shall call out,“ Unclean! Unclean!”: He announces that he is unclean, so that everyone should stay away from him. — [Torath Kohanim 13:155]   וטמא טמא יקרא: משמיע שהוא טמא ויפרשו ממנו:
46All the days the lesion is upon him, he shall remain unclean. He is unclean; he shall dwell isolated; his dwelling shall be outside the camp.   מוכָּל־יְמֵ֞י אֲשֶׁ֨ר הַנֶּ֥גַע בּ֛וֹ יִטְמָ֖א טָמֵ֣א ה֑וּא בָּדָ֣ד יֵשֵׁ֔ב מִח֥וּץ לַמַּֽחֲנֶ֖ה מֽוֹשָׁבֽוֹ:
He shall dwell isolated: [meaning] that other unclean people [not stricken with tzara’ath] shall not abide with him. Our Sages said: “Why is he different from other unclean people, that he must remain isolated? Since, with his slander, he caused a separation [i.e., a rift] between man and wife or between man and his fellow, he too, shall be separated [from society].”- [Arachin 16b] [This rationale is based on the premise that a person is stricken with tzara’ath as a result of his talking לְשׁוֹן הָרַע, i.e., speaking derogatorily of others, although he may be telling the truth.]   בדד ישב: שלא יהיו שאר טמאים יושבים עמו. ואמרו רבותינו מה נשתנה משאר טמאים לישב בדד, הואיל והוא הבדיל בלשון הרע בין איש לאשתו ובין איש לרעהו, אף הוא יבדל:
outside the camp: Outside the three camps [of Israel, namely: 1) the camp of the Shechinah, in which the Mishkan was located; 2) the Levite camp, and 3) the camp of the Israelites]. — [Torath Kohanim 13:157, Pes. 67a]   מחוץ למחנה: חוץ לשלש מחנות:
47[And as for] the garment that has the lesion of tzara'ath upon it, on a woolen garment, or on a linen garment,   מזוְהַבֶּ֕גֶד כִּי־יִֽהְיֶ֥ה ב֖וֹ נֶ֣גַע צָרָ֑עַת בְּבֶ֣גֶד צֶ֔מֶר א֖וֹ בְּבֶ֥גֶד פִּשְׁתִּֽים:
48or on [threads prepared for the] warp or the woof of linen or of wool, or on leather or on anything made from leather.   מחא֤וֹ בִשְׁתִי֙ א֣וֹ בְעֵ֔רֶב לַפִּשְׁתִּ֖ים וְלַצָּ֑מֶר א֣וֹ בְע֔וֹר א֖וֹ בְּכָל־מְלֶ֥אכֶת עֽוֹר:
of linen or of wool: Heb. וְלַצָּמֶר לַפִּשְׁתִּים, of linen or of wool. [Here the ל, usually meaning “to,” means “of.”]   לפשתים ולצמר: של פשתים או של צמר:
or the leather: This [refers to] leather upon which no work has been performed.   או בעור: זה עור שלא נעשה בו מלאכה:
or anything made from leather: This [refers] to leather upon which work has been performed.   או בכל מלאכת עור: זה עור שנעשה בו מלאכה:
49If the lesion on the garment, the leather, the warp or woof [threads] or on any leather article, is deep green or deep red, it is a lesion of tzara'ath, and it shall be shown to the kohen.   מטוְהָיָ֨ה הַנֶּ֜גַע יְרַקְרַ֣ק | א֣וֹ אֲדַמְדָּ֗ם בַּבֶּ֩גֶד֩ א֨וֹ בָע֜וֹר אֽוֹ־בַשְּׁתִ֤י אֽוֹ־בָעֵ֨רֶב֙ א֣וֹ בְכָל־כְּלִי־ע֔וֹר נֶ֥גַע צָרַ֖עַת ה֑וּא וְהָרְאָ֖ה אֶת־הַכֹּהֵֽן:
deep green: Heb. יְרַקְרַק, the greenest of greens. — [Torath Kohanim 13:161]   ירקרק: ירוק שבירוקין:
deep red: אֲדַמְדָָּם, the reddest of reds. — [Torath Kohanim 13:161]   אדמדם: אדום שבאדומים:
50The kohen shall look at the lesion, and he shall quarantine [the article with] the lesion for seven days.   נוְרָאָ֥ה הַכֹּהֵ֖ן אֶת־הַנָּ֑גַע וְהִסְגִּ֥יר אֶת־הַנֶּ֖גַע שִׁבְעַ֥ת יָמִֽים:
51And he shall look at the lesion on the seventh day. [If] the lesion has spread on the garment, or on the warp or woof [threads], or on the leather or on any article made from leather, the lesion is a malignant tzara'ath; it is unclean.   נאוְרָאָ֨ה אֶת־הַנֶּ֜גַע בַּיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִ֗י כִּֽי־פָשָׂ֤ה הַנֶּ֨גַע֙ בַּ֠בֶּ֠גֶד אֽוֹ־בַשְּׁתִ֤י אֽוֹ־בָעֵ֨רֶב֙ א֣וֹ בָע֔וֹר לְכֹ֛ל אֲשֶׁר־יֵֽעָשֶׂ֥ה הָע֖וֹר לִמְלָאכָ֑ה צָרַ֧עַת מַמְאֶ֛רֶת הַנֶּ֖גַע טָמֵ֥א הֽוּא:
a malignant tzara’th: Heb. צָרַעַת מַמְאֶרֶת, an expression similar to “a pricking briar (סִלּוֹן מַמְאִיר), (Ezek. 28: 24),” point in Old French, stinging, pricking. The midrashic explanation is: Place a curse (מְאֵרָה) upon it [the item afflicted with tzara’ath], that you shall not derive benefit from it. — [Torath Kohanim 13:166]   צרעת ממארת: לשון סילון ממאיר (יחזקאל כח כד). פוינינ"ט בלע"ז [דוקר]. ומדרשו תן בו מארה שלא תהנה הימנו:
52And he shall burn the garment, the warp or woof [threads] of wool or of linen, or any leather article which has the lesion upon it, for it is a malignant tzara'ath ; it shall be burned in fire.   נבוְשָׂרַ֨ף אֶת־הַבֶּגֶ֜ד א֥וֹ אֶת־הַשְּׁתִ֣י | א֣וֹ אֶת־הָעֵ֗רֶב בַּצֶּ֨מֶר֙ א֣וֹ בַפִּשְׁתִּ֔ים א֚וֹ אֶת־כָּל־כְּלִ֣י הָע֔וֹר אֲשֶׁר־יִֽהְיֶ֥ה ב֖וֹ הַנָּ֑גַע כִּֽי־צָרַ֤עַת מַמְאֶ֨רֶת֙ הִ֔וא בָּאֵ֖שׁ תִּשָּׂרֵֽף:
of wool or of linen: Heb. בַּצֶּמֶר אוֹ בַפִּשְׁתִּים, of wool or of linen. [The ב, which usually means “in,” here means “of.”] This is its simple meaning. Its midrashic explanation is, however: [The words, בַּצֶּמֶר אוֹ בַפִּשְׁתִּים וְשָָׂרַף אֶת בֶּגֶד, can be understood literally, as: “And he shall burn the garment…in the wool or in the linen.” Thus,] one might think that [when burning the unclean garment,] one is required to bring wool shearings and stalks of flax and burn them along with it. Scripture, therefore, says [at the end of this verse], “for it…; it shall be burned in fire. ” [I.e., it alone] it does not require anything else [to be burned] along with it. If so, why does Scripture say, “in the wool or the linen”? To exclude [from the requirement of burning] the edges (אִימְרִיּוֹת) if they are of another material (Torath Kohanim 13:167). אִימְרִיּוֹת means “edges,” like אִימְרָא, border.   בצמר או בפשתים: של צמר או של פשתים, זהו פשוטו. ומדרשו יכול יביא גיזי צמר ואניצי פשתן וישרפם עמו, תלמוד לומר היא באש תשרף, אינה צריכה דבר אחר עמה. אם כן מה תלמוד לומר בצמר או בפשתים, להוציא את האימריות שבו, שהן ממין אחר. אימריות לשון שפה, כמו אימרא:
53But if the kohen looks, and, behold! the lesion has not spread on the garment, the warp or woof [threads], or any leather article,   נגוְאִם֘ יִרְאֶ֣ה הַכֹּהֵן֒ וְהִנֵּה֙ לֹֽא־פָשָׂ֣ה הַנֶּ֔גַע בַּבֶּ֕גֶד א֥וֹ בַשְּׁתִ֖י א֣וֹ בָעֵ֑רֶב א֖וֹ בְּכָל־כְּלִי־עֽוֹר:
54the kohen shall order, and they shall wash what the lesion is upon, and he shall quarantine it again for seven days.   נדוְצִוָּה֙ הַכֹּהֵ֔ן וְכִ֨בְּס֔וּ אֵ֥ת אֲשֶׁר־בּ֖וֹ הַנָּ֑גַע וְהִסְגִּיר֥וֹ שִׁבְעַת־יָמִ֖ים שֵׁנִֽית:
what the lesion is upon: One might think that [one need wash] the area of the lesion alone. Scripture, therefore, says, “what the lesion is upon,” [meaning, the garment upon which the lesion is found. But if so,] one might think that the entire garment requires washing. Scripture, therefore, says, “[after] the lesion [has been washed],” (verse 55) [teaching us that only the lesion must be washed, not the entire garment]. So how [do we reconcile this apparent discrepancy]? He must wash part of the garment with it. — [see Torath Kohanim 13:169]   את אשר בו הנגע : יכול מקום הנגע בלבד, תלמוד לומר את אשר בו הנגע, יכול כל הבגד כולו טעון כבוס, תלמוד לומר הנגע, הא כיצד, יכבס מן הבגד עמו
55Then the kohen shall look [at it] after the lesion has been washed. And, behold! the lesion has not changed in appearance, and the lesion has not spread; it is unclean. You shall burn it in fire. It is a penetrating lesion on the worn or new [article].   נהוְרָאָ֨ה הַכֹּהֵ֜ן אַֽחֲרֵ֣י | הֻכַּבֵּ֣ס אֶת־הַנֶּ֗גַע וְ֠הִנֵּ֠ה לֹֽא־הָפַ֨ךְ הַנֶּ֤גַע אֶת־עֵינוֹ֙ וְהַנֶּ֣גַע לֹֽא־פָשָׂ֔ה טָמֵ֣א ה֔וּא בָּאֵ֖שׁ תִּשְׂרְפֶ֑נּוּ פְּחֶ֣תֶת הִ֔וא בְּקָֽרַחְתּ֖וֹ א֥וֹ בְגַבַּחְתּֽוֹ:
after [the lesion] has been washed: Heb. הֻכַּבֵּס. This is an expression of “having been done,” [i.e., the passive voice].   אחרי הכבס: לשון העשות:
the lesion has not changed in appearance: i.e., it has not become dimmer in color.   לא הפך הנגע את עינו: לא הוכהה ממראיתו:
and the lesion has not spread: We understand that if the lesion neither changed [in color] nor spread, it is unclean, and it goes without saying that if it did not change in color but did spread, [it is unclean]. If it changed in color [but still was a shade that makes it unclean] yet did not spread, we do not know what one should do with it. Therefore, Scripture says, “he shall quarantine [the article with] the lesion” (verse 50), in any case. That is what Rabbi Judah says. [However,] the Sages say [that since the change in color was still within the unclean shades, the lesion is not considered to be changed at all; it is the same lesion that has already had two weeks of quarantine, and is now deemed definitely unclean], as is stated in Torath Kohanim (13:171). I have alluded to [only a portion of] this [Midrash] here in order to explain all the different aspects of this verse.   והנגע לא פשה: שמענו שאם לא הפך ולא פשה טמא, ואין צריך לומר לא הפך ופשה. הפך ולא פשה איני יודע מה יעשה לו, תלמוד לומר והסגיר את הנגע, מכל מקום, דברי רבי יהודה. וחכמים אומרים וכו', כדאיתא בתורת כהנים. ורמזתיה כאן ליישב המקרא על אופניו:
it is a penetrating lesion: Heb. פְּחֶתֶת הִוא. [This expression] denotes holes [i.e., penetrations], as the verse says, “in one of the pits (פְּחָתִים)” (II Sam. 17:9). That is to say, [in this context it means that the lesion] is deep, [i.e.,] it appears as if it is sunken. — [Torath Kohanim 13:172]   פחתת היא: לשון גומא, כמו (שמואל ב' יז ט) באחת הפחתים, כלומר שפלה היא, נגע שמראיו שוקעין:
on the worn or new [article]: בְּקָרַחְתּוֹ אוֹ בְגַבַּחְתּוֹ, as the Targum [Onkelos] renders: בִּשְׁחִיקוּתֵיהּ אוֹ בְּחַדְתּוּתֵהּ, “in its worn state or in its new state.”   בקרחתו או בגבחתו: כתרגומו בשחיקותיה או בחדתותיה:
the worn: Heb. בְּקָרַחְתּוֹ. Old, worn out garments, and because of the midrashic explanation, that this language is necessary for a שָׁוָה גְּזֵרָה here [i.e., a link between two seemingly unrelated passages through common terms, thereby inferring the laws of one passage from the laws of the other, as follows]: How do we know that if a lesion on a garment spreads [throughout the entire garment], it is clean? Because [Scripture] states קָרַחַת and גַּבַּחַת in the context of [lesions that appear on] man (verse 42), and here, in the context of [lesion on] garments, [Scripture] also states קָרַחַת and גַּבַּחַת; just as there [in the case of lesions on man], if it spread over the entire body, he is clean (verses 1213), so too, here, [in the case of lesion on garments,] if it spread over the entire garment, it is clean (San. 88a), Scripture adopts the [unusual] expressions קָרַחַת and גַּבַּחַת. However, concerning the explanation and translation [of these terms], the simple meaning is that קָרַחַת means “old” and גַּבַּחַת means “new.” It is as though it were written, “[It is a lesion on] its end or its beginning,” for קָרַחַת means “back” [i.e., at the end of the garment’s life, when it is old,] and גַּבַּחַת means “front” [i.e., the beginning of its life, when it is new]. This is just as is written, “And if [he loses hair] at the front of his head, [he is bald at the front (גַּבַּח)]” (verse 41). And קָרַחַת refers from the crown toward his back. Thus it is explained in Torath Kohanim (13:144).   קרחתו: שחקים ישנים. ומפני המדרש שהוצרך לגזרה שוה מנין לפריחה בבגדים שהיא טהורה, נאמרה קרחת וגבחת באדם, ונאמרה קרחת וגבחת בבגדים, מה להלן פרח בכולו טהור, אף כאן פרח בכולו טהור, לכך אחז הכתוב לשון קרחת וגבחת. ולענין פירושו ותרגומו זהו משמעו קרחת לשון ישנים, וגבחת לשון חדשים, כאלו נכתב באחריתו או בקדמותו, שהקרחת לשון אחוריים והגבחת לשון פנים, כמו שכתוב (פסוק מא) ואם מפאת פניו וגו', והקרחת כל ששופע ויורד מן הקדקד ולאחריו, כך מפורש בתורת כהנים:
56But if the kohen looks [at it] after it has been washed, and behold! the lesion has become dimmer, he shall tear it out of the garment, out of the leather, or out of the warp or woof [threads].   נווְאִם֘ רָאָ֣ה הַכֹּהֵן֒ וְהִנֵּה֙ כֵּהָ֣ה הַנֶּ֔גַע אַֽחֲרֵ֖י הֻכַּבֵּ֣ס אֹת֑וֹ וְקָרַ֣ע אֹת֗וֹ מִן־הַבֶּ֨גֶד֙ א֣וֹ מִן־הָע֔וֹר א֥וֹ מִן־הַשְּׁתִ֖י א֥וֹ מִן־הָעֵֽרֶב:
he shall tear it: He shall tear the afflicted area from the garment and burn that area [of garment]. — [Torath Kohanim 13:174]   וקרע אתו: יקרע מקום הנגע מן הבגד וישרפנו:
57And if it appears again on the garment, the warp or woof [threads] or any leather article, it is a recurrent growth [of the lesion]. You shall burn it in fire [the article] upon which the lesion is [found].   נזוְאִם־תֵּֽרָאֶ֨ה ע֜וֹד בַּ֠בֶּ֠גֶד אֽוֹ־בַשְּׁתִ֤י אֽוֹ־בָעֵ֨רֶב֙ א֣וֹ בְכָל־כְּלִי־ע֔וֹר פֹּרַ֖חַת הִ֑וא בָּאֵ֣שׁ תִּשְׂרְפֶ֔נּוּ אֵ֥ת אֲשֶׁר־בּ֖וֹ הַנָּֽגַע:
it is a recurrent growth: פֹּרַחַת, something that grows recurrently.   פרחת הוא: דבר החוזר וצומח:
You shall burn it in fire: the entire garment.   באש תשרפנו: את כל הבגד:
58But the garment, the warp or woof [threads] or any leather article which is washed, and the lesion disappears from them, shall be immersed a second time, and it shall be clean.   נחוְהַבֶּ֡גֶד אֽוֹ־הַשְּׁתִ֨י אֽוֹ־הָעֵ֜רֶב אֽוֹ־כָל־כְּלִ֤י הָעוֹר֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר תְּכַבֵּ֔ס וְסָ֥ר מֵהֶ֖ם הַנָּ֑גַע וְכֻבַּ֥ס שֵׁנִ֖ית וְטָהֵֽר:
and the lesion disappears from them: If, after they first washed [the article] by order of the kohen, the lesion disappeared completely from it… [then]   וסר מהם הנגע: אם כשכבסוהו בתחלה על פי כהן, סר ממנו הנגע לגמרי:
shall be immersed a second time: [The word וְכֻבַּס in this verse] means immersion [in a mikvah. See Torath Kohanim 13:179]. In Targum [Onkelos], the translation of all the instances of כִּבּוּס in this whole section is “to cleanse, clean” (וְיִתְחַוֵּר), with this one exception [in our verse]. Here the meaning is not “cleansing” but rather “immersion [in a mikvah].” Thus Targum [Onkelos] here [in translating the word וְכֻבַּס] says וְיִצְטַבַּע, “and it shall be immersed.” Likewise, wherever the כִבּוּס of garments refers to immersion [in a mikvah], it is translated in the Targum as וְיִצְטַבַּע.   וכבס שנית: לשון טבילה. תרגום של כבוסין שבפרשה זו לשון לבון ויתחוור, חוץ מזה שאינו ללבון אלא לטבול, לכך תרגומו ויצטבע, וכן כל כבוסי בגדים שהן לטבילה מתורגמין ויצטבע:
59This is the law of a lesion of tzara'ath on a woolen or linen garment, warp or woof threads, or any leather article, to render it clean or unclean.   נטזֹאת תּוֹרַ֨ת נֶֽגַע־צָרַ֜עַת בֶּ֥גֶד הַצֶּ֣מֶר | א֣וֹ הַפִּשְׁתִּ֗ים א֤וֹ הַשְּׁתִי֙ א֣וֹ הָעֵ֔רֶב א֖וֹ כָּל־כְּלִי־ע֑וֹר לְטַֽהֲר֖וֹ א֥וֹ לְטַמְּאֽוֹ:

Seventh Portion

Numbers Chapter 28

9And on the Sabbath day, two unblemished lambs in the first year, and two tenths fine flour as a meal offering, mixed with oil, and its libation.   טוּבְיוֹם֙ הַשַּׁבָּ֔ת שְׁנֵֽי־כְבָשִׂ֥ים בְּנֵֽי־שָׁנָ֖ה תְּמִימִ֑ם וּשְׁנֵ֣י עֶשְׂרֹנִ֗ים סֹ֧לֶת מִנְחָ֛ה בְּלוּלָ֥ה בַשֶּׁ֖מֶן וְנִסְכּֽוֹ:
10[This is] the burnt offering of each Sabbath on its Sabbath, in addition to the continual burnt offering and its libation.   יעֹלַ֥ת שַׁבַּ֖ת בְּשַׁבַּתּ֑וֹ עַל־עֹלַ֥ת הַתָּמִ֖יד וְנִסְכָּֽהּ:
The burnt offering of each Sabbath on its Sabbath: But not the burnt offering of this Sabbath on another Sabbath. For if they did not offer one up on this Sabbath, I might think that two should be offered up on the following Sabbath. Scripture therefore says, “on its Sabbath” to instruct us that if its day passes, its offering is canceled. — [Sifrei Pinchas 40]   עלת שבת בשבתו: ולא עולת שבת זו בשבת אחרת, הרי שלא הקריב בשבת זו שומע אני יקריב שתים לשבת הבאה, תלמוד לומר בשבתו, מגיד שאם עבר יומו בטל קרבנו:
in addition to the continual burnt offering: This refers to the additional [musaf] offerings, besides those two lambs of the continual burnt offering. And it teaches us that they [the additional sacrifices] may be offered only between the two continual offerings. Similarly, in the case of all the additional offerings it says, “In addition to the continual burnt offering” for this teaching. — [Sifrei Pinchas 40]   על עלת התמיד: אלו מוספין, לבד אותן שני כבשים של עולת התמיד. ומגיד שאין קרבין אלא בין שני התמידין, וכן בכל המוספין נאמר על עולת התמיד לתלמוד זה:
11And on the beginning of your months, you shall offer up a burnt offering to the Lord: two young bulls, one ram, and seven lambs in the first year, [all] unblemished.   יאוּבְרָאשֵׁי֙ חָדְשֵׁיכֶ֔ם תַּקְרִ֥יבוּ עֹלָ֥ה לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה פָּרִ֨ים בְּנֵֽי־בָקָ֤ר שְׁנַ֨יִם֙ וְאַ֣יִל אֶחָ֔ד כְּבָשִׂ֧ים בְּנֵֽי־שָׁנָ֛ה שִׁבְעָ֖ה תְּמִימִֽם:
12Three tenths fine flour as a meal offering, mixed with oil for each bull, and two tenths fine flour as a meal offering, mixed with oil for each ram.   יבוּשְׁלשָׁ֣ה עֶשְׂרֹנִ֗ים סֹ֤לֶת מִנְחָה֙ בְּלוּלָ֣ה בַשֶּׁ֔מֶן לַפָּ֖ר הָֽאֶחָ֑ד וּשְׁנֵ֣י עֶשְׂרֹנִ֗ים סֹ֤לֶת מִנְחָה֙ בְּלוּלָ֣ה בַשֶּׁ֔מֶן לָאַ֖יִל הָֽאֶחָֽד:
Three tenths: As is the case with the libations brought with a bull, for thus they are fixed in the portion dealing with libations [see 15:9].   ושלשה עשרונים: כמשפט נסכי פר, שכן הן קצובין בפרשת נסכים:
13And one tenth of fine flour mixed with oil as a meal offering for each lamb. A burnt offering with a spirit of satisfaction, a fire offering to the Lord.   יגוְעִשָּׂרֹ֣ן עִשָּׂר֗וֹן סֹ֤לֶת מִנְחָה֙ בְּלוּלָ֣ה בַשֶּׁ֔מֶן לַכֶּ֖בֶשׂ הָֽאֶחָ֑ד עֹלָה֙ רֵ֣יחַ נִיחֹ֔חַ אִשֶּׁ֖ה לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
14And their libations: a half of a hin for each bull, a third of a hin for each ram, and a quarter of a hin for each lamb wine; this is the burnt offering of each new month in its month, throughout the months of the year.   ידוְנִסְכֵּיהֶ֗ם חֲצִ֣י הַהִין֩ יִֽהְיֶ֨ה לַפָּ֜ר וּשְׁלִישִׁ֧ת הַהִ֣ין לָאַ֗יִל וּרְבִיעִ֥ת הַהִ֛ין לַכֶּ֖בֶשׂ יָ֑יִן זֹ֣את עֹלַ֥ת חֹ֨דֶשׁ֙ בְּחָדְשׁ֔וֹ לְחָדְשֵׁ֖י הַשָּׁנָֽה:
This is the burnt offering of each new month in its month: However, once the day passes, its offering is canceled, and there is no way to make it up. — [Sifrei Pinchas 43]   זאת עלת חדש בחדשו: שאם עבר יומו בטל קרבנו ושוב אין לו תשלומין:
15And one young male goat for a sin offering to the Lord; it shall be offered up in addition to the continual burnt offering and its libation.   טווּשְׂעִ֨יר עִזִּ֥ים אֶחָ֛ד לְחַטָּ֖את לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה עַל־עֹלַ֧ת הַתָּמִ֛יד יֵֽעָשֶׂ֖ה וְנִסְכּֽוֹ:
And one young male goat…: All the additional-offering goats were brought to atone for defiling the Sanctuary and it holy sacrifices, as is outlined in the Tractate of Shevuoth (9a). The young male goat [brought] on the first day of the month differs insofar as with regard to it Scripture says, “to the Lord.” This teaches you that it atones for a case where there is no awareness [of the person’s uncleanness] either before [entering the Temple or eating sacrificial food] or after [the sin has been committed]. The only One aware of the sin is the Holy One, blessed is He. We derive [the law of] the other young male goats from this one. In the Aggadah , it is expounded thus: The Holy One, blessed is He, said, “Bring atonement for Me because I diminished [the size of] the moon.” - [Shev. 9a] \b it shall be offered up in addition to the continual burnt offering\b0 This entire offering [not just the young male goat].   ושעיר עזים וגו': כל שעירי המוספין באין לכפר על טומאת מקדש וקדשיו, הכל כמו שמפורש במס' שבועות (דף ט א). ונשתנה שעיר ראש חדש שנאמר בו לה', ללמדך שמכפר על שאין בו ידיעה לא בתחילה ולא בסוף, שאין מכיר בחטא אלא הקב"ה בלבד, ושאר השעירין למדין ממנו. ומדרשו באגדה אמר הקב"ה, הביאו כפרה עלי על שמעטתי את הירח:
and its libation: [The phrase] “and its libation” does not refer to the young male goat because sin-offerings have no libations.   על עלת התמיד יעשה: כל הקרבן הזה:

Maftir Portion

Exodus Chapter 12

1The Lord spoke to Moses and to Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying,   אוַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהֹוָה֙ אֶל־משֶׁ֣ה וְאֶל־אַֽהֲרֹ֔ן בְּאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרַ֖יִם לֵאמֹֽר:
The Lord spoke to Moses and to Aaron: Since Aaron had worked and toiled with miracles just like Moses, He accorded him this honor at the first commandment by including him with Moses in [His] speech. — [from Tanchuma Buber, Bo 8; Mechilta] In early editions of Rashi, this paragraph is part of the above paragraph, the comment on 11:10. Indeed, that is how it appears in Tanchuma Buber.   ויאמר ה' אל משה ואל אהרן: בשביל שאהרן עשה וטרח במופתים כמשה, חלק לו כבוד זה במצוה ראשונה שכללו עם משה בדבור:
in the land of Egypt: [I.e.,] outside the city. Or perhaps it means only within the city? Therefore, Scripture states: “When I leave the city, [I will spread my hands to the Lord]” (Exod. 9:29). Now, if [even a] prayer, which is of minor importance, he [Moses] did not pray within the city, a divine communication, which is of major importance, how much more so [would God not deliver it to Moses within the city]? Indeed, why did He not speak with him within the city? Because it was full of idols. — [from Mechilta]   בארץ מצרים: חוץ לכרך, או אינו אלא בתוך הכרך תלמוד לומר (לעיל ט כט) כצאתי את העיר וגו', ומה תפלה קלה לא התפלל בתוך הכרך דבור חמור לא כל שכן, ומפני מה לא נדבר עמו בתוך הכרך, לפי שהיתה מלאה גלולים:
2This month shall be to you the head of the months; to you it shall be the first of the months of the year.   בהַחֹ֧דֶשׁ הַזֶּ֛ה לָכֶ֖ם רֹ֣אשׁ חֳדָשִׁ֑ים רִאשׁ֥וֹן הוּא֙ לָכֶ֔ם לְחָדְשֵׁ֖י הַשָּׁנָֽה:
This month: Heb. הַחֹדֶשׁ הַזֶה, lit., this renewal. He [God] showed him [Moses] the moon in its renewal and said to him, “When the moon renews itself, you will have a new month” (Mechilta). Nevertheless, [despite this rendering,] a biblical verse does not lose its simple meaning (Shab. 63a). Concerning the month of Nissan, He said to him, “This shall be the first of the order of the number of the months, so Iyar shall be called the second [month], and Sivan the third [month].”   החדש הזה: הראהו לבנה בחידושה ואמר לו כשהירח מתחדש יהיה לך ראש חודש. ואין מקרא יוצא מידי פשוטו, על חדש ניסן אמר לו, זה יהיה ראש לסדר מנין החדשים, שיהא אייר קרוי שני, סיון שלישי:
This: Moses found difficulty [determining] the [precise moment of the] renewal of the moon, in what size it should appear before it is fit for sanctification. So He showed him with His finger the moon in the sky and said to him, “You must see a moon like this and sanctify [the month].” Now how did He show it to him? Did He not speak to him only by day, as it says: “Now it came to pass on the day that the Lord spoke” (Exod. 6:28); “on the day He commanded” (Lev. 7:38); “from the day that the Lord commanded and on” (Num. 15:23) ? Rather, just before sunset, this chapter was said to him, and He showed him [the moon] when it became dark. — [from Mechilta]   הזה: נתקשה משה על מולד הלבנה באיזו שיעור תראה ותהיה ראויה לקדש, והראה לו באצבע את הלבנה ברקיע, ואמר לו כזה ראה וקדש. וכיצד הראהו, והלא לא היה מדבר עמו אלא ביום, שנאמר (שמות ו כח) ויהי ביום דבר ה', (ויקרא ז לח) ביום צותו, (במדבר טו כג) מן היום אשר צוה ה' והלאה, אלא סמוך לשקיעת החמה נאמרה לו פרשה זו, והראהו עם חשכה:
3Speak to the entire community of Israel, saying, "On the tenth of this month, let each one take a lamb for each parental home, a lamb for each household.   גדַּבְּר֗וּ אֶל־כָּל־עֲדַ֤ת יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר בֶּֽעָשׂ֖ר לַחֹ֣דֶשׁ הַזֶּ֑ה וְיִקְח֣וּ לָהֶ֗ם אִ֛ישׁ שֶׂ֥ה לְבֵֽית־אָבֹ֖ת שֶׂ֥ה לַבָּֽיִת:
Speak to the entire community: Heb. דַּבְּרוּ, [the plural form]. Now did Aaron speak? Was it not already stated [to Moses]: “You shall speak” (Exod. 7: 2) “and you speak to the children of Israel, saying” (Exod. 31:13)]? But they [Moses and Aaron] would show respect to each other and say to each other, “Teach me [what to say],” and the speech would emanate from between them [and it would sound] as if they both were speaking. — [from Mechilta]   דברו אל כל עדת: וכי אהרן מדבר והלא כבר נאמר (שמות ז ב) אתה תדבר, אלא חולקין כבוד זה לזה ואומרים זה לזה למדני, והדבור יוצא מבין שניהם, כאלו שניהם מדברים:
to the entire community of Israel, saying, “On the tenth of… month” -: Speak today on Rosh Chodesh [the New Moon] that they should take it [the lamb] on the tenth of the month. — [From Mechilta]   אל כל עדת ישראל וגו' בעשר לחדש: דברו היום בראש חודש שיקחוהו בעשור לחודש:
this: The Passover sacrifice of Egypt had to be taken on the tenth, but not the Passover sacrifice of later generations. — [from Mechilta, Pes. 96a]   הזה: פסח מצרים מקחו בעשור, ולא פסח דורות:
a lamb for each parental home: [I.e., a lamb] for one family. If [the family members] were numerous, I would think that one lamb would suffice for all of them. Therefore, the Torah says: “a lamb for a household.” -[from Mechilta]   שה לבית אבת: למשפחה אחת, הרי שהיו מרובין יכול שה אחד לכולן, תלמוד לומר שה לבית:
4But if the household is too small for a lamb, then he and his neighbor who is nearest to his house shall take [one] according to the number of people, each one according to one's ability to eat, shall you be counted for the lamb.   דוְאִם־יִמְעַ֣ט הַבַּ֘יִת֘ מִֽהְי֣וֹת מִשֶּׂה֒ וְלָקַ֣ח ה֗וּא וּשְׁכֵנ֛וֹ הַקָּרֹ֥ב אֶל־בֵּית֖וֹ בְּמִכְסַ֣ת נְפָשֹׁ֑ת אִ֚ישׁ לְפִ֣י אָכְל֔וֹ תָּכֹ֖סּוּ עַל־הַשֶֽׂה:
But if the household is too small for a lamb: And if they are too few to have one lamb, for they cannot eat it [all], and it will become left over (see verse 10), “then he and his neighbor… shall take.” This is the apparent meaning according to its simple interpretation. There is, however, also a midrashic interpretation, [namely that this verse comes] to teach us that after they were counted on it, [i.e., after they registered for a certain lamb,] they may diminish their number and withdraw from it and be counted on another lamb. If, however, they wish to withdraw and diminish their number, [they must do it] מִהְיוֹתמִשֶׂה [lit., from the being of the lamb]. They must diminish their number while the lamb still exists, while it is still alive, and not after it has been slaughtered. — [from Mechilta, Pes. 98a] according to the number of-Heb. בְּמִכְסַת, amount, and so “the amount of (מִכְסַת) your valuation: (Lev. 27:23).   ואם ימעט הבית מהיות משה: ואם יהיו מועטין מהיות משה אחד שאין יכולין לאכלו ויבא לידי נותר, ולקח הוא ושכנו וגו' זהו משמעו לפי פשוטו. ועוד יש בו מדרש ללמד שאחר שנמנו עליו יכולין להתמעט ולמשוך ידיהם הימנו ולהמנות על שה אחר, אך אם באו למשוך ידיהם ולהתמעט מהיות משה, יתמעטו בעוד השה קיים בהיותו בחיים, ולא משנשחט:
according to one’s ability to eat: [This indicates that only] one who is fit to eat-which excludes the sick and aged-who cannot eat an olive-sized portion [can be counted among the group for whom the sacrifice is killed]. — [from Mechilta]   במכסת: חשבון וכן (ויקרא כז כג) מכסת הערכך:
shall you be counted: Heb. תָּכֹסוּ [Onkelos renders:] תִּתְמְנוּן, you shall be counted.   לפי אכלו: הראוי לאכילה פרט לחולה וזקן שאינן יכולין לאכול כזית:
5You shall have a perfect male lamb in its [first] year; you may take it either from the sheep or from the goats.   השֶׂ֧ה תָמִ֛ים זָכָ֥ר בֶּן־שָׁנָ֖ה יִֽהְיֶ֣ה לָכֶ֑ם מִן־הַכְּבָשִׂ֥ים וּמִן־הָֽעִזִּ֖ים תִּקָּֽחוּ:
perfect: without a blemish. — [from Mechilta]   תמים: בלא מום:
in its [first] year: Heb. בֶּן-שָׁנָה For its entire first year it is called בֶּן-שָׁנָה, meaning that it was born during this year. — [from Mechilta]   בן שנה: כל שנתו קרוי בן שנה כלומר שנולד בשנה זו:
either from the sheep or from the goats: Either from this [species] or from that [species], for a goat is also called שֶׂה, as it is written: “and a kid (שֶׂה עִזִים)” (Deut. 14:4). — [from Mechilta]   מן הכבשים ומן העזים: או מזה או מזה שאף עז קרויה שה, שנאמר (דברים יד ד) ושה עזים:
6And you shall keep it for inspection until the fourteenth day of this month, and the entire congregation of the community of Israel shall slaughter it in the afternoon.   ווְהָיָ֤ה לָכֶם֙ לְמִשְׁמֶ֔רֶת עַ֣ד אַרְבָּעָ֥ה עָשָׂ֛ר י֖וֹם לַחֹ֣דֶשׁ הַזֶּ֑ה וְשָֽׁחֲט֣וּ אֹת֗וֹ כֹּ֛ל קְהַ֥ל עֲדַת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל בֵּ֥ין הָֽעַרְבָּֽיִם:
And you shall keep it for inspection: Heb. לְמִשְׁמֶרֶת. This is an expression of inspection, that it [the animal] requires an inspection for a blemish four days before its slaughter. Now why was it [the designated animal] to be taken four days before its slaughter, something not required in the Passover sacrifice of later generations? Rabbi Mathia the son of Charash used to say [in response]: Behold He [God] says: “And I passed by you and saw you, and behold your time was the time of love” (Ezek. 16:8). The [time for the fulfillment of the] oath that I swore to Abraham that I would redeem his children has arrived. But they [the Children of Israel] had no commandments in their hands with which to occupy themselves in order that they be redeemed, as it is said: “but you were naked and bare” (Ezek. 16:7). So He gave them two mitzvoth, the blood of the Passover and the blood of the circumcision. They circumcised themselves on that night, as it is said: “downtrodden with your blood (בְּדָמָיִ‏) ” (ibid., verse 6), with the two [types of] blood. He [God] states also: “You, too-with the blood of your covenant I have freed your prisoners from a pit in which there was no water” (Zech. 9:11). Moreover, they [the Israelites] were passionately fond of idolatry. [Moses] said to them, “Withdraw and take for yourselves” (Exod. 12:21). [He meant:] withdraw from idolatry and take for yourselves sheep for the mitzvah. — [from Mechilta, here and on verse 21] Note that on verse 21, Rashi explains that differently.   והיה לכם למשמרת: זה לשון בקור שטעון בקור ממום ארבעה ימים קודם שחיטה, ומפני מה הקדים לקיחתו לשחיטתו ארבעה ימים מה שלא צוה כן בפסח דורות, היה ר' מתיא בן חרש אומר הרי הוא אומר (יחזקאל טז ח) ואעבור עליך ואראך והנה עתך עת דודים, הגיעה שבועה שנשבעתי לאברהם שאגאל את בניו ולא היו בידם מצות להתעסק בהם כדי שיגאלו, שנאמר (שם ז) ואת ערום ועריה, ונתן להם שתי מצות דם פסח ודם מילה, שמלו באותו הלילה, שנאמר (שם ו) מתבוססת בדמיך, בשני דמים, ואומר (זכרי' ט יא). גם את בדם בריתך שלחתי אסיריך מבור אין מים בו, ולפי שהיו שטופים בעבודה זרה אמר להם (פסוק כא) משכו וקחו לכם, משכו ידיכם מעבודה זרה וקחו לכם צאן של מצוה:
shall slaughter it: Now do they all slaughter [it]? Rather, from here we can deduce that a person’s agent is like himself. — [from Mechilta, Kid. 41b] [Therefore, it is considered as if all the Israelites slaughtered the sacrifice.]   ושחטו אתו וגו': וכי כולן שוחטין אלא מכאן ששלוחו של אדם כמותו:
the entire congregation of the community of Israel: [This means] the congregation, the community, and Israel. From here, they [the Rabbis] said: The communal Passover sacrifices are slaughtered in three [distinct] groups, one after the other. [Once] the first group entered, the doors of the Temple court were locked [until the group finished; they were followed by the second group, etc.,] as is stated in Pesachim (64b).   קהל עדת ישראל: קהל ועדה וישראל. מכאן אמרו, פסחי צבור נשחטין בשלש כתות זו אחר זו, נכנסה כת ראשונה ננעלו דלתות העזרה וכו', כדאיתא בפסחים (דף סד א):
in the afternoon: Heb. בֵּין הָעַרְבָּיִם From six hours [after sunrise] and onward is called בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם, literally, between the two evenings, for the sun is inclined toward the place where it sets to become darkened. It seems to me that the expression בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם denotes those hours between the darkening of the day and the darkening of the night. The darkening of the day is at the beginning of the seventh hour, when the shadows of evening decline, and the darkening of the night at the beginning of the night. עֶרֶב is an expression of evening and darkness, like “all joy is darkened (וְעָרְבָה) ” (Isa. 24:11). — [from Mechilta]   בין הערבים: משש שעות ולמעלה קרוי בין הערבים, שהשמש נוטה לבית מבואו לערוב. ולשון בין הערבים נראה בעיני אותן שעות שבין עריבת היום לעריבת הלילה, עריבת היום בתחלת שבע שעות מכי ינטו צללי ערב (ירמיהו ו ד), ועריבת הלילה בתחילת הלילה. ערב לשון נשף וחשך, כמו (ישעיהו כד יא) ערבה כל שמחה:
7And they shall take [some] of the blood and put it on the two doorposts and on the lintel, on the houses in which they will eat it.   זוְלָֽקְחוּ֙ מִן־הַדָּ֔ם וְנָֽתְנ֛וּ עַל־שְׁתֵּ֥י הַמְּזוּזֹ֖ת וְעַל־הַמַּשְׁק֑וֹף עַ֚ל הַבָּ֣תִּ֔ים אֲשֶׁר־יֹֽאכְל֥וּ אֹת֖וֹ בָּהֶֽם:
And they shall take [some] of the blood: This is the receiving of the blood [from the animal’s neck immediately after the slaughtering]. I would think that it was to be received in the hand. Therefore, Scripture says: “that is in the basin” (below, verse 22), [specifying that the blood is to be received in a vessel]. — [from Mechilta]   ולקחו מן הדם: זו קבלת הדם. יכול ביד, תלמוד לומר (פסוק כב) אשר בסף:
the… door posts: They are the upright posts, one from this side of the entrance and one from that side. — [from Kid. 22b]   המזוזת: הם הזקופות אחת מכאן לפתח ואחת מכאן:
the lintel: Heb. הַמַשְׁקוֹף. That is the upper [beam], against which the door strikes (שׁוֹקֵף) when it is being closed, lintel in Old French. The term שְׁקִיפָה means striking, like [in the phrase] “the sound of a rattling leaf” (Lev. 26:36), [which Onkelos renders:] טַרְפָּא דְֹּשָקִיף, “bruise” (Exod. 21:25), [which Onkelos renders:] מַשְׁקוֹפֵי. — [based on Jonathan]   המשקוף: הוא העליון שהדלת שוקף עליו כשסוגרין אותו לינט"ר בלעז [משקוף] ולשון שקיפה חבטה, כמו (ויקרא כו לו) קול עלה נדף, טרפא דשקיף, (שמות כא כה) חבורה משקופי:
on the houses in which they will eat it: But not on the lintel and the doorposts of a house [used] for [storing] straw or a house [used] for cattle, in which nobody lives. — [based on Mechilta]   על הבתים אשר יאכלו אתו בהם: ולא על משקוף ומזוזות שבבית התבן ובבית הבקר, שאין דרין בתוכו:
8And on this night, they shall eat the flesh, roasted over the fire, and unleavened cakes; with bitter herbs they shall eat it.   חוְאָֽכְל֥וּ אֶת־הַבָּשָׂ֖ר בַּלַּ֣יְלָה הַזֶּ֑ה צְלִי־אֵ֣שׁ וּמַצּ֔וֹת עַל־מְרֹרִ֖ים יֹאכְלֻֽהוּ:
the flesh: but not sinews or bones. — [from Mechilta]   את הבשר: ולא גידים ועצמות:
and unleavened cakes; with bitter herbs: Every bitter herb is called מָרוֹר, and He commanded them to eat bitters in commemoration of “And they embittered their lives” (Exod. 1:14). — [from Pes. 39a, 116b]   על מררים: כל עשב מר נקרא מרור. וציום לאכול מרור זכר לוימררו את חייהם (שמות א יד):
9You shall not eat it rare or boiled in water, except roasted over the fire its head with its legs and with its innards.   טאַל־תֹּֽאכְל֤וּ מִמֶּ֨נּוּ֙ נָ֔א וּבָשֵׁ֥ל מְבֻשָּׁ֖ל בַּמָּ֑יִם כִּ֣י אִם־צְלִי־אֵ֔שׁ רֹאשׁ֥וֹ עַל־כְּרָעָ֖יו וְעַל־קִרְבּֽוֹ:
You shall not eat it rare: Heb. נָא Something not roasted sufficiently is called נָא in Arabic.   אל תאכלו ממנו נא: שאינו צלוי כל צורכו קוראו נא בלשון ערבי:
or boiled: All this is included in the prohibition of You shall not eat it. — [from Pes. 41b]   ובשל מבשל: כל זה באזהרת אל תאכלו:
in water: How do we know that [it is also prohibited to cook it] in other liquids? Therefore, Scripture states: וּבָשֵׁל מְבֻשָׁל, [meaning boiled] in any manner. — [from Pes. 41a]   במים: מנין לשאר משקין, תלמוד לומר ובשל מבושל מכל מקום:
except roasted over the fire: Above (verse 8), He decreed upon it [the animal sacrifice] with a positive commandment, and here He added to it a negative [commandment]: “You shall not eat it except roasted over the fire.” -[from Pes. 41b]   כי אם צלי אש: למעלה גזר עליו במצות עשה וכאן הוסיף עליו לא תעשה אל תאכלו ממנו כי אם צלי אש:
its head with its legs: One should roast it completely as one, with its head and with its legs and with its innards, and one must place its intestines inside it after they have been rinsed (Pes. 74a). The expression עַל כְּרָעָיו וְעַל-קִרְבּוֹ is similar to the expression “with their hosts (עַל-צִבְאֹתָם) ” (Exod. 6:26), [which is] like בְּצִבְאֹתָם, as they are, this too means [they should roast the animal] as it is, all its flesh complete.   ראשו על כרעיו: צולהו כולו כאחד עם ראשו ועם כרעיו ועם קרבו, ובני מעיו נותן לתוכו אחר הדחתן. ולשון על כרעיו ועל קרבו כלשון (שמות ו כו) על צבאותם, כמו בצבאותם, כמות שהן, אף זה כמות שהוא, כל בשרו משלם:
10And you shall not leave over any of it until morning, and whatever is left over of it until morning, you shall burn in fire.   יוְלֹֽא־תוֹתִ֥ירוּ מִמֶּ֖נּוּ עַד־בֹּ֑קֶר וְהַנֹּתָ֥ר מִמֶּ֛נּוּ עַד־בֹּ֖קֶר בָּאֵ֥שׁ תִּשְׂרֹֽפוּ:
and whatever is left over of it until morning-: What is the meaning of “until morning” a second time? [This implies] adding one morning to another morning, for morning starts with sunrise, and this verse is here to make it [the prohibition] earlier, [i.e.,] that it is forbidden to eat it [the leftover flesh] from dawn. This is according to its apparent meaning. Another midrashic interpretation is that this teaches that it may not be burnt on Yom Tov but on the next day, and this is how it is to be interpreted: and what is left over from it on the first morning you shall wait until the second morning and burn it. — [from Shab. 24b]   והנתר ממנו עד בקר: מה תלמוד לומר עד בקר פעם שניה, ליתן בקר על בקר, שהבקר משמעו משעת הנץ החמה, ובא הכתוב להקדים שאסור באכילה מעלות השחר, זהו לפי משמעו. ועוד מדרש אחר למד שאינו נשרף ביום טוב אלא ממחרת. וכך תדרשנו והנותר ממנו בבקר ראשון עד בקר שני תעמוד ותשרפנו:
11And this is how you shall eat it: your loins girded, your shoes on your feet, and your staff in your hand; and you shall eat it in haste it is a Passover sacrifice to the Lord.   יאוְכָ֘כָה֘ תֹּֽאכְל֣וּ אֹתוֹ֒ מָתְנֵיכֶ֣ם חֲגֻרִ֔ים נַֽעֲלֵיכֶם֙ בְּרַגְלֵיכֶ֔ם וּמַקֶּלְכֶ֖ם בְּיֶדְכֶ֑ם וַֽאֲכַלְתֶּ֤ם אֹתוֹ֙ בְּחִפָּז֔וֹן פֶּ֥סַח ה֖וּא לַיהֹוָֽה:
your loins girded: Ready for the way [i.e., for travel]. — [from Mechilta]   מתניכם חגרים: מזומנים לדרך:
in haste: Heb. בְּחִפָּזוֹן, a term denoting haste and speed, like “and David was hastening (נֶחְפָז) ” (I Sam. 23:26); that the Arameans had cast off in their haste (בְּחָפְזָם) (II Kings 7:15). — [from Onkelos]   בחפזון: לשון בהלה ומהירות, כמו (שמואל א' כג כו) ויהי דוד נחפז ללכת, (מלכים ב' ז טו) אשר השליכו ארם בחפזם:
it is a Passover sacrifice to the Lord: Heb. פֶּסַח. The sacrifice is called פֶּסַח because of the skipping and the jumping over, which the Holy One, blessed be He, skipped over the Israelites’ houses that were between the Egyptians houses. He jumped from one Egyptian to another Egyptian, and the Israelite in between was saved. [“To the Lord” thus implies] you shall perform all the components of its service in the name of Heaven. (Another explanation:) [You should perform the service] in the manner of skipping and jumping, [i.e., in haste] in commemoration of its name, which is called Passover (פֶּסַח), and also [in old French] pasche, pasque, pasca, an expression of striding over. — [from Mishnah Pes. 116a,b; Mechilta d’Rabbi Shimon ben Yochai, verse 27; Mechilta on this verse]   פסח הוא לה': הקרבן קרוי פסח על שם הדלוג והפסיחה שהקב"ה היה מדלג בתי ישראל מבין בתי מצרים וקופץ ממצרי למצרי, וישראל אמצעי נמלט, ואתם עשו כל עבודותיו לשם שמים. דבר אחר דרך דילוג וקפיצה, זכר לשמו שקרוי פסח וגם פשק"א [פסח] לשון פסיעה:
12I will pass through the land of Egypt on this night, and I will smite every firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and beast, and upon all the gods of Egypt will I wreak judgments I, the Lord.   יבוְעָֽבַרְתִּ֣י בְאֶֽרֶץ־מִצְרַ֘יִם֘ בַּלַּ֣יְלָה הַזֶּה֒ וְהִכֵּיתִ֤י כָל־בְּכוֹר֙ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֔יִם מֵֽאָדָ֖ם וְעַד־בְּהֵמָ֑ה וּבְכָל־אֱלֹהֵ֥י מִצְרַ֛יִם אֶֽעֱשֶׂ֥ה שְׁפָטִ֖ים אֲנִ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
I will pass: like a king who passes from place to place, and with one passing and in one moment they are all smitten. — [from Mechilta]   ועברתי: כמלך העובר ממקום למקום, ובהעברה אחת וברגע אחד כולן לוקין:
every firstborn in the land of Egypt: Even other firstborn who are in Egypt [will die]. Now how do we know that even the firstborn of the Egyptians who are in other places [will die]? Therefore, Scripture states: “To Him Who smote the Egyptians with their firstborn” (Ps. 136:10). — [from Mechilta]   כל בכור בארץ מצרים: אף בכורות אחרים והם במצרים, ומנין אף בכורי מצרים שבמקומות אחרים, תלמוד לומר (תהלים קלו י) למכה מצרים בבכוריהם:
both man and beast: [I.e., first man and then beast.] He who started to sin first from him the retribution starts. — [from Mechilta]   מאדם ועד בהמה: מי שהתחיל בעבירה ממנו מתחלת הפורענות:
and upon all the gods of Egypt-: The one made of wood will rot, and the one made of metal will melt and flow to the ground. — [from Mechilta]   ובכל אלהי מצרים: של עץ נרקבת, ושל מתכת נמסת ונתכת לארץ:
will I wreak judgments-I The Lord: I by Myself and not through a messenger. — [from Passover Haggadah]   אעשה שפטים אני ה': אני בעצמי ולא על ידי שליח:
13And the blood will be for you for a sign upon the houses where you will be, and I will see the blood and skip over you, and there will be no plague to destroy [you] when I smite the [people of the] land of Egypt.   יגוְהָיָה֩ הַדָּ֨ם לָכֶ֜ם לְאֹ֗ת עַ֤ל הַבָּתִּים֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר אַתֶּ֣ם שָׁ֔ם וְרָאִ֨יתִי֙ אֶת־הַדָּ֔ם וּפָֽסַחְתִּ֖י עֲלֵכֶ֑ם וְלֹא־יִֽהְיֶ֨ה בָכֶ֥ם נֶ֨גֶף֙ לְמַשְׁחִ֔ית בְּהַכֹּתִ֖י בְּאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם:
And the blood will be for you for a sign: [The blood will be] for you a sign but not a sign for others. From here, it is derived that they put the blood only on the inside. — [from Mechilta 11]   והיה הדם לכם לאת: לכם לאות ולא לאחרים לאות מכאן שלא נתנו הדם אלא מבפנים:
and I will see the blood: [In fact,] everything is revealed to Him. [Why then does the Torah mention that God will see the blood?] Rather, the Holy One, blessed be He, said, “I will focus My attention to see that you are engaged in My commandments, and I will skip over you.” -[from Mechilta]   וראיתי את הדם: הכל גלוי לפניו, אלא אמר הקב"ה נותן אני את עיני לראות שאתם עסוקים במצותי ופוסח אני עליכם:
and skip over: Heb. וּפָסַחְתִּי [is rendered] and I will have pity, and similar to it: “sparing פָּסוֹחַ and rescuing” (Isa. 31:5). I say, however, that every [expression of] פְּסִיחָה is an expression of skipping and jumping. [Hence,] וּפָסַחְתִּי [means that] He was skipping from the houses of the Israelites to the houses of the Egyptians, for they were living one in the midst of the other. Similarly, “skipping between (פֹּסְחִים) two ideas” (I Kings 18:21). Similarly, the lame (פִּסְחִים) walk as if jumping. Similarly, פָּסוֹחַ וְהִמְלִיט means: jumping over him and rescuing him from among the slain. — [from Mechilta] Both views are found in Mechilta. The first view is also that of Onkelos.   ופסחתי: וחמלתי, ודומה לו (ישעיהו לא ה) פסוח והמליט. ואני אומר כל פסיחה לשון דלוג וקפיצה. ופסחתי מדלג היה מבתי ישראל לבתי מצרים, שהיו שרוים זה בתוך זה, וכן (מלכים א' יח כא) פוסחים על שתי הסעיפים, וכן כל הפסחים הולכים כקופצים, וכן (ישעיהו לא ה) פסוח והמליט, מדלגו וממלטו מבין המומתים:
and there will be no plague to destroy [you]: But there will be [a plague] upon the Egyptians. Let us say that an Egyptian was in an Israelite’s house. I would think that he would escape. Therefore, Scripture states: “and there will be no plague upon you,” but there will be [a plague] upon the Egyptians in your houses. Let us say that an Israelite was in an Egyptian’s house. I would think that he would be smitten like him. Therefore, Scripture states: “and there will be no plague upon you.” -[from Mechilta]   ולא יהיה בכם נגף: אבל הווה הוא במצרים הרי שהיה מצרי בביתו של ישראל, יכול ימלט, תלמוד לומר ולא יהיה בכם נגף, אבל הווה במצרי שבבתיכם, הרי שהיה ישראל בביתו של מצרי, שומע אני ילקה כמותו, תלמוד לומר ולא יהיה בכם נגף:
14And this day shall be for you as a memorial, and you shall celebrate it as a festival for the Lord; throughout your generations, you shall celebrate it as an everlasting statute.   ידוְהָיָה֩ הַיּ֨וֹם הַזֶּ֤ה לָכֶם֙ לְזִכָּר֔וֹן וְחַגֹּתֶ֥ם אֹת֖וֹ חַ֣ג לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה לְדֹרֹ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם חֻקַּ֥ת עוֹלָ֖ם תְּחָגֻּֽהוּ:
as a memorial: for generations.   לזכרון: לדורות:
and you shall celebrate it: The day that is a memorial for you-you shall celebrate it. But we have not yet heard which is the day of memorial. Therefore, Scripture states: “Remember this day, when you went out of Egypt” (Exod. 13: 3). we learn that the day of the Exodus is the day of memorial. Now on what day did they go out [of Egypt]? Therefore, Scripture states: “On the day after the Passover, they went out” (Num. 33:3). I must therefore say that the fifteenth of Nissan is the day of the festival, because the night of the fifteenth they ate the Passover sacrifice, and in the morning they went out.   וחגתם אתו: יום שהוא לך לזכרון אתה חוגגו. ועדיין לא שמענו אי זהו יום הזכרון, תלמוד לומר (שמות יג ג) זכור את היום הזה אשר יצאתם, למדנו שיום היציאה הוא יום של זכרון. ואיזה יום יצאו, תלמוד לומר (במדבר לג ג) ממחרת הפסח יצאו, הוי אומר יום חמישה עשר בניסן הוא של יום טוב, שהרי ליל חמישה עשר אכלו את הפסח ולבקר יצאו:
throughout your generations: I understand [this to mean] the smallest number of generations, [namely only] two. Therefore, Scripture states: “you shall celebrate it as an everlasting statute.” -[from Mechilta]   לדרתיכם: שומע אני מיעוט דורות שנים, תלמוד לומר חקת עולם תחגוהו:
15For seven days you shall eat unleavened cakes, but on the preceding day you shall clear away all leaven from your houses, for whoever eats leaven from the first day until the seventh day that soul shall be cut off from Israel.   טושִׁבְעַ֤ת יָמִים֙ מַצּ֣וֹת תֹּאכֵ֔לוּ אַ֚ךְ בַּיּ֣וֹם הָֽרִאשׁ֔וֹן תַּשְׁבִּ֥יתוּ שְּׂאֹ֖ר מִבָּֽתֵּיכֶ֑ם כִּ֣י | כָּל־אֹכֵ֣ל חָמֵ֗ץ וְנִכְרְתָ֞ה הַנֶּ֤פֶשׁ הַהִוא֙ מִיִּשְׂרָאֵ֔ל מִיּ֥וֹם הָֽרִאשֹׁ֖ן עַד־י֥וֹם הַשְּׁבִעִֽי:
For seven days: Heb. שִׁבְעַתיָמִים, seteyne of days, i.e., a group of seven days. [See Rashi on Exod. 10:22.]   שבעת ימים: שטיינ"א של ימים [קבוצה של שבעה ימים רצופים]:
For seven days you shall eat unleavened cakes-: But elsewhere it says: “For six days you shall eat unleavened cakes” (Deut. 16:8). This teaches [us] regarding the seventh day of Passover, that it is not obligatory to eat matzah, as long as one does not eat chametz. How do we know that [the first] six [days] are also optional [concerning eating matzah]? This is a principle in [interpreting] the Torah: Anything that was included in a generalization [in the Torah] and was excluded from that generalization [in the Torah] to teach [something] it was not excluded to teach [only] about itself, but it was excluded to teach about the entire generalization. [In this case it means that] just as [on] the seventh day [eating matzah] is optional, so is it optional in [the first] six [days]. I might think that [on] the first night it is also optional. Therefore, Scripture states: “in the evening, you shall eat unleavened cakes” (Exod. 12:18). The text established it as an obligation. — [from Mechilta]   שבעת ימים מצות תאכלו: ובמקום אחר הוא אומר (דברים טז ח) ששת ימים תאכל מצות, למד על שביעי של פסח שאינו חובה לאכול מצה, ובלבד שלא יאכל חמץ. מנין אף ששה רשות תלמוד לומר ששת ימים. זו מדה בתורה, דבר שהיה בכלל ויצא מן הכלל ללמד, לא ללמד על עצמו בלבד יצא, אלא ללמד על הכלל כולו יצא, מה שביעי רשות אף ששה רשות, יכול אף לילה הראשון רשות, תלמוד לומר (להלן פסוק יח) בערב תאכלו מצות, הכתוב קבעו חובה:
but on the preceding day you shall clear away all leaven: Heb. בַּיוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן. On the day before the holiday; it is called the first [day], because it is before the seven; [i.e., it is not the first of the seven days]. Indeed, we find [anything that is] the preceding one [is] called רִאשׁוֹן, e.g., הִרִאשׁוֹן אָדָם ךְתִּוָלֵד, “Were you born before Adam?” (Job 15:7). Or perhaps it means only the first of the seven [days of Passover]. Therefore, Scripture states: “You shall not slaughter with leaven [the blood of My sacrifice]” (Exod. 34:25). You shall not slaughter the Passover sacrifice as long as the leaven still exists. — [from Mechilta, Pes. 5a] [Since the Passover sacrifice may be slaughtered immediately after noon on the fourteenth day of Nissan, clearly the leaven must be removed before that time. Hence the expression בַּיוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן must refer to the day preceding the festival.]   אך ביום הראשון תשביתו שאר: מערב יום טוב, וקרוי ראשון לפי שהוא לפני השבעה, ומצינו מוקדם קרוי ראשון, כמו (איוב טו ז) הראשון אדם תולד, הלפני אדם נולדת, או אינו אלא ראשון של שבעה, תלמוד לומר (שמות לד כה) לא תשחט על חמץ, לא תשחט הפסח ועדיין חמץ קיים:
that soul: When he [(the person) eats the leaven while he] is with his soul and his knowledge; this excludes one who commits the sin under coercion. — [from Mechilta, Kid. 43a]   הנפש ההוא: כשהיא בנפשה ובדעתה, פרט לאנוס:
from Israel: I [could] understand that it [the soul] will be cut off from Israel and will [be able to] go to another people. Therefore, [to avoid this error] Scripture states elsewhere: “from before Me” (Lev. 22:3), meaning: from every place which is My domain. — [from Mechilta]   מישראל: שומע אני תכרת מישראל ותלך לה לעם אחר, תלמוד לומר במקום אחר (ויקרא כב ג) מלפני, בכל מקום שהוא רשותי:
16And on the first day there shall be a holy convocation, and on the seventh day you shall have a holy convocation; no work may be performed on them, but what is eaten by any soul that alone may be performed for you.   טזוּבַיּ֤וֹם הָֽרִאשׁוֹן֙ מִקְרָא־קֹ֔דֶשׁ וּבַיּוֹם֙ הַשְּׁבִיעִ֔י מִקְרָא־קֹ֖דֶשׁ יִֽהְיֶ֣ה לָכֶ֑ם כָּל־מְלָאכָה֙ לֹא־יֵֽעָשֶׂ֣ה בָהֶ֔ם אַ֚ךְ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יֵֽאָכֵ֣ל לְכָל־נֶ֔פֶשׁ ה֥וּא לְבַדּ֖וֹ יֵֽעָשֶׂ֥ה לָכֶֽם:
a holy convocation: Heb. מִקְרָא מִקְרָא קֹדֶשׁ is a noun. Call it [the day] holy with regard to eating, drinking, and clothing. — [from Mechilta]   מקרא קדש: מקרא שם דבר, קרא אותו קדש לאכילה ושתייה וכסות:
no work may be performed on them: even through others. — [from Mechilta]   לא יעשה בהם: אפילו על ידי אחרים:
that alone: [I.e., the necessary work for food preparation.] (I would think that even for gentiles [it is allowed]. Therefore, Scripture states: “that alone may be performed for you,” for you but not for gentiles.) That [the work needed for food] but not its preparations that can be done on the eve of the festival [e.g., repairing a spit for roasting, or a stove for cooking]. — [from Beitzah 28b]   הוא לבדו: הוא ולא מכשיריו שאפשר לעשותן מערב יום טוב:
by any soul: Even for animals. I would think that even for gentiles. Therefore, Scripture states: “for you.” -[from Beitzah 21b, Mechilta] Another version: Therefore, Scripture states: “but,” which makes a distinction. — [from Mechilta].   לכל נפש: אפילו לבהמה יכול אף לנכרים, תלמוד לומר לכם:
17And you shall watch over the unleavened cakes, for on this very day I have taken your legions out of the land of Egypt, and you shall observe this day throughout your generations, [as] an everlasting statute.   יזוּשְׁמַרְתֶּם֘ אֶת־הַמַּצּוֹת֒ כִּ֗י בְּעֶ֨צֶם֙ הַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֔ה הוֹצֵ֥אתִי אֶת־צִבְאֽוֹתֵיכֶ֖ם מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם וּשְׁמַרְתֶּ֞ם אֶת־הַיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּ֛ה לְדֹרֹֽתֵיכֶ֖ם חֻקַּ֥ת עוֹלָֽם:
And you shall watch over the unleavened cakes: that they should not become leavened. From here they [the Rabbis] derived that if [the dough] started to swell, she [the woman rolling it out] must moisten it with cold water. Rabbi Josiah says: Do not read:, אֶת-הַמַצּוֹת, the unleavened cakes, אֶת-הַמִצְוֹת, the commandments. Just as we may not permit the matzoth to become leavened, so may we not permit the commandments to become leavened [i.e., to wait too long before we perform them], but if it [a commandment] comes into your hand, perform it immediately. — [from Mechilta]   ושמרתם את המצות: שלא יבאו לידי חמוץ מכאן אמרו תפח, תלטוש בצונן. רבי יאשיה אומר אל תהי קורא את המצות אלא את המצוות, כדרך שאין מחמיצין את המצה כך אין מחמיצין את המצווה אלא אם באה לידך עשה אותה מיד:
and you shall observe this day: from [performing] work.   ושמרתם את היום הזה: ממלאכה:
throughout your generations, [as] an everlasting statute: Since “generations” and “an everlasting statute” were not stated regarding the [prohibition of doing] work, but only regarding the celebration [sacrifice], the text repeats it here, so that you will not say that the warning of: “no work may be performed” was not said for [later] generations, but only for that generation [of the Exodus].   לדרתיכם חקת עולם: לפי שלא נאמר דורות וחקת עולם על המלאכה אלא על החגיגה, לכך חזר ושנאו כאן, שלא תאמר אזהרת (לעיל טז) כל מלאכה לא יעשה, לא לדורות נאמרה, אלא לאותו הדור:
18In the first [month], on the fourteenth day of the month in the evening, you shall eat unleavened cakes, until the twenty first day of the month in the evening.   יחבָּֽרִאשֹׁ֡ן בְּאַרְבָּעָה֩ עָשָׂ֨ר י֤וֹם לַחֹ֨דֶשׁ֙ בָּעֶ֔רֶב תֹּֽאכְל֖וּ מַצֹּ֑ת עַ֠ד י֣וֹם הָֽאֶחָ֧ד וְעֶשְׂרִ֛ים לַחֹ֖דֶשׁ בָּעָֽרֶב:
until the twenty-first day: Why was this stated? Was it not already stated: “Seven days” ? Since it says “days,” how do we know “nights” [are included in the mitzvah or commandment]? Therefore, Scripture states: “until the twenty-first day, etc.” -[from Mechilta]   עד יום האחד ועשרים: למה נאמר, והלא כבר נאמר (לעיל טו) שבעת ימים, לפי שנאמר ימים, לילות מנין, תלמוד לומר עד יום האחד ועשרים וגו':
19For seven days, leavening shall not be found in your houses, for whoever eats leavening that soul shall be cut off from the community of Israel, both among the strangers and the native born of the land.   יטשִׁבְעַ֣ת יָמִ֔ים שְׂאֹ֕ר לֹ֥א יִמָּצֵ֖א בְּבָֽתֵּיכֶ֑ם כִּ֣י | כָּל־אֹכֵ֣ל מַחְמֶ֗צֶת וְנִכְרְתָ֞ה הַנֶּ֤פֶשׁ הַהִוא֙ מֵֽעֲדַ֣ת יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל בַּגֵּ֖ר וּבְאֶזְרַ֥ח הָאָֽרֶץ:
shall not be found in your houses: How do we know [that the same ruling applies] to [leavening found within] the borders [outside the house]? Therefore, Scripture states: “throughout all of your borders” (Exod. 13:7). Why, then, did Scripture state: “in your houses” ? [To teach us that] just as your house is in your domain, so [the prohibition against possessing leaven in] your borders [means only what is] in your domain. This excludes leaven belonging to a gentile which is in a Jew’s possession, and for which he [the Jew] did not accept responsibility. — [from Mechilta]   לא ימצא בבתיכם: מנין לגבולין, תלמוד לומר (להלן יג ז) בכל גבולך. מה תלמוד לומר בבתיכם, מה ביתך ברשותך אף גבולך שברשותך, יצא חמצו של נכרי שהוא אצל ישראל ולא קבל עליו אחריות:
for whoever eats leavening: [This passage comes] to punish with “kareth” [premature death by the hands of Heaven] for [eating] leavening. But did He not already [give the] punishment for eating leaven? But [this verse is necessary] so that you should not say that [only] for [eating] leaven, which is edible, did He punish, but for [eating] leavening, which is not edible, He would not punish. [On the other hand,] if He punished [also] for [eating] leavening and did not [state that] He punished for [eating] leaven, I would say that [only] for [eating] leavening, which causes others to become leavened did He punish, [but] for [eating] leaven, which does not leaven others, He would not punish. Therefore, both of them had to be stated. — [from Mechilta, Beitzah 7b]   כי כל אכל מחמצת: לענוש כרת על השאור, והלא כבר ענש על החמץ, אלא שלא תאמר חמץ שראוי לאכילה ענש עליו שאור שאינו ראוי לאכילה לא יענש עליו. ואם ענש על השאור ולא ענש על החמץ, הייתי אומר שאור שהוא מחמץ אחרים ענש עליו, חמץ שאינו מחמץ אחרים לא יענש עליו, לכך נאמרו שניהם:
both among the strangers and the native born of the land: Since the miracle [of the Exodus] was performed for Israel, it was necessary to [explicitly] include the strangers [who were proselytized but are not descended from Israelite stock]. — [from Mechilta]   בגר ובאזרח הארץ: לפי שהנס נעשה לישראל, הוצרך לרבות את הגרים:
20You shall not eat any leavening; throughout all your dwellings you shall eat unleavened cakes."   ככָּל־מַחְמֶ֖צֶת לֹ֣א תֹאכֵ֑לוּ בְּכֹל֙ מֽוֹשְׁבֹ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם תֹּֽאכְל֖וּ מַצּֽוֹת:
You shall not eat… leavening: [This is] a warning against eating leavening.   מחמצת לא תאכלו: אזהרה על אכילת שאור:
any leavening: This comes to include its mixture [namely that one may not eat a mixture of chametz and other foods]. — [from Mechilta]   כל מחמצת: להביא את תערובתו:
throughout all your dwellings you shall eat unleavened cakes: This comes to teach that it [the matzah] must be fit to be eaten in all your dwelling places. This excludes the second tithe and the matzah loaves that accompany a thanksgiving offering, [which are not fit to be eaten in all dwelling places, but only in Jerusalem]. [This insert may be Rashi’s or the work of an earlier printer or copyist.]-[from Mechilta]   בכל מושבתיכם תאכלו מצות: זה בא ללמד שתהא ראויה ליאכל בכל מושבותיכם, פרט למעשר שני וחלות תודה:

Haftarah

Ezekiel Chapter 45

18So says the Lord God: In the first month, on the first of the month, you shall take a young bull without blemish, and you shall purify the altar.   יחכֹּֽה־אָמַר֘ אֲדֹנָ֣י יֱהֹוִה֒ בָּֽרִאשׁוֹן֙ בְּאֶחָ֣ד לַחֹ֔דֶשׁ תִּקַּ֥ח פַּר־בֶּן־בָּקָ֖ר תָּמִ֑ים וְחִטֵּאתָ֖ אֶת־הַמִּקְדָּֽשׁ:
So says the Lord God: In the first month, on the first of the month, you shall take a young bull [and] without blemish: This is the bull of investiture mentioned at the beginning of this section (43:18 27), and he teaches [us] here that the investiture should be on the first of Nissan.   :
and you shall purify: [as translated,] and you shall purify.   :
19And the priest shall take of the blood of the sin-offering and put it on the doorpost of the House, and on the four corners of the ledge of the altar and on the doorpost of the gate of the Inner Court.   יטוְלָקַ֨ח הַכֹּהֵ֜ן מִדַּ֣ם הַֽחַטָּ֗את וְנָתַן֙ אֶל־מְזוּזַ֣ת הַבַּ֔יִת וְאֶל־אַרְבַּ֛ע פִּנּ֥וֹת הָֽעֲזָרָ֖ה לַמִּזְבֵּ֑חַ וְעַ֨ל־מְזוּזַ֔ת שַׁ֖עַר הֶֽחָצֵ֥ר הַפְּנִימִֽית:
20And so shall you do on seven [days] in the month, because of mistaken and simple-minded men, and expiate the House.   כוְכֵ֚ן תַּֽעֲשֶׂה֙ בְּשִׁבְעָ֣ה בַחֹ֔דֶשׁ מֵאִ֥ישׁ שֹׁגֶ֖ה וּמִפֶּ֑תִי וְכִפַּרְתֶּ֖ם אֶת־הַבָּֽיִת:
And so shall you do on seven [days] in the month: It may be said that [this means]: And so shall you do all seven, and so too he says above (43:26): “For seven days they shall effect atonement for the altar.” But our Rabbis explained it in Menahoth (45a) in the following manner: And so shall you make [as a sacrifice] a bull that is not to be eaten in [the event of] “seven” tribes who “interpreted the Torah in a new way (שֶּׁחְדֹּשּׁוּ) ” and whose tribunal issued a decision that fat is permissible, and seven tribes, (which are the majority of the nation), who acted on their word. They must bring a bull for communal error.   :
because of mistaken and simple- minded men: This is a transposed verse: And you shall expiate the House from mistaken and simple-minded men. After the seven days of investiture, whenceforth the altar will be dedicated, they shall bring their sin-offerings and their guilt-offerings, and they will attain atonement, for at the time that Israel attains atonement, the House attains atonement.   :
21In the first, on the fourteenth day of the month, shall you have the Passover, a festival of seven days; unleavened bread shall be eaten.   כאבָּֽ֠רִאשׁוֹן בְּאַרְבָּעָ֨ה עָשָׂ֥ר יוֹם֙ לַחֹ֔דֶשׁ יִֽהְיֶ֥ה לָכֶ֖ם הַפָּ֑סַח חָ֕ג שְׁבֻע֣וֹת יָמִ֔ים מַצּ֖וֹת יֵֽאָכֵֽל:
seven days: [Lit. weeks of days,] because they commence from it to count seven weeks.   :
unleavened bread shall be eaten: and unleavened bread shall be eaten on that festival.   :
22And the prince shall make on that day for himself and for all the people of Israel a bull for a sin-offering.   כבוְעָשָׂ֚ה הַנָּשִׂיא֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֔וּא בַּֽעֲד֕וֹ וּבְעַ֖ד כָּל־עַ֣ם הָאָ֑רֶץ פַּ֖ר חַטָּֽאת:
And the prince shall make on that day, etc.: Our Rabbis (Hag. 13a) said that they sought to suppress the Book of Ezekiel for his words contradicted the words of the Torah. Indeed, Hananiah the son of Hezekiah the son of Gurion is remembered for good, for he sat in his attic and expounded on it. But because of our iniquities, what he expounded on these sacrificeswhy a bull is brought on the fourteenth day of Nissanhas been lost to us. I say that perhaps he is dealing with the fourteenth of Nissan of the first Passover in which the fully erected House will be dedicated, and this bull will be brought in lieu of the calf born of cattle that Aaron offered up on the eighth of investiture (Lev. 9:2). [Scripture] tells us that if he will not have offered it up on the eighth day of investiture, he should offer it up on the fourteenth of Nissan in order that he should be initiated for the service before the Festival, for it is incumbent upon him [to bring] the sacrifices and the burnt offering of the appointed time, as is stated above (v. 17): “And the burnt offerings and the meal-offerings and the libations on the festivals… shall devolve on the prince, etc.”   :
23On the seven days of the Festival he shall make a burnt-offering to the Lord, seven bulls and seven rams without blemish daily for seven days, and a sin offering, a he-goat daily.   כגוְשִׁבְעַ֨ת יְמֵֽי־הֶחָ֜ג יַֽעֲשֶׂ֧ה עוֹלָ֣ה לַֽיהֹוָ֗ה שִׁבְעַ֣ת פָּ֠רִים וְשִׁבְעַ֨ת אֵילִ֚ים תְּמִימִם֙ לַיּ֔וֹם שִׁבְעַ֖ת הַיָּמִ֑ים וְחַטָּ֕את שְׂעִ֥יר עִזִּ֖ים לַיּֽוֹם:
seven bulls and seven rams without blemish daily: But the Torah states (Num. 28: 19): “two young bulls, one ram.” We can explain this verse only as meaning seven bulls and seven rams for the seven days, a bull daily and a ram daily, and it comes to teach us that the bulls do not render each other invalid and the rams do not render each other invalid. [I.e., if one bull is missing, the other one may be brought.] So we learned in Menahoth (45a); however, they did not bring proof from this verse but from the verse below (46:6): “But on the New Moon: a young bull from those without blemish, and six lambs and a ram.” But perhaps this too comes to teach the same thing, and this is its meaning: seven bulls and seven rams daily. By adding the sacrifices of each day on its day, they add up to seven bulls for the seven days.   :
and a sin-offering, a he-goat daily: the he-goats of the pilgrimage festivals.   :
24And a meal-offering, he shall make an ephah for a bull and an ephah for a ram, and for each ephah one hin of oil.   כדוּמִנְחָ֗ה אֵיפָ֥ה לַפָּ֛ר וְאֵיפָ֥ה לָאַ֖יִל יַֽעֲשֶׂ֑ה וְשֶׁ֖מֶן הִ֥ין לָֽאֵיפָֽה:
And a meal-offering… an ephah for a bull: the meal-offering of the libations, an “ephah” for a bull. Now I do not know what this means, for the Torah stated (28:20): “three tenths for the bull.” It is possible that it means an “ephah” of flour from which we extract a tenth of fine flour from a “se’ah” , for the “ephah” is three “se’ahs” .   :
and an ephah for a ram: This too is flour from which we extract two tenths of fine flour sifted thoroughly, as we learned (Men. 6:6): The two loaves were two tenths from three “se’ahs” . [The requirement of] an “ephah” for the bull teaches that if he did not find fine sifted flour that yielded that much, he may bring from [flour that yields] a tenth to a “se’ah” .   :
and for each ephah one hin of oil: I do not know why. We may say that it does not mean that he must sacrifice the entire “hin,” but that there were notches in the “hin” and he would sacrifice oil according to the fine flour, according to the sacrificial laws for a bull according to its requirement and for a ram according to its requirement, according to the notches of the “hin”.   :
25In the seventh [month] on the fifteenth day of the month on the Festival, he shall do the same for seven days, a similar sin offering, a similar burnt-offering, a similar meal-offering and similar oil.   כהבַּשְּׁבִיעִ֡י בַּֽחֲמִשָּׁה֩ עָשָׂ֨ר י֚וֹם לַחֹ֙דֶשׁ֙ בֶּחָ֔ג יַֽעֲשֶׂ֥ה כָאֵ֖לֶּה שִׁבְעַ֣ת הַיָּמִ֑ים כַּֽחַטָּאת֙ כָּֽעֹלָ֔ה וְכַמִּנְחָ֖ה וְכַשָּֽׁמֶן:

Ezekiel Chapter 46

1So says the Lord God: The gate of the Inner Court that faces toward the east shall remain closed the six working days, but on the Sabbath it shall be opened, and on the New Moon it shall be opened.   אכֹּֽה־אָמַר֘ אֲדֹנָ֣י יֱהֹוִה֒ שַׁ֜עַר הֶֽחָצֵ֚ר הַפְּנִימִית֙ הַפֹּנֶ֣ה קָדִ֔ים יִֽהְיֶ֣ה סָג֔וּר שֵׁ֖שֶׁת יְמֵ֣י הַמַּֽעֲשֶׂ֑ה וּבְי֚וֹם הַשַּׁבָּת֙ יִפָּתֵ֔חַ וּבְי֥וֹם הַחֹ֖דֶשׁ יִפָּתֵֽחַ:
The gate of the Inner Court that faces toward the east, etc.: Our Rabbis learned in Tractate Middoth (4:2): The gate of the Heichal had two wickets, one in the south and one in the north. Concerning the one in the south it is explained in the post Mosaic Scriptures (above 44:2): “and no man shall come through it… and it shall be closed.”   :
2And the prince shall enter by way of the vestibule of the gate without, and he shall stand at the doorpost of the gate, and the priests shall offer his burnt-offering and his peace-offering, and he shall prostrate himself at the threshold of the gate, and go out, but the gate shall not be closed until the evening.   בוּבָ֣א הַנָּשִׂ֡יא דֶּרֶךְ֩ אוּלָ֨ם הַשַּׁ֜עַר מִח֗וּץ וְעָמַד֙ עַל־מְזוּזַ֣ת הַשַּׁ֔עַר וְעָשׂ֣וּ הַכֹּֽהֲנִ֗ים אֶת־עֽוֹלָתוֹ֙ וְאֶת־שְׁלָמָ֔יו וְהִֽשְׁתַּֽחֲוָ֛ה עַל־מִפְתַּ֥ן הַשַּׁ֖עַר וְיָצָ֑א וְהַשַּׁ֥עַר לֹֽא־יִסָּגֵ֖ר עַד־הָעָֽרֶב:
by way of the vestibule of the gate without: as he states above (40:31): “And its halls were to the Outer Court.” By way of the vestibule of the Gate of the Court, i.e., he shall enter by way of the Eastern Gate, which serves for entry and exit, and come to that wicket.   :
and he shall stand at the doorpost of the gate: That small gate is the wicket.   :
his burnt offering and his peace offering: The burnt offering for appearing in the Temple and the peace offering for celebrating the festivals; this verse refers to the festivals.   :
and he shall stand at the doorposts of the gate: The inner gate; this is the wicket, as the master stated (Taanith 4: 2): “Is it possible for a person’s sacrifice to be offered up when he is not standing over it?”   :
shall not be closed until the evening: Now why should it not be closed ?   :
3And the people of the land shall [also] prostrate themselves at the entrance of that gate on the Sabbaths and on the New Moons, before the Lord.   גוְהִֽשְׁתַּֽחֲו֣וּ עַם־הָאָ֗רֶץ פֶּתַח הַשַּׁ֣עַר הַה֔וּא בַּשַּׁבָּת֖וֹת וּבֶֽחֳדָשִׁ֑ים לִפְנֵ֖י יְהֹוָֽה:
And the people of the land shall prostrate themselves: all day, and whoever comes, too, and in the evening they shall close it.   :
4And the burnt- offering which the prince offers to the Lord; On the Sabbath shall be six lambs without blemish and a ram without blemish.   דוְהָ֣עֹלָ֔ה אֲשֶׁר־יַקְרִ֥ב הַנָּשִׂ֖יא לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה בְּי֣וֹם הַשַּׁבָּ֗ת שִׁשָּׁ֧ה כְבָשִׂ֛ים תְּמִימִ֖ם וְאַ֥יִל תָּמִֽים:
On the Sabbath day shall be six lambs: I do not know why, for the Torah said (Num. 28:9): “two lambs,” and “on the Sabbath Day” means either the Sabbath commemorating the Creation or a festival. I, therefore, say that this Sabbath is not the Sabbath commemorating the Creation, but a festival that requires seven lambs and two rams. Scripture comes and teaches you that [the absence of one] does not render the other one invalid, and if he does not find seven, he should bring six, and if he does not find two rams, he should bring one, as our Rabbis expounded regarding the New Moon.   :
5And as a meal- offering: one ephah for the ram; and for the lambs, a meal-offering as he is able to give, and a hin of oil to an ephah.   הוּמִנְחָה֙ אֵיפָ֣ה לָאַ֔יִל וְלַכְּבָשִׂ֥ים מִנְחָ֖ה מַתַּ֣ת יָד֑וֹ וְשֶׁ֖מֶן הִ֥ין לָאֵיפָֽה:
as he is able to give: This teaches that the meal-offerings do not render each other invalid [in each other’s absence].   :
6But on the New Moon; a young bull without blemish, and six lambs and a ram, without blemish are they to be.   ווּבְי֣וֹם הַחֹ֔דֶשׁ פַּ֥ר בֶּן־בָּקָ֖ר תְּמִימִ֑ם וְשֵׁ֧שֶׁת כְּבָשִׂ֛ים וָאַ֖יִל תְּמִימִ֥ם יִֽהְיֽוּ:
But on the New Moon: a young bull without blemish: Our Rabbis expounded upon this verse in Menahoth (45a): Why does it say, “a young bull” ? Since it is stated in the Torah (Num. 28:11): “And at the beginnings of your months, etc., two young bulls,” how do you know that if he did not find two, he should bring one? Because it is stated: “a bull.”   :
and six lambs: Why is it necessary to state this? Since it is said in the Torah, “seven,” how do you know that if he did not find seven, he should bring six? Because it is stated: “and six lambs.” And how do you know [that he should bring] even one? Because the Torah says, “but for the lambs as much as he can afford.”   :
7And an ephah for the bull and an ephah for the ram he shall bring as a meal-offering, but for the lambs as much as he can afford, and of oil a hin to an ephah.   זוְאֵיפָ֨ה לַפָּ֜ר וְאֵיפָ֚ה לָאַ֙יִל֙ יַֽעֲשֶׂ֣ה מִנְחָ֔ה וְלַ֨כְּבָשִׂ֔ים כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר תַּשִּׂ֖יג יָד֑וֹ וְשֶׁ֖מֶן הִ֥ין לָאֵיפָֽה:
8And whenever the prince goes in, he shall go in by way of the vestibule of the gate, and by the same way shall he go out.   חוּבְב֖וֹא הַנָּשִׂ֑יא דֶּ֣רֶךְ אוּלָ֚ם הַשַּׁ֙עַר֙ יָב֔וֹא וּבְדַרְכּ֖וֹ יֵצֵֽא:
And whenever the prince goes in: on the New Moon and on the Sabbath of Creation, when Israel is not commanded to appear at the Temple, and he comes in to prostrate himself.   :
he shall go in by way of the vestibule of the gate, and by the same way shall he go out: Through the very same gate he shall go out, and he is not commanded to make the Court a short-cut. But on the festivals, concerning which it is stated (Deut. 16:16): “shall all your males appear,” he is required to make it a short-cut like the rest of the people. That is what is written (verse 10): “goes in among them when they go in, and when they go out, they [the prince and people together] go out.”   :
9But when the people of the land come before the Lord on the times fixed for meeting, he who enters by way of the north gate to prostrate himself shall go out by way of the south gate, and he that enters by way of the south gate shall go out by way of the north gate; he shall not return by way of the gate whereby he came in, but he shall go out by that which is opposite it.   טוּבְב֨וֹא עַם־הָאָ֜רֶץ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָה֘ בַּמּֽוֹעֲדִים֒ הַבָּ֡א דֶּרֶ֩ךְ־שַׁ֨עַר צָפ֜וֹן לְהִֽשְׁתַּֽחֲו‍ֹ֗ת יֵצֵא֙ דֶּֽרֶךְ־שַׁ֣עַר נֶ֔גֶב וְהַבָּא֙ דֶּֽרֶךְ־שַׁ֣עַר נֶ֔גֶב יֵצֵ֖א דֶּֽרֶךְ־שַׁ֣עַר צָפ֑וֹנָה לֹ֣א יָשׁ֗וּב דֶּ֚רֶךְ הַשַּׁ֙עַר֙ אֲשֶׁר־בָּ֣א ב֔וֹ כִּ֥י נִכְח֖וֹ יֵצֵֽא (כתיב יֵצֵֽאו) :
But when the people of the land come, etc., by way of the north gate, etc., but he shall go out by that which is opposite it: It is incumbent upon them to be seen in full view in the Court.   :
10The prince also [then] enters among them when they go in, and when they go out, they [the prince and the people together] go out.   יוְהַנָּשִׂ֑יא בְּתוֹכָ֚ם בְּבוֹאָם֙ יָב֔וֹא וּבְצֵאתָ֖ם יֵצֵֽאוּ:
The prince: When he enters the Temple Court through the southern wicket of the Heichal to prostrate himself, he too must make the Temple Court a short-cut. He shall enter by way of the northern gate and leave by way of the southern gate with the rest of the people of the land. This is the meaning of “enters in their midst when they go in, and when they go out, they go out” all of them, the prince with the rest of the people. And he shall not enter by way of the eastern gate as he regularly does on the New Moon and on the Sabbath of Creation, for the eastern gate has no gate opposite it in the west.   :
11And on the Festivals and on the times fixed for meeting, the meal-offering shall consist of an ephah for a bull and an ephah for a ram, but for the lambs a gift which is in accordance with his means, and oil, a hin to an ephah.   יאוּבַֽחַגִּ֣ים וּבַמּֽוֹעֲדִ֗ים תִּהְיֶ֚ה הַמִּנְחָה֙ אֵיפָ֚ה לַפָּר֙ וְאֵיפָ֣ה לָאַ֔יִל וְלַכְּבָשִׂ֖ים מַתַּ֣ת יָד֑וֹ וְשֶׁ֖מֶן הִ֥ין לָֽאֵיפָֽה:
12And when the prince brings a free will-offering, a burnt-offering or a peace- offering as a free will-offering to the Lord, one shall then open for him the gate that faces east, and he shall bring his burnt-offering and his peace-offering as he does on the Sabbath day, and after he has gone out, one shall close the gate.   יבוְכִי־יַֽעֲשֶׂה֩ הַנָּשִׂ֨יא נְדָבָ֜ה עוֹלָ֣ה אֽוֹ־שְׁלָמִים֘ נְדָבָ֣ה לַֽיהֹוָה֒ וּפָ֣תַח ל֗וֹ אֶת־הַשַּׁ֙עַר֙ הַפֹּנֶ֣ה קָדִ֔ים וְעָשָׂ֚ה אֶת־עֹֽלָתוֹ֙ וְאֶת־שְׁלָמָ֔יו כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר יַֽעֲשֶׂ֖ה בְּי֣וֹם הַשַּׁבָּ֑ת וְיָצָ֛א וְסָגַ֥ר אֶת־הַשַּׁ֖עַר אַֽחֲרֵ֥י צֵאתֽוֹ:
And when the prince brings a freewill offering: on the six working days.   :
one shall then open for him the gate, etc.: Not to enter the Heichal through it, but he shall stand there, and the priests shall make his burnt offering and his peace- offering, and he shall prostrate himself and leave, as it is said: “as he would do on the Sabbath day.” Now what is stated regarding the Sabbath day (here)? (Verse 2) “And he shall stand at the doorpost of the gate, and the priests shall offer his burnt offering, etc.”   :
after he has gone out: He does not say here: “but the gate shall not be closed until the evening,” as he says regarding the Sabbath day. For regarding the Sabbath day it says (verse 3): “And the people of the land shall prostrate themselves at the entrance of that gate.” Therefore, it is left open. But on weekdays it is not customary for them to come to prostrate themselves, for everyone is occupied with work; therefore, “after he has gone out, one shall close the gate.”   :
13And a lamb of the first year, without blemish shall you bring as a burnt-offering daily to the Lord, every morning shall you bring it.   יגוְכֶ֨בֶשׂ בֶּן־שְׁנָת֜וֹ תָּמִ֗ים תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֥ה עוֹלָ֛ה לַיּ֖וֹם לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה בַּבֹּ֥קֶר בַּבֹּ֖קֶר תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֥ה אֹתֽוֹ:
And a lamb of the first year: the daily sacrifice.   :
14And as a meal-offering you shall bring for it every morning a sixth of an ephah and a third of a hin of oil to stir [with] the fine flour; a meal-offering to the Lord, according to the perpetual ordinance.   ידוּמִנְחָה֩ תַֽעֲשֶׂ֨ה עָלָ֜יו בַּבֹּ֚קֶר בַּבֹּ֙קֶר֙ שִׁשִּׁ֣ית הָֽאֵיפָ֔ה וְשֶׁ֛מֶן שְׁלִישִׁ֥ית הַהִ֖ין לָרֹ֣ס אֶת־הַסֹּ֑לֶת מִנְחָה֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֔ה חֻקּ֥וֹת עוֹלָ֖ם תָּמִֽיד:
a sixth of an ephah: of the [post-Exodus] Jerusalemite measure, which is a fifth of the [Mosaic] “measure of the desert,” equaling two tenth parts, one for the daily meal-offering and one for the pancakes. And although the pancakes were offered up by halves, he brings a complete tenth part in the morning and divides it in half, as we learned in Menahoth (4:5)   :
to stir [with] the fine flour: [Heb. לָרֹם,] asperger in French, to moisten, besprinkle. Manuscripts read: ameller in Old French, to mix. לָרֹם אֶתהַסֹלֶת, to crush and mix with it the fine flour, a form of word for crushing (רִסוּם) , as in (Amos 6:11): “and he shall smite the great house into splinters (רְסִיסִים),” and in the language of the Mishnah (Shab. 8:6): If it was thick or cracked (מְרֻסָם).   :
15Thus shall they bring the lamb and the meal-offering and the oil every morning, a continual burnt offering.   טויַֽעֲשׂ֨וּ (כתיב וַֽעֲשׂ֨וּ) אֶת־הַכֶּ֧בֶשׂ וְאֶת־הַמִּנְחָ֛ה וְאֶת־הַשֶּׁ֖מֶן בַּבֹּ֣קֶר בַּבֹּ֑קֶר עוֹלַ֖ת תָּמִֽיד:

Isaiah Chapter 66

1So says the Lord, "The heavens are My throne, and the earth is My footstool; which is the house that you will build for Me, and which is the place of My rest?   אכֹּה אָמַ֣ר יְהֹוָ֔ה הַשָּׁמַ֣יִם כִּסְאִ֔י וְהָאָ֖רֶץ הֲדֹ֣ם רַגְלָ֑י אֵי־זֶ֥ה בַ֙יִת֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר תִּבְנוּ־לִ֔י וְאֵי־זֶ֥ה מָק֖וֹם מְנֽוּחָתִֽי:
The heavens are My throne: I do not need your Temple.   :
which is the house: that is fitting for My Shechinah.   :

Isaiah Chapter 66

23And it shall be from new moon to new moon and from Sabbath to Sabbath, that all flesh shall come to prostrate themselves before Me," says the Lord.   כגוְהָיָ֗ה מִֽדֵּי־חֹ֙דֶשׁ֙ בְּחָדְשׁ֔וֹ וּמִדֵּ֥י שַׁבָּ֖ת בְּשַׁבַּתּ֑וֹ יָב֧וֹא כָל־בָּשָֹ֛ר לְהִשְׁתַּֽחֲו‍ֹ֥ת לְפָנַ֖י אָמַ֥ר יְהֹוָֽה:
24"And they shall go out and see the corpses of the people who rebelled against Me, for their worm shall not die, and their fire shall not be quenched, and they shall be an abhorring for all flesh."   כדוְיָצְאוּ֨ וְרָא֔וּ בְּפִגְרֵי֙ הָֽאֲנָשִׁ֔ים הַפֹּֽשְׁעִ֖ים בִּ֑י כִּ֣י תֽוֹלַעְתָּ֞ם לֹ֣א תָמ֗וּת וְאִשָּׁם֙ לֹ֣א תִכְבֶּ֔ה וְהָי֥וּ דֵֽרָא֖וֹן לְכָל־בָּשָֽׂר:
their worm: The worm that consumes their flesh.   :
and their fire: in Gehinnom.   :
and abhorring: Heb. דֵרָאוֹן, an expression of contempt. Jonathan, however, renders it as two words: enough (דֵּי) seeing (רְאִיָה), until the righteous say about them, We have seen enough.   :

Isaiah Chapter 66

23And it shall be from new moon to new moon and from Sabbath to Sabbath, that all flesh shall come to prostrate themselves before Me," says the Lord.   כגוְהָיָ֗ה מִֽדֵּי־חֹ֙דֶשׁ֙ בְּחָדְשׁ֔וֹ וּמִדֵּ֥י שַׁבָּ֖ת בְּשַׁבַּתּ֑וֹ יָב֧וֹא כָל־בָּשָֹ֛ר לְהִשְׁתַּֽחֲו‍ֹ֥ת לְפָנַ֖י אָמַ֥ר יְהֹוָֽה:
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