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Torah Reading for Vayikra

Torah Reading for Vayikra

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Parshat Vayikra
Shabbat, 5 Nissan, 5777
1 April, 2017
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Complete: (Leviticus 1:1 - 5:26; Isaiah 43:21 - 44:23)
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First Portion

Leviticus Chapter 1

1And He called to Moses, and the Lord spoke to him from the Tent of Meeting, saying,   אוַיִּקְרָ֖א אֶל־משֶׁ֑ה וַיְדַבֵּ֤ר יְהֹוָה֙ אֵלָ֔יו מֵאֹ֥הֶל מוֹעֵ֖ד לֵאמֹֽר:
And He called to Moses: Every [time God communicated with Moses, whether it was represented by the expression] וַיְדַבֵּר, “And He spoke,” or וַיֹּאמֶר; “and He said,” or וַיְצַו, “and He commanded,” it was always preceded by [God] calling [to Moses by name] (Torath Kohanim 1:2-3). [קְרִיאָה] is an expression of affection, the [same] expression employed by the ministering angels [when addressing each other], as it says, “And one called (וְקָרָא) to the other…” (Isa. 6:3). To the prophets of the nations of the world, however, He revealed Himself through expressions denoting coincidence and impurity, as the verse says, “and God happened to [meet] (וַיִּקָּר) Balaam” (Num. 23:4). - [Bemidbar Rabbah 52:5] [The expression וַיִּקָּר has the meaning of a coincidental happening, and also alludes to impurity. [See Deut. 23:11, regarding the expression מִקְרֵה לַיְלָה.]   ויקרא אל משה: לכל דברות ולכל אמירות ולכל צוויים קדמה קריאה, לשון חבה, לשון שמלאכי השרת משתמשים בו, שנאמר (ישעיה ו ג) וקרא זה אל זה, אבל לנביאי אומות העולם נגלה עליהן בלשון עראי וטומאה, שנאמר (במדבר כג ד) ויקר א-להים אל בלעם:
And He called to Moses: The [Divine] voice emanated and reached Moses’ ears, while all [the rest] of Israel did not hear it. One might think that for each new section [representing a new topic], there was also [such] a call. Scripture, therefore, states, “and [the Lord] spoke (וַיְדַבֵּר) [to him],” [denoting that] only for speech, [i.e., when God “spoke” to Moses, or “said” to him, or “commanded” him,] was there a call, but not at the subsections. [For when these expressions are employed, they demarcate the beginning of major sections, i.e., when God first called to Moses and then proceeded with the prophecy at hand, unlike the beginning of each separate subsection, when God simply continued His communication to Moses without “calling” him anew. Now, if each subsection in the Torah does not represent a new beckoning from God to Moses, ushering in a new prophecy, then] what is the purpose of these subsections? To give Moses a pause, to contemplate between one passage and the next, and between one subject and another. [And if this pause for contemplation was given to the great Moses when being taught by God, then] how much more [necessary is it] for an ordinary man learning [Torah] from another ordinary man [to be allowed pauses between sections and subjects, to carefully contemplate and understand the material being learned]. — [Torath Kohanim 1:3]   ויקרא אל משה: הקול הולך ומגיע לאזניו, וכל ישראל לא שומעין. יכול אף להפסקות היתה קריאה, תלמוד לומר וידבר, לדבור היתה קריאה, ולא להפסקות. ומה היו הפסקות משמשות, ליתן ריוח למשה להתבונן בין פרשה לפרשה ובין ענין לענין, קל וחומר להדיוט הלומד מן ההדיוט:
to him: Heb. אֵלָיו [That is, God spoke only to Moses. This phrase comes] to exclude Aaron. Rabbi Judah [Ben Betheira] says: “Thirteen times in the Torah, God spoke (וַיְדַבֵּר) to both Moses and Aaron together, and, corresponding to them were thirteen [other] occasions [when God spoke only to Moses] precluding [Aaron], to teach you that they were not said [directly] to Aaron, but to Moses, that he should say them to Aaron. These are the thirteen cases where [Aaron was] precluded: (1) ”To speak with him…,“ (2) ”…speaking to him…,“ (3) ”…and He spoke to him“ (Num. 7:89); (4) ”I will meet with you [there at set times], etc. …“ (Exod. 25:22) All of them can be found [in the above dictum of Rabbi Judah] in Torath Kohanim (1:4). Now, [even though it was Moses who exclusively heard the prophecies,] one might think that they [i.e., the rest of Israel, nevertheless] heard the sound [of God] ”calling“ [to Moses preceding the prophecy]. Scripture therefore, says: [not ”He heard] the voice [speaking] to him (לוֹ),“ [but] ”[he heard] the voice [speaking right up] to him (אֵלָיו)“ (Num. 7:89). [This verse could have used the word לוֹ, ”to him,“ rather than such an exclusive expression as אֵלָיו, ”right up to him." However, it uses this expression in order to teach us that only] Moses heard [the Divine voice calling him], while all [the rest] of Israel did not hear [it]. — [Torath Kohanim 1:4]   אליו: למעט את אהרן. ר' יהודה בן בתירא אומר שלשה עשר דברות נאמרו בתורה למשה ולאהרן, וכנגדן נאמרו שלשה עשר מיעוטין, ללמדך שלא לאהרן נאמרו אלא למשה שיאמר לאהרן. ואלו הן שלשה עשר מיעוטין לדבר אתו, מדבר אליו, וידבר אליו, ונועדתי לך, כולן בתורת כהנים. יכול שמעו את קול הקריאה, תלמוד לומר קול לו, קול אליו (במדבר ז פט), משה שמע, וכל ישראל לא שמעו:
from the Tent of Meeting: This teaches us that the [Divine] voice stopped and did not project itself beyond the Tent [of Meeting]. One might think that this was because the voice was low. Scripture therefore says, “[And when Moses came into the Tent of Meeting, he heard] the voice” (Num. 7:89). What is the meaning of “the voice” [with the definite article]? It is the voice referred to in Psalms (29:4-5): “The voice of the Lord is in strength; the voice of the Lord is in beauty. The voice of the Lord breaks cedars.” If so, why does it say, “[and the Lord spoke to him] from the Tent of Meeting” ? [To inform us] that the [Divine] voice stopped. A case similar to this [where a powerful sound uttered within the Holy Temple was not heard outside,] is: “And the sound of the cherubim’s wings was heard up to the outer courtyard…” (Ezek. 10:5). One might think that the sound was low. Scripture therefore states [further in that verse]: “…as the voice of the Almighty God when He speaks!” Why then does the verse say, “[the sound…was heard] up to the outer courtyard” [and not further, if this sound was indeed so mighty]? Because when it reached there, it stopped. — [Torath Kohanim 1:5]   מאהל מועד: מלמד שהיה הקול נפסק ולא היה יוצא חוץ לאהל. יכול מפני שהקול נמוך, תלמוד לומר את הקול (שם), מהו הקול, הוא הקול המפורש בתהלים (כט ד - ה) קול ה' בכח קול ה' בהדר, קול ה' שובר ארזים, אם כן למה נאמר מאהל מועד, מלמד שהיה הקול נפסק. כיוצא בו (יחזקאל י ה) וקול כנפי הכרובים נשמע עד החצר החיצונה, יכול (מפני) שהקול נמוך, תלמוד לומר (שם) כקול אל שדי בדברו, אם כן למה נאמר עד החצר החיצונה, שכיון שמגיע שם היה נפסק:
[And the Lord spoke to him] from the Tent of Meeting, saying: One might think [that God spoke to Moses] from the entire house [that is, that the Divine voice emanated from the entire Tent of Meeting]. Scripture therefore states, “[and he heard the voice speaking to him] from above the ark cover” (Num. 7:89). [If so,] one might think [the voice emanated] from the entire ark cover. Scripture therefore states [further in that verse], “from between the two cherubim.” - [Torath Kohanim 1:5]   מאהל מועד לאמר: יכול מכל הבית, תלמוד לומר מעל הכפורת. יכול מעל הכפורת כולה, תלמוד לומר מבין שני הכרובים:
saying: [God told Moses:] Go forth and say to them [the children of Israel] captivating words, [namely:] “For your sake God communicates with me. ” Indeed, we find this is so for all the thirty-eight years that the Israelites were in the desert, placed under a ban, [i.e.,] from the incident involving the spies and onwards, the [Divine] speech was not addressed especially to Moses, for it says, “So it was, when all the men of war had finished dying from among the people, that the Lord spoke to me saying …” (Deut. 2: 16-17). [Only then was] the Divine speech [again] addressed specifically to me. Another explanation [of לֵאמֹר is that God says to Moses]: “Go forth and tell them My commandments, and bring Me back word whether they will accept them,” as the verse says, “and Moses reported the words of the people back to the Lord” (Exod. 19:8). - [Torath Kohanim 1:6]   לאמר: צא ואמור להם דברי כבושים, בשבילכם הוא נדבר עמי, שכן מצינו שכל שלשים ושמונה שנה שהיו ישראל במדבר כמנודים, מן המרגלים ואילך, לא נתייחד הדבור עם משה, שנאמר (דברים ב טז) ויהי כאשר תמו כל אנשי המלחמה למות וידבר ה' אלי לאמר, אלי היה הדיבור. דבר אחר צא ואמור להם דברי והשיבני אם יקבלום, כמו שנאמר (שמות יט ח) וישב משה את דברי העם וגו':
2Speak to the children of Israel, and say to them: When a man from [among] you brings a sacrifice to the Lord; from animals, from cattle or from the flock you shall bring your sacrifice.   בדַּבֵּ֞ר אֶל־בְּנֵ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ וְאָֽמַרְתָּ֣ אֲלֵהֶ֔ם אָדָ֗ם כִּי־יַקְרִ֥יב מִכֶּ֛ם קָרְבָּ֖ן לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה מִן־הַבְּהֵמָ֗ה מִן־הַבָּקָר֙ וּמִן־הַצֹּ֔אן תַּקְרִ֖יבוּ אֶת־קָרְבַּנְכֶֽם:
When a man from [among] you brings a sacrifice: Heb. יַקְרִיב כִּי, when he brings. [That is, Scripture is not dealing here with an obligatory sacrifice, in which case it would have said, “a man shall bring ….” Rather,] Scripture is speaking here of voluntary sacrifices [and thus says, “When a man …brings a sacrifice”]. — [Torath Kohanim 1:12]   אדם כי יקריב מכם: כשיקריב, בקרבנות נדבה דבר הענין:
a man: Heb. אָדָם. Why is this term used here [as opposed to “ אָדָם ”]? [It alludes to Adam, the first man on earth, and teaches us:] Just as Adam, the first man, never offered sacrifices from stolen property, since everything was his, so too, you must not offer sacrifices from stolen property. — [Vayikra Rabbah 2:7]   אדם: למה נאמר, מה אדם הראשון לא הקריב מן הגזל, שהכל היה שלו, אף אתם לא תקריבו מן הגזל:
animals: Heb. מִן הַבְּהֵמָה. One might think that wild beasts are also included [since sometimes wild beasts are included in this term, and therefore may be offered up as sacrifices]. Scripture therefore states [here], “from cattle or from the flock.” - [Torath Kohanim 1:16]   הבהמה: יכול אף חיה בכלל, תלמוד לומר בקר וצאן:
from animals: but not all of them. [The phrase therefore comes] to exclude the case of animals that have cohabited with a human, as an active or a passive party. - [Torath Kohanim 1:17]   מן הבהמה: ולא כולה, להוציא את הרובע ואת הנרבע:
from cattle: Heb. מִן הַבָּקָר [The phrase “from cattle” comes] to exclude an animal that has been worshipped [as a deity].   מן הבקר: להוציא את הנעבד:
or from the flock: Heb. וּמִן הַצֹּאן [This phrase comes] to exclude an animal set aside [i.e., designated for sacrifice to pagan deities]. — [Torath Kohanim 1:18]   מן הצאן: להוציא את המוקצה:
or from the flock: [The extra “vav” at the beginning of this phrase comes] to exclude the case of a goring animal that has killed [a man]. Now, when [Scripture] states below (verse 3): מִן הַבָּקָר, “of cattle,” [the word מִן] need not have been used, since Scripture has already [taught us the exclusions here. Therefore, this extra word comes] to exclude a טְרֵפָה [an animal with a terminal disease or injury]. - [Torath Kohanim 1:17]   ומן הצאן: להוציא את הנוגח שהמית. כשהוא אומר למטה מן הענין (פסוק ג) מן הבקר, שאין תלמוד לומר, להוציא את הטריפה:
you shall bring: Heb. תַּקְרִיבוּ [The plural form of the verb] teaches [us] that two people may donate a voluntary burnt offering in partnership. — [Torath Kohanim 1:19]   תקריבו: מלמד ששנים מתנדבים עולה בשותפות:
your sacrifice: Heb. קָרְבַּנְכֶם [The plural form] teaches us that [a burnt offering] may also be offered as a voluntary gift from the community (Torath Kohanim 1:20). This sacrifice was called עוֹלַת קַיִץ הַמִּזְבֵּחַ, “the burnt-offering which was provision for the altar.” [Every year, each twenty-year old male was taxed to give a silver half-shekel for communal sacrifices. See Exod. 30:11-16. This voluntary sacrifice] was purchased with any money remaining [from the previous year’s collection of half-shekels, and was offered as a communal burnt offering when there were no individual offerings brought, in order to prevent the altar from being bereft of sacrifices. Thus, the name “provision for the altar”]. — [Shev. 12a]   קרבנכם: מלמד שהיא באה נדבת צבור, היא עולת קיץ המזבח הבאה מן המותרות:
3If his sacrifice is a burnt offering from cattle, an unblemished male he shall bring it. He shall bring it willingly to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting, before the Lord.   גאִם־עֹלָ֤ה קָרְבָּנוֹ֙ מִן־הַבָּקָ֔ר זָכָ֥ר תָּמִ֖ים יַקְרִיבֶ֑נּוּ אֶל־פֶּ֜תַח אֹ֤הֶל מוֹעֵד֙ יַקְרִ֣יב אֹת֔וֹ לִרְצֹנ֖וֹ לִפְנֵ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
male: but not a female. When Scripture repeats later (verse 10) [that the burnt-offering must be] “a male [animal],” it appears unnecessary to state that [since Scripture has already taught us that it must be a male animal and not a female. Therefore, this repetition of the word “male,” comes to teach us that a sacrifice must consist of a completely] male [animal], not an animal of indeterminate gender or a hermaphrodite. — [Bech. 41b]   זכר: ולא נקבה. כשהוא אומר זכר למטה, שאין תלמוד לומר, זכר ולא טומטום ואנדרוגינוס:
unblemished: Heb. תָּמִים, perfect, without a blemish.   תמים: בלא מום:
[He shall bring it …] to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting: He [himself] must attend to bringing it up to the courtyard [of the Temple] (Torath Kohanim 1: 24). Why does the verse repeat the word “bring” here [when it says, “he shall bring…He shall bring it” ? This repetition teaches us that] even in the case of Reuben’s burnt offering [animal] being mixed up with Simeon’s burnt offering [animal, and the animals cannot be identified], nevertheless, each one of them must be offered up in the name of [its rightful owner] whoever that may be. Similarly, if [an animal designated for] a burnt offering has been mixed up with non-consecrated animals, the non-consecrated animals must be sold to those who need burnt offerings, and thus all of these animals are now [designated to become] burnt offerings. [Accordingly] each animal is now brought in the name of [its rightful owner] whoever that may be. Now, one might think that this must be done even if [an animal designated to become] a burnt offering became mixed up with animals unfit for sacrifice or with [animals designated to become] different kinds of sacrifices [e.g., a sin offering, a guilt offering, etc.]. Scripture therefore says here: יַקְרִיבֶנּוּ, [meaning, “he must bring it.” This teaches us that only an animal fit for and specifically designated as a burnt offering must be brought here]. — [Torath Kohanim 1:25]   אל פתח אהל מועד: מטפל בהבאתו עד העזרה. מהו אומר יקריב יקריב, אפילו נתערבה עולת ראובן בעולת שמעון, יקריב כל אחת לשם מי שהוא. וכן עולה בחולין, ימכרו החולין לצרכי עולות, והרי הן כולן עולות ותקרב כל אחת לשם מי שהוא. יכול אפילו נתערבה בפסולין או בשאינו מינו, תלמוד לומר יקריבנו:
He shall bring it: [This clause] teaches us that the person is coerced [to bring the offering if he is remiss in bringing the sacrifice he had promised]. One might think that this means that they should force him against his will [to bring the offering]! Scripture therefore says: “[He shall bring it] willingly (לִרְצֹנוֹ).” How is this possible [that on one hand he should be forced, yet on the other, he must bring the offering willingly? The explanation is that] they must coerce him until he says “I am willing.” - [R.H. 6a, Torath Kohanim 3:15] 3-4.   יקריב אתו: מלמד שכופין אותו. יכול בעל כרחו, תלמוד לומר לרצונו, הא כיצד כופין אותו עד שיאמר רוצה אני:
Before the Lord…And he shall lean: [The procedure of] leaning [the hands upon sacrifices] does not apply to a high place [a private altar. These high places were permitted to be used before the permanent Temple was built when the Mishkan was in Gilgal, Nob, and Gibeon. Certain sacrifices could be offered up on them. We learn this from the continuity of these two verses that only “before the Lord” -that is, in the sanctuary precincts-one “should lean his hand upon” the head of sacrifices, but not on a high place outside the sanctuary precincts.]- [Torath Kohanim 1:27]   לפני ה' וסמך: אין סמיכה בבמה:
4And he shall lean his hand [forcefully] upon the head of the burnt offering, and it will be accepted for him to atone for him.   דוְסָמַ֣ךְ יָד֔וֹ עַ֖ל רֹ֣אשׁ הָֽעֹלָ֑ה וְנִרְצָ֥ה ל֖וֹ לְכַפֵּ֥ר עָלָֽיו:
upon the head of the burnt offering: [The text could have simply said “upon its head.” However, it adds “burnt offering”] to include [any sacrifice that is called a “burnt offering,” namely,] (1) an obligatory burnt offering, that it too requires סְמִיכָה [leaning the hands on its head. Since this section deals with voluntary burnt offerings, this case requires an extra word to include it. See commentary on verse 2]; also included is (2) a burnt offering from the flock [that it too must have סְמִיכָה, for this is not specified in the verses dealing with the burnt offering from the flock. See verses 10-13]. — [Torath Kohanim 1:30]   על ראש העולה: להביא עולת חובה לסמיכה ולהביא עולת הצאן:
the burnt offering: [The use of the definite article here teaches us that the verse is referring to “the” burnt offering, i.e., the one mentioned earlier, where it says, “from cattle or from the flock” (verse 2). Thus] excluding the burnt offering from birds. — [Torath Kohanim 1:30]   העולה: פרט לעולת העוף:
and it will be accepted for him: For which [sins] will [the sacrifice] be accepted for him [thereby atoning for them]? If you say that [the offering is accepted and thereby the person is atoned for] sins which incur the penalty of excision, the death penalty through the court, the death penalty through the heaven[ly court], or lashes, their punishments are [expressly] stated, [and thus, the person must undergo the respective punishment to receive atonement for those sins]. Thereby, we determine that it is accepted only for [failure to perform] a positive commandment [for which the punishment is not expressly stated in the Torah, or [violation of] a negative commandment that is attached to a positive commandment. [I.e., some negative commandments are attached to a positive commandment that relates to the same matter. An example of this is the law of the Passover lamb. The Torah states: “And you shall not leave over any of it until morning, and whatever is left over of it until morning, you shall burn in fire” (Exod. 12:10). Here, the negative commandment is “attached” to the positive commandment. How so? If someone has transgressed the negative commandment and left over some of the Passover lamb until the following morning, he may exonerate himself from the punishment he has just incurred by fulfilling the positive commandment attached, namely by burning the remainder in fire. That is an example of “a negative commandment that is attached to a positive commandment.” See Mak. 4b.]- [Torath Kohanim 1:31]   ונרצה לו: על מה הוא מרצה לו, אם תאמר על כריתות ומיתות בית דין או מיתה בידי שמים או מלקות, הרי עונשן אמור, הא אינו מרצה אלא על עשה ועל לאו שנתק לעשה:
5And he shall slaughter the young bull before the Lord. And Aaron's descendants, the kohanim, shall bring the blood, and dash the blood upon the altar, around [the altar] which is at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting.   הוְשָׁחַ֛ט אֶת־בֶּ֥ן הַבָּקָ֖ר לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה וְ֠הִקְרִ֠יבוּ בְּנֵ֨י אַֽהֲרֹ֤ן הַכֹּֽהֲנִים֙ אֶת־הַדָּ֔ם וְזָֽרְק֨וּ אֶת־הַדָּ֤ם עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֨חַ֙ סָבִ֔יב אֲשֶׁר־פֶּ֖תַח אֹ֥הֶל מוֹעֵֽד:
And he shall slaughter…And…the kohanim shall bring [the blood] : [Since the word kohanim is mentioned only in reference to receiving the blood, and not before, we learn that all procedures in a sacrifice] from receiving [the blood in a vessel] and onwards are the duty of the kehunah [as opposed to non- kohanim]. This teaches regarding the slaughtering [which precedes receiving the blood], that it is valid [even if performed] by a stranger [i.e., a non- kohen].-[Zev. 32a]   ושחט, והקריבו, הכהנים: מקבלה ואילך מצות כהונה, למד על השחיטה שכשרה בזר:
before the Lord: in the courtyard [of the Holy Temple].   לפני ה': בעזרה:
and […the kohanim] shall bring [the blood]: [Although וְהִקְרִיבוּ literally means “bringing,” here,] it means “receiving” [the blood in a vessel], which is the first [procedure immediately following the slaughtering]. However, it literally means “bringing” [the blood to the altar]. [Consequently,] we learn that both these procedures are the duties of Aaron’s descendants [i.e., the kohanim]. — [Chag. 11a]   והקריבו: זו קבלה שהיא הראשונה ומשמעה לשון הולכה, למדנו ששתיהן בבני אהרן:
Aaron’s descendants: One might think [that these duties may be performed as well by Aaron’s descendants who are] חִלָלִים, kohanim whose lineage invalidates them for kehunah [e.g., if the mother was divorced before marrying the kohen]. Scripture therefore adds: “the kohanim ” [indicating that these duties may be performed only by kohanim]. — [Torath Kohanim 1:38]   בני אהרן: יכול חללים, תלמוד לומר הכהנים:
[The kohanim, shall bring] the blood, and dash the blood: Why does Scripture say, “blood, blood” here twice? To include [the cases of blood from a burnt offering,] that was mixed up with the same type [of blood, i.e., the blood of burnt offerings from two different people being mixed up, and [blood from a burnt offering] that was mixed up with a different type [of blood, i.e., from another type of sacrifice]. One might think that this would also include [the case that the blood was mixed up with blood of] an unfit sacrifice, or [blood from] inner sin offerings [the blood of which is to be sprinkled on the inner altar] or [blood from] outer sin offerings [the blood of which is to be sprinkled on the outer altar] even though [the latter, have their blood dashed] above [the chut hasikra , the red line, of the altar], while this [the burnt offering has its blood dashed] below [the chut hasikra of the altar]. Scripture [therefore] states [regarding a burnt offering] in another place: “its blood” (verses 11 and 15). [This expression teaches us that only cases in which the blood of a burnt offering is mixed up with the blood of another sacrifice which is also to be dashed below the chut hasikra on the altar, no problems arise, and these bloods can both be dashed at that level of the altar. This excludes the case of inner sin offerings whose blood is sprinkled inside and outer sin offerings whose blood must be dashed above the chut hasikra]. — [Torath Kohanim 1:39]   את הדם וזרקו את הדם: מה תלמוד לומר דם דם שתי פעמים, להביא את שנתערב במינו או בשאינו מינו. יכול אף בפסולים או בחטאות הפנימיות או בחטאות החיצוניות, שאלו למעלה והיא למטה, תלמוד לומר במקום אחר את דמו:
And […the kohanim,shall…] dash [the blood…around]: [The kohen] must stand below [i.e., on the ground], and dash [the blood] from the vessel [in which it was received] onto the wall of the altar below the chut hasikra , towards the corners [of the altar. Meaning, from the ground he approaches the northeastern corner of the altar and dashes some of the blood from its receptacle onto the corner ridge where the northern wall and the eastern wall of the altar meet, below the red line. In this way, the blood dashes onto both the northern and eastern sides of the altar with one motion by the kohen. That motion is thus referred to as “one application (of blood) which is two,” i.e., one dashing motion, which applies the blood to two faces of the altar. The kohen then proceeds to the southwestern corner of the altar and again performs this procedure, thereby applying the blood to both the southern and western walls of the altar in one motion. Thus, in a total of two dashing motions, the blood has been applied to the four faces of the altar. These dashes are referred to as “two applications (of blood) which are four.”] Therefore, it says “around,” namely that [with these prescribed dashing motions] the blood is to be applied to the four sides of the altar. Now, one might think that [when the verse says that the kohen must dash the blood around the altar, this means that] he must encircle it [the altar with blood] like a thread. Scripture therefore says: “[the kohanim] shall…dash [the blood],” and it is impossible to apply it [as a continuous line] around the altar through a “dashing” motion. Alternatively, one might think that “shall…dash” refers to one dashing motion. Scripture therefore says: “around” [and it is impossible to apply the blood all around the altar with one dashing motion]. How then [should the blood be applied to the altar]? The kohen must make “two applications, which are four.” - [Torath Kohanim 1:40]   וזרקו: עומד למטה וזורק מן הכלי לכותל המזבח למטה מחוט הסיקרא כנגד הזויות, לכך נאמר סביב, שיהא הדם ניתן בארבע רוחות המזבח. או יכול יקיפנו כחוט, תלמוד לומר וזרקו, ואי אפשר להקיף בזריקה. אי וזרקו יכול בזריקה אחת, תלמוד לומר סביב, הא כיצד נותן שתי מתנות שהן ארבע:
[the altar] which is at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting: But not when [the Tent of Meeting] is disassembled [even though the altar itself may be standing, since at such a time the altar is not “at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting”]. — [Torath Kohanim 1:44]   אשר פתח אהל מועד: ולא בזמן שהוא מפורק:
6And he shall skin the burnt offering, and cut it into its [prescribed] sections.   ווְהִפְשִׁ֖יט אֶת־הָֽעֹלָ֑ה וְנִתַּ֥ח אֹתָ֖הּ לִנְתָחֶֽיהָ:
And he shall skin [the burnt offering]: Why does the verse say “the burnt offering” ? To include every [kind of] burnt offering [not just this one in the procedure of] skinning and cutting up [in the prescribed manner]. — [Torath Kohanim 1:45]   והפשיט את העלה: מה תלמוד לומר העולה, לרבות את כל העולות להפשט ונתוח:
its [prescribed] sections: [The verse does not state that the animal is cut into pieces, but rather “into its pieces,” implying that it must be cut into specific prescribed pieces] and not [to cut] its [prescribed] pieces into [smaller] pieces. — [Torath Kohanim 1:47; Chul. 11a]   אתה לנתחיה: ולא נתחיה לנתחים:
7And the descendants of Aaron the kohen shall place fire on the altar, and arrange wood on the fire.   זוְ֠נָֽתְנ֠וּ בְּנֵ֨י אַֽהֲרֹ֧ן הַכֹּהֵ֛ן אֵ֖שׁ עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֑חַ וְעָֽרְכ֥וּ עֵצִ֖ים עַל־הָאֵֽשׁ:
shall place fire [on the altar]: Even though the fire descended [miraculously] from heaven [onto the altar, to consume the sacrifices], it was [nevertheless] a mitzvah for a mortal to bring [his fire to the altar. — [Torath Kohanim 1: 49; Zev. 18a]   ונתנו אש: אף על פי שהאש יורדת מן השמים, מצוה להביא מן ההדיוט:
the descendants of Aaron the Kohen: [But we know that Aaron was a Kohen Gadol ! So what does “the Kohen ” come to teach us? It teaches us that the Kohen Gadol may perform the sacrificial service only] when he is [invested] in his kehunah [i.e., wearing the proper eight garments of the Kohen Gadol]. If, however, he officiated wearing the raiment of an ordinary kohen, his service is rendered invalid. — [Torath Kohanim 1:49]   בני אהרן הכהן: כשהוא בכיהונו, הא אם עבד בבגדי כהן הדיוט, עבודתו פסולה:
8And Aaron's descendants, the kohanim, shall then arrange the pieces, the head and the fat, on top of the wood which is on the fire that is on the altar.   חוְעָֽרְכ֗וּ בְּנֵ֤י אַֽהֲרֹן֙ הַכֹּ֣הֲנִ֔ים אֵ֚ת הַנְּתָחִ֔ים אֶת־הָרֹ֖אשׁ וְאֶת־הַפָּ֑דֶר עַל־הָֽעֵצִים֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עַל־הָאֵ֔שׁ אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּֽחַ:
Aaron’s descendants, the kohanim: [But we know that Aaron’s descendants are kohanim! So what does “the kohanim” come to teach us?] The [ordinary] kohanim must be functioning in their kehunah [i.e., the proper four garments of the ordinary kohanim]. If an ordinary kohen officiated wearing the “eight garments” [of a Kohen Gadol], however, his service is rendered invalid.   בני אהרן הכהנים: כשהם בכיהונם, הא כהן הדיוט שעבד בשמונה בגדים, עבודתו פסולה:
the pieces, the head: Since the head is not included in the skinning and cutting up [procedures], since it was detached by the slaughtering, the Torah had to count it individually [to inform us that it was to be placed on the altar as it is, even though it is not skinned.] - [Chul. 27a]   את הנתחים את הראש: לפי שאין הראש בכלל הפשט, שכבר הותז בשחיטה, לפיכך הוצרך למנותו לעצמו:
and the fat: Why is [the fat] mentioned [separately]? To teach you that the kohen must bring it up [onto the altar together] with the head, and that with it he covers the area where [the animal] was slaughtered. This was done in deference to the honor of God on high [because the cut throat is soiled with the blood of the head] (Rashi, Yoma 26a). - [Chul. 27a]   ואת הפדר: למה נאמר, ללמדך שמעלהו עם הראש ומכסה בו את בית השחיטה, וזהו דרך כבוד של מעלה:
[the wood] which is on the altar: The logs of wood must not project beyond the [area of the arranged] woodpile [constituting one square cubit. This is so that the kohanim would not be disturbed by protruding pieces of wood when they go around the altar]. — [Torath Kohanim 1:54]   אשר על המזבח: שלא יהיו הגזירין יוצאין חוץ למערכה:
9And its innards and its legs, he shall wash with water. Then, the kohen shall cause to [go up in] smoke all [of the animal] on the altar, as a burnt offering, a fire offering, [with] a pleasing fragrance to the Lord.   טוְקִרְבּ֥וֹ וּכְרָעָ֖יו יִרְחַ֣ץ בַּמָּ֑יִם וְהִקְטִ֨יר הַכֹּהֵ֤ן אֶת־הַכֹּל֙ הַמִּזְבֵּ֔חָה עֹלָ֛ה אִשֵּׁ֥ה רֵֽיחַ־נִיח֖וֹחַ לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
as a burnt offering: [I.e., the kohen] must burn the animal with the [specific] intention that it is a burnt offering. — [Torath Kohanim 1:58]   עלה: לשם עולה יקטירנו:
a fire offering: Heb. אִשֵּׁה. When he slaughters [the animal], he must slaughter it with the [specific] intention [to burn it completely in] fire. Every [instance of the word] אִשֶּׁה in Scripture, is an expression related to [the word] אֵשׁ, “fire,” foyere in Old French.   אשה: כשישחטנו יהא שוחטו לשם האש. וכל אשה לשון אש פויאד"א בלע"ז [אש]:
pleasing: Heb. נִיחוֹחַ [This word stems from the same root as the expression נַחַת רוּחַ, “contentment.” God says: “This sacrifice] gives Me contentment, for I said [My commandment], and My will was fulfilled!”   ניחוח: נחת רוח לפני, שאמרתי ונעשה רצוני:
10And if his offering is [brought] from the flock from sheep or from goats as a burnt offering he shall sacrifice it an unblemished male.   יוְאִם־מִן־הַצֹּ֨אן קָרְבָּנ֧וֹ מִן־הַכְּשָׂבִ֛ים א֥וֹ מִן־הָֽעִזִּ֖ים לְעֹלָ֑ה זָכָ֥ר תָּמִ֖ים יַקְרִיבֶֽנּוּ:
And if…from the flock: The “vav” [meaning “and” here demonstrates that this section concerning voluntary burnt offerings from the flock] is a continuation from the previous subject [those from cattle, and is thereby connected in that the laws of each are common to both]. But why was it separated [by a paragraph]? In order to give Moses a pause, so that he could contemplate between one passage and the next. — [Torath Kohanim 1:59]   ואם מן הצאן: וי"ו מוסיף על ענין ראשון. ולמה הפסיק, ליתן ריוח למשה להתבונן בין פרשה לפרשה:
from the flock…from sheep…from goats: [The word “from” tells us that one cannot take all the animals of these classes, rather only “from” them, thereby disqualifying certain animals from being brought for a sacrifice.] These [three mentions of the word “from”] are three exclusions [from being offered as a sacrifice], excluding an aged [animal], a sick [animal] and a foul smelling [animal]. — [Torath Kohanim 1:60]   מן הצאן מן הכשבים או מן העזים: הרי אלו שלשה מיעוטין פרט לזקן, לחולה ולמזוהם:
11And he shall slaughter it on the northern side of the altar, before the Lord. And Aaron's descendants, the kohanim, shall dash its blood upon the altar, around.   יאוְשָׁחַ֨ט אֹת֜וֹ עַ֣ל יֶ֧רֶךְ הַמִּזְבֵּ֛חַ צָפֹ֖נָה לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה וְזָֽרְק֡וּ בְּנֵי֩ אַֽהֲרֹ֨ן הַכֹּֽהֲנִ֧ים אֶת־דָּמ֛וֹ עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֖חַ סָבִֽיב:
on the…side of the altar: Heb. הַמִזְבֵּח יֶרֶ , “on the…side of the altar.”   על ירך המזבח: על צד המזבח:
[And he shall slaughter it] on the northern [side of the altar], before the Lord: [The law of] slaughtering on the northern side does not apply [when sacrificing an animal] on a high place [See above on verse 4]. — [Torath Kohanim 1:27] [We learn this from this verse that a burnt offering must be slaughtered “on the northern side of the altar” only if it is “before the Lord,” i.e., in the sanctuary precincts, but not outside them.]   צפנה לפני ה': ואין צפון בבמה:
12And he shall cut it into its [prescribed] sections, with its head and its fat, and the kohen shall arrange them on top of the wood which is on the fire that is on the altar.   יבוְנִתַּ֤ח אֹתוֹ֙ לִנְתָחָ֔יו וְאֶת־רֹאשׁ֖וֹ וְאֶת־פִּדְר֑וֹ וְעָרַ֤ךְ הַכֹּהֵן֙ אֹתָ֔ם עַל־הָֽעֵצִים֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עַל־הָאֵ֔שׁ אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּֽחַ:
13And the innards and the legs, he shall wash with water. Then, the kohen shall offer up all [of the animal], and cause it to [go up in] smoke on the altar. It is a burnt offering, a fire offering [with] a pleasing fragrance to the Lord.   יגוְהַקֶּ֥רֶב וְהַכְּרָעַ֖יִם יִרְחַ֣ץ בַּמָּ֑יִם וְהִקְרִ֨יב הַכֹּהֵ֤ן אֶת־הַכֹּל֙ וְהִקְטִ֣יר הַמִּזְבֵּ֔חָה עֹלָ֣ה ה֗וּא אִשֵּׁ֛ה רֵ֥יחַ נִיחֹ֖חַ לַֽיהֹוָֽה:

Second Portion

Leviticus Chapter 1

14And if his sacrifice to the Lord, is a burnt offering from birds, he shall bring [it] from turtle doves or from young doves.   ידוְאִ֧ם מִן־הָע֛וֹף עֹלָ֥ה קָרְבָּנ֖וֹ לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה וְהִקְרִ֣יב מִן־הַתֹּרִ֗ים א֛וֹ מִן־בְּנֵ֥י הַיּוֹנָ֖ה אֶת־קָרְבָּנֽוֹ:
from birds: But not all birds. Since it is stated: “an unblemished male, from cattle, from sheep, or from goats” (Lev. 22:19), [denoting that the requirement of] perfection and maleness apply [only] to animals, but [the requirement of] perfection and maleness does not apply to birds. One might think that even a bird that lacks a limb [may be brought for this offering]. Scripture, therefore, says [here]: “from birds” [but not all birds, excluding a bird lacking a limb]. — [Torath Kohanim 1:71]   מן העוף: ולא כל העוף, לפי שנאמר (ויק' כב יט) תמים זכר בבקר בכשבים ובעזים, תמות וזכרות בבהמה, ואין תמות וזכרות בעופות, יכול אף מחוסר אבר, תלמוד לומר מן העוף:
turtle-doves: [Because the verse specifies “young” doves, whereas it simply says “turtle-doves” without stating “young, ” it must refer to] adult ones [only that may be offered], and not young ones.   התרים: גדולים ולא קטנים:
young doves: young ones [only may be offered], and not adult ones. - [Torath Kohanim 1:74]   בני היונה: קטנים ולא גדולים:
from turtle-doves or from young doves: [The word “from” occurring twice in this verse comes] to exclude [birds] whose feathers have just begun to become reddish in both species, that they are unfit [for sacrifice], for they are too old to be qualified as “young doves,” and they are too young to be qualified as [adult] “turtle-doves.” - [Torath Kohanim 1:75]   מן התרים או מן בני היונה: פרט לתחלת הציהוב, שבזה ושבזה שהוא פסול, שגדול הוא אצל בני יונה וקטן אצל תורים:
15And the kohen shall bring it near to the altar, and nip off its head, and cause it to [go up in] smoke on the altar, and its [the bird's] blood shall be pressed out upon the wall of the altar.   טווְהִקְרִיב֤וֹ הַכֹּהֵן֙ אֶל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֔חַ וּמָלַק֙ אֶת־רֹאשׁ֔וֹ וְהִקְטִ֖יר הַמִּזְבֵּ֑חָה וְנִמְצָ֣ה דָמ֔וֹ עַ֖ל קִ֥יר הַמִּזְבֵּֽחַ:
shall bring it: One may bring even a single bird. - [Torath Kohanim 1:77] \b the \b0kohen shall …   והקריבו: אפילו פרידה אחת יביא:
nip off: The nipping [of the bird’s head] must not be done with anything but with the body of kohen. He would cut with his [thumb]nail adjacent to the back of the head, cutting right through its spine, until he reached the simanim [literally, “the signs”; in the context of slaughtering, this refers to the esophagus (gullet) and the trachea (wind-pipe)], and cuts through them [see Rashi on Lev. 5:8].   הכהן ומלק: אין מליקה בכלי אלא בעצמו של כהן. קוצץ בצפרנו ממול העורף וחותך מפרקתו עד שמגיע לסימנין וקוצצן:
and its [the bird’s] blood shall be pressed out: [The word וְנִמְצָה] an expression similar to “the pressing out (מִיץ) of wrath” (Prov. 30:33); and, “for the milking (הַמֵּץ) has come to an end” (Isa. 16:4). He presses the slaughtering area [of the bird’s neck] against the wall of the altar, and thereby, the blood is pressed out and runs down [the wall].   ונמצה דמו: לשון מיץ אפים (משלי ל לג), כי אפס המץ (ישעיה טז ד), כובש בית השחיטה על קיר המזבח והדם מתמצה ויורד:
and cut…and cause it to go up in smoke…shall be pressed out: [According to the sequence of these terms, one would think that Scripture is commanding the kohen to first cut the bird’s neck, send the bird up in smoke, and only then to press out its blood. But] is it possible to suggest this? Since [the kohen] has already caused the bird to go up in smoke, he presses its blood out? Rather, [the meaning is clearly not so, and the procedure of causing the bird to go up in smoke appears in the verse after that of nipping off the head, to teach us that] just as with the procedure of causing it to go up in smoke, the bird’s head [is smoked] separately and its body separately, so is it with the procedure of nipping [the bird’s head, i.e., the head is cut at the neck, to become virtually separate from its body-even though it is still attached to the body by the skin] (Torath Kohanim 1:81). According to the simple meaning of the verse, it is transposed [and is to be understood as]: and nip off its head, and cause it to [go up in] smoke on the altar, and its [the bird’s] blood shall already have been pressed out.   ומלק, והקטיר, ונמצה: אפשר לומר כן, מאחר שהוא מקטיר הוא מוצה, אלא מה הקטרה הראש בעצמו והגוף בעצמו, אף מליקה כן. ופשוטו של מקרא מסורס הוא ומלק והקטיר, וקודם הקטרה, ונמצה דמו כבר:
16And he shall remove its crop along with its entrails, and cast it next to the altar on the east side, to the place of the ashes.   טזוְהֵסִ֥יר אֶת־מֻרְאָת֖וֹ בְּנֹֽצָתָ֑הּ וְהִשְׁלִ֨יךְ אֹתָ֜הּ אֵ֤צֶל הַמִּזְבֵּ֨חַ֙ קֵ֔דְמָה אֶל־מְק֖וֹם הַדָּֽשֶׁן:
its crop: Heb. מֻרְאָתוֹ, the place of the רְעִי, the digested food or waste, i.e., the crop, [known in the Talmud as זֶפֶק The word מֻרְאָתוֹ stems from רְאִי, which is equivalent to רְעִי, since an “aleph” is sometimes interchangeable with an “ayin.”]- [Torath Kohanim 1:84]   מראתו: מקום הראי וזה הזפק:
with its entrails: Heb. בְּנֹצָתָהּ, with its entrails (Zev. 64b). The word נוֹצָה denotes something disgusting, as [in the verse], “for they are foul (נָצוּ), even slipping” (Lam. 4:15). And this is what Onkelos means [when he translates this word as]: בְּאוּכְלֵיהּ, “with its digested food” [i.e., the excrement found in its entrails]. This is the explanation given by Abba Yose ben Hanan, who states: The kohen removes the gizzard with it. But our Rabbis, of blessed memory, [understanding נוֹצָה to mean “feathers,”] explain [the verse as follows]: With a knife, he cuts an opening around the crop, like a window, and takes it [together] with the feathers (נוֹצָה) that are on the skin (Zev. 65a). In the case of the burnt offering of an animal, which eats exclusively from the feeding trough of its owner, it says, “And the innards and the legs, he shall wash with water. … and cause it to [go up in] smoke [on the altar]” (verse 13). However, regarding birds, which feed themselves on things stolen [from other people’s property], the verse says here, “And he shall [remove its crop]…and cast” the entrails, which ate from stolen property. — [Vayikra Rabbah 3:4]   בנצתה: עם בני מעיה. ונוצה לשון דבר המאוס, כמו כי נצו גם נעו (איכה ד טו) וזה שתרגם אנקלוס באוכליה. וזהו מדרשו של אבא יוסי בן חנן, שאמר נוטל את הקורקבן עמה. ורז"ל אמרו קודר סביב הזפק בסכין כעין ארובה ונוטלו עם הנוצה שעל העור. בעולת בהמה, שאינה אוכלת אלא באבוס בעליה, נאמר (פסוק יג) והקרב והכרעים ירחץ במים והקטיר, ובעוף, שנזון מן הגזל, נאמר והשליך, את המעים, שאכל מן הגזל:
next to the altar on the east side: At the eastern side of the כֶּבֶשׁ [the ramp leading up to the altar]. — [Torath Kohanim 1:86]   אצל המזבח קדמה: במזרחו של כבש:
to the place of the ashes: I.e., the place where each morning they deposit the ashes removed [from the outer altar], and the ashes removed from the inner altar and the menorah. All these were [miraculously] absorbed there in their place. — [Yoma 21a]   אל מקום הדשן: מקום שנותנין שם תרומת הדשן בכל בוקר ודישון מזבח הפנימי והמנורה. וכולם נבלעים שם במקומן:
17And he shall split it open with its wing feathers [intact], but he shall not tear it completely apart. The kohen shall then cause it to [go up in] smoke on the altar, on top of the wood which is on the fire. It is a burnt offering, a fire offering [with] a pleasing fragrance to the Lord.   יזוְשִׁסַּ֨ע אֹת֣וֹ בִכְנָפָיו֘ לֹ֣א יַבְדִּיל֒ וְהִקְטִ֨יר אֹת֤וֹ הַכֹּהֵן֙ הַמִּזְבֵּ֔חָה עַל־הָֽעֵצִ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר עַל־הָאֵ֑שׁ עֹלָ֣ה ה֗וּא אִשֵּׁ֛ה רֵ֥יחַ נִיחֹ֖חַ לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
And he shall split it open: Heb. וְשִׁסַּע. The term שִׁסּוּעַ refers only to [splitting open] with the hand. Similarly, [Scripture] says regarding Samson: “and he split it open (וַיְשַׁסְּעֵהוּ) as he would have split open (כְּשַׁסַּע) a kid” (Jud. 14:6). - [Zev. 65b]   ושסע: אין שיסוע אלא ביד, וכן הוא אומר בשמשון (שופטים יד ו) וישסעהו כשסע הגדי:
with its wing feathers: [I.e.,] with its wings; he need not pluck out its wing feathers.   בכנפיו: עם כנפיו, אינו צריך למרוט כנפי נוצתו:
with its wing feathers: [Lit., “its wings.” Here, it refers to] the actual feathers [of its wings]. But surely you will not find even the simplest of people [i.e., even a person who is not particular,] who, when smelling the odor of burnt feathers, does not find it repulsive. Why then does Scripture command us to send [the feathers] up in smoke? [The feathers are left intact] so that the altar should appear sated and adorned with the sacrifice of the poor man [who could afford only a bird]. — [Vayikra Rabbah 3:5]   בכנפיו: נוצה ממש. והלא אין לך הדיוט שמריח ריח רע של כנפים נשרפים ואין נפשו קצה עליו, ולמה אמר הכתוב והקטיר, כדי שיהא המזבח שבע ומהודר בקרבנו של עני:
but he shall not tear it completely apart: [Although the kohen splits open the bird,] he must not tear it apart completely into two [separate] pieces. Rather, he must tear it along its back. Now, regarding a bird [offering], it says here: “a pleasing fragrance [to the Lord],” and regarding animals, it says, “a pleasing fragrance [to the Lord]” (verse 9) [as well. From here we see that both in the case of a large animal or a small bird, the fragrance is pleasing to God]. This teaches us: Whether one offers much or little, [it is equally pleasing to God,] provided that he directs his heart to Heaven. — [Toroth Kohanim 1:91]   לא יבדיל: אינו מפרקו לגמרי לשתי חתיכות, אלא קורעו מגבו. נאמר בעוף ריח ניחוח, ונאמר בבהמה ריח ניחוח, לומר לך אחד המרבה ואחד הממעיט, ובלבד שיכוין את לבו לשמים:

Leviticus Chapter 2

1And if a person brings a meal offering to the Lord, his offering shall be of fine flour. He shall pour oil over it and place frankincense upon it.   אוְנֶ֗פֶשׁ כִּֽי־תַקְרִ֞יב קָרְבַּ֤ן מִנְחָה֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֔ה סֹ֖לֶת יִֽהְיֶ֣ה קָרְבָּנ֑וֹ וְיָצַ֤ק עָלֶ֨יהָ֙ שֶׁ֔מֶן וְנָתַ֥ן עָלֶ֖יהָ לְבֹנָֽה:
And if a person brings: [literally, “And if a soul brings.”] Regarding all the sacrifices which were donated voluntarily, the only instance where Scripture states the word נֶפֶשׁ “soul” is in the case of the meal-offering. Now, who usually donates a meal-offering? A poor man [because flour is less expensive than birds or animals]. [Hence,] the Holy One Blessed is He, says: “I account if for him as if he has sacrificed his very soul!” - [Men. 104b]   ונפש כי תקריב: לא נאמר נפש בכל קרבנות נדבה אלא במנחה, מי דרכו להתנדב מנחה, עני, אמר הקב"ה מעלה אני עליו כאלו הקריב נפשו:
his offering shall be from fine flour: If a person says, “I hereby take upon myself to bring a meal-offering,” without specifying which type of meal-offering, then he shall bring מִנְחַת סֹלֶת, a meal-offering of fine flour, which is the first of the meal-offerings [mentioned in this chapter] (Men. 104b), and קֹמֶץ [fistful of the offering] is scooped out while it is [still in the form of] flour, as is explained in this passage. Since five kinds of meal-offerings are enumerated here, all of which had to be brought ready-baked before the קְמִיצָה [scooping took place], with the exception of this one, it is, therefore, called מִנְחַת סֹלֶת, “a meal-offering of fine flour.”   סלת יהיה קרבנו: האומר הרי עלי מנחה סתם, מביא מנחת סלת, שהיא הראשונה שבמנחות ונקמצת כשהיא סלת, כמו שמפורש בענין. לפי שנאמרו כאן חמשה מיני מנחות, וכולן באות אפויות קודם קמיצה חוץ מזו, לכך קרויה מנחת סלת:
fine flour: סֹלֶת. [The term] סֹלֶת always denotes [fine flour of] wheat, as the verse says, “fine flour (סֹלֶת) of wheat” (Exod. 29:2). - [Torath Kohanim 2:96] No meal-offering consists of less than one עִשָּׂרוֹן [“one tenth” of an ephah of flour], as it is said, “one tenth measure for a meal-offering (עִשָּׂרוֹן)” (Lev.14:21), [implying that] one tenth measure [shall be used] for each meal-offering. — [see Men. 89a]   סלת: אין סלת אלא מן החטין, שנאמר (שמות כט ב) סלת חטים, ואין מנחה פחותה מעשרון, שנאמר (ויק' יד כא) ועשרון סלת למנחה, עשרון לכל מנחה:
He shall pour oil over it: Over all of it. [However,]   ויצק עליה שמן: על כולה:
and place frankincense upon it: Upon part of it; the kohen places a fistful of frankincense upon it at one side [of the offering]. Now what makes you say this? Because an inclusion after an inclusion in the Torah means only to exclude. [Now, here, the expression עָלֶיהָ, upon it or over it, is inclusive in nature, for its assumed meaning is “upon all of it,” i.e., the kohen shall pour the oil over all of the offering. In the continuation of the verse, “and place frankincense upon it (עָלֶיה),” however, the second mention of the word עָלֶיה represents a רִבָּוי after a רִבָּוי, and so, the second עָלֶיה becomes preclusive, meaning that the frankincense is to be placed only upon part of the offering.] Another explanation: Oil [is poured] over all of it, because it [the oil] has to be mixed with it and scooped with it, as it is said, “[scoop out a fistful] from its fine flour and its oil.” However, the frankincense because it is neither mixed nor scooped with it, as it is said, “in addition to] all its frankincense” (verse 2), for, after he has completed the קְמִיצָה procedure, he collects all the frankincense from the meal-offering and makes it go up in smoke. — [Torath Kohanim 2:98]   ונתן עליה לבנה: על מקצתה, מניח קומץ לבונה עליה לצד אחד. ומה ראית לומר כן, שאין ריבוי אחר ריבוי בתורה אלא למעט. דבר אחר שמן על כולה, מפני שהוא נבלל עמה ונקמץ עמה, כמו שנאמר (פסוק ב) מסלתה ומשמנה, ולבונה על מקצתה, שאינה נבללת עמה ולא נקמצת עמה, שנאמר (פסוק ב) על כל לבונתה, שלאחר שקמץ מלקט את הלבונה כולה מעליה ומקטירה:
He shall pour [oil]…and place [frankincense] …and he shall bring [it to…the kohanim]: [Because Scripture mentions the “pouring” of the oil before the individual “brings” it to the kohanim ,] this teaches [us] that pouring and mixing may be performed [even] by a non- kohen. [And how do we know this concerning the mixing? Because in verses 5-6 below, Scripture states of a meal-offering, “mixed with oil,” before the pouring procedure is to take place, thus, if pouring may be performed by a non- kohen, then mixing, which precedes pouring, may surely be performed by a non- kohen]. — [Torath Kohanim 2:100] [However,]   ויצק, ונתן, והביאה: מלמד שיציקה ובלילה כשרים בזר:
2And he shall bring it to Aaron's descendants, the kohanim, and from there, he [the kohen] shall scoop out his fistful of its fine flour and its oil, in addition to all its frankincense. Then, the kohen shall cause its reminder to [go up in] smoke on the altar; [it is] a fire offering [with] a pleasing fragrance to the Lord.   בוֶֽהֱבִיאָ֗הּ אֶל־בְּנֵ֣י אַֽהֲרֹן֘ הַכֹּֽהֲנִים֒ וְקָמַ֨ץ מִשָּׁ֜ם מְלֹ֣א קֻמְצ֗וֹ מִסָּלְתָּהּ֙ וּמִשַּׁמְנָ֔הּ עַ֖ל כָּל־לְבֹֽנָתָ֑הּ וְהִקְטִ֨יר הַכֹּהֵ֜ן אֶת־אַזְכָּֽרָתָהּ֙ הַמִּזְבֵּ֔חָה אִשֵּׁ֛ה רֵ֥יחַ נִיחֹ֖חַ לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
[And he shall bring it to…] the kohanim, and he [the kohen] shall scoop out: From the קְמִיצָה scooping procedure and onwards, it is exclusively the priesthood who is commanded [to perfo rm these remaining procedures]. — [Torath Kohanim 2:100]   הכהנים וקמץ: מקמיצה ואילך מצות כהונה:
And from there, he [the kohen] shall scoop out: [From where?] From the place where the feet of the non- kohen were standing. — [Torath Kohanim 2:104] This teaches us that scooping may be performed any place within the courtyard of the Holy Temple, even within the eleven cubits [span of courtyard grounds] in which ordinary Israelites [i.e., non- kohanim were permitted] to walk. — [Yoma 16b]   וקמץ משם: ממקום שרגלי הזר עומדות, ללמדך שהקמיצה כשרה בכל מקום בעזרה, אף בי"א אמה של מקום דריסת רגלי ישראל:
his fistful: One might think [that the fistful may be] full to overflowing, bursting through his fist and coming out on every side! Scripture, therefore, states in another passage, “And from it, he shall lift up in his fist” (Lev. 6:8), [i.e., only what is contained within his fist is valid to be burnt]. But since [we now know that the amount shall be only] what is contained within his fist, one might suggest that it means less than a fistful. Scripture, therefore, states here, מְלֹא, “full” [i.e., it shall be a full fist]. How then [does the kohen scoop out exactly a fistful, not more and not less]? He covers the palm of his hand with his three fingers, [and then, with the remaining thumb from above and little finger from below, he levels off any overflowing mixture, so that exactly a full measure of “three fingers” is attained]. — [Torath Kohanim 2:105; Men. 11a] This is the definition of קֹמֶץ, a “fistful” in the Hebrew language [while in other languages, a “fistful” of something might mean four fingers full of something].   מלא קמצו: יכול מבורץ, מבצבץ ויוצא לכל צד, תלמוד לומר במקום אחר (ויק' ו ח) והרים ממנו בקמצו, אין לך כשר אלא מה שבתוך הקומץ. אי בקמצו יכול חסר, תלמוד לומר מלא. הא כיצד, חופה שלש אצבעותיו על פס ידו, וזהו קומץ במשמע לשון העברית:
in addition to all its frankincense: In addition to all the frankincense, the fist shall be full.   על כל לבונתה: לבד כל הלבונה יהא הקומץ מלא:
its frankincense. Then, [the kohen] shall cause…to [go up in] smoke: The frankincense is also to be burnt. — [Torath Kohanim 2:107]   לבונתה והקטיר: אף הלבונה בהקטרה:
his fistful of its fine flour and its oil: but if he scooped, and a grain of salt or a particle of frankincense went up into his hand, it is unfit. - [Torath Kohanim 2:107]   מלא קמצו מסלתה ומשמנה: הא אם קמץ ועלה בידו גרגיר מלח או קורט לבונה פסולה:
its reminder: The fistful offered up to the Most High [God], is the “reminder” of the meal-offering, because through it, its owner [who brought that sacrifice] is remembered for the good, [causing God] contentment.   אזכרתה: הקומץ העולה לגבוה הוא זכרון המנחה, שבו נזכר בעליה לטובה ולנחת רוח:
3And what remains of the meal offering shall belong to Aaron and to his descendants; [it is] holy of holies from the fire offerings of the Lord.   גוְהַנּוֹתֶ֨רֶת֙ מִן־הַמִּנְחָ֔ה לְאַֽהֲרֹ֖ן וּלְבָנָ֑יו קֹ֥דֶשׁ קָֽדָשִׁ֖ים מֵֽאִשֵּׁ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
to Aaron and his descendants: The Kohen Gadol [signified by “Aaron” here,] takes a portion [of what remains of the meal-offering] first, without having to take part in the equal division of the meal offering, while [after this,] the ordinary kohen [signified by “and his descendants” here,] takes his share in the equal division of the meal-offering. — [Torath Kohanim 2:112]   לאהרן ולבניו: כהן גדול נוטל חלק בראש שלא במחלוקת, וההדיוט במחלוקת:
[it is] holy of holies: for the Kohanim.   קדש קדשים: היא להם:
from the fire-offerings of the Lord: They may take their share in it only after the offerings to the fire [i.e., only after the fistful has been scooped out and burnt, thereby becoming a fire-offering to God. Before this, however, they may not partake of the meal-offering]. — [Torath Kohanim 2: 113]   מאשי ה': אין להם חלק בה אלא לאחר מתנות האישים:
4And if one brings a meal offering baked in an oven, it shall consist of [either] unleavened loaves [made] of fine flour mixed with oil, or unleavened wafers anointed with oil.   דוְכִ֥י תַקְרִ֛ב קָרְבַּ֥ן מִנְחָ֖ה מַֽאֲפֵ֣ה תַנּ֑וּר סֹ֣לֶת חַלּ֤וֹת מַצֹּת֙ בְּלוּלֹ֣ת בַּשֶּׁ֔מֶן וּרְקִיקֵ֥י מַצּ֖וֹת מְשֻׁחִ֥ים בַּשָּֽׁמֶן:
And if you bring [a meal-offering which was baked in an oven]: [Namely: If a person] said, “I hereby take upon myself to bring a meal-offering baked in an oven.” Scripture teaches [us] that he may bring either loaves or wafers. — [Torath Kohanim 2:115] The loaves are to be mixed up (בְּלוּלֹת) [with olive oil], while the wafers are to be anointed (מְשֻׁחִים) [with olive oil]. — [Torath Kohanim 2:117; Men. 74b] Now, our Rabbis (Men. 75a) differ regarding the anointing procedure (מְשִׁיחָה) [for the wafers]: Some say that one must anoint them and again anoint them until all the oil in the log [a volume of liquid] has been used up, for all meal-offerings require one log of oil [each]. Others say that [some of] the oil was smeared [on the wafer] in the form of a Greek “chi” [shaped like the Hebrew נ, see Rashi Exod. 29:2], while the remaining oil was eaten separately by the kohanim. [Now, the verse here says, “mixed with oil…anointed with oil.”] What does the repetition of the word “oil” come to teach us? [It teaches us that for meal-offerings, oil used need not be only from the initial extract from the olives, but] may also be from the second and third extract out of the olives. The only case where the initial extract of oil is required, is the menorah, because regarding it, Scripture says (Exod. 27:20), שֶׁמֶן זַיִת זָ‏, “clear olive oil.” - [Torath Kohanim 2:118] And we learned in Men. (76a): All meal-offerings baked before the קְמִיצָה [scooping out] procedure, and consequently whose קְמִיצָה is performed by breaking the offering into pieces (see verse 6), all shall be offered in [parcels of] ten loaves [regarding those about which Scripture says חַוֹת, “loaves,” and parcels of] ten wafers, for those offerings about which Scripture says רְקִיקִין, “wafers.”   וכי תקרב וגו': שאמר הרי עלי מנחת מאפה תנור, ולימד הכתוב שיביא או חלות או רקיקין, החלות בלולות, והרקיקין משוחין. ונחלקו רבותינו במשיחתן יש אומרים, מושחן וחוזר ומושחן עד שיכלה כל השמן שבלוג, שכל המנחות טעונות לוג שמן. ויש אומרים מושחן כמין כי יונית ושאר השמן נאכל בפני עצמו לכהנים. מה תלמוד לומר בשמן בשמן שתי פעמים, להכשיר שמן שני ושלישי היוצא מן הזיתים, ואין צריך שמן ראשון אלא למנורה, שנאמר בו (שמות כז כ) זך. ושנינו במנחות (עו א) כל המנחות האפויות לפני קמיצתן ונקמצות ע"י פתיתה, כולן באות עשר עשר חלות, והאמור בה רקיקין, באה עשרה רקיקין:
5And if a meal offering on a pan is your sacrifice, it shall be [made] of fine flour, mixed with oil; it shall be unleavened.   הוְאִם־מִנְחָ֥ה עַל־הַמַּֽחֲבַ֖ת קָרְבָּנֶ֑ךָ סֹ֛לֶת בְּלוּלָ֥ה בַשֶּׁ֖מֶן מַצָּ֥ה תִֽהְיֶֽה:
And if a meal-offering on a pan [is your sacrifice]: מִנְחָה עַל הַמַּחֲבַת Namely: If one said, “I hereby take upon myself to bring מִנְחַת הַמַּחֲבַת, a pan-fried meal offering.” [מַחִבַת] was a vessel in the Holy Temple, in which [certain] meal-offerings were baked in oil upon the fire. This vessel is not deep, but shallow. And therefore, meal-offerings made in it were hard, for since the pan was shallow, [the oil spread thin and consequently,] the fire consumed the oil [causing the product to become hard]. — [Men. 63a] And all [meal-offerings] require three applications of oil: יְצִיקָה [pouring], בְּלִילָה [mixing] and placing oil in the vessel before their preparation. — [Torath Kohanim 2: 121, Men. 75a]   ואם מנחה על המחבת: שאמר הרי עלי מנחת מחבת. וכלי הוא שהיה במקדש, שאופין בו מנחה על האור בשמן, והכלי אינו עמוק אלא צף, ומעשה המנחה שבתוכו קשין, שמתוך שהיא צפה, האור שורף את השמן. וכולן טעונות שלש מתנות שמן יציקה, ובלילה, ומתן שמן בכלי קודם עשייתן:
fine flour, mixed with oil: [This] teaches [us] that he must mix them while they are [still] fine flour [and not mixing the oil with the already-fried cakes]. — [Torath Kohanim 2:122]   סלת בלולה בשמן: מלמד שבוללן בעודן סלת:
6Break it into pieces, and you shall [then] pour oil over it. It is a meal offering.   ופָּת֤וֹת אֹתָהּ֙ פִּתִּ֔ים וְיָֽצַקְתָּ֥ עָלֶ֖יהָ שָׁ֑מֶן מִנְחָ֖ה הִֽוא:
Break it into pieces, […It is a meal-offering]: [The clause at the end of this verse, “It is a meal-offering,” appears superfluous. However, it] comes to include all meal-offerings baked before the קְמִיצָה procedure, to [have their קְמִיצָה performed by] פְּתִיתָה, breaking them into pieces. — [Men. 75a]   פתות אתה פתים: לרבות כל המנחות, הנאפות קודם קמיצה, לפתיתה:
and you shall [then] pour oil over it. It is a meal-offering: This includes all meal-offerings for יְצִיקָה, “pouring of the oil.” One might think that this applies also to a meal-offering baked in an oven. Scripture, therefore, says, “[You shall then pour oil] עָלֶיהָ, over it, ” [but not over that baked in an oven.] Perhaps we should exclude חַות, loaves [of oven-baked meal-offerings only], while not excluding the רְקִיקִין wafers [of oven baked meal-offerings]? Scripture, therefore, says, הִיא [i.e., “It,” to have both cases of loaves and wafers of an oven-baked meal-offering excluded from יְצִיקָה]. — [Men. 75a]   ויצקת עליה שמן מנחה הוא: לרבות כל המנחות ליציקה. יכול אף מנחת מאפה תנור כן, תלמוד לומר עליה, אוציא את החלות ולא אוציא את הרקיקין, תלמוד לומר הוא:

Third Portion

Leviticus Chapter 2

7And if your sacrifice is a meal offering [made] in a deep pot, it shall be made of fine flour with oil.   זוְאִם־מִנְחַ֥ת מַרְחֶ֖שֶׁת קָרְבָּנֶ֑ךָ סֹ֥לֶת בַּשֶּׁ֖מֶן תֵּֽעָשֶֽׂה:
[made] in a deep pot: מַרְחֶשֶׁת. This was a deep vessel in the Temple. And since it was deep, its oil gathered together, and the fire did not burn it. Consequently, meal-offerings made in it, vibrate (רוֹחִַשִׁין) (Torath Kohanim 2:127), [as] anything which has become softened through a liquid, [like in the case of deep-frying מִנְחַת מַרְחֶשֶׁת appears to vibrate (רוֹחֵשׁ) and wiggle.   מרחשת: כלי הוא שהיה במקדש עמוק, ומתוך שהיא עמוקה שמנה צבור ואין האור שורפו, לפיכך מעשה מנחה העשויין לתוכה רוחשין. כל דבר רך על ידי משקה נראה כרוחש ומנענע:
8Thus you shall bring the meal offering which shall be made from these [types], to the Lord. And he shall bring it to the kohen, and he shall bring it close to the altar.   חוְהֵֽבֵאתָ֣ אֶת־הַמִּנְחָ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֧ר יֵֽעָשֶׂ֛ה מֵאֵ֖לֶּה לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה וְהִקְרִיבָהּ֙ אֶל־הַכֹּהֵ֔ן וְהִגִּישָׁ֖הּ אֶל־הַמִּזְבֵּֽחַ:
which shall be made from these [types]: [literally, “which shall be made from these,” meaning a meal-offering] which shall be made from one of these types [of meal-offerings mentioned, namely, fine flour baked in an oven, pan-fried or that made in a deep pot].   אשר יעשה מאלה: מאחד מן המינים הללו:
And he shall bring it: i.e., its owner [shall bring it] to the kohen.   והקריבה: בעליה אל הכהן:
and he shall bring it close: [I.e.,] the kohen [shall bring it close].   והגישה: הכהן:
to the altar: He shall bring it close to the south-western corner of the altar. — [Zev. 63b]   אל המזבח: מגישה לקרן דרומית מערבית של מזבח:
9And the kohen shall lift out, from the meal offering, its reminder and cause it to [go up in] smoke on the altar; [it is] a fire offering [with] a pleasing fragrance to the Lord.   טוְהֵרִ֨ים הַכֹּהֵ֤ן מִן־הַמִּנְחָה֙ אֶת־אַזְכָּ֣רָתָ֔הּ וְהִקְטִ֖יר הַמִּזְבֵּ֑חָה אִשֵּׁ֛ה רֵ֥יחַ נִיחֹ֖חַ לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
its reminder: This is קֹמֶץ, [the fistful scooped out of the meal-offering].   את אזכרתה: היא הקומץ:
10And what remains of the meal offering shall belong to Aaron and his descendants; [it is] holy of holies from the fire offerings of the Lord.   יוְהַנּוֹתֶ֨רֶת֙ מִן־הַמִּנְחָ֔ה לְאַֽהֲרֹ֖ן וּלְבָנָ֑יו קֹ֥דֶשׁ קָֽדָשִׁ֖ים מֵֽאִשֵּׁ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
11No meal offering that you sacrifice to the Lord shall be made [out of anything] leavened. For you shall not cause to [go up in] smoke any leavening or any honey, [as] a fire offering to the Lord;   יאכָּל־הַמִּנְחָ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֤ר תַּקְרִ֨יבוּ֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֔ה לֹ֥א תֵֽעָשֶׂ֖ה חָמֵ֑ץ כִּ֤י כָל־שְׂאֹר֙ וְכָל־דְּבַ֔שׁ לֹֽא־תַקְטִ֧ירוּ מִמֶּ֛נּוּ אִשֶּׁ֖ה לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
or any honey: Any sweet fruit extract is called honey.   וכל דבש: כל מתיקת פרי קרויה דבש:
12[However,] you shall bring them as a first [fruit] offering to the Lord; nevertheless, they shall not go up on the altar as a pleasing fragrance to the Lord.   יבקָרְבַּ֥ן רֵאשִׁ֛ית תַּקְרִ֥יבוּ אֹתָ֖ם לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה וְאֶל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֥חַ לֹא־יַֽעֲל֖וּ לְרֵ֥יחַ נִיחֹֽחַ:
[However,] you shall bring them as a first [fruit] offering: What can you bring from leaven and honey? A first [fruit] offering, namely, a) the שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם, the two loaves [of bread] brought on Shavuoth, which come from leaven, as it is said: “they shall be baked leavened” (Lev. 23:17), and b) The בִּכּוּרִים, “first fruits” which [contain] דְּבַשׁ, honey, e.g., the first fruits of figs and dates. — [Men. 58a]   קרבן ראשית תקריבו: מה יש לך להביא מן השאור ומן הדבש קרבן ראשית שתי הלחם של עצרת הבאים מן השאור, שנאמר (ויק' כג יז) חמץ תאפינה, ובכורים מן הדבש, כמו בכורי תאנים ותמרים:
13And you shall salt every one of your meal offering sacrifices with salt, and you shall not omit the salt of your God's covenant from [being placed] upon your meal offerings. You shall offer salt on all your sacrifices.   יגוְכָל־קָרְבַּ֣ן מִנְחָֽתְךָ֘ בַּמֶּ֣לַח תִּמְלָח֒ וְלֹ֣א תַשְׁבִּ֗ית מֶ֚לַח בְּרִ֣ית אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ מֵעַ֖ל מִנְחָתֶ֑ךָ עַ֥ל כָּל־קָרְבָּֽנְךָ֖ תַּקְרִ֥יב מֶֽלַח:
the salt of [your God’s] covenant: for there was a covenant made with salt since the six days of Creation, in that the lower waters were promised that they would be offered on the altar. [And how were they offered? In the form of] salt [which comes from water,] and in the water libations on the Festival [of Succoth].   מלח ברית: שהברית כרותה למלח מששת ימי בראשית, שהובטחו המים התחתונים ליקרב במזבח במלח, וניסוך המים בחג:
[You shall offer salt] on all your sacrifices: [including] burnt-offerings from animals and birds, and the אֵימוּרִים, the portions of the sacrifices offered up on the altar, from all holy sacrifices. — [Men. 20a]   על כל קרבנך: על עולת בהמה ועוף ואימורי כל הקדשים כולן:
14When you bring a meal offering of the first grains to the Lord, you shall bring your first grain meal offering [from barley], as soon as it ripens, parched over the fire, kernels full in their husks, [ground into] coarse meal.   ידוְאִם־תַּקְרִ֛יב מִנְחַ֥ת בִּכּוּרִ֖ים לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה אָבִ֞יב קָל֤וּי בָּאֵשׁ֙ גֶּ֣רֶשׂ כַּרְמֶ֔ל תַּקְרִ֕יב אֵ֖ת מִנְחַ֥ת בִּכּוּרֶֽיךָ:
When you bring: Heb. וְאִם תַּקְרִיב Now, the word אִם [here] has the meaning of כִּי, “when,” because this is not optional, for Scripture is referring to the מִנְחַת הָעֹמֶר [the omer meal-offering, a community sacrifice brought on the sixteenth of Nissan,] which is obligatory. [Thus, the verse reads: “When you bring…”]. — [Torath Kohanim 2:148] Likewise, “And when (וְאִם) the Jubilee…will be” (Num. 36:4), [and not “if the Jubilee…will be”].   ואם תקריב: הרי אם משמש בלשון כי, שהרי אין זה רשות, שהרי במנחת העומר הכתוב מדבר, שהיא חובה, וכן (במדבר לו ד) ואם יהיה היובל וגו':
a meal offering of the first grains: Scripture is referring here to the מִנְחַת הָעֹמֶר, the “omer meal-offering,” which is to be offered אָבִיב, meaning, as soon as the grain has ripened, and it comes from barley. [And how do we know that it comes from barley?] For here in our verse, it says, אָבִיב, and in an earlier verse, it says (Exod. 9:31), כִּי הַשְּׂעֹרָה אָבִיב, “for the barley was ripened (אָבִיב)”. — [Torath Kohanim 2:149; Men. 68b]   מנחת בכורים: במנחת העומר הכתוב מדבר, שהיא באה אביב בשעת בישול התבואה, ומן השעורים היא באה. נאמר כאן אביב, ונאמר להלן (שמות ט לא) כי השעורה אביב:
parched over the fire: For they dry the grain over a fire, in a roasting pipe [Rashi explains in Tractate Men., אָבִיב refers to a vessel used by those selling roasted seeds]. — [Torath Kohanim 2:150] [And they had to do this to the grain,] for otherwise, it could not be ground up, because it is moist.   קלוי באש: שמיבשין אותה על האור באבוב של קלאים, שאלולי כן אינה נטחנת בריחים, לפי שהיא לחה:
kernels full in their husks, [ground into] coarse meal: Heb. גֶּרֶשׂ כַּרְמֶל “Broken up while still moist (כַּרְמֶל).”   גרש כרמל: גרוסה בעודה לחה:
coarse meal: Heb. גֶּרֶשׂ, an expression denoting breaking up or grinding with grit millstones, and likewise, “Indeed, He has made [my teeth] grind (וַיַּגְְרֵס) on gravel” (Lam. 3:16), and similarly in the verse, “My soul is crushed (גָּרְסָה)” (Ps. 119:20).   גרש: לשון שבירה וטחינה, גורסה בריחים של גרוסות, כמו (איכה ג טז) ויגרס בחצץ, וכן גרסה נפשי (תהלים קיט כ):
full in their husks: Heb. כַּרְמֶל, [an acronym of כַּר, husk, and מָלֵא, full. Thus, it means: The grain is ground up] while the husk (כַּר) is still full (מָלֵא) (Men. 66b), i.e., when the produce is still fresh and full in its stalks; hence, fresh ears of grain are called כַּרְמֶל, and similarly, “and sheaves of fresh grain (כַּרְמֶל) in their shells” (II Kings 4:42).   כרמל: בעוד הכר מלא, שהתבואה לחה ומלאה בקשין שלה, ועל כן נקראים המלילות כרמל, וכן (מלכים ב' ד מב) וכרמל בצקלונו:
15And you shall put oil on it, and place frankincense upon it. It is a meal offering.   טווְנָֽתַתָּ֤ עָלֶ֨יהָ֙ שֶׁ֔מֶן וְשַׂמְתָּ֥ עָלֶ֖יהָ לְבֹנָ֑ה מִנְחָ֖ה הִֽוא:
16Then, the kohen shall cause its reminder to [go up in] smoke, [taken] from its coarse meal and from its oil, with all its frankincense; [it is] a fire offering to the Lord.   טזוְהִקְטִ֨יר הַכֹּהֵ֜ן אֶת־אַזְכָּֽרָתָ֗הּ מִגִּרְשָׂהּ֙ וּמִשַּׁמְנָ֔הּ עַ֖ל כָּל־לְבֹֽנָתָ֑הּ אִשֶּׁ֖ה לַֽיהֹוָֽה:

Fourth Portion

Leviticus Chapter 3

1If his sacrifice is a peace offering, if he brings it from cattle, whether male or female, unblemished he shall bring it before the Lord.   אוְאִם־זֶ֥בַח שְׁלָמִ֖ים קָרְבָּנ֑וֹ אִ֤ם מִן־הַבָּקָר֙ ה֣וּא מַקְרִ֔יב אִם־זָכָר֙ אִם־נְקֵבָ֔ה תָּמִ֥ים יַקְרִיבֶ֖נּוּ לִפְנֵ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
peace-offering: Heb. שְׁלָמִים. [So named] because they instill peace (שָׁלוֹם) in the world. Another explanation: [They are called שְׁלָמִים because they bring about harmony (שָׁלוֹם) , [since some portions of the sacrifice go] to the altar, to the Kohanim, and to the owner [of the sacrifice]. — [Torath Kohanim 3:156]   שלמים: שמטילים שלום בעולם. דבר אחר שלמים שיש בהם שלום למזבח ולכהנים ולבעלים:
2And he shall lean his hand [forcefully] upon the head of his sacrifice and slaughter it at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting. And Aaron's descendants, the kohanim, shall dash the blood upon the altar, around.   בוְסָמַ֤ךְ יָדוֹ֙ עַל־רֹ֣אשׁ קָרְבָּנ֔וֹ וּשְׁחָט֕וֹ פֶּ֖תַח אֹ֣הֶל מוֹעֵ֑ד וְזָֽרְק֡וּ בְּנֵי֩ אַֽהֲרֹ֨ן הַכֹּֽהֲנִ֧ים אֶת־הַדָּ֛ם עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֖חַ סָבִֽיב:
3And from the peace offering, he shall bring a fire offering to the Lord [comprised of]: the fat covering the innards and all the fat that is on the innards,   גוְהִקְרִיב֙ מִזֶּ֣בַח הַשְּׁלָמִ֔ים אִשֶּׁ֖ה לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה אֶת־הַחֵ֨לֶב֙ הַֽמְכַסֶּ֣ה אֶת־הַקֶּ֔רֶב וְאֵת֙ כָּל־הַחֵ֔לֶב אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־הַקֶּֽרֶב:
and all the fat: [This expression] comes to include the fat that is on the maw [the lowest stomach and all the more so, the fat upon the intestines]: These are the words of Rabbi Ishmael. Rabbi Akiva, however, says: [It comes to include only] the fat upon the intestines. — [Torath Kohanim 3:168, Chul. 49]   ואת כל החלב וגו': להביא חלב שעל הקבה, דברי רבי ישמעאל. רבי עקיבא אומר להביא חלב שעל הדקין:
4and the two kidneys [along] with the fat that is upon them which is over the flanks. And he shall remove the diaphragm with the liver, along with the kidneys.   דוְאֵת֙ שְׁתֵּ֣י הַכְּלָיֹ֔ת וְאֶת־הַחֵ֨לֶב֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עֲלֵהֶ֔ן אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־הַכְּסָלִ֑ים וְאֶת־הַיֹּתֶ֨רֶת֙ עַל־הַכָּבֵ֔ד עַל־הַכְּלָי֖וֹת יְסִירֶֽנָּה:
the flanks: Heb. הַכְּסָלִים, flancs in Old French. For, in the case of a live animal, the fat that is on the kidneys, is situated at the height of the flanks, and they [the flanks] are situated below. This is the fat beneath the loins, which is called lonbels in Old French, the white fat visible above, upon the height of the flanks, while on the lower part of the flanks, [this fat is not visible, because] the flesh covers it. — [Chul. 93a, and Rashi there]   הכסלים: פלנק"ש בלע"ז [חלק פנימי של הירך]. שהחלב שעל הכליות, כשהבהמה חיה, הוא בגובה הכסלים והם מלמטה, וזהו החלב שתחת המתנים, שקורין בלע"ז לונביל"ש [חלק הבטן שבאזור הכליות] לובן הנראה למעלה בגובה הכסלים, ובתחתיתו הבשר חופהו:
the diaphragm: This is the dividing wall [separating the thoracic cavity (breathing organs) from the abdominal cavity (organs of digestion)], which is called ebres in Old French. In the Aramaic language it is called דְּכַבְדָא חַצְרָא, the yard of the liver.   היתרת: הוא דופן המסך, שקורין איברי"ש [סרעפת] ובלשון ארמי חצרא דכבדא:
with the liver: Along with the diaphragm [which covers the liver], he must take a small amount of the liver. [The fact that some of the liver must be taken is illustrated] in another verse, where [regarding the same matter], Scripture says (Lev. 9:10), וְאֶת הַיֹּתֶרֶת מִן הַכָּבֵד, “and the diaphragm from the liver”. — [Torath Kohanim 3:172]   על הכבד: שיטול מן הכבד עמה מעט. ובמקום אחר הוא אומר (ויק' ט י) ואת היותרת מן הכבד:
the liver along with the kidneys: עַל הַכָּבֵד עַל הַכְּלָיוּת. In addition to the liver and in addition to the kidneys, he shall remove this.   על הכבד על הכליות: לבד מן הכבד ולבד מן הכליות יסירנה לזו:
5And Aaron's descendants shall cause it to [go up in] smoke on the altar, apart from the burnt offering, which is on top of the wood that is on the fire; [it is] a fire offering [with] a pleasing fragrance to the Lord.   הוְהִקְטִ֨ירוּ אֹת֤וֹ בְנֵי־אַֽהֲרֹן֙ הַמִּזְבֵּ֔חָה עַל־הָ֣עֹלָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר עַל־הָֽעֵצִ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר עַל־הָאֵ֑שׁ אִשֵּׁ֛ה רֵ֥יחַ נִיחֹ֖חַ לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
In addition to the burnt offering: Heb. עַל הָעֹלָה, in addition to the burnt-offering. [From here,] we learn that the daily burnt-offering precedes any other sacrifice upon the woodpile [of the altar].   על העלה: מלבד העולה. למדנו שתקדים עולת תמיד לכל קרבן על המערכה:
6And if his sacrifice for a peace offering to the Lord is from the flock, whether male or female, unblemished he shall bring it.   ווְאִם־מִן־הַצֹּ֧אן קָרְבָּנ֛וֹ לְזֶ֥בַח שְׁלָמִ֖ים לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה זָכָר֙ א֣וֹ נְקֵבָ֔ה תָּמִ֖ים יַקְרִיבֶֽנּוּ:
7If he brings a sheep as his sacrifice, then he shall bring it before the Lord.   זאִם־כֶּ֥שֶׂב הֽוּא־מַקְרִ֖יב אֶת־קָרְבָּנ֑וֹ וְהִקְרִ֥יב אֹת֖וֹ לִפְנֵ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
If [he brings] a sheep: Since among the sacrificial portions of the sheep there is something that is not among the sacrificial portions of the goat, namely that the tail of a sheep is offered up [on the altar], these two [namely sheep and goats] were divided into two sections. — [Torath Kohanim 3:185]   אם כשב: לפי שיש באימורי הכשב מה שאין באימורי העז, שהכשב אליתו קריבה, לכך נחלקו לשתי פרשיות:
8And he shall lean his hand [forcefully] upon the head of his sacrifice, and slaughter it before the Tent of Meeting. And Aaron's descendants shall dash its blood upon the altar, around.   חוְסָמַ֤ךְ אֶת־יָדוֹ֙ עַל־רֹ֣אשׁ קָרְבָּנ֔וֹ וְשָׁחַ֣ט אֹת֔וֹ לִפְנֵ֖י אֹ֣הֶל מוֹעֵ֑ד וְ֠זָֽרְק֠וּ בְּנֵ֨י אַֽהֲרֹ֧ן אֶת־דָּמ֛וֹ עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֖חַ סָבִֽיב:
And [Aaron’s descendants] shall dash [its blood]: Two applications [of blood were required], which were [counted as] four (see Rashi above, Lev. 1:5). The Kohen must dash [the blood] by means of a vessel. He does not apply [the blood] with his finger except [in the case of] a sin-offering. — [Zev. 53b]   וזרקו: שתי מתנות שהן ארבע, ועל ידי הכלי הוא זורק, ואינו נותן באצבע אלא חטאת:
9And from the peace offering, he shall bring a fire offering to the Lord [comprised of] its choicest part the complete tail, which he shall remove opposite the kidneys, and the fat covering the innards and all the fat which is on the innards,   טוְהִקְרִ֨יב מִזֶּ֣בַח הַשְּׁלָמִים֘ אִשֶּׁ֣ה לַֽיהֹוָה֒ חֶלְבּוֹ֙ הָֽאַלְיָ֣ה תְמִימָ֔ה לְעֻמַּ֥ת הֶֽעָצֶ֖ה יְסִירֶ֑נָּה וְאֶת־הַחֵ֨לֶב֙ הַֽמְכַסֶּ֣ה אֶת־הַקֶּ֔רֶב וְאֵת֙ כָּל־הַחֵ֔לֶב אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־הַקֶּֽרֶב:
the choicest part: Heb. חֶלְבּוֹ.[Usually, its fat. Here it means] its choicest part. And what is this? The complete tail.   חלבו: המובחר שבו. ומהו זה, האליה תמימה:
opposite the kidneys: Heb. הֶעָצֶה, above the kidneys, which give counsel (הַיּוֹעֲצוּת).   לעמת העצה: למעלה מן הכליות היועצות:
10and the two kidneys [along] with the fat that is upon them, which is over the flanks. And he shall remove the diaphragm with the liver, along with the kidneys.   יוְאֵת֙ שְׁתֵּ֣י הַכְּלָיֹ֔ת וְאֶת־הַחֵ֨לֶב֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עֲלֵהֶ֔ן אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־הַכְּסָלִ֑ים וְאֶת־הַיֹּתֶ֨רֶת֙ עַל־הַכָּבֵ֔ד עַל־הַכְּלָיֹ֖ת יְסִירֶֽנָּה:
11And the kohen shall cause it to [go up in] smoke on the altar, as food for the fire, to the Lord.   יאוְהִקְטִיר֥וֹ הַכֹּהֵ֖ן הַמִּזְבֵּ֑חָה לֶ֥חֶם אִשֶּׁ֖ה לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
as food for the fire, to the Lord: Food for the fire, in the Name of the most High [God].   לחם אשה לה': לחמו של אש לשם גבוה:
food: Heb. לֶחֶם, an expression meaning food [in general, not only bread]. Similarly, we find in the verse, “Let us destroy his food (בְּלַחְמוֹ) with wood” (Jer. 11:19); and, “made a great feast (לְחֵם)” (Dan. 5:1), and, “On joyous occasions, a feast (לֶחֶם) is made” (Eccl. 10:19).   לחם: לשון מאכל, וכן (ירמיהו יא יט) נשחיתה עץ בלחמו, עבד לחם רב (דניאל ה א), לשחוק עושים לחם (קהלת י יט):
12And if his sacrifice is a goat, he shall bring it before the Lord,   יבוְאִם־עֵ֖ז קָרְבָּנ֑וֹ וְהִקְרִיב֖וֹ לִפְנֵ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
13and he shall lean his hand [forcefully] upon its head and slaughter it before the Tent of Meeting, and Aaron's descendants shall dash its blood upon the altar, around.   יגוְסָמַ֤ךְ אֶת־יָדוֹ֙ עַל־רֹאשׁ֔וֹ וְשָׁחַ֣ט אֹת֔וֹ לִפְנֵ֖י אֹ֣הֶל מוֹעֵ֑ד וְ֠זָֽרְק֠וּ בְּנֵ֨י אַֽהֲרֹ֧ן אֶת־דָּמ֛וֹ עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֖חַ סָבִֽיב:
14And from it, he shall bring his offering a fire offering to the Lord [comprised of] the fat covering the innards, and all the fat which is on the innards,   ידוְהִקְרִ֤יב מִמֶּ֨נּוּ֙ קָרְבָּנ֔וֹ אִשֶּׁ֖ה לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה אֶת־הַחֵ֨לֶב֙ הַֽמְכַסֶּ֣ה אֶת־הַקֶּ֔רֶב וְאֵת֙ כָּל־הַחֵ֔לֶב אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־הַקֶּֽרֶב:
15and the two kidneys with the fat that is upon them, which is over the flanks. And he shall remove the diaphragm with the liver; along with the kidneys he shall remove it.   טווְאֵת֙ שְׁתֵּ֣י הַכְּלָיֹ֔ת וְאֶת־הַחֵ֨לֶב֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עֲלֵהֶ֔ן אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־הַכְּסָלִ֑ים וְאֶת־הַיֹּתֶ֨רֶת֙ עַל־הַכָּבֵ֔ד עַל־הַכְּלָיֹ֖ת יְסִירֶֽנָּה:
16And the kohen shall cause it to [go up in] smoke on the altar, consumed as a fire offering, [with] a pleasing fragrance. All [sacrificial] fat belongs to the Lord.   טזוְהִקְטִירָ֥ם הַכֹּהֵ֖ן הַמִּזְבֵּ֑חָה לֶ֤חֶם אִשֶּׁה֙ לְרֵ֣יחַ נִיחֹ֔חַ כָּל־חֵ֖לֶב לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
17[This is] an eternal statute for all your generations, in all your dwelling places: You shall not eat any fat or any blood.   יזחֻקַּ֤ת עוֹלָם֙ לְדֹרֹ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם בְּכֹ֖ל מֽוֹשְׁבֹֽתֵיכֶ֑ם כָּל־חֵ֥לֶב וְכָל־דָּ֖ם לֹ֥א תֹאכֵֽלוּ:
[This is] an eternal statute: This entire verse is explained very clearly in Torath Kohanim (3:189).   חקת עולם: יפה מפורש בתורת כהנים כל הפסוק הזה:

Fifth Portion

Leviticus Chapter 4

1And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying,   אוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
2Speak to the children of Israel, saying: If a person sins unintentionally [by committing one] of all the commandments of the Lord, which may not be committed, and he commits [part] of one of them   בדַּבֵּ֞ר אֶל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵל֘ לֵאמֹר֒ נֶ֗פֶשׁ כִּי־תֶֽחֱטָ֤א בִשְׁגָגָה֙ מִכֹּל֙ מִצְוֹ֣ת יְהֹוָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֖ר לֹ֣א תֵֽעָשֶׂ֑ינָה וְעָשָׂ֕ה מֵֽאַחַ֖ת מֵהֵֽנָּה:
of all the commandments of the Lord: Our Rabbis explained: A sin-offering is brought only for such a transgression whose prohibition is expressed [in the Torah] as a negative commandment, and whose willful violation incurs the penalty of excision (premature death by the hands of Heaven). The unintentional violation of such prohibitions incurs a sin-offering [upon the individual]. — [Torath Kohanim 4:196; Shab. 69a)]   מכל מצות ה': פירשו רבותינו אין חטאת באה אלא על דבר שזדונו לאו וכרת (ושגגתו חטאת):
of one of them: [The text should have read, “one of them.” Since it says, “of one of them,” it means to include the case of someone who has transgressed even] part of one of these prohibitions. For example, [if one writes a single letter on the Sabbath, he is not liable for transgressing a prohibition by law of Torah. If he writes two letters, he is liable. Therefore,] if one writes the letters שׁם from שִׁמְעוּן, [which he had intended to write, or] נח from נָחוֹר, [which he had intended to write, or] is from דן from דּנִָיּאֵל, [which he had intended to write, although he did not complete the names he intended to write, since the two-letter names are words in their own right, he is liable for writing on the Sabbath, even though he transgressed only part of the prohibition]. — [Torath Kohanim 4:197]   מאחת מהנה: ממקצת אחת מהן, כגון הכותב בשבת שם משמעון, נח מנחור, דן מדניאל:
3If the anointed kohen sins, bringing guilt to the people, then he shall bring for his sin which he has committed, an unblemished young bull as a sin offering to the Lord.   גאִ֣ם הַכֹּהֵ֧ן הַמָּשִׁ֛יחַ יֶֽחֱטָ֖א לְאַשְׁמַ֣ת הָעָ֑ם וְהִקְרִ֡יב עַ֣ל חַטָּאתוֹ֩ אֲשֶׁ֨ר חָטָ֜א פַּ֣ר בֶּן־בָּקָ֥ר תָּמִ֛ים לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה לְחַטָּֽאת:
if the annointed kohen should sin to bring guilt to the people: Heb. אם הכהן המשיח יחטא לאשמת העםIts midrashic interpretation: He is not obliged [to bring a sin-offering] unless there is a hidden thing together with an unintentional act, as it is said, "to bring guilt on the people" "and something is hidden from the congregation and they do." And its plain meaning according to the aggadah: When the holy priest sins, it is the fault of the people, for they are dependent on him to atone for them and pray for them--- and [now] he has become impaired   אם הכהן המשיח יחטא לאשמת העם: מדרשו אינו חייב אלא בהעלם דבר עם שגגת מעשה, כמו שנאמר לאשמת העם ונעלם דבר מעיני הקהל ועשו (פסוק יג). ופשוטו לפי אגדה, כשכהן גדול חוטא, אשמת העם הוא זה, שהן תלויין בו לכפר עליהם ולהתפלל בעדם, ונעשה מקולקל:
bull: Heb. פַּר One might think that this means an old one. Scripture, therefore, adds, בֶּן [young animal]. But if it shall be young, one might think that it be a very young one. Scripture, therefore, says: פַּר [a term which independently means a mature animal, thus teaching us that it shall not be a very young bull]. So how [do we reconcile both mature and yet young?] It refers to a bull in its third year. — [Torath Kohanim 4:208]   פר: יכול זקן, תלמוד לומר בן, אי בן יכול קטן, תלמוד לומר פר, הא כיצד, זה פר בן שלש:
4And he shall bring the bull to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting before the Lord, and he shall lean his hand [forcefully] upon the bull's head and slaughter the bull before the Lord.   דוְהֵבִ֣יא אֶת־הַפָּ֗ר אֶל־פֶּ֛תַח אֹ֥הֶל מוֹעֵ֖ד לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה וְסָמַ֤ךְ אֶת־יָדוֹ֙ עַל־רֹ֣אשׁ הַפָּ֔ר וְשָׁחַ֥ט אֶת־הַפָּ֖ר לִפְנֵ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
5And the anointed kohen shall take from the bull's blood and bring it into the Tent of Meeting.   הוְלָקַ֛ח הַכֹּהֵ֥ן הַמָּשִׁ֖יחַ מִדַּ֣ם הַפָּ֑ר וְהֵבִ֥יא אֹת֖וֹ אֶל־אֹ֥הֶל מוֹעֵֽד:
to the Tent of Meeting: I.e., to the Mishkan, and in the Temple, to the Heichal, [which housed the menorah, the table, and the incense altar, the equivalent of the Holy, in the Mishkan in the desert].   אל אהל מועד: למשכן, ובבית עולמים להיכל:
6And the kohen shall dip his finger into the blood and sprinkle some of the blood seven times before the Lord, before the dividing curtain of the Sanctuary.   ווְטָבַ֧ל הַכֹּהֵ֛ן אֶת־אֶצְבָּע֖וֹ בַּדָּ֑ם וְהִזָּ֨ה מִן־הַדָּ֜ם שֶׁ֤בַע פְּעָמִים֙ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֔ה אֶת־פְּנֵ֖י פָּרֹ֥כֶת הַקֹּֽדֶשׁ:
before the dividing curtain of the Sanctuary: Heb. פָּרֹכֶת הַקֹּדֶשׁ [i.e., the blood was to be sprinkled towards the dividing curtain,] opposite the place of its holiness, namely, directed [to the site] between the poles [which were attached to the Holy Ark]. But the blood [although sprinkled in that direction,] was not to touch the dividing curtain. However, if it did touch, it touched [and it did not matter]. — [Yoma 57a]   את פני פרכת הקדש: כנגד מקום קדושתה, מכוון כנגד בין הבדים, ולא היו נוגעים דמים בפרוכת, ואם נגעו נגעו:
7And the kohen shall place some of the blood on the horns of the incense altar which is in the Tent of Meeting, before the Lord, and he shall pour all the blood of the bull onto the base of the altar [used] for burnt offerings, which is at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting.   זוְנָתַן֩ הַכֹּהֵ֨ן מִן־הַדָּ֜ם עַל־קַ֠רְנ֠וֹת מִזְבַּ֨ח קְטֹ֤רֶת הַסַּמִּים֙ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֖ר בְּאֹ֣הֶל מוֹעֵ֑ד וְאֵ֣ת | כָּל־דַּ֣ם הַפָּ֗ר יִשְׁפֹּךְ֙ אֶל־יְסוֹד֙ מִזְבַּ֣ח הָֽעֹלָ֔ה אֲשֶׁר־פֶּ֖תַח אֹ֥הֶל מוֹעֵֽד:
all the blood: I.e., the remaining blood. — [see Zev. 25a]   ואת כל דם: שירי הדם:
8And all the fat of the sin offering bull he shall separate from it: the fat covering the innards, and all the fat that is on the innards,   חוְאֶת־כָּל־חֵ֛לֶב פַּ֥ר הַֽחַטָּ֖את יָרִ֣ים מִמֶּ֑נּוּ אֶת־הַחֵ֨לֶב֙ הַֽמְכַסֶּ֣ה עַל־הַקֶּ֔רֶב וְאֵת֙ כָּל־הַחֵ֔לֶב אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־הַקֶּֽרֶב:
And all the fat of the […] bull: It should have said, “its fat.” What does the [seemingly superfluous] word “bull” teach us? It comes to include [another bull, namely,] the bull of Yom Kippur (Lev. 16:3) in the [laws regarding the] kidneys, the fats and the diaphragm.   ואת כל חלב פר: חלבו היה לו לומר, מה תלמוד לומר פר, לרבות פר של יום הכיפורים לכליות ולחלבים וליותרת:
the sin-offering: [Similarly, this seemingly superfluous word] comes to include [another sin-offering, namely,] goats [brought as a sin-offering to atone for unintentional] idolatry (Num. 15:24) in the [laws regarding the] kidneys, the fats and the diaphragm.   החטאת: להביא שעירי עבודה זרה לכליות ולחלבים ויותרת:
he shall separate…from it: i.e., [he shall remove the fat] while it is still attached [to the animal]; he shall not cut [the animal] into [its prescribed] pieces before the removal of its fat. — [Torath Kohanim 4:230]   ירים ממנו: מן המחובר, שלא ינתחנו קודם הסרת חלבו, [ת"כ]:
9and the two kidneys [along] with the fat that is on them, which is on the flanks; and the diaphragm with the liver, along with the kidneys, he shall remove it,   טוְאֵת֙ שְׁתֵּ֣י הַכְּלָיֹ֔ת וְאֶת־הַחֵ֨לֶב֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עֲלֵיהֶ֔ן אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־הַכְּסָלִ֑ים וְאֶת־הַיֹּתֶ֨רֶת֙ עַל־הַכָּבֵ֔ד עַל־הַכְּלָי֖וֹת יְסִירֶֽנָּה:
10just as was separated from the bull [sacrificed as] a peace offering, the kohen shall then cause them to [go up in] smoke on the altar [used] for burnt offerings.   יכַּֽאֲשֶׁ֣ר יוּרָ֔ם מִשּׁ֖וֹר זֶ֣בַח הַשְּׁלָמִ֑ים וְהִקְטִירָם֙ הַכֹּהֵ֔ן עַ֖ל מִזְבַּ֥ח הָֽעֹלָֽה:
just as was separated: Like those parts specified in the case of the ox [offered as a] peace-offering. But what is specified in the case of the peace-offerings that is not specified here? [Nothing at all! So why mention the peace-offering altogether?] In order to compare it to the peace-offering, [as follows]: Just as the peace-offering had to be designated for the specific purpose of a peace-offering, so too, this sacrifice had to be designated for its specific purpose, and just as peace-offerings [bring] peace to the world, so too, this sacrifice [brings] peace to the world. — [Torath Kohanim 4:231] And in Shechitath Kodashim (Zev.), it is taught that this [seemingly superfluous phrase, “just as was separated…,”] is necessary here, in order to learn from it the rule, that we do not derive a law from another matter which is itself only derived [and not explicitly stated in Scripture], when it comes to holy sacrifices. [This is found] in chapter [five of Zev.,] Eizehu Mekoman. — [Zev. 49b] 9-11.   כאשר יורם: מאותן אימורין המפורשין בשור זבח השלמים. וכי מה פירש בזבח השלמים שלא פירש כאן, אלא להקישו לשלמים מה שלמים לשמן, אף זה לשמו. ומה שלמים שלום לעולם, אף זה שלום לעולם. ובשחטת קדשים מצריכו ללמוד הימנו, שאין למדין למד מן הלמד בקדשים, בפרק איזהו מקומן [זבחים מט]:
with the liver, along with the diaphragm: [in verse 9, and in verse 11:]   על הכבד על הכליות, על ראשו ועל כרעיו: כולן לשון תוספת הן, כמו מלבד:
along with its head and along with its legs: All these [mentions of the word עַל here, literally “upon,”] are expressions of adding, like (מִלְבַד) “apart from.” [Thus, in addition to the explanations given earlier (see Rashi verse 3:4), when verse 9 says, “And he shall remove the diaphragm with [part of] the liver, along with the kidneys,” the meaning is “he shall remove the diaphragm, besides (removing part of) the liver and the kidneys.”]  
11[He shall then take] the bull's skin and all of its flesh, along with its head and along with its legs, its innards and its waste matter.   יאוְאֶת־ע֤וֹר הַפָּר֙ וְאֶת־כָּל־בְּשָׂר֔וֹ עַל־רֹאשׁ֖וֹ וְעַל־כְּרָעָ֑יו וְקִרְבּ֖וֹ וּפִרְשֽׁוֹ:
12He shall take out the entire bull to a clean place outside the camp, [namely,] to the ash depository, and he shall burn it in fire on wood. Thus, it shall be burnt in the ash depository.   יבוְהוֹצִ֣יא אֶת־כָּל־הַ֠פָּ֠ר אֶל־מִח֨וּץ לַמַּֽחֲנֶ֜ה אֶל־מָק֤וֹם טָהוֹר֙ אֶל־שֶׁ֣פֶךְ הַדֶּ֔שֶׁן וְשָׂרַ֥ף אֹת֛וֹ עַל־עֵצִ֖ים בָּאֵ֑שׁ עַל־שֶׁ֥פֶךְ הַדֶּ֖שֶׁן יִשָּׂרֵֽף:
to a clean place: Since there was a place outside the city designated for uncleanness, [namely,] to cast plague-stricken stones [which had thereby become unclean] (Lev. 14:40), and for a cemetery, Scripture needed to qualify this instance of “outside the camp” -which [in the case of Jerusalem] was equivalent to outside the city-that the place had to be [ritually] clean.   אל מקום טהור: לפי שיש מחוץ לעיר מקום מוכן לטומאה להשליך אבנים מנוגעות ולבית הקברות, הוצרך לומר מחוץ למחנה, זה שהוא חוץ לעיר, שיהא המקום טהור:
outside the camp: Outside the three camps [of the encampment of Israel, when they were set up in the desert, namely: The camp of the Shechinah, the Levite camp, and the general Israelite camp.]. Regarding the Holy Temple in Jerusalem, however, it means outside the city, as is explained by our Rabbis in Tractate Yoma (68a), and in San. (42b).   מחוץ למחנה: חוץ לשלש מחנות, ובבית עולמים חוץ לעיר, כמו שפירשוהו רבותינו במסכת יומא (סח א) ובסנהדרין (מב ב):
to the ash depository: Heb. אֶל שֶׁפֶ הַדֶּשֶׁן, to the place where they poured out (שׁוֹפְכִין) the ashes which were removed from the altar, as it is said, “and he shall take out the ashes…outside the camp” (Lev. 6:4).   אל שפך הדשן: מקום ששופכין בו הדשן המסולק מן המזבח, כמו שנאמר (ויק' ו ד) והוציא את הדשן אל מחוץ למחנה:
Thus, it shall be burnt in the ash depository: [But the verse has just told us this!] Surely, it does not need to restate it! However, [this repetition comes] to teach [us] that [the bull shall be burnt in the ash depository,] even if there are no ashes there [at the time]. — [Torath Kohanim 4:239]   על שפך הדשן ישרף: שאין תלמוד לומר אלא ללמד, שאפילו אין שם דשן:
13And if the entire community of Israel errs because a matter was hidden from the eyes of the congregation, and they commit one of all the commandments of the Lord, which may not be committed, incurring guilt;   יגוְאִ֨ם כָּל־עֲדַ֤ת יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ יִשְׁגּ֔וּ וְנֶעְלַ֣ם דָּבָ֔ר מֵֽעֵינֵ֖י הַקָּהָ֑ל וְ֠עָשׂ֠וּ אַחַ֨ת מִכָּל־מִצְוֹ֧ת יְהֹוָ֛ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹא־תֵֽעָשֶׂ֖ינָה וְאָשֵֽׁמוּ:
the…community of Israel: This refers to the [Great] Sanhedrin [the Supreme Court of Israel, seated at the Holy Temple]. — [Torath Kohanim 4:241]   עדת ישראל: אלו סנהדרין:
because a matter was hidden: [This means that the Sanhedrin] issued an erroneous decision regarding any matter in the Torah that incurs the penalty of excision, by declaring that matter permissible. — [Hor. 7b]   ונעלם דבר: טעו להורות באחת מכל כריתות שבתורה שהוא מותר:
the congregation, and they and they commit: meaning that the community acted upon their instruction. — [Hor. 3a]   הקהל ועשו: שעשו צבור על פיהם:
14When the sin which they had committed becomes known, the congregation shall bring a young bull as a sin offering. They shall bring it before the Tent of Meeting.   ידוְנֽוֹדְעָה֙ הַֽחַטָּ֔את אֲשֶׁ֥ר חָֽטְא֖וּ עָלֶ֑יהָ וְהִקְרִ֨יבוּ הַקָּהָ֜ל פַּ֤ר בֶּן־בָּקָר֙ לְחַטָּ֔את וְהֵבִ֣יאוּ אֹת֔וֹ לִפְנֵ֖י אֹ֥הֶל מוֹעֵֽד:
15The elders of the community shall lean their hands [forcefully] upon the bull's head, before the Lord, and one shall slaughter the bull before the Lord.   טווְ֠סָֽמְכ֠וּ זִקְנֵ֨י הָֽעֵדָ֧ה אֶת־יְדֵיהֶ֛ם עַל־רֹ֥אשׁ הַפָּ֖ר לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה וְשָׁחַ֥ט אֶת־הַפָּ֖ר לִפְנֵ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
16The anointed kohen shall bring some of the bull's blood into the Tent of Meeting,   טזוְהֵבִ֛יא הַכֹּהֵ֥ן הַמָּשִׁ֖יחַ מִדַּ֣ם הַפָּ֑ר אֶל־אֹ֖הֶל מוֹעֵֽד:
17and the kohen shall dip his finger from the blood, and sprinkle [it] seven times before the Lord, before the dividing curtain.   יזוְטָבַ֧ל הַכֹּהֵ֛ן אֶצְבָּע֖וֹ מִן־הַדָּ֑ם וְהִזָּ֞ה שֶׁ֤בַע פְּעָמִים֙ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֔ה אֵ֖ת פְּנֵ֥י הַפָּרֹֽכֶת:
before the dividing curtain: But above, Scripture says (verse 6),“before the dividing curtain of the Sanctuary.” [Why before was there mention of holiness, whereas now, the verse omits it?] This may be compared to a king against whom a province revolted. If only a minority rebels, his cabinet remains intact. If the entire country rebels, however, his cabinet does not remintact. Here, too. When the anointed kohen sinned (referred to in the verses leading up to verse 6), the name of holiness was still attached to the Sanctuary. When they all sin, (as verse 13 states, “If the entire community of Israel errs”), God forbid, the holiness retracts. — [Zev. 41b]   את פני הפרכת: ולמעלה הוא אומר את פני פרוכת הקדש, משל למלך שסרחה עליו מדינה, אם מיעוטה סרחה, פמליא שלו מתקיימת, ואם כולה סרחה, אין פמליא שלו מתקיימת. אף כאן כשחטא כהן משיח עדיין שם קדושת המקום על המקדש, משחטאו כולם, חס ושלום, נסתלקה הקדושה:
18And he shall then place some of the blood on the horns of the altar that is before the Lord in the Tent of Meeting. And then he shall pour all the blood onto the base of the altar [used] for burnt offerings, which is at the entrance to the Tent of Meeting.   יחוּמִן־הַדָּ֞ם יִתֵּ֣ן | עַל־קַרְנֹ֣ת הַמִּזְבֵּ֗חַ אֲשֶׁר֙ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֖ר בְּאֹ֣הֶל מוֹעֵ֑ד וְאֵ֣ת כָּל־הַדָּ֗ם יִשְׁפֹּךְ֙ אֶל־יְסוֹד֙ מִזְבַּ֣ח הָֽעֹלָ֔ה אֲשֶׁר־פֶּ֖תַח אֹ֥הֶל מוֹעֵֽד:
the base of the altar [used] for burnt-offerings, which is at the entrance to the Tent of Meeting: This is the western base, which is [situated] opposite the entrance. — [Torath Kohanim 4:229]   יסוד מזבח העלה אשר פתח אהל מועד: זה יסוד מערבי, שהוא כנגד הפתח:
19And he shall separate all its fat from it and cause it to [go up in] smoke on the altar.   יטוְאֵ֥ת כָּל־חֶלְבּ֖וֹ יָרִ֣ים מִמֶּ֑נּוּ וְהִקְטִ֖יר הַמִּזְבֵּֽחָה:
And he shall separate all its fat: Although Scripture here does not explicitly mention the diaphragm and the two kidneys, they are derived from (verse 20 below),“He shall do to the bull just as he did [to the bull (sacrificed) as a sin-offering].” Now why are these details not specified here? The School of Rabbi Ishmael taught: This can be compared to a king who was furious with his beloved friend, but shortened [the account of] his offense, because of the affection [he had for him]. — [Zev. 41a]   ואת כל חלבו ירים: אף על פי שלא פירש כאן יותרת ושתי כליות, למדין הם מועשה לפר כאשר עשה וגו'. ומפני מה לא נתפרשו בו, תנא דבי ר' ישמעאל (זבחים מא ב) משל למלך שזעם על אוהבו ומיעט בסרחונו מפני חיבתו:
20He shall do to the bull just as he did to the bull of the sin offering thus he shall do to it. Thus the kohen shall make atonement for them [the community], and they will be forgiven.   כוְעָשָׂ֣ה לַפָּ֔ר כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֤ר עָשָׂה֙ לְפַ֣ר הַֽחַטָּ֔את כֵּ֖ן יַֽעֲשֶׂה־לּ֑וֹ וְכִפֶּ֧ר עֲלֵהֶ֛ם הַכֹּהֵ֖ן וְנִסְלַ֥ח לָהֶֽם:
He shall do to the bull: i.e., with this bull,   ועשה לפר: זה כאשר עשה לפר החטאת, כמו שמפורש בפר כהן משיח, להביא יותרת ושתי כליות שפירש שם מה שלא פירש כאן. ולכפול במצות העבודות, ללמד שאם חסר אחת מכל המתנות פסול, לפי שמצינו בניתנין על המזבח החיצון שנתנן במתנה אחת כפר, הוצרך לומר כאן שמתנה אחת מהן מעכבת:
just as he did to the bull [sacrificed] as a sin-offering: i.e., just as is delineated in the case of the bull of the anointed kohen. [Thus,] included [in the procedures of sacrificing this bull, is the burning of] the diaphragm and the two kidneys, which are specified there and are not specified here (Zev. 41a). [Now, since Scripture relies on the anointed kohen’s sin-offering to teach us the service of sacrificing this bull, why does it specify the procedure involving the sprinkling of the blood, which amounts to a repetition?] The repetition of [details of] the service procedures [involving the sprinkling of blood] comes to teach us that if [even] one application of blood is missing [in the service, the offering is] invalid. — [Torath Kohanim 4:252] [But surely we would know this, without Scripture having to tell us. Why should we think that one missing application of blood would still result in a valid offering?] Since we find regarding the applications [of blood] upon the outer altar, that if the kohen made [only] one application, he nevertheless effected atonement, thus, Scripture needs to tell us here, that [in the case of this bull, where the blood was sprinkled inside the Sanctuary,] that [the omission of even] one application [of blood] affects [the validity of the offering].  
21And he shall take the bull outside the camp and burn it, just as he burned the first bull. It is a sin offering for the congregation.   כאוְהוֹצִ֣יא אֶת־הַפָּ֗ר אֶל־מִחוּץ֙ לַמַּֽחֲנֶ֔ה וְשָׂרַ֣ף אֹת֔וֹ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֣ר שָׂרַ֔ף אֵ֖ת הַפָּ֣ר הָֽרִאשׁ֑וֹן חַטַּ֥את הַקָּהָ֖ל הֽוּא:
22If a leader [of Israel] sins and unintentionally commits one of all the commandments of the Lord, which may not be committed, incurring guilt;   כבאֲשֶׁ֥ר נָשִׂ֖יא יֶֽחֱטָ֑א וְעָשָׂ֡ה אַחַ֣ת מִכָּל־מִצְו‍ֹת֩ יְהֹוָ֨ה אֱלֹהָ֜יו אֲשֶׁ֧ר לֹא־תֵֽעָשֶׂ֛ינָה בִּשְׁגָגָ֖ה וְאָשֵֽׁם:
If the leader [of Israel] sins: Heb. אִשֶׁר נָשִׂיא יֶחֱטָא, [Why does Scripture not use the word אִם like in the cases of verses 3 and 13 above? The answer is that אִשֶׁר is] an expression reminiscent of [the dictum starting with the word] אַשְׁרֵי, “fortunate is…,” namely: “Fortunate is the generation whose leader [does not hold himself too high, but rather,] gives attention to bringing an atonement offering for his unintentional sins-and how much more will he experience remorse for the sins he has committed willfully!” - [Torath Kohanim 4:257]   אשר נשיא יחטא: לשון אשרי, אשרי הדור שהנשיא שלו נותן לב להביא כפרה על שגגתו, קל וחומר שמתחרט על זדונותיו:
23if his sin that he has committed is made known to him, then he shall bring his offering: an unblemished male goat.   כגאֽוֹ־הוֹדַ֤ע אֵלָיו֙ חַטָּאת֔וֹ אֲשֶׁ֥ר חָטָ֖א בָּ֑הּ וְהֵבִ֧יא אֶת־קָרְבָּנ֛וֹ שְׂעִ֥יר עִזִּ֖ים זָכָ֥ר תָּמִֽים:
if…is made known: Heb. אוֹ הוֹדַע [This could be literally understood as, “Or …is made known to him.” However, here, the verse] has the meaning: “If [his sin…] is made known to him.” There are many instances of [the word] אוֹ used as expressions of אִם, “if,” and [there are many instances of] אִם used instead of אוֹ. Similar [to this verse, then,] is (Exod. 21:36): אוֹ נוֹדַע כִּי שׁוֹר נַגָּח הוּא [which means: “If it was known that the ox was used to goring.”   או הודע: כמו אם הודע. הרבה או יש שמשמשין בלשון אם, ואם במקום או, וכן או נודע כי שור נגח הוא (שמות כא לו):
[If his sin…] is made known to him: When he committed the sin, he thought that it was permissible, but afterwards, it became known to him that it was forbidden.   הודע אליו: כשחטא היה סבור שהוא היתר, ולאחר מכאן נודע לו שאיסור היה:
24And he shall lean his hand [forcefully] upon the goat's head and slaughter it in the place where he slaughters burnt offerings, before the Lord. It is a sin offering.   כדוְסָמַ֤ךְ יָדוֹ֙ עַל־רֹ֣אשׁ הַשָּׂעִ֔יר וְשָׁחַ֣ט אֹת֔וֹ בִּמְק֛וֹם אֲשֶׁר־יִשְׁחַ֥ט אֶת־הָֽעֹלָ֖ה לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה חַטָּ֖את הֽוּא:
in the place where he slaughters burnt-offerings: namely, in the north [ern area of the Holy Temple courtyard], as is expressly mentioned in the case of the burnt-offering. — [Torath Kohanim 4:270]   במקום אשר ישחט את העולה: בצפון, שהוא מפורש בעולה:
It is a sin-offering: [If he slaughters it] for this purpose [i.e., for a sin-offering], it is valid, but if it is [slaughtered] not for this purpose, it is invalid. — [Torath Kohanim 271]"   חטאת הוא: לשמו כשר, שלא לשמו פסול:
25And the kohen shall take some of the blood of the sin offering with his finger, and place [it] on the horns of the altar [used] for burnt offerings. And then he shall pour its blood onto the base of the altar [used] for burnt offerings.   כהוְלָקַ֨ח הַכֹּהֵ֜ן מִדַּ֤ם הַֽחַטָּאת֙ בְּאֶצְבָּע֔וֹ וְנָתַ֕ן עַל־קַרְנֹ֖ת מִזְבַּ֣ח הָֽעֹלָ֑ה וְאֶת־דָּמ֣וֹ יִשְׁפֹּ֔ךְ אֶל־יְס֖וֹד מִזְבַּ֥ח הָֽעֹלָֽה:
its blood: [I.e., its] remaining blood.   ואת דמו: שירי הדם:
26And he shall cause all its fat to [go up in] smoke on the altar, just like the fat of the peace offering. Thus the kohen shall make atonement for his sin, and he will be forgiven.   כווְאֶת־כָּל־חֶלְבּוֹ֙ יַקְטִ֣יר הַמִּזְבֵּ֔חָה כְּחֵ֖לֶב זֶ֣בַח הַשְּׁלָמִ֑ים וְכִפֶּ֨ר עָלָ֧יו הַכֹּהֵ֛ן מֵֽחַטָּאת֖וֹ וְנִסְלַ֥ח לֽוֹ:
just like the fat of the peace-offering: i.e., just like the parts [of the animal burnt on the altar] specified for the goat mentioned under the category of peace-offerings.   כחלב זבח השלמים: כאותן אימורין המפורשים בעז האמור אצל שלמים:

Sixth Portion

Leviticus Chapter 4

27If one person of the people of the land commits a sin unintentionally, by his committing one of the commandments of the Lord which may not be committed, incurring guilt;   כזוְאִם־נֶ֧פֶשׁ אַחַ֛ת תֶּֽחֱטָ֥א בִשְׁגָגָ֖ה מֵעַ֣ם הָאָ֑רֶץ בַּֽ֠עֲשׂתָ֠הּ אַחַ֨ת מִמִּצְוֹ֧ת יְהֹוָ֛ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹא־תֵֽעָשֶׂ֖ינָה וְאָשֵֽׁם:
28if his sin that he committed is made known to him, he shall bring his sacrifice: an unblemished female goat, for his sin that he committed.   כחא֚וֹ הוֹדַ֣ע אֵלָ֔יו חַטָּאת֖וֹ אֲשֶׁ֣ר חָטָ֑א וְהֵבִ֨יא קָרְבָּנ֜וֹ שְׂעִירַ֤ת עִזִּים֙ תְּמִימָ֣ה נְקֵבָ֔ה עַל־חַטָּאת֖וֹ אֲשֶׁ֥ר חָטָֽא:
29And he shall lean his hand [forcefully] on the head of the sin offering, and he shall slaughter the sin offering in the place of the burnt offering.   כטוְסָמַךְ֙ אֶת־יָד֔וֹ עַ֖ל רֹ֣אשׁ הַֽחַטָּ֑את וְשָׁחַט֙ אֶת־הַ֣חַטָּ֔את בִּמְק֖וֹם הָֽעֹלָֽה:
30And the kohen shall take some of its blood with his finger, and place [it] on the horns of the altar [used] for burnt offerings. And then he shall pour all of its [remaining] blood at the base of the altar.   לוְלָקַ֨ח הַכֹּהֵ֤ן מִדָּמָהּ֙ בְּאֶצְבָּע֔וֹ וְנָתַ֕ן עַל־קַרְנֹ֖ת מִזְבַּ֣ח הָֽעֹלָ֑ה וְאֶת־כָּל־דָּמָ֣הּ יִשְׁפֹּ֔ךְ אֶל־יְס֖וֹד הַמִּזְבֵּֽחַ:
31And he shall remove all of its fat, just as the fat was removed from the peace offering. The kohen shall then cause it to [go up in] smoke on the altar, as a pleasing fragrance to the Lord. Thus the kohen shall make atonement for him, and he will be forgiven.   לאוְאֶת־כָּל־חֶלְבָּ֣הּ יָסִ֗יר כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֨ר הוּסַ֣ר חֵ֘לֶב֘ מֵעַ֣ל זֶ֣בַח הַשְּׁלָמִים֒ וְהִקְטִ֤יר הַכֹּהֵן֙ הַמִּזְבֵּ֔חָה לְרֵ֥יחַ נִיחֹ֖חַ לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה וְכִפֶּ֥ר עָלָ֛יו הַכֹּהֵ֖ן וְנִסְלַ֥ח לֽוֹ:
just as the fat was removed from the peace-offering: i.e., like the parts [burnt on the altar] of the goat mentioned under the category of peace-offerings.   כאשר הוסר חלב מעל זבח השלמים: כאימורי עז האמורים בשלמים:
32If he brings a sheep for his sin offering, he shall bring an unblemished female.   לבוְאִם־כֶּ֛בֶשׂ יָבִ֥יא קָרְבָּנ֖וֹ לְחַטָּ֑את נְקֵבָ֥ה תְמִימָ֖ה יְבִיאֶֽנָּה:
33He shall lean his hand [forcefully] upon the head of the sin offering and slaughter it as a sin offering in the place where he slaughters the burnt offering.   לגוְסָמַךְ֙ אֶת־יָד֔וֹ עַ֖ל רֹ֣אשׁ הַֽחַטָּ֑את וְשָׁחַ֤ט אֹתָהּ֙ לְחַטָּ֔את בִּמְק֕וֹם אֲשֶׁ֥ר יִשְׁחַ֖ט אֶת־הָֽעֹלָֽה:
and he shall slaughter it as a sin-offering: i.e., its slaughtering shall be performed for the specific purpose of a sin-offering. — [Torath Kohanim 4:290]   ושחט אתה לחטאת: שתהא שחיטתה לשם חטאת:
34And the kohen shall take some of the blood of the sin offering with his finger and place [it] on the horns of the altar [used] for burnt offerings. And then he shall pour all of its blood onto the base of the altar.   לדוְלָקַ֨ח הַכֹּהֵ֜ן מִדַּ֤ם הַֽחַטָּאת֙ בְּאֶצְבָּע֔וֹ וְנָתַ֕ן עַל־קַרְנֹ֖ת מִזְבַּ֣ח הָֽעֹלָ֑ה וְאֶת־כָּל־דָּמָ֣הּ יִשְׁפֹּ֔ךְ אֶל־יְס֖וֹד הַמִּזְבֵּֽחַ:
35And he shall remove all its fat, just as the sheep's fat is removed from the peace offering. The kohen shall then cause them to [go up in] smoke on the altar, upon the fires for the Lord. Thus the kohen shall make atonement for him, for his sin which he committed, and he will be forgiven.   להוְאֶת־כָּל־חֶלְבָּ֣הּ יָסִ֗יר כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֨ר יוּסַ֣ר חֵ֣לֶב הַכֶּ֘שֶׂב֘ מִזֶּ֣בַח הַשְּׁלָמִים֒ וְהִקְטִ֨יר הַכֹּהֵ֤ן אֹתָם֙ הַמִּזְבֵּ֔חָה עַ֖ל אִשֵּׁ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה וְכִפֶּ֨ר עָלָ֧יו הַכֹּהֵ֛ן עַל־חַטָּאת֥וֹ אֲשֶׁר־חָטָ֖א וְנִסְלַ֥ח לֽוֹ:
just as the sheep’s fat is removed: whose prescribed parts [offered up on the altar] are increased by the [addition of its] tail. And likewise, in the case of a female sheep brought as a sin-offering, it too requires the tail [to be added together] with the prescribed parts [offered up on the altar]. — [Torath Kohanim 4:291]   כאשר יוסר חלב הכשב: שנתרבו אימוריו באליה, אף חטאת, כשהיא באה כשבה, טעונה אליה עם האימורין:
upon the fires for the Lord: Upon the fires [prepared by man] for the Lord, foayles in Old French, pyres.   על אשי ה': על מדורות האש העשויות לשם. פואיילי"ש בלע"ז [מדורות]:

Leviticus Chapter 5

1If a person sins, whereby he accepts an oath, and he is a witness [to some matter] by seeing or knowing [it], yet he does not testify, he shall bear his transgression;   אוְנֶ֣פֶשׁ כִּי־תֶֽחֱטָ֗א וְשָֽׁמְעָה֙ ק֣וֹל אָלָ֔ה וְה֣וּא עֵ֔ד א֥וֹ רָאָ֖ה א֣וֹ יָדָ֑ע אִם־ל֥וֹא יַגִּ֖יד וְנָשָׂ֥א עֲו‍ֹנֽוֹ:
he accepts an oath: regarding some matter he had witnessed. I.e., they adjured him by oath, to the effect that if he knew anything regarding the matter, that he would testify for him.   ושמעה קול אלה: בדבר שהוא עד בו, שהשביעוהו שבועה שאם יודע לו בעדות, שיעיד לו:
2Or if a person touches anything unclean, whether it is the carcass of an unclean wild animal, or the carcass of an unclean domestic animal, or the carcass of an unclean creeping animal, and it was hidden from him, he incurs guilt.   בא֣וֹ נֶ֗פֶשׁ אֲשֶׁ֣ר תִּגַּע֘ בְּכָל־דָּבָ֣ר טָמֵא֒ אוֹ֩ בְנִבְלַ֨ת חַיָּ֜ה טְמֵאָ֗ה א֚וֹ בְּנִבְלַת֙ בְּהֵמָ֣ה טְמֵאָ֔ה א֕וֹ בְּנִבְלַ֖ת שֶׁ֣רֶץ טָמֵ֑א וְנֶעְלַ֣ם מִמֶּ֔נּוּ וְה֥וּא טָמֵ֖א וְאָשֵֽׁם:
Or if a person touches [anything unclean]: And after [consequently acquiring] this uncleanness, he eats holy things [namely sacrifices], or he enters the Sanctuary, [each of which] constitutes a sin which, if committed willfully, incurs the penalty of excision. Thus it is explained in Tractate Shevuoth (7a).   או נפש אשר תגע וגו': ולאחר הטומאה הזו יאכל קדשים, או יכנס למקדש, שהוא דבר שזדונו כרת. במסכת שבועות (יד ב) נדרש כן:
is hidden from him: i.e., the uncleanness was hidden from him [meaning that he knew that he was eating holy things or entering the Sanctuary; however, he did not know that he was in a state of uncleanness at the time]. — [Shev.. 14b; Torath Kohanim 5:303]   ונעלם ממנו: הטומאה:
he incurs guilt: By eating the sacred food or by entering the Sanctuary.   ואשם: באכילת קדש או בביאת מקדש:
3Or if he touches the uncleanness of a human, with any uncleanness through which he may become defiled, and it is hidden from him and [later] he knows, he has incurred guilt;   גא֣וֹ כִ֤י יִגַּע֙ בְּטֻמְאַ֣ת אָדָ֔ם לְכֹל֙ טֻמְאָת֔וֹ אֲשֶׁ֥ר יִטְמָ֖א בָּ֑הּ וְנֶעְלַ֣ם מִמֶּ֔נּוּ וְה֥וּא יָדַ֖ע וְאָשֵֽׁם:
the uncleanness of a human: This refers to the uncleanness of a [human] corpse. — [Torath Kohanim 5:304]   בטמאת אדם: זו טומאת מת:
with any uncleanness: This [phrase] comes to include [in this law,] the case of uncleanness acquired by touching a זָב or a זָבָה [a man or woman who has experienced a discharge (see Lev. chapter 15)]. — [Torath Kohanim 5: 305]   לכל טמאתו: לרבות טומאת מגע זבין וזבות:
[through which] he may become defiled: [This phrase comes] to include someone who touches a man who has cohabited with a נִדָּה [a woman who is unclean because of a menstrual flow.]. - [Torath Kohanim 5:305]   אשר יטמא: לרבות הנוגע בבועל נדה:
through which: [This phrase comes] to include one who swallows the carrion of a kosher bird. — [Torath Kohanim 5:306]   בה: לרבות בולע נבלת עוף טהור:
and it is hidden: i.e., [he knew] that he had forgotten the uncleanness.   ונעלם: ולא ידע, ששכח הטומאה:
he has incurred guilt: By eating the sacred food or by entering the Sanctuary.   ואשם: באכילת קדש או בביאת מקדש:
4Or if a person swears, expressing with [his] lips to do harm or to do good, whatever a man may express in an oath, and it is hidden from him and [later] he knows, he is guilty in any one of these cases.   דא֣וֹ נֶ֡פֶשׁ כִּ֣י תִשָּׁבַע֩ לְבַטֵּ֨א בִשְׂפָתַ֜יִם לְהָרַ֣ע | א֣וֹ לְהֵיטִ֗יב לְ֠כֹ֠ל אֲשֶׁ֨ר יְבַטֵּ֧א הָֽאָדָ֛ם בִּשְׁבֻעָ֖ה וְנֶעְלַ֣ם מִמֶּ֑נּוּ וְהֽוּא־יָדַ֥ע וְאָשֵׁ֖ם לְאַחַ֥ת מֵאֵֽלֶּה:
with [his] lips: But not in his heart [i. e., if he merely thought about it, he is not liable to bring a sacrifice]. — [Torath Kohanim 5:311]   בשפתים: ולא בלב:
to do harm: to himself, or   להרע: לעצמו:
or to do good: to himself. [That is to say, he swore:] “I will eat,” or “I will not eat,” or “I will sleep,” or “I will not sleep”. — [see Shev. 27a]   או להיטיב: לעצמו, כגון אוכל ולא אוכל אישן ולא אישן:
whatever [a man] may express [in an oath]: This [phrase] comes to include [an oath] regarding the past [i.e., if he swore, “I ate,” “I did not eat,” etc.]. — [Shev. 26a]   לכל אשר יבטא: לרבות לשעבר:
and it is hidden from him: And [consequently,] he transgressed his oath (Shev. 26a). In all these cases [a person must bring an] עוֹלֶה יוֹרֵד offering-sliding-scale offering, as explained here [in this passage. The person brings a lamb or a goat, or two turtle-doves or young doves, or a meal-offering, depending on what he can afford]. However, [for lying in] an oath involving the denial of a monetary claim, he is not [liable to] this type of offering, but rather, a guilt-offering. — [see below, verses 24-25]   ונעלם ממנו: ועבר על שבועתו, כל אלה בקרבן עולה ויורד, כמפורש כאן, אבל שבועה שיש בה כפירת ממון אינה בקרבן זה אלא באשם:
5And it shall be, when someone incurs guilt in any one of these cases, that he shall confess the sin which he had committed,   הוְהָיָ֥ה כִֽי־יֶאְשַׁ֖ם לְאַחַ֣ת מֵאֵ֑לֶּה וְהִ֨תְוַדָּ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר חָטָ֖א עָלֶֽיהָ:
6and he shall bring his guilt offering to the Lord for his sin which he had committed, a female [animal] from the flock either a sheep or a goat, for a sin offering. And the kohen shall make atonement from his sin.   ווְהֵבִ֣יא אֶת־אֲשָׁמ֣וֹ לַֽיהֹוָ֡ה עַ֣ל חַטָּאתוֹ֩ אֲשֶׁ֨ר חָטָ֜א נְקֵבָ֨ה מִן־הַצֹּ֧אן כִּשְׂבָּ֛ה אֽוֹ־שְׂעִירַ֥ת עִזִּ֖ים לְחַטָּ֑את וְכִפֶּ֥ר עָלָ֛יו הַכֹּהֵ֖ן מֵֽחַטָּאתֽוֹ:
7But if he cannot afford a sheep, he shall bring as his guilt offering for that [sin] that he had committed, two turtle doves or two young doves before the Lord, one for a sin offering, and one for a burnt offering.   זוְאִם־לֹ֨א תַגִּ֣יעַ יָדוֹ֘ דֵּ֣י שֶׂה֒ וְהֵבִ֨יא אֶת־אֲשָׁמ֜וֹ אֲשֶׁ֣ר חָטָ֗א שְׁתֵּ֥י תֹרִ֛ים אֽוֹ־שְׁנֵ֥י בְנֵֽי־יוֹנָ֖ה לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה אֶחָ֥ד לְחַטָּ֖את וְאֶחָ֥ד לְעֹלָֽה:
8He shall bring them to the kohen, who shall first offer up that [bird] which is [designated] for the sin offering. He shall cut its head [by piercing with his nail] opposite the back of its head, but shall not separate [it].   חוְהֵבִ֤יא אֹתָם֙ אֶל־הַכֹּהֵ֔ן וְהִקְרִ֛יב אֶת־אֲשֶׁ֥ר לַֽחַטָּ֖את רִֽאשׁוֹנָ֑ה וּמָלַ֧ק אֶת־רֹאשׁ֛וֹ מִמּ֥וּל עָרְפּ֖וֹ וְלֹ֥א יַבְדִּֽיל:
who shall first offer…the sin-offering: A sin-offering must precede a burnt-offering. — [Torath Kohanim 5:329] To what may this be compared? To an intercessor, who enters [the palace] to appease [the king]. Once he has appeased [him], the gift enters after him [i.e., first the sin-offering comes to appease, then the burnt-offering comes as a gift]. — [Zev. 7b]   והקריב את אשר לחטאת ראשונה: חטאת קודמת לעולה. למה הדבר דומה לפרקליט שנכנס לרצות, ריצה פרקליט נכנס דורון אחריו:
but shall not separate [it]: He cuts only one organ [either the esophagus or the trachea]. — [Chul. 21a]   ולא יבדיל: אינו מולק אלא סימן אחד:
the back of its head: Heb. עֹרֶף It is the high part of the head which slopes down towards the neck [i.e., the back surface of the head, at the level of the face. — (see Sifthei Chachamim on Lev. 1:15)]. Thus, the expression, עֹרֶף, “[that which is situated] opposite the עֹרֶף, has the meaning: ” that which sees the עֹרֶף “ [Now since the עֹרֶף has been defined as the back surface of the head then ”that which sees the עֹרֶף “ refers to] the entire length of the back of the neck [the area which ”sees the עֹרֶף," i.e., which is directly adjacent to it]. — [Torath Kohanim 5:332]   ערף: הוא גובה הראש המשופע לצד הצואר:
9He shall sprinkle from the blood of the sin offering on the wall of the altar, and the remainder of the blood shall be pressed out onto the base of the altar. It is a sin offering.   טוְהִזָּ֞ה מִדַּ֤ם הַֽחַטָּאת֙ עַל־קִ֣יר הַמִּזְבֵּ֔חַ וְהַנִּשְׁאָ֣ר בַּדָּ֔ם יִמָּצֵ֖ה אֶל־יְס֣וֹד הַמִּזְבֵּ֑חַ חַטָּ֖את הֽוּא:
He shall sprinkle from the blood of the sin-offering: In the case of a burnt-offering, Scripture requires only מִצּוּי, pressing out the blood (see Lev. 1:15), but for a sin-offering, both הַזָאָה, sprinkling of the blood, and מִצּוּי, pressing out the blood, are required. He grasps the עֹרֶף [or, as in some early editions and mansuscripts: He grasps the bird. See Yosef Hallel] and sprinkles [the blood], and so, the blood spurts out onto the altar. — [Zev. 64b]   והזה מדם החטאת: בעולה לא הטעין אלא מצוי, ובחטאת הזאה ומצוי. אוחז בעורף ומתיז, והדם ניתז והולך למזבח:
This is a sin-offering: [If the bird was sacrificed] for the specific purpose [of a sin-offering], the offering is valid; however, if it was not [sacrificed] for the specific purpose [of a sin-offering], it is not valid. — [Torath Kohanim 5:335]   חטאת הוא: לשמה כשרה, שלא לשמה פסולה:
10And he shall offer up the second one as a burnt offering, according to the law. Thus the kohen shall make atonement for him, from his sin which he had committed, and he shall be forgiven.   יוְאֶת־הַשֵּׁנִ֛י יַֽעֲשֶׂ֥ה עֹלָ֖ה כַּמִּשְׁפָּ֑ט וְכִפֶּ֨ר עָלָ֧יו הַכֹּהֵ֛ן מֵֽחַטָּאת֥וֹ אֲשֶׁר־חָטָ֖א וְנִסְלַ֥ח לֽוֹ:
according to the law: i.e., according to the ritual prescribed at the beginning of this parashah (Lev. 1: 14-17), regarding the burnt-offering of a bird which is brought voluntarily.   כמשפט: כדת האמור בעולת העוף של נדבה בראש הפרשה:

Seventh Portion

Leviticus Chapter 5

11But if he cannot afford two turtle doves or two young doves, then he shall bring as his sacrifice for his sin one tenth of an ephah of fine flour for a sin offering. He shall not put oil over it, nor shall he place frankincense upon it, for it is a sin offering.   יאוְאִם־לֹא֩ תַשִּׂ֨יג יָד֜וֹ לִשְׁתֵּ֣י תֹרִ֗ים אוֹ֘ לִשְׁנֵ֣י בְנֵֽי־יוֹנָה֒ וְהֵבִ֨יא אֶת־קָרְבָּנ֜וֹ אֲשֶׁ֣ר חָטָ֗א עֲשִׂירִ֧ת הָֽאֵפָ֛ה סֹ֖לֶת לְחַטָּ֑את לֹֽא־יָשִׂ֨ים עָלֶ֜יהָ שֶׁ֗מֶן וְלֹֽא־יִתֵּ֤ן עָלֶ֨יהָ֙ לְבֹנָ֔ה כִּ֥י חַטָּ֖את הִֽוא:
for it is a sin-offering: [and since a sinner is bringing it, albeit an unintentional sinner,] it is not proper that his offering should be embellished [by oil and frankincense]. — [Men. 6a]   כי חטאת הוא: ואין בדין שיהא קרבנו מהודר:
12He shall bring it to the kohen, and the kohen shall scoop out a fistful as its reminder, and cause it to [go up in] smoke on the altar, upon the fires of the Lord. It is a sin offering.   יבוֶֽהֱבִיאָהּ֘ אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן֒ וְקָמַ֣ץ הַכֹּהֵ֣ן | מִ֠מֶּ֠נָּה מְל֨וֹא קֻמְצ֜וֹ אֶת־אַזְכָּֽרָתָהּ֙ וְהִקְטִ֣יר הַמִּזְבֵּ֔חָה עַ֖ל אִשֵּׁ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה חַטָּ֖את הִֽוא:
It is a sin-offering: [This teaches us that] if the offering underwent קְמִיצָה, the scooping out procedure, and הַקְטָרָה the burning procedure, both for the specific purpose of a sin-offering, it is valid; if [these procedures were performed] not for the specific purpose of a sin-offering, however, the offering is invalid. — [Torath Kohanim 5:342]   חטאת הוא: נקמצה ונקטרה לשמה כשרה, שלא לשמה פסולה:
13Thus the kohen shall make atonement for his sin that he committed in any one of these [cases], and he shall be forgiven. And it shall belong to the kohen like the meal offering.   יגוְכִפֶּר֩ עָלָ֨יו הַכֹּהֵ֜ן עַל־חַטָּאת֧וֹ אֲשֶׁר־חָטָ֛א מֵֽאַחַ֥ת מֵאֵ֖לֶּה וְנִסְלַ֣ח ל֑וֹ וְהָֽיְתָ֥ה לַכֹּהֵ֖ן כַּמִּנְחָֽה:
for his sin that he committed: Heb. עַל חַטָּאתוֹ. Here, Scripture changes the expression [previously used], for in the case of a rich man or a moderately poor man [who must bring a sin-offering] (see verses 6 and 10 above), it says, מֵחַטָּאתוֹ, “from his sin,” while here, in the case of a very poor man [who can afford only a meal-offering], it says, עַל חַטָּאתוֹ [literally, “upon his sin”]. Our Rabbis (Ker. 27b) derived from here that, if a person sinned while he was rich and set aside money for a sheep or goat [as his sin-offering], and subsequently, became poor [before he purchased his sacrifice], he is to bring from part of it, two turtle-doves [or young doves, for the verse alluded to this by “from his sin-offering,” from the money designated for it. Similarly,] if a person set aside money for two turtle-doves [or two young doves, as his sin-offering and before the purchase,] he became poorer, he is to bring from part of it a tenth of an ephah [of flour as his sin-offering]. [And in the same vein,] if a [very poor] person designated money for a tenth of an ephah [of flour as his sin-offering] and became rich [before purchasing the flour], he must add to it and bring the offering of a rich man. For this reason it says here, עַל חַטָּאתוֹ [as if to say, “in addition to his sin-offering”].   על חטאתו אשר חטא: כאן שנה הכתוב, שהרי בעשירות ובדלות נאמר (פסוק י) מחטאתו, וכאן בדלי דלות נאמר על חטאתו, דקדקו רבותינו (כריתות כז ב) מכאן, שאם חטא כשהוא עשיר והפריש מעות לכשבה או שעירה והעני, יביא ממקצתן שתי תורים. הפריש מעות לשתי תורים והעני יביא ממקצתן עשירית האיפה [לכך נאמר מחטאתו]. הפריש מעות לעשירית האיפה והעשיר, יוסיף עליהן ויביא קרבן עשיר, לכך נאמר כאן על חטאתו:
in any one of these [cases]: [literally, “from one from these,” thus meaning:] From one of these three [forms of] atonement described in the passage, namely, that of the rich, that of the poor, or that of the very poor. Now what is Scripture teaching us? [Since the Torah gives the three options for offerings, animals, birds, and flour, without specifying who may bring which option,] one might think that severe transgressions [namely contaminating the sanctuary and its holy things, for which the punishment is excision,] must [be atoned for by bringing the “largest” category of sacrifices, namely] sheep or goats, moderate transgressions [namely the oath of the witnesses, not punishable by excision, but which the Torah likens unintentional sins to intentional sins] must be atoned by a “moderate” offering, namely] birds, and the lightest of transgressions [namely the oath of pronouncement, which has neither stringency, must be atoned for by the lightest offerings, namely,] one- tenth of an ephah [of flour]. Thus, Scripture comes to teach us [otherwise, by saying], מֵאַחַת מֵאֵלֶּה literally, “from one from these,” to liken light sins to grave sins regarding a sheep or a goat if he can afford it, and [likewise, to liken] grave sins to light sins regarding the one-tenth of an ephah [of flour], if [the sinner is] very poor. — [Torath Kohanim 5:343] [Although the Torah states in verse 7, “But if he cannot afford a sheep …,” and in verse 11, “But if he cannot afford two turtle-doves or two young doves …,” the text וְאִם לֹא תַגִּיעַ יָדוֹ דֵּי שֶׂה could be interpreted: “If his hand did not reach the treachery to necessitate the bringing of a sheep,” and וְאִם לֹא תַשִּׂיג יָדוֹ לִשְׁתֵּי תֹרִים “If his hand did not reach the treachery to necessitate the bringing of two turtle-doves or two young doves” (Mizrachi, Sifthei Chachamim).] and it shall belong to the kohen like the meal-offering Heb. וְהָיְתָה לַכֹּהֵן כַּמִּנְחָה. [This comes] to teach [us] that the remaining portion of the meal-offering of a sinner is to be eaten [by the kohen]: this is according to its plain meaning. Our Rabbis, (Torath Kohanim 5:344; Men . 73b), however, explained [the passage to mean]: “And if it is for a kohen, it shall be like the meal-offering.” [That is to say: If this sinner is an ordinary Israelite, the remaining portion of the meal-offering is eaten by the kohen , as explained. However,] if this sinner is a kohen, the offering must be for him like any other meal-offering brought voluntarily by a kohen, which is included in “[Every meal-offering of a kohen shall be] completely [burnt]: it shall not be eaten” (Lev. 6:16).   מאחת מאלה: מאחת משלש כפרות האמורות בענין, או בעשירות או בדלות או בדלי דלות. ומה תלמוד לומר, שיכול החמורין שבהם יהיו בכשבה או שעירה, והקלין יהיו בעוף, והקלין שבקלין יהיו בעשירית האיפה, תלמוד לומר מאחת מאלה, להשוות קלין לחמורין לכשבה ושעירה אם השיגה ידו, ואת החמורין לקלין לעשירית האיפה בדלי דלות:
14And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying,   ידוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
15If a person commits a betrayal and trespasses unintentionally against [one] of the things sacred to the Lord, he shall bring as his guilt offering to the Lord an unblemished ram from the flock with a value of silver shekels, in accordance with the shekel of the Sanctuary for a guilt offering.   טונֶ֚פֶשׁ כִּֽי־תִמְעֹ֣ל מַעַ֔ל וְחָֽטְאָה֙ בִּשְׁגָגָ֔ה מִקָּדְשֵׁ֖י יְהֹוָ֑ה וְהֵבִיא֩ אֶת־אֲשָׁמ֨וֹ לַֽיהֹוָ֜ה אַ֧יִל תָּמִ֣ים מִן־הַצֹּ֗אן בְּעֶרְכְּךָ֛ כֶּֽסֶף־שְׁקָלִ֥ים בְּשֶֽׁקֶל־הַקֹּ֖דֶשׁ לְאָשָֽׁם:
If [a person] commits a betrayal: Heb. כִּי תִמְעַל מַעַל. [The term] מְעִילָה everywhere [in Scripture], denotes nothing but a change [of status or position. Hence, here, the person changed the particular article’s status from sacred to mundane, through his misappropriation]. So it says: “And they betrayed (וַיִּמְעַלוּ) the God of their fathers, and they strayed after the gods of the peoples of the land” (I Chron. 5:25). Similarly, Scripture states regarding the סוֹטָה [a woman suspected of adultery] “and she commits a betrayal against him (וּמָעֲלָה בוֹ מָעַל).” (Num. 5:12). - [Torath Kohanim] [In both instances, betrayal represents a change of allegiance.]   כי תמעל מעל: אין מעילה בכל מקום אלא שינוי, וכן הוא אומר (דה"א ה כה) וימעלו באלהי אבותיהם ויזנו אחרי אלהי עמי הארץ, וכן הוא אומר בסוטה (במדבר ה יב) ומעלה בו מעל:
and trespasses unintentionally against [one] of the things sacred to the Lord: meaning that he used sacred articles for his own benefit. Now, where [in Scripture] was one warned [against misappropriating sacred articles]? The word חטא is stated here in our verse, and later on (Lev. 22:9), regarding terumah [the kohen 's due from produce], [the word] חטא is stated: “that they do not bear a sin (חֵטְא) because of it”; thus, just as there [in the case of terumah], Scripture warns, so too, here, Scripture warns. But [if we are using the word חטא to link these two passages, the following could be suggested]: Just as there [in the case of terumah], He warned only one who eats [it], so too, here, Scripture is warning only one who eats [sacred food, but not for merely having benefit from a sacred article]. Therefore, Scripture says: תִמְעֹל מַעַל, the additional [word coming to include the general case of one deriving benefit from sacred articles]. — [See Torath Kohanim 11:347, Me’ilah 18b, Rashi on San. 84a, Makkoth 13a]   וחטאה בשגגה מקדשי ה': שנהנה מן ההקדש. והיכן הוזהר, נאמר כאן חטא ונאמר להלן חטא בתרומה (ויקרא כב ט) ולא ישאו עליו חטא, מה להלן הזהיר, אף כאן הזהיר. אי מה להלן לא הזהיר אלא על האוכל, אף כאן לא הזהיר אלא על האוכל, תלמוד לומר תמעול מעל, ריבה:
of the things sacred to the Lord: Things specifically designated for the Name [of God]. Thus, קֳדָשִׁים קַלִּים [sacrifices with a lesser degree of holiness] are excluded. [Also, portions of sacrifices which may be eaten by the kohen, and are therefore not considered exclusively “designated to God,” are excluded]. — [Torath Kohanim 5:349]   מקדשי ה': המיוחדים לשם, יצאו קדשים קלים:
ram: Heb. אַיִל, a term denoting strength, like “and the mighty (אֵילֵי) of the land, he took away” (Ezek. 17:13). Here, too, it means “strong,” [namely a ram] in its second year. — [Torath Kohanim 5: 350]   איל: לשון קשה, כמו (יחזקאל יז יג) ואת אילי הארץ לקח, אף כאן קשה, בן שתי שנים:
with a value of silver shekels: namely, it must be worth two selaim. — [see Ker. 10b] [Sela in the Mishnah is the shekel of the Torah, and the minimum of שְׁקָלִים is two.]   בערכך כסף שקלים: שיהא שוה שתי סלעים:
16And what he has trespassed against the holy thing he shall pay, and he shall add one fifth of its value to it, and he shall give it to the kohen. The kohen shall then make atonement for him through the ram of the guilt offering, and he shall be forgiven.   טזוְאֵ֣ת אֲשֶׁר֩ חָטָ֨א מִן־הַקֹּ֜דֶשׁ יְשַׁלֵּ֗ם וְאֶת־חֲמִֽישִׁתוֹ֙ יוֹסֵ֣ף עָלָ֔יו וְנָתַ֥ן אֹת֖וֹ לַכֹּהֵ֑ן וְהַכֹּהֵ֗ן יְכַפֵּ֥ר עָלָ֛יו בְּאֵ֥יל הָֽאָשָׁ֖ם וְנִסְלַ֥ח לֽוֹ:
And what he has trespassed against the holy thing he shall pay: the principal and an [additional] fifth to the Holy Temple [treasury].   ואת אשר חטא מן הקדש ישלם: קרן וחומש להקדש:
17If a person sins and commits one of the commandments of the Lord which may not be committed, but he does not know, he is guilty, and he shall bear his transgression.   יזוְאִם־נֶ֨פֶשׁ֙ כִּ֣י תֶֽחֱטָ֔א וְעָֽשְׂתָ֗ה אַחַת֙ מִכָּל־מִצְוֹ֣ת יְהֹוָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֖ר לֹ֣א תֵֽעָשֶׂ֑ינָה וְלֹֽא־יָדַ֥ע וְאָשֵׁ֖ם וְנָשָׂ֥א עֲו‍ֹנֽוֹ:
but he does not know, he is guilty and…He shall bring: This section deals with one who has a doubt regarding a prohibition punishable by excision, whereby he does not know whether he has transgressed it [the prohibition] or not. For instance, [a piece of] prohibited animal fat (חֵלֶב) and [a piece of] permissible animal fat (שׁוּמָן) are placed before someone, and, thinking that both were permissible [fats], he ate one. Then, people told him, “One of those pieces was חֵלֶב, prohibited fat!” Now, the person did not know whether he had eaten the one piece that was חֵלֶב In this case, he must bring a sacrifice called an אָשָׁם תָלוּי [literally, a “pending guilt-offering” (Ker. 17b), which protects him [against punishment] so long as he does not know that he had indeed sinned. However, if afterwards, he did find out [that he had indeed sinned], then he must bring a sin-offering. — [Ker. 26b, Torath Kohanim 5:367]   ולא ידע ואשם והביא: הענין הזה מדבר במי שבא ספק כרת לידו ולא ידע אם עבר עליו אם לאו, כגון חלב ושומן לפניו, וכסבור ששתיהן היתר, ואכל את האחת. אמרו לו אחת של חלב היתה, ולא ידע אם זו של חלב אכל, הרי זה מביא אשם תלוי ומגין עליו כל זמן שלא נודע לו שודאי חטא, ואם נודע לו לאחר זמן יביא חטאת:
but he does not know, he is guilty, and he shall bear his transgression: Rabbi Yose the Galilean says: “Here, Scripture punishes someone who did not [even] know [whether he had sinned or not]; how much more so will Scripture punish someone who does indeed know [that he has sinned]!” Rabbi Yose says: “If you wish to know the reward of the righteous, go forth and learn it from Adam, the first man. He was given only [one] negative commandment, and he transgressed it. Look how many deaths were decreed upon him and his descendants! [Before his sin, Adam was to have lived forever. Since he sinned, however, he and all mankind were punished with death.] Now, which measure is greater-the [bestowing of] goodness, or [the meting out of] punishment? One must say that the measure of goodness [is greater. See Rashi on Makk. 5b, Rivan on Makk. 23a]. So [if, through] the measure of punishment, which is less [than that of goodness] look how many deaths were decreed upon himself and his descendants, [through] the measure of goodness, which is greater, if someone [who does the opposite of Adam, i.e.,] refrains from eating [forbidden foods, like, for instance] פִּגּוּל [a sacrifice rendered invalid by improper intentions at the time of the performance of the ritual] or נוֹתָר [a portion of a sacrifice left over after its prescribed time], or if he fasts on Yom Kippur, then how much more so will he earn merit for himself, for his descendants, and for his descendants’ descendants, until the very end of all generations?!” Rabbi Akiva says: “Scripture states (Deut. 17:6 and 19:15), ‘By the mouth of two witnesses, or three witnesses…’ Now, if the testimony can be established through two witnesses, why does Scripture specify: ‘Or three witnesses’? But to include the third one, to be stringent with him, [as if he had accomplished something with his testomony] and to make his sentence just like these [two witnesses] with regard to punishment for plotting [if the witnesses are dicovered to have plotted against the defendant] (Deut. 19:16-21). [This translation follows the Reggio edition of Rashi, which reads עֹנֶשׁ זְמָמָה All other editions read עֹנֶשׁ וַהִזָמָה, punishment and refutation , which contemporary scholars have difficulty in clarifying. See Chavel, Leket Bahir, Yosef Hallel.] Now, if Scripture punishes someone who is an accessory to those who commit a sin, just like those who commit the sin, how much more so does Scripture bestow ample reward upon someone who is an accessory to those who fulfill a commandment, like those who fulfill a commandment!” Rabbi Eleazar Ben Azariah says: “‘When you reap your harvest in your field and forget a sheaf in the field…,” Scripture continues, ‘so that [the Lord your God] will bless you…’ (Deut. 24: 19). Here, Scripture has affixed a blessing for someone to whom a meritorious deed came without his knowing it. We must conclude from this, that if one had a sela [a coin] bound in the borders of his garment, and it falls out, and a poor man finds this coin and buys provisions with it, the Holy One, Blessed is He, affixes a blessing to him." - [Torath Kohanim 5:363]   ולא ידע ואשם ונשא עונו: ר' יוסי הגלילי אומר הרי הכתוב ענש את מי שלא ידע, על אחת כמה וכמה שיעניש את שידע. רבי יוסי אומר אם נפשך לידע מתן שכרן של צדיקים, צא ולמד מאדם הראשון, שלא נצטוה אלא על מצות לא תעשה ועבר עליה, ראה כמה מיתות נקנסו עליו ולדורותיו. וכי איזו מדה מרובה, של טובה או של פורענות, הוי אומר מדה טובה. אם מדת פורענות המעוטה ראה כמה מיתות נקנסו לו ולדורותיו, מדה טובה המרובה, היושב לו מן הפיגולין והנותרות והמתענה ביום הכיפורים, על אחת כמה וכמה שיזכה לו ולדורותיו ולדורות דורותיו עד סוף כל הדורות. רבי עקיבא אומר הרי הוא אומר (דברים יז ו) על פי שנים עדים או שלשה עדים וגו', אם מתקיימת העדות בשנים, למה פרט לך הכתוב שלשה, אלא להביא שלישי להחמיר עליו ולעשות דינו כיוצא באלו לענין עונש והזמה. אם כך ענש הכתוב לנטפל לעוברי עבירה כעוברי עבירה, על אחת כמה וכמה שישלם שכר טוב לנטפל לעושי מצוה כעושי מצוה. רבי אלעזר בן עזריה אומר כי תקצור קצירך בשדך ושכחת עומר בשדה (דברים כד יט), הרי הוא אומר (דברים כד יט) למען יברכך וגו', קבע הכתוב ברכה למי שבאת על ידו מצוה בלא ידע, אמור מעתה היתה סלע צרורה בכנפיו ונפלה הימנו ומצאה העני ונתפרנס בה, הרי הקב"ה קובע לו ברכה:
18He shall bring an unblemished ram from the flock, with the value for a guilt offering, to the kohen. The kohen shall then make atonement for his unintentional sin which he committed and did not know, and he shall be forgiven.   יחוְ֠הֵבִ֠יא אַ֣יִל תָּמִ֧ים מִן־הַצֹּ֛אן בְּעֶרְכְּךָ֥ לְאָשָׁ֖ם אֶל־הַכֹּהֵ֑ן וְכִפֶּר֩ עָלָ֨יו הַכֹּהֵ֜ן עַ֣ל שִֽׁגְגָת֧וֹ אֲשֶׁר־שָׁגָ֛ג וְה֥וּא לֹֽא־יָדַ֖ע וְנִסְלַ֥ח לֽוֹ:
with the value for a guilt-offering: Heb. בְּעֶרְכְּ, i. e., with the value stated above (see Rashi, verse 15) [namely, two selaim of silver]. — [Torath Kohanim 5: 364]   בערכך לאשם: בערך האמור למעלה (פסוק טו):
for his unintentional sin which he committed and did not know: But if, afterwards, he did come to know [of his sin], he no longer has atonement with this guilt-offering, [and his sin remains unatoned] until he brings a sin-offering. To what can this be compared? To the עֶגְלָה עִרוּפָה [a calf whose neck is broken as an atonement for a city, outside whose precincts a human corpse is found, and the murderer is unknown]; if the neck [of this עֶגְלָה עִרוּפָה has already been broken, and subsequently, the murderer is found, the latter must be put to death [even though, like in the case of our verse, a sacrifice has already been offered]. — [Torath Kohanim 5:367]   אשר שגג והוא לא ידע: הא אם ידע לאחר זמן, לא נתכפר לו באשם זה עד שיביא חטאת. הא למה זה דומה לעגלה ערופה שנתערפה ואחר כך נמצא ההורג, הרי זה יהרג:
19It is a guilt offering he has incurred guilt before the Lord.   יטאָשָׁ֖ם ה֑וּא אָשֹׁ֥ם אָשַׁ֖ם לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
It is a guilt-offering he has incurred guilt: Heb. אָשַׁם אָשָׁם הוּא אָשֹׁם. [In this verse, the root אשׁם, “guilt,” appears three times.] The first is vocalized completely with kematzim [i.e., a kamatz under the first syllable and a kamatz under the second,] because it is a noun [meaning, “a guilt-offering”]. The last אָשַׁם is vocalized half with a kamatz and half with a patach [i.e., a kamatz under the first syllable and a patach under the second] because it is a verb form [meaning, “he has incurred guilt”]. If you ask that this whole verse is superfluous, [I will tell you that] it has already been expounded on in Torath Kohanim (5:368), [as follows]: The double expression אָשֹׁם אָשַׁם comes to include the case of אִשַׁם שִׁפְחָה חִרוּפָה [the guilt-offering to atone for one who violates a betrothed handmaid (see Lev. 19:20)], that it also consist of a ram (in the second year) [worth two selaim of silver] [This is the correct version because a ram is always a sheep in the second year (Sefer Hazikkaron). One might think that I am to include [in this law of two selaim] the guilt-offering of a Nazarite and of a person stricken with tzara’ath. Scripture, therefore, says הוּא [meaning: It is a guilt-offering worth two selaim, but not others which are not rams but lambs]. — [Torath Kohanim 5:369]   אשם הוא אשם אשם: הראשון כולו קמץ שהוא שם דבר, והאחרון חציו קמץ וחציו פתח שהוא לשון פעל. ואם תאמר מקרא שלא לצורך הוא, כבר נדרש הוא בתורת כהנים. אשם אשם להביא אשם שפחה חרופה שיהא איל (בן שתי שנים) שוה שתי סלעים. יכול שאני מרבה אשם נזיר ואשם מצורע, תלמוד לומר הוא:
20And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying,   כוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
21If a person sins, betraying the Lord by falsely denying to his fellow concerning a deposit, or money given in hand, or an object taken by robbery, or he withheld funds from his fellow,   כאנֶ֚פֶשׁ כִּ֣י תֶֽחֱטָ֔א וּמָֽעֲלָ֥ה מַ֖עַל בַּֽיהֹוָ֑ה וְכִחֵ֨שׁ בַּֽעֲמִית֜וֹ בְּפִקָּד֗וֹן אֽוֹ־בִתְשׂ֤וּמֶת יָד֙ א֣וֹ בְגָזֵ֔ל א֖וֹ עָשַׁ֥ק אֶת־עֲמִיתֽוֹ:
If a person sins, [betraying the Lord]: [In verse 15 above, the verse is referring to misappropriating sacred articles. Thus, the sin is against God. However, here in our verse, Scripture says “betraying the Lord,” and then continues to discuss an item left by one’s fellow as a deposit. So what is the relevance of the verse saying, “betraying the Lord” ?] Rabbi Akiva said: What is Scripture teaching us, when it says, “betraying the Lord” ? Since every lender and borrower, buyer and seller, perform their transactions with witnesses and by documentation, therefore, if one denies a monetary claim, he would find himself contradicting witnesses and a document. However, when someone deposits an article with his fellow, he does not want anyone to know about it, except the Third Party between them [namely, God]. Therefore, when he denies, he is denying against the Third Party between them. — [Torath Kohanim 5:372]   נפש כי תחטא: אמר ר' עקיבא מה תלמוד לומר ומעלה מעל בה', לפי שכל המלוה והלוה והנושא והנותן אינו עושה אלא בעדים ובשטר, לפיכך בזמן שהוא מכחש מכחש בעדים ובשטר, אבל המפקיד אצל חבירו אינו רוצה שתדע בו נשמה אלא שלישי שביניהם, לפיכך כשהוא מכחש, מכחש בשלישי שביניהם:
money given in hand: that he placed money into his hand, to do business with it or [as] a loan. — [Torath Kohanim 5:373]   בתשומת יד: ששם בידו ממון להתעסק או במלוה:
or an article taken by robbery: that he robbed him of something.   או בגזל: שגזל מידו כלום:
he withheld funds: [this refers to withholding the wages of] a hired worker. - [Torath Kohanim 5:373]   או עשק: הוא שכר שכיר:
22or he found a lost article and he denied it and swore falsely regarding any one of all these cases whereby a man may sin,   כבאֽוֹ־מָצָ֧א אֲבֵדָ֛ה וְכִ֥חֶשׁ בָּ֖הּ וְנִשְׁבַּ֣ע עַל־שָׁ֑קֶר עַל־אַחַ֗ת מִכֹּ֛ל אֲשֶׁר־יַֽעֲשֶׂ֥ה הָֽאָדָ֖ם לַֽחֲטֹ֥א בָהֵֽנָּה:
and he denied it: [meaning] that He denies [a claim] regarding any one of all these cases whereby a man may sin and swear falsely in denial of a monetary claim.   וכחש בה: שכפר על אחת מכל אלה אשר יעשה האדם לחטוא ולהשבע על שקר לכפירת ממון:
23and it shall be, when he has sinned and is guilty, that he shall return the article which he had robbed, or the funds which he had withheld, or the item which had been deposited with him, or the article which he had found;   כגוְהָיָה֘ כִּי־יֶֽחֱטָ֣א וְאָשֵׁם֒ וְהֵשִׁ֨יב אֶת־הַגְּזֵלָ֜ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר גָּזָ֗ל א֤וֹ אֶת־הָע֨שֶׁק֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשָׁ֔ק א֚וֹ אֶת־הַפִּקָּד֔וֹן אֲשֶׁ֥ר הָפְקַ֖ד אִתּ֑וֹ א֥וֹ אֶת־הָֽאֲבֵדָ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר מָצָֽא:
when he has sinned and is guilty: When he himself recognizes that he must repent, knowing and acknowledging that he has sinned, and is guilty. [Some editions: and he intends to confess that he has sinned.]   כי יחטא ואשם: כשיכיר בעצמו לשוב בתשובה, ולדעת ולהתודות כי חטא ואשם:
24or anything else, regarding which he had sworn falsely, he shall pay it with its principal, adding its fifths to it. He shall give it to its rightful owner on the day [he repents for] his guilt.   כדאוֹ מִכֹּ֞ל אֲשֶׁר־יִשָּׁבַ֣ע עָלָיו֘ לַשֶּׁ֒קֶר֒ וְשִׁלַּ֤ם אֹתוֹ֙ בְּרֹאשׁ֔וֹ וַֽחֲמִֽשִׁתָ֖יו יֹסֵ֣ף עָלָ֑יו לַֽאֲשֶׁ֨ר ה֥וּא ל֛וֹ יִתְּנֶ֖נּוּ בְּי֥וֹם אַשְׁמָתֽוֹ:
the principal: Heb. בְּרֹאשׁוֹ This is the principal, which is the “main” (רֹאשׁ) money [from which profit is generated]. — [B.K. 110a]   בראשו: הוא הקרן ראש הממון:
and its fifths: Heb. וַחִמִשִׁתָיו, [in the plural form.] The Torah includes many fifths of one principal sum. [What case is referred to here?] If a person [had paid back a principal to its rightful owner, but] denies that he owes the extra fifth [claiming, for example, that he had already paid this fifth] and swears later confesses [that he still owes this extra fifth-part], then [in addition to having to pay this fifth of the original principal sum,] he must also pay a fifth of this fifth- [since the fifth of the original principal reverts to becoming a small “principal” in its own right]. And so he continues to add [if he continues to deny, swear falsely and then admit], until the most recent fifth-part is worth less than one perutah. — [Torath Kohanim 5:387]   וחמשתיו: רבתה תורה חמשיות הרבה לקרן אחת, שאם כפר בחומש ונשבע והודה, חוזר ומביא חומש על אותו חומש. וכן מוסיף והולך עד שיתמעט הקרן שנשבע לו פחות משוה פרוטה:
to its rightful owner: [lit., to whom it belongs, meaning:] The person to whom the money [rightfully] belongs.   לאשר הוא לו: למי שהממון שלו:
25He shall then bring his guilt offering to the Lord: an unblemished ram from the flock with the [same] value, for a guilt offering, to the kohen.   כהוְאֶת־אֲשָׁמ֥וֹ יָבִ֖יא לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה אַ֣יִל תָּמִ֧ים מִן־הַצֹּ֛אן בְּעֶרְכְּךָ֥ לְאָשָׁ֖ם אֶל־הַכֹּהֵֽן:
26And the kohen shall make atonement for him before the Lord, and he shall be forgiven for any one of all [cases] whereby one may commit [a sin], incurring guilt through it.   כווְכִפֶּ֨ר עָלָ֧יו הַכֹּהֵ֛ן לִפְנֵ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה וְנִסְלַ֣ח ל֑וֹ עַל־אַחַ֛ת מִכֹּ֥ל אֲשֶֽׁר־יַֽעֲשֶׂ֖ה לְאַשְׁמָ֥ה בָֽהּ:

Maftir Portion

Leviticus Chapter 5

24or anything else, regarding which he had sworn falsely, he shall pay it with its principal, adding its fifths to it. He shall give it to its rightful owner on the day [he repents for] his guilt.   כדאוֹ מִכֹּ֞ל אֲשֶׁר־יִשָּׁבַ֣ע עָלָיו֘ לַשֶּׁ֒קֶר֒ וְשִׁלַּ֤ם אֹתוֹ֙ בְּרֹאשׁ֔וֹ וַֽחֲמִֽשִׁתָ֖יו יֹסֵ֣ף עָלָ֑יו לַֽאֲשֶׁ֨ר ה֥וּא ל֛וֹ יִתְּנֶ֖נּוּ בְּי֥וֹם אַשְׁמָתֽוֹ:
the principal: Heb. בְּרֹאשׁוֹ This is the principal, which is the “main” (רֹאשׁ) money [from which profit is generated]. — [B.K. 110a]   בראשו: הוא הקרן ראש הממון:
and its fifths: Heb. וַחִמִשִׁתָיו, [in the plural form.] The Torah includes many fifths of one principal sum. [What case is referred to here?] If a person [had paid back a principal to its rightful owner, but] denies that he owes the extra fifth [claiming, for example, that he had already paid this fifth] and swears later confesses [that he still owes this extra fifth-part], then [in addition to having to pay this fifth of the original principal sum,] he must also pay a fifth of this fifth- [since the fifth of the original principal reverts to becoming a small “principal” in its own right]. And so he continues to add [if he continues to deny, swear falsely and then admit], until the most recent fifth-part is worth less than one perutah. — [Torath Kohanim 5:387]   וחמשתיו: רבתה תורה חמשיות הרבה לקרן אחת, שאם כפר בחומש ונשבע והודה, חוזר ומביא חומש על אותו חומש. וכן מוסיף והולך עד שיתמעט הקרן שנשבע לו פחות משוה פרוטה:
to its rightful owner: [lit., to whom it belongs, meaning:] The person to whom the money [rightfully] belongs.   לאשר הוא לו: למי שהממון שלו:
25He shall then bring his guilt offering to the Lord: an unblemished ram from the flock with the [same] value, for a guilt offering, to the kohen.   כהוְאֶת־אֲשָׁמ֥וֹ יָבִ֖יא לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה אַ֣יִל תָּמִ֧ים מִן־הַצֹּ֛אן בְּעֶרְכְּךָ֥ לְאָשָׁ֖ם אֶל־הַכֹּהֵֽן:
26And the kohen shall make atonement for him before the Lord, and he shall be forgiven for any one of all [cases] whereby one may commit [a sin], incurring guilt through it.   כווְכִפֶּ֨ר עָלָ֧יו הַכֹּהֵ֛ן לִפְנֵ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה וְנִסְלַ֣ח ל֑וֹ עַל־אַחַ֛ת מִכֹּ֥ל אֲשֶֽׁר־יַֽעֲשֶׂ֖ה לְאַשְׁמָ֥ה בָֽהּ:

Haftarah

Isaiah Chapter 43

21This people I formed for Myself; they shall recite My praise.   כאעַם־זוּ֙ יָצַ֣רְתִּי לִ֔י תְּהִלָּתִ֖י יְסַפֵּֽרוּ:
This people I formed for Myself: so that they recite My praise.  
22But you did not call Me, O Jacob, for you wearied of Me, O Israel.   כבוְלֹֽא־אֹתִ֥י קָרָ֖אתָ יַֽעֲקֹ֑ב כִּֽי־יָגַ֥עְתָּ בִּ֖י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
But you did not call Me: But you did not call Me in your turning after idolatry.  
for you wearied of Me: You quickly wearied of My worship.  
23You did not bring Me the lambs of your burnt offerings, nor did you honor Me with your sacrifices; neither did I overwork you with meal-offerings nor did I weary you with frankincense.   כגלֹֽא־הֵבֵ֚יאתָ לִּי֙ שֵׂ֣ה עֹֽלֹתֶ֔יךָ וּזְבָחֶ֖יךָ לֹ֣א כִבַּדְתָּ֑נִי לֹ֚א הֶעֱבַדְתִּ֙יךָ֙ בְּמִנְחָ֔ה וְלֹ֥א הֽוֹגַעְתִּ֖יךָ בִּלְבוֹנָֽה:
You did not bring Me the lambs of your burnt offerings: but to idolatry.  
neither did I overwork you: Cause you to do much work with the meal offering; merely a handful would be offered to the Most High, and even that I did not ordain upon you to sacrifice as an obligation but as a free-will offering.  
24Neither did you purchase cane for Me with money, nor have you sated Me with the fat of your sacrifices. But you have burdened Me with your sins; you have wearied Me with your iniquities.   כדלֹֽא־קָנִ֨יתָ לִּ֚י בַכֶּ֙סֶף֙ קָנֶ֔ה וְחֵ֥לֶב זְבָחֶ֖יךָ לֹ֣א הִרְוִיתָ֑נִי אַ֗ךְ הֶֽעֱבַדְתַּ֙נִי֙ בְּחַטֹּאותֶ֔יךָ הֽוֹגַעְתַּ֖נִי בַּֽעֲו‍ֹנֹתֶֽיךָ:
Neither did you purchase cane for Me with money: for incense. You did not have to purchase it with money, for it was very common in your land. Said Rabbi Abba: Cinnamon grew in the Land of Israel, and goats and deer would eat of it. In Midrash Eichah (Proem X). ([Some manuscripts read:]  
Neither did you purchase cane for Me with money: for incense, for you failed to offer to Me what you should have, and you were attracted to idolatry.)  
But you have burdened Me: [lit. you have overworked Me.] You have caused Me to be an attendant to pagans, as Ezekiel envisioned (1:4): “And behold a tempest was coming from the north.” For the chariot of the Shechinah was returning from Babylon, where it had gone to conquer the whole world under the domination of Nebuchadnezzar, lest they say that He delivered His children into the hands of an inferior nation, as is found in Hagigah (13b).  
25I, yea I erase your transgressions for My sake, and your sins I will not remember.   כהאָנֹכִ֨י אָנֹכִ֥י ה֛וּא מֹחֶ֥ה פְשָׁעֶ֖יךָ לְמַֽעֲנִ֑י וְחַטֹּאתֶ֖יךָ לֹ֥א אֶזְכֹּֽר:
I, yea I: I am He Who erased them from time immemorial [lit. from then], and I erase them even now.  
for My sake: Neither in your merit nor in the merit of your forefathers.  
26Remind Me, let us stand in judgment; you tell, in order that you be accounted just.   כוהַזְכִּירֵ֕נִי נִשָּֽׁפְטָ֖ה יָ֑חַד סַפֵּ֥ר אַתָּ֖ה לְמַ֥עַן תִּצְדָּֽק:
Remind Me: all the reward I owe you and your forefathers.  
let us stand in judgment: [lit. let us be judged together.] Let us come to judgment.  
27Your first father sinned, and your intercessors transgressed against Me.   כזאָבִ֥יךָ הָֽרִאשׁ֖וֹן חָטָ֑א וּמְלִיצֶ֖יךָ פָּ֥שְׁעוּ בִֽי:
Your first father sinned: by saying (Gen. 15: 8), “How will I know…?”  
and your intercessors transgressed against Me: You have none among all the intercessors upon whose merit you rely, in whom I have not found transgression. Isaac loved My enemy [Esau].  
28And I profane the holy princes, and I deliver Jacob to destruction and Israel to revilings.   כחוַֽאֲחַלֵּ֖ל שָׂ֣רֵי קֹ֑דֶשׁ וְאֶתְּנָ֚ה לַחֵ֙רֶם֙ יַֽעֲקֹ֔ב וְיִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לְגִדּוּפִֽים:
And I profane the holy princes: because of your iniquities.  

Isaiah Chapter 44

1And now, hearken, Jacob My servant, and Israel whom I have chosen.   אוְעַתָּ֥ה שְׁמַ֖ע יַֽעֲקֹ֣ב עַבְדִּ֑י וְיִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל בָּחַ֥רְתִּי בֽוֹ:
And now, hearken: to return to My Torah, Jacob My servant.  
2So said the Lord your Maker, and He Who formed you from the womb shall aid you. Fear not, My servant Jacob, and Jeshurun whom I have chosen.   בכֹּֽה־אָמַ֨ר יְהֹוָ֥ה עֹשֶׂ֛ךָ וְיֹֽצֶרְךָ֥ מִבֶּ֖טֶן יַעְזְרֶ֑ךָּ אַל־תִּירָא֙ עַבְדִּ֣י יַֽעֲקֹ֔ב וִֽישֻׁר֖וּן בָּחַ֥רְתִּי בֽוֹ:
3As I will pour water on the thirsty and running water on dry land, I will pour My spirit on your seed and My blessing on your offspring.   גכִּ֚י אֶצָּק־מַ֙יִם֙ עַל־צָמֵ֔א וְנֽוֹזְלִ֖ים עַל־יַבָּשָׁ֑ה אֶצֹּ֚ק רוּחִי֙ עַל־זַרְעֶ֔ךָ וּבִרְכָתִ֖י עַל־צֶֽאֱצָאֶֽיךָ:
As I will pour water on the thirsty: Just as I pour water on the thirsty, so will I pour My spirit on your seed.  
4And they shall sprout among the grass like willows on rivulets of water.   דוְצָֽמְח֖וּ בְּבֵ֣ין חָצִ֑יר כַּֽעֲרָבִ֖ים עַל־יִבְלֵי־מָֽיִם:
And they shall sprout among the grass: among Esau (mss. and K’li Paz). [The Jewish nation will grow] through the proselytes who will join them. [The expression,] “among the grass” refers to Esau, for it is stated concerning Edom (supra 34:13): “And it shall be the habitat of jackals, an abode (חָצִיר) for ostriches.” (Editions reading, “Amalek,” are erroneous cf. reference.)  
5This one shall say, "I am the Lord's," and this one shall call himself by the name of Jacob, and this one shall write [with] his hand, "To the Lord," and adopt the name Israel.   הזֶ֚ה יֹאמַר֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֣ה אָ֔נִי וְזֶ֖ה יִקְרָ֣א בְשֵׁם־יַֽעֲקֹ֑ב וְזֶ֗ה יִכְתֹּ֚ב יָדוֹ֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֔ה וּבְשֵׁ֥ם יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל יְכַנֶּֽה:
This one shall say, “I am the Lord’s.”: These are the perfectly righteous.  
and this one shall call himself by the name of Jacob.: These are the children, the sons of the wicked.  
and this one shall write [with] his hand, “To the Lord,”: These are the repentant.  
and adopt the name Israel: These are the proselytes. So it was taught in Avoth d’Rabbi Nathan (36:1).  
6So said the Lord, the King of Israel and his Redeemer the Lord of Hosts, "I am first and I am last, and besides Me there is no God.   וכֹּֽה־אָמַ֨ר יְהֹוָ֧ה מֶֽלֶךְ־יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל וְגֹֽאֲל֖וֹ יְהֹוָ֣ה צְבָא֑וֹת אֲנִ֚י רִאשׁוֹן֙ וַֽאֲנִ֣י אַֽחֲר֔וֹן וּמִבַּלְעָדַ֖י אֵ֥ין אֱלֹהִֽים:
7And who will call [that he is] like Me and will tell it and arrange it for Me, since My placing the ancient people, and the signs and those that will come, let them tell for themselves.   זוּמִֽי־כָמ֣וֹנִי יִקְרָ֗א וְיַגִּידֶ֚הָ וְיַעְרְכֶ֙הָ֙ לִ֔י מִשּׂוּמִ֖י עַם־עוֹלָ֑ם וְאֽוֹתִיּ֛וֹת וַֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר תָּבֹ֖אנָה יַגִּ֥ידוּ לָֽמוֹ:
And who will call [that he is] like Me: And who will call that he is like Me and tell and arrange for me all that transpired since I placed the ancient people and until now?  
the ancient people: All the creatures.  
and the signs: Marvelous things.  
and those that will come: And those destined to come, let them tell, as I do now, for the Temple has not yet been destroyed, and you have not been exiled, and neither has Cyrus been born, but I am reporting it to you.  
8Fear not and be not dismayed; did I not let you hear it from then, and I told [it] and you are My witnesses; is there a God besides Me? And there is no rock I did not know.   חאַל־תִּפְחֲדוּ֙ וְאַל־תִּרְה֔וּ הֲלֹ֥א מֵאָ֛ז הִשְׁמַעְתִּ֥יךָ וְהִגַּ֖דְתִּי וְאַתֶּ֣ם עֵדָ֑י הֲיֵ֚שׁ אֱל֙וֹהַּ֙ מִבַּלְעָדַ֔י וְאֵ֥ין צ֖וּר בַּל־יָדָֽעְתִּי:
and be not dismayed: Heb. תִּרְהוּ. There is no similar word, and its interpretation according to its context is like תֵּחַתּוּ, be not dismayed from making My name known among the heathens (nations [K’li Paz and mss.]).  
let you hear: from Mount Sinai, and I told you there that there is no God besides Me.  
and you are My witnesses: that I opened for you seven heavens and showed you that there is no other, and you are My witnesses to this thing that there is no God besides Me.  
and there is no rock I did not know: Jonathan renders: And there is no strong one unless he is given strength by Me.  
I did not know: Heb. יָדַעְתִּי. An expression similar to (Exodus 33:17) “And I knew you by name (וָאֵדָעֲ) ” ; (Deut. 2:7) “He knew (יָדַע) your going” ; (Hosea 13:5) “I knew you (יְדַעְתִּי) in the desert.”  
9Those who form idols are all of them vanity, and their treasures are of no avail, and they are their witnesses; they neither see nor hear, nor do they know, so that they be ashamed.   טיֹֽצְרֵי־פֶ֚סֶל כֻּלָּם֙ תֹּ֔הוּ וַֽחֲמֽוּדֵיהֶ֖ם בַּל־יוֹעִ֑ילוּ וְעֵֽדֵיהֶ֣ם הֵ֗מָּה בַּל־יִרְא֛וּ וּבַל־יֵֽדְע֖וּ לְמַ֥עַן יֵבֹֽשׁוּ:
and they are their witnesses: The idols are witnesses of the shame of their worshipers, for we see that they neither see nor know, yet they were worshiping them.  
so that they be ashamed: Those who worship them.  
10Who formed a god or molded an image, being of no avail?   ימִֽי־יָצַ֥ר אֵ֖ל וּפֶ֣סֶל נָסָ֑ךְ לְבִלְתִּ֖י הוֹעִֽיל:
molded: Heb. נָסָ, an expression of pouring and a molten image (מַסֵּכָה). The ‘nun’ in the word is a radical sometimes omitted, e.g., the ‘nun’ of נשך, biting, and of נגף, plaguing.  
11Behold, all his colleagues shall be ashamed, and they are smiths-of man. Let all of them gather, let them stand, they shall fear, they shall be ashamed together.   יאהֵ֚ן כָּל־חֲבֵרָיו֙ יֵבֹ֔שׁוּ וְחָֽרָשִׁ֥ים הֵ֖מָּה מֵֽאָדָ֑ם יִתְקַבְּצ֚וּ כֻלָּם֙ יַֽעֲמֹ֔דוּ יִפְחֲד֖וּ יֵבֹ֥שׁוּ יָֽחַד:
Behold, all his colleagues: of that fashioner and molder of graven images, who join him to worship his creation and his molten image, shall be ashamed.  
and they are smiths: those fashioners and molders, and they are of men, surely their creation is vanity.  
12The ironsmith [makes] an axe, and he works with coal, and with sledge hammers he fashions it; and he made it with his strong arm; yea he is hungry, and he has no strength, he did not drink water and he becomes faint.   יבחָרַ֚שׁ בַּרְזֶל֙ מַֽעֲצָ֔ד וּפָעַל֙ בַּפֶּחָ֔ם וּבַמַּקָּב֖וֹת יִצְּרֵ֑הוּ וַיִּפְעָלֵ֙הוּ֙ בִּזְר֣וֹעַ כֹּח֔וֹ גַּם־רָעֵב֙ וְאֵ֣ין כֹּ֔חַ לֹא־שָׁ֥תָה מַ֖יִם וַיִּעָֽף:
The ironsmith: a smith of iron.  
an axe: Heb. מַעֲצָד. That is one of the tools of the blacksmiths.  
and he works: the image.  
with coal: Heb. פֶּחָם, charbon in French.  
and with sledge hammers: Heb. מַקָּבוֹת, marteau in French.  
he fashions it: Heb. יִצְּרֵהוּ, an expression of fashioning.  
and he made it with his strong arm; yea he is hungry etc.: Even he, the fashioner, lacks strength and is weak, for if he becomes hungry he has no strength, or if he does not drink water, he becomes faint immediately. Surely his product has no power to help.  
13The carpenter stretched out a line, he beautifies it with a saw; he fixes it with planes, and with a compass he rounds it, and he made it in the likeness of a man, like the beauty of man to sit [in] the house.   יגחָרַ֣שׁ עֵצִים֘ נָ֣טָה קָו֒ יְתָֽאֲרֵ֣הוּ בַשֶּׂ֔רֶד יַֽעֲשֵׂ֙הוּ֙ בַּמַּקְצֻע֔וֹת וּבַמְּחוּגָ֖ה יְתָֽאֳרֵ֑הוּ וַֽיַּֽעֲשֵׂ֙הוּ֙ כְּתַבְנִ֣ית אִ֔ישׁ כְּתִפְאֶ֥רֶת אָדָ֖ם לָשֶׁ֥בֶת בָּֽיִת:
The carpenter: And if he comes to make it of wood, and he is a carpenter, the following is his method.  
stretched out a line: as is the custom of the carpenters, and according to the line, יְתָאֲרֵהוּ בַשֶּׂרֶד, he straightens it with a saw, which they call doloire in French.  
he beautifies it: Heb. יְתָאֲרֵהוּ, he beautifies it.  
he fixes it with planes: Heb. מַקְצֻעוֹת. He smoothes it with a plane and a blade. Jonathan renders מַקְצֻעוֹת as אִיזְמֵלַיָּא, knives or blades.  
and with a compass he rounds it: Heb. יְתָאֳרֵהוּ, an expression similar to (Josh. 15:9): “And the border circled (וְתָאַר).” If he comes to make circular drawings, he draws around it with a compass, compas in French.  
like the beauty of a man: That is a woman, who is the beauty of her husband.  
14To hew for himself cedars, and he took an ilex and an oak and he reenforced it with forest trees; he planted a sapling, and rain makes it grow.   ידלִכְרָת־ל֣וֹ אֲרָזִ֔ים וַיִּקַּ֚ח תִּרְזָה֙ וְאַלּ֔וֹן וַיְאַמֶּץ־ל֖וֹ בַּֽעֲצֵי־יָ֑עַר נָטַ֥ע אֹ֖רֶן וְגֶ֥שֶׁם יְגַדֵּֽל:
ilex and an oak: kinds of non-fruit-producing trees.  
and he reinforced it with forest trees: He makes for it types of reinforcements, either for strength or for beauty, with types of trees, one different from the other in their appearance.  
he planted a sapling: When he finds a branch or a sapling that is fit for that, he plants it for that and the rain makes it grow.  
a sapling: Heb. אֹרֶן, a young sapling, ploncon in O.F.  
15And it was for man to ignite, and he took from them and warmed himself; he even heated [the oven] and baked bread; he even made a god and prostrated himself, he made a graven image and bowed to them.   טווְהָיָ֚ה לְאָדָם֙ לְבָעֵ֔ר וַיִּקַּ֚ח מֵהֶם֙ וַיָּ֔חָם אַף־יַשִּׂ֖יק וְאָ֣פָה לָ֑חֶם אַ֚ף־יִפְעַל־אֵל֙ וַיִּשְׁתָּ֔חוּ עָשָׂ֥הוּ פֶ֖סֶל וַיִּסְגָּד־לָֽמוֹ:
And it was for man to ignite: And part of that very tree was for man’s necessities, [viz.] to ignite.  
and he took: from the trees.  
and he warmed: his body opposite them.  
he even heated: an oven with them and baked bread.  
he even made a God: from what was left over.  
16Half of it he burnt with fire, on half of it he ate meat, he roasted a roast and became sated; he even warmed himself and said, "Aha, I am warm, I see fire."   טזחֶצְיוֹ֙ שָׂרַ֣ף בְּמוֹ־אֵ֔שׁ עַל־חֶצְיוֹ֙ בָּשָׂ֣ר יֹאכֵ֔ל יִצְלֶ֥ה צָלִ֖י וְיִשְׂבָּ֑ע אַף־יָחֹם֙ וְיֹאמַ֣ר הֶאָ֔ח חַמּוֹתִ֖י רָאִ֥יתִי אֽוּר:
17And what is left over from it he made for a god, for his graven image; he kneels to it and prostrates himself and prays to it, and he says, "Save me, for you are my god."   יזוּשְׁאֵ֣רִית֔וֹ לְאֵ֥ל עָשָׂ֖ה לְפִסְל֑וֹ יִסְגָּד־ (כתיב יִסְגָּוד־) ל֚וֹ וְיִשְׁתַּ֙חוּ֙ וְיִתְפַּלֵּ֣ל אֵלָ֔יו וְיֹאמַר֙ הַצִּילֵ֔נִי כִּ֥י אֵלִ֖י אָֽתָּה:
18Neither do they know nor do they understand, for their eyes are bedaubed from seeing, their hearts from understanding.   יחלֹ֥א יָֽדְע֖וּ וְלֹ֣א יָבִ֑ינוּ כִּ֣י טַ֚ח מֵֽרְאוֹת֙ עֵֽינֵיהֶ֔ם מֵֽהַשְׂכִּ֖יל לִבֹּתָֽם:
19And he does not give it thought, and he has neither knowledge nor understanding to say, "Half of it I burnt with fire, and I even baked bread on its coals, I roasted meat and ate. And what was left over from it, shall I make for an abomination, shall I bow to rotten wood?"   יטוְלֹֽא־יָשִׁ֣יב אֶל־לִבּ֗וֹ וְלֹ֨א דַ֥עַת וְלֹֽא־תְבוּנָה֘ לֵאמֹר֒ חֶצְי֞וֹ שָׂרַ֣פְתִּי בְמוֹ־אֵ֗שׁ וְ֠אַף אָפִ֚יתִי עַל־גֶּֽחָלָיו֙ לֶ֔חֶם אֶצְלֶ֥ה בָשָׂ֖ר וְאֹכֵ֑ל וְיִתְרוֹ֙ לְתֽוֹעֵבָ֣ה אֶֽעֱשֶׂ֔ה לְב֥וּל עֵ֖ץ אֶסְגּֽוֹד:
And he does not give it thought: [lit. and he does not return to his heart.] Half of it I burnt with fire.  
and he has neither knowledge nor understanding: [lit. and there is neither knowledge nor understanding] in him to say this.  
to rotten wood: Heb. לְבוּל עֵץ, to decay of wood.  
20[To] a provider [made] of ashes, a deceived heart has perverted him, and he shall not save his soul, and he shall not say, "Is there not falsehood in my right hand?"   כרֹעֶ֣ה אֵ֔פֶר לֵ֥ב הוּתַ֖ל הִטָּ֑הוּ וְלֹֽא־יַצִּ֚יל אֶת־נַפְשׁוֹ֙ וְלֹ֣א יֹאמַ֔ר הֲל֥וֹא שֶׁ֖קֶר בִּֽימִינִֽי:
[To] a provider [made] of ashes, a deceived heart has perverted him: His heart, which was deceived, turned him aside to make for himself a provider of ashes. The image, half of which was burned and made into ashes, this fool says that it is his provider and patron. Another explanation: אֵפֶר רוֹעֶה is an expression of companionship. One who worships idols associates himself with the idol, which is ash.  
and he shall not save: [i.e.,] the misled one shall not save his soul, saying, “Is there not falsehood in my right hand?” and separate from it.  
21Remember these, O Jacob; and Israel, for you are My servant; I formed you that you be a servant to Me, Israel, do not forget Me.   כאזְכָר־אֵ֣לֶּה יַֽעֲקֹ֔ב וְיִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל כִּ֣י עַבְדִּי־אָ֑תָּה יְצַרְתִּ֚יךָ עֶֽבֶד־לִי֙ אַ֔תָּה יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לֹ֥א תִנָּשֵֽׁנִי:
do not forget Me: Do not forget My fear.  
22I erased your transgressions like a thick cloud, and like a cloud have I erased your sins; return to Me for I have redeemed you.   כבמָחִ֚יתִי כָעָב֙ פְּשָׁעֶ֔יךָ וְכֶֽעָנָ֖ן חַטֹּאתֶ֑יךָ שׁוּבָ֥ה אֵלַ֖י כִּ֥י גְאַלְתִּֽיךָ:
I erased your transgressions like a thick cloud: in Egypt and in the desert. Now too, return to Me.  
23Sing, ye heavens, for the Lord has done [this], shout, ye lowest parts of the earth; ye mountains, burst out in song, the forest and all trees therein; for the Lord has redeemed Jacob, and with Israel shall He be glorified.   כגרָנּ֨וּ שָׁמַ֜יִם כִּֽי־עָשָׂ֣ה יְהֹוָ֗ה הָרִ֙יעוּ֙ תַּחְתִּיּ֣וֹת אָ֔רֶץ פִּצְח֚וּ הָרִים֙ רִנָּ֔ה יַ֖עַר וְכָל־עֵ֣ץ בּ֑וֹ כִּֽי־גָאַ֚ל יְהֹוָה֙ יַֽעֲקֹ֔ב וּבְיִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל יִתְפָּאָֽר:
burst out: An expression of opening the mouth.  
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