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Torah Reading for Mishpatim

Torah Reading for Mishpatim

Exodus 21:1-24:18

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Chapter 21

20. And should a man strike his manservant or his maidservant with a rod, and [that one] die under his hand, he shall surely be avenged.   כ. וְכִי יַכֶּה אִישׁ אֶת עַבְדּוֹ אוֹ אֶת אֲמָתוֹ בַּשֵּׁבֶט וּמֵת תַּחַת יָדוֹ נָקֹם יִנָּקֵם:
And should a man strike his manservant or his maidservant: The text is referring to a Canaanite slave, or perhaps it is referring only to a Hebrew [slave]? To clarify this, the Torah says: “because he is his property” (verse 21). Just as his property is his permanent acquisition, so is the slave [in question] one who is his permanent acquisition. Now, was he [the one who kills his slave] not included in “He who strikes a man and he dies” (above, verse 12) ? This verse was written [lit., came] to exclude him [the owner of the slave] from the general rule [concerning murder], to be judged with the law of “a day or two days” (verse 21), that if he did not die under his hand but lingered an entire twenty-four-hour period, he is exempt. -[From Mechilta]   וכי יכה איש את עבדו או את אמתו: בעבד כנעני הכתוב מדבר. או אינו אלא בעברי, תלמוד לומר כי כספו הוא, מה כספו קנוי לו עולמית, אף עבד הקנוי לו עולמית. והרי היה בכלל (פסוק יב) מכה איש ומת, אלא בא הכתוב והוציאו מן הכלל, להיות נדון בדין יום או יומים, שאם לא מת תחת ידו ושהה מעת לעת פטור:
with a rod: The verse refers to [a rod] that has sufficient [weight and strength] to kill [someone]. Or perhaps that is not so, but [the master is liable] even if it [the rod] does not have sufficient [weight and strength] to kill? Therefore, the Torah says concerning an Israelite: “Or if he strikes him with a stone that can be held in the hand, from which he may die” (Num. 35:17). (“Or if he strikes him with a wooden instrument that can be held in the hand, from which he may die” ) (Num. 35:18). -[Mizrachi version] Now could the matter not be understood by a kal vachomer [an inference from a major to a minor case], that if [in the case of] an Israelite [victim], [a case] which is treated more stringently, one is not liable unless he struck him [the victim] with an article that has sufficient [weight and strength] to kill and the blow is on an organ which could cause death, how much more should it be so [in the case of] a slave, [a case] which is treated more leniently? -[From Mechilta]   בשבט: כשיש בו כדי להמית הכתוב מדבר. או אינו אלא אפילו אין בו כדי להמית, תלמוד לומר בישראל (במדבר לה יז) ואם באבן יד אשר ימות בה הכהו, והלא דברים קל וחומר מה ישראל חמור אין חייב עליו, אלא אם כן הכהו בדבר שיש בו כדי להמית, ועל אבר שהוא כדי למות בהכאה זו, עבד הקל לא כל שכן:
he shall surely be avenged: [with] death by the sword [decapitation], and so does the Torah say: “a sword avenging the vengeance of the covenant” (Lev. 26:25). -[From Mechilta, Sanh. 52b]   נקם ינקם: מיתת סייף, וכן הוא אומר (ויקרא כו כה) חרב נוקמות נקם ברית:
21. But if he survives for a day or for two days, he shall not be avenged, because he is his property.   כא. אַךְ אִם יוֹם אוֹ יוֹמַיִם יַעֲמֹד לֹא יֻקַּם כִּי כַסְפּוֹ הוּא:
But if he survives for a day or two he shall not be avenged: If one day[’s survival] exempts him [from punishment], then would not [survival of] two days be even more obvious? [Why then, is the word יומים written?] Rather [it must be that we are speaking of] one day which is as two days, and what [kind of day] is that? A full, twenty-four hour period.   אך אם יום או יומים יעמוד לא יקם: אם על יום אחד הוא פטור, על יומים לא כל שכן, אלא יום שהוא כיומים, ואיזה, זה מעת לעת:
he shall not be avenged, because he is his property: But if someone else struck him, even if he lingered for twenty-four hours before he died, he [the other person] is liable [to incur the death penalty].   לא יקם כי כספו הוא: הא אחר שהכהו, אף על פי ששהה מעת לעת קודם שמת, חייב:
22. And should men quarrel and hit a pregnant woman, and she miscarries but there is no fatality, he shall surely be punished, when the woman's husband makes demands of him, and he shall give [restitution] according to the judges' [orders].   כב. וְכִי יִנָּצוּ אֲנָשִׁים וְנָגְפוּ אִשָּׁה הָרָה וְיָצְאוּ יְלָדֶיהָ וְלֹא יִהְיֶה אָסוֹן עָנוֹשׁ יֵעָנֵשׁ כַּאֲשֶׁר יָשִׁית עָלָיו בַּעַל הָאִשָּׁה וְנָתַן בִּפְלִלִים:
And should men quarrel: with one another, and [one] intended to strike his fellow, and [instead] struck a woman. [From Sanh. 79a]   וכי ינצו אנשים: זה עם זה, ונתכוין להכות את חבירו והכה את האשה:
and hit a pregnant woman: Heb. נְגִיפָה וְנָגְפוּ is only an expression of pushing and striking, as [in the following phrases:] “lest you strike ךְתִּגֹף your foot with a stone” (Ps. 91:12); “and before your feet are bruised (יִתְנְַָפוּ) ” (Jer. 13:16); “and a stone upon which to dash oneself (נֶגֶף) ” (Isa. 8:14).   ונגפו: אין נגיפה אלא לשון דחיפה והכאה, כמו (תהלים צא יב) פן תגוף באבן רגלך, (ירמיה יג טז) ובטרם יתנגפו רגליכם, (ישעיה ח יד) ולאבן נגף:
but there is no fatality: with the woman. -[From Sanh. 79a, Jonathan]   ולא יהיה אסון: באשה:
he shall surely be punished: to pay the value of the fetuses to the husband. They assess her [for] how much she was valued to be sold in the market, increasing her value because of her pregnancy. -[From B.K. 49a] I. e., the court figures how much she would be worth if sold as a pregnant slave when customers would take into account the prospect of the slaves she would bear, and her value as a slave without the pregnancy. The assailant must pay the difference between these two amounts. -[B.K. 48b, 49a]   ענוש יענש: לשלם דמי ולדות לבעל שמין אותה, כמה היתה ראויה למכר בשוק להעלות בדמיה בשביל הריונה:
he shall surely be punished: Heb. יֵעָנֵשׁ עָנוֹשׁ. They shall collect monetary payment from him, like וְעָנְשׁוּ [in the verse] “And they shall fine (וְעָנְשׁוּ) him one hundred [shekels of] silver” (Deut. 22:19). [From Mechilta]   ענוש יענש: יגבו ממון ממנו, כמו (דברים כב יט) וענשו אותו מאה כסף:
when the woman’s husband makes demands of him: When the husband sues him [the assailant] in court to levy upon him punishment for that.   כאשר ישית עליו וגו': כשיתבנעו הבעל בבית דין להשית עליו עונש על כך:
and he shall give [restitution]: The assailant [shall give] the value of the fetuses.   ונתן: המכה דמי ולדות:
according to the judges: Heb. בִּפְלִלִים, according to the verdict of the judges. -[From Mechilta]   בפלילים: על פי הדיינים:
23. But if there is a fatality, you shall give a life for a life,   כג. וְאִם אָסוֹן יִהְיֶה וְנָתַתָּה נֶפֶשׁ תַּחַת נָפֶשׁ:
But if there is a fatality: with the woman.   ואם אסון יהיה: באשה:
you shall give a life for a life: Our Rabbis differ on this matter. Some say [that he must] actually [give up his] life, and some say [that he must pay] money, but not actually a life, and if one intends to kill one person and kills another, he is exempt from the death penalty and must pay his [the victim’s] heirs his value, as [it would be if] he were sold in the marketplace. -[From Mechilta, Sanh. 79]   ונתתה נפש תחת נפש: רבותינו חולקין בדבר. יש אומרים נפש ממש, ויש אומרים ממון, אבל לא נפש ממש, שהמתכויון להרוג את זה והרג את זה פטור ממיתה ומשלם ליורשיו דמיו, כמו שהיה נמכר בשוק:
24. an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth, a hand for a hand, a foot for a foot,   כד. עַיִן תַּחַת עַיִן שֵׁן תַּחַת שֵׁן יָד תַּחַת יָד רֶגֶל תַּחַת רָגֶל:
an eye for an eye: If [a person] blinds his neighbor’s eye, he must give him the value of his eye, [which is] how much his price to be sold in the marketplace has decreased [without the eye]. So is the meaning of all of them [i.e., all the injuries enumerated in the following verses], but not the actual amputation of a limb, as our Rabbis interpreted it in the chapter entitled הַחוֹבֵל, he who assaults. -[From B.K. 83b, 84a]   עין תחת עין: סימא עין חבירו נותן לו דמי עינו, כמה שפחתו דמיו למכור בשוק, וכן כולם, ולא נטילת אבר ממש, כמו שדרשו רבותינו בפרק החובל (בבא קמא פד א):
25. a burn for a burn, a wound for a wound, a bruise for a bruise.   כה. כְּוִיָּה תַּחַת כְּוִיָּה פֶּצַע תַּחַת פָּצַע חַבּוּרָה תַּחַת חַבּוּרָה:
a burn for a burn: Heb. כְּוִיָּה, a burn caused by fire. [Rashi probably alludes to מִכְוַת-אֵשׁ in Lev. 13:24.] Until now [the Torah] spoke of an injury that decreases the value [of the victim], and now of [an injury] that does not decrease the [victim’s] value [as a slave] but causes pain, for instance if he [the assailant] burned him [the victim] on his nails with a spit, they [the judges] compute how much [money] a person like him would be willing to take to endure such pain. -[From B.K. 84a, Mechilta]   כויה תחת כויה: מכות אש, ועד עכשיו דבר בחבלה שיש בה פחת דמים, ועכשיו בשאין בה פחת דמים, אלא צער, כגון כוואו בשפוד על צפרנו אומדים כמה אדם כיוצא בזה רוצה ליטול להיות מצטער כך:
a wound: Heb. פֶּצַע, a wound that bleeds, where he wounded his [victim’s] flesh, navredure in Old French, all according to what it [the wound] is. If it decreases his value, he [the assailant must] pay [for the] damage; if he falls into idleness, he [must] pay for idleness, and for healing, shame, and pain. This verse is superfluous [because there is no difference between a wound and a burn. Whatever damage he inflicts he must pay]. In [the chapter] הַחוֹבֵל (B.K. 84a), our Rabbis interpreted it as making one liable for [the victim’s] pain even where there is [permanent] damage [which he must pay for], because although he pays him [the victim] the value of his hand, we do not exempt him from the [payment compensating for the victim’s] pain, reasoning that since he [the assailant] purchased his [the victim’s] hand [by giving the victim payment for its value], he may amputate it with whatever he wants. We say, however, that he should amputate it with a medication that lessens the pain. However, [if] he cut it off with [an] iron [implement] and caused him pain [he must give the victim compensation]. -[From B.K. 85a]   פצע: היא מכה המוציאה דם, שפצע את בשרו, נברדור"א בלעז, [פציעה] הכל לפי מה שהוא אם יש בו פחת דמים נותן נזק, ואם נפל למשכב נותן שבת ורפוי ובשת וצער. ומקרא זה יתר הוא, ובהחובל דרשוהו רבותינו לחייב על הצער אפילו במקום נזק, שאף על פי שנותן לו דמי ידו, אין פוטרין אותו מן הצער לומר הואיל וקנה ידו יש עליו לחתכה בכל מה שירצה, אלא אומרים יש לו לחתכה בסם, שאינו מצטער כל כך, וזה חתכה בברזל וצערו:
a bruise: Heb. חַבּוּרָה. This is a blow in which blood collects but does not come out. It only reddens the flesh on that spot. The term חַבּוּרָה is equivalent to tache in Old French [meaning] a spot, like “or a leopard its spots (חִבַרְבֻּרֹתָיו) ” (Jer. 13:23). Its Aramaic translation is מַשְׁקוֹפֵי, an expression of beating, batedure in Old French, [meaning] beating, knocking, and so, שְׁדֻפוֹתקָדִּים (Gen. 41:23) [is translated by Onkelos as:] קִדּוּם שְׁקִיפָן, [which means] “beaten by the [east] wind,” and similarly, “on the lintel (עַל הַמַשְׁקוֹף)” (Exod. 12:7), [is given this appellation] because the door bangs against it [the lintel]. [See commentary on Exod. 12:7.]   חבורה: היא מכה שהדם נצרר בה ואינו יוצא, אלא שמאדים הבשר כנגדו ולשון חבורה [טי"א] בלעז [כתם], כמו (ירמיה יג כג) ונמר חברברותיו ותרגומו משקופי, לשון חבטה בטדור"א בלעז [מכה], וכן ושדופת קדים (בראשית מא ו) שקיפן קידום, חבוטות ברוח, וכן על המשקוף (לעיל יב כג) על שם שהדלת נושק עליו:
26. And if a man strikes the eye of his manservant or the eye of his maidservant and destroys it, he shall set him free in return for his eye,   כו. וְכִי יַכֶּה אִישׁ אֶת עֵין עַבְדּוֹ אוֹ אֶת עֵין אֲמָתוֹ וְשִׁחֲתָהּ לַחָפְשִׁי יְשַׁלְּחֶנּוּ תַּחַת עֵינוֹ:
the eye of his manservant: [This refers to] a Canaanite, but a Hebrew [slave] does not go out with [the loss of his] tooth or [his] eye as we have stated on “she shall not go out as the slaves go out” (Exod. 21:7).   את עין עבדו: כנעני, אבל עברי אינו יוצא בשן ועין, כמו שאמרנו אצל לא תצא כצאת העבדים (פסוק ז):
in return for his eye: And so it [the law] is with the twenty-four tips of limbs: [i.e.,] the fingers and toes, the two ears and the nose, and the רֹאֹש הַגְּוִיָה, which is the male organ. Why were [both] a tooth and an eye mentioned [when the Torah could have mentioned only one]? Because if it had mentioned an eye and did not mention a tooth, I would say that just as an eye was created with him [at birth], so [does this apply to] everything that is created with him, but a tooth was not created with him [at birth]. [Therefore, I would say that if the master knocked out his slave’s tooth, the slave would not be freed.] If it mentioned a tooth and did not mention an eye, I would say [that] even [if the master knocked out] a baby tooth, which would be replaced [by the natural growth of another tooth, the slave would be freed]. Therefore, it mentions the eye [which cannot be replaced, to teach us that if the master knocks out a baby tooth, the slave is not freed]. -[From Kid. 24a]   תחת עינו: וכן בכ"ד ראשי אברים אצבעות הידים והרגלים. ושתי אזנים והחוטם וראש הגויה, שהוא גיד האמה. ולמה נאמר שן ועין, שאם נאמר עין ולא נאמר שן, הייתי אומר מה עין שנברא עמו אף כל שנברא עמו, והרי שן לא נברא עמו, ועם נאמר שן ולא נאמר עין, הייתי אומר אפילו שן תינוק שיש לה חליפין, לכך נאמר עין:
27. and if he knocks out the tooth of his manservant or the tooth of his maidservant, he shall set him free in return for his tooth.   כז. וְאִם שֵׁן עַבְדּוֹ אוֹ שֵׁן אֲמָתוֹ יַפִּיל לַחָפְשִׁי יְשַׁלְּחֶנּוּ תַּחַת שִׁנּוֹ:
28. And if a bull gores a man or a woman and [that one] dies, the bull shall surely be stoned, and its flesh shall not be eaten, and the owner of the bull is clear.   כח. וְכִי יִגַּח שׁוֹר אֶת אִישׁ אוֹ אֶת אִשָּׁה וָמֵת סָקוֹל יִסָּקֵל הַשּׁוֹר וְלֹא יֵאָכֵל אֶת בְּשָׂרוֹ וּבַעַל הַשּׁוֹר נָקִי:
And if a bull gores: [This law refers to] either a bull or any domestic animal, beast, or bird, but the text spoke of what usually occurs [i.e., bulls usually gore]. -[From Mechilta, B.K. 54b]   וכי יגח שור: אחד שור ואחד כל בהמה וחיה ועוף אלא שדיבר הכתוב בהווה:
and its flesh shall not be eaten: From the implication of what was stated: “the bull shall surely be stoned,” do I not know that it will become carrion [i.e., meaning not killed according to halachah], and carrion is forbidden to be eaten. For what purpose, then, does the Torah state: “and its flesh shall not be eaten” ? [To inform us] that even if one slaughtered it [according to halachah] after it was sentenced, it is forbidden to be eaten. How do we know that no benefit may be derived from it [this animal sentenced to death]? Therefore, the Torah says: “and the owner of the bull is clean (נָקִי) ”, as one says to his friend, “So-and-so lost his property [lit., was cleaned out (נָקִי) of his property], and he has no benefit at all from it” (B.K. 41a). This is its midrashic meaning. Its simple meaning is as its apparent meaning. Since it says concerning a habitual gorer: “and also its owner shall be put to death,” it had to say that in the case of a tame [bull]: “and the owner of the bull is clean [i.e., clear of any charges].” [The tame bull (ךְתָּם) is the bull that did not gore habitually, but only once or twice. In the case of the bull that killed a person, this bull is put to death, but the owner is clear; i.e., he does not have to pay ransom. Should the bull gore three people and kill all of them, it is called מוּעָד, warned. The fourth time it gores someone it is liable to death, and its owner is also liable to death by the hands of Heaven. In order to clear himself of this punishment he must pay ransom, as is delineated in verses 29 and 30.]   ולא יאכל את בשרו: ממשמע שנאמר סקול יסקל השור, איני יודע שהוא נבלה, ונבלה אסורה באכילה, אלא מה תלמוד לומר ולא יאכל את בשרו, שאפילו שחטו לאחר שנגמר דינו, אסור באכילה. בהנאה מנין, תלמוד לומר ובעל השור נקי, כאדם האומר לחבירו יצא פלוני נקי מנכסיו ואין לו בהם הנאה של כלום, זהו מדרשו. ופשוטו כמשמעו לפי שנאמר במועד וגם בעליו יומת, הוצרך לומר בתם ובעל השור נקי:
29. But if it is a [habitually] goring bull since yesterday and the day before yesterday, and its owner had been warned, but he did not guard it, and it puts to death a man or a woman, the bull shall be stoned, and also its owner shall be put to death,   כט. וְאִם שׁוֹר נַגָּח הוּא מִתְּמֹל שִׁלְשֹׁם וְהוּעַד בִּבְעָלָיו וְלֹא יִשְׁמְרֶנּוּ וְהֵמִית אִישׁ אוֹ אִשָּׁה הַשּׁוֹר יִסָּקֵל וְגַם בְּעָלָיו יוּמָת:
since yesterday and the day before yesterday: This implies [a total of] three gorings. [From Mechilta, B.K. 23b]   מתמל שלשם: הרי שלש נגיחות -:
and its owner has been warned: Heb. וְהוּעַד, a word denoting a warning in front of witnesses (Mechilta, B.K. 24a), like “The man warned us repeatedly (הָעֵד הֵעִד) ” (Gen. 43:3).   והועד בבעליו: - לשון התראה בעדים, כמו (בראשית מג ג) העד העיד בנו האיש:
and it puts to death a man, etc.: Since it stated: “if [a bull] gores,” I know only that [the bull is liable to death] if it kills him [its victim] by goring [with its horns]. If it killed him through biting, shoving, or kicking, how do we know [that it must be killed]? Therefore, the Torah states: “and it puts to death,” [implying that in whatever way it kills its victim, the bull is liable to death]. -[based on Mechilta]   והמית איש וגו': לפי שנאמר וכי יגח, אין לי אלא שהמיתו בנגיחה, המיתו בנשיכה, דחיפה, רביצה, בעיטה מנין, תלמוד לומר והמית [מכל מקום]:
and also its owner shall be put to death: By the hands of Heaven [and not through a court]. I might think that it [this verse] means [that he is liable to death] by the hands of man [i.e., through the court]. Therefore, the Torah states: “The assailant shall surely be put to death; he is a murderer” (Num. 35:21), [implying that] for his [act of] murder you [must] kill him, but you do not kill him [i. e., anyone] for his bull’s [act of] murder. -[From Sanh. 15b]   וגם בעליו יומת: בידי שמים. יכול בידי אדם, תלמוד לומר (במדבר לה כא) מות יומת המכה רוצח הוא, על רציחתו אתה הורגו, ואי אתה הורגו על רציחת שורו:
30. insofar as ransom shall be levied upon him, he shall give the redemption of his soul according to all that is levied upon him.   ל. אִם כֹּפֶר יוּשַׁת עָלָיו וְנָתַן פִּדְיֹן נַפְשׁוֹ כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר יוּשַׁת עָלָיו:
insofar as ransom shall be levied upon him: Heb. (אִם). This (אִם) is not [meant as a] conditional, but it is like “When (אִם) you lend money” (Exod. 22:24), a word meaning “that.” His sentence is that the court levy ransom upon him.   אם כפר יושת עליו: אם זה אינו תלוי, והרי הוא כמו (לקמן כב כד) אם כסף תלוה, לשון אשר, זה משפטו, שישיתו עליו בית דין כופר:
he shall give the redemption of his soul: [This means] the value of the victim [as a slave]. This is the view of Rabbi Ishmael. Rabbi Akiva says: The value of the damager, [i.e., the owner of the goring bull]. -[From Mechilta]   ונתן פדיון נפשו: דמי ניזק, דברי רבי ישמעאל, רבי עקיבא אומר דמי מזיק:
31. Or if it gores a young boy or a young girl, according to this ordinance shall be done to him.   לא. אוֹ בֵן יִגּח אוֹ בַת יִגָּח כַּמִּשְׁפָּט הַזֶּה יֵעָשֶׂה לוֹ:
Or if it gores a young boy: Heb. בֵן, lit., a son A son who is a minor.   או בן יגח: בן שהוא קטן:
or a young girl: Heb. בַת, lit., a daughter who is a minor. Since it says (verse 29): “and it puts to death a man or a woman,” I may think that he (the bull) is liable only for [killing] adults. Therefore, the Torah states: “Or if it gores a young boy, etc.” to make one liable for minors as [for] adults. -[From Mechilta, Mechilta d’Rabbi Shimon ben Yochai, B.K. 43b, 44a]   או בת: שהיא קטנה. לפי שנאמר והמית איש או אשה, יכול אינו חייב אלא על הגדולים, תלמוד לומר או בן יגח וגו', לחייב על הקטנים כגדולים:
32. If the bull gores a manservant or a maidservant, he shall give silver [in the amount of] thirty shekels to his master, and the bull shall be stoned.   לב. אִם עֶבֶד יִגַּח הַשּׁוֹר אוֹ אָמָה כֶּסֶף | שְׁלשִׁים שְׁקָלִים יִתֵּן לַאדֹנָיו וְהַשּׁוֹר יִסָּקֵל:
…a manservant or a maidservant -: Canaanites. -[From Mechilta]   אם עבד או אמה: כנעניים:
thirty shekels: This is a decree of the Scriptures [that the bull’s owner pay thirty shekels] whether he [the dead slave] was worth a thousand zuz or whether he was worth no more than a dinar. The weight of the shekel is four pieces of gold, which equal half an ounce according to the official weight of Cologne.   שלשים שקלים יתן: גזירת הכתוב הוא, בין שהוא שוה אלף זוז, בין שאינו שוה אלא דינר. והשקל משקלו ארבע זהובים שהם חצי אונקיא למשקל הישר של קולוניי"א:
33. And if a person opens a pit, or if a person digs a pit and does not cover it, and a bull or a donkey falls into it,   לג. וְכִי יִפְתַּח אִישׁ בּוֹר אוֹ כִּי יִכְרֶה אִישׁ בֹּר וְלֹא יְכַסֶּנּוּ וְנָפַל שָׁמָּה שּׁוֹר אוֹ חֲמוֹר:
And if a person opens a pit: which was covered, and he uncovered it.   וכי יפתח איש בור: שהיה מכוסה וגלהו:
or if… digs: Why was this stated? If he is liable for opening [a pit that had already been dug], is it not [true that he would be] even more [guilty] for digging [a new pit]? But this is to include a digger [who digs deeper] after a digger, that he is liable. [I.e., if one digs a pit nine handbreadths deep, which is capable of injuring an animal but not killing it, and another digs one handbreadth more, making the open pit capable of killing an animal, the second digger is liable in all cases.] -[From B.K. 51a]   או כי יכרה: למה נאמר, אם על הפתיחה חייב, על הכרייה לא כל שכן, אלא להביא כורה אחר כורה שהוא חייב:
and does not cover it: intimating that if he covered it, he is exempt [from paying for any damages that could occur], and the text speaks of one who digs in a public domain. -[From B.K. 55b]   ולא יכסנו: הא אם כסהו, פטור, ובחופר ברשות הרבים דבר הכתוב:
and a bull or a donkey: The same applies to all domestic animals and beasts, for wherever it says: “a bull and a donkey,” we [can] derive [that it applies to all domestic animals] through a גְּזֵרָה שָׁוָה, similar wording of שׂוֹר שׁוֹר, [which is] from [the law concerning the] Sabbath, as it is stated: “In order that your bull and your donkey rest” (Exod. 23:12). Just as there [referring to the Sabbath] every domestic animal and beast is like the bull [in reference to the law], for it says elsewhere [regarding the Sabbath] (Deut. 5:14) “[…you shall not perform any kind of work, neither you, nor your son…] and all your animals,” here, too, all animals and beasts are like the bull [in reference to the law]. The bull and the donkey are mentioned only [for us to understand that] for a bull [that falls into a pit the owner is liable] but not for a man [who falls into a pit], and [he is liable for] a donkey but not for utensils. -[From B.K. 10b]   שור או חמור: הוא הדין לכל בהמה וחיה, שבכל מקום שנאמר שור וחמור, אנו למדין אותו שור שור משבת, שנאמר למען ינוח שורך וחמורך (שמות כג יב); מה להלן כל בהמה וחיה כשור. שהרי נאמר במקום אחר וכל בהמתך (דברים ה יג) אף כאן, כל בהמה וחיה כשור, ולא נאמר שור וחמור אלא שור, ולא אדם, חמור, ולא כלים:
34. the owner of the pit shall pay; he shall return money to its owner, and the dead body shall be his.   לד. בַּעַל הַבּוֹר יְשַׁלֵּם כֶּסֶף יָשִׁיב לִבְעָלָיו וְהַמֵּת יִהְיֶה לּוֹ:
the owner of the pit: [This refers to] the creator of the obstacle [i.e., the pit], although the pit is not his, for he made it in a public domain, Scripture made him its owner, insofar as he is liable for its damages. -[From B.K. 29b]   בעל הבור: בעל התקלה, אף על פי שאין הבור שלו, שעשאו ברשות הרבים, עשאו הכתוב בעליו להתחייב עליו בנזקין:
he shall return money to its owner: Heb. יָשִׁיב. [The word] יָשִׁיב [is written] to include [anything] worth money, even bran. -[From B.K. 7a] (See Exod. 22:4: “the best of his field or the best of his vineyard he shall pay,” which Rashi explains to mean that damages are paid from the best land. Rav Huna the son of Rav Yehoshua in the Talmud (B.K. 7b) solves this apparent discrepancy by concluding that it applies only if the defendant prefers to pay the damages with land, but if he prefers to pay with movable objects, everything is deemed the best, because if it cannot be sold here, it can be sold elsewhere.) [Addendum to Rashi] [It can therefore be easily converted to cash.]   כסף ישיב לבעליו: ישיב, לרבות שוה כסף, ואפילו סובין:
and the dead body shall be his -: [The dead animal will belong to] the one [owner] who sustained the damage. They assess the carcass, and he [the owner] takes it for its value, and the damager pays him in addition to it [the carcass] payment for his damage. -[From Mechilta, B.K. 10b]   והמת יהיה לו: לניזק, שמין את הנבלה ונוטלה בדמים ומשלם לו המזיק עליה תשלומי נזקו:
35. And if a man's bull strikes his friend's bull and it dies, they shall sell the live bull and divide the money received for it, and they shall also divide the dead body.   לה. וְכִי יִגֹּף שׁוֹר אִישׁ אֶת שׁוֹר רֵעֵהוּ וָמֵת וּמָכְרוּ אֶת הַשּׁוֹר הַחַי וְחָצוּ אֶת כַּסְפּוֹ וְגַם אֶת הַמֵּת יֶחֱצוּן:
And if… strikes: Heb. יִגֹּף, shove, either with its horns, or with its feet, or whether he bit him with his teeth All are included in נְגִיפָה, for נְגִיפָה is only an expression of striking. -[From Mechilta]   וכי יגף: ידחוף, בין בקרניו, בין בגופו, בין ברגליו, בין שנשכו בשניו, כולן בכלל נגיפה הם, שאין נגיפה אלא לשון מכה:
a man’s bull: Heb. שׁוֹר-אִישׁ, a bull [belonging to] a man.   שור איש: שור של איש:
they shall sell the live bull, etc.: Scripture speaks of [two bulls] of equal value a bull worth two hundred [zuz] that killed a bull worth two hundred [zuz]. Whether the carcass is worth much or worth little, when this one takes half [the value of] the live [bull] and half [the value of] the dead one, the result is that each one sustains half the damage that death inflicted upon him. We learn that the tame [bull] pays half the damage, for from the equal ones [the bulls of equal value] you learn [how it is with] the unequal ones [bulls of unequal value], for the law of the tame bull is to pay half the damage, not more or less. Or perhaps, even if they were unequal when they were alive, Scripture mandates that they sell them both [and divide the proceeds of the sale between them]? [This cannot be true since] if you say that sometimes the damager would gain very much, or sometimes the victim would receive much more than the amount of the complete damage, for half the value of the damaging bull [may] exceed the entire value of the bull that was damaged. If you say that, the [law regarding the] tame bull is more stringent than the [law regarding the] habitual gorer [which is illogical]. You are compelled to say that Scripture is referring only to the ones [bulls] of equal value. It teaches you that the tame bull pays half the damage, and from the [law concerning] equal ones, you learn about the unequal ones, that for the one who is awarded half the damage they [the court] assess the carcass, and the decrease of its value due to the death, [and] he receives half the depreciation and leaves (B.K. 34a). Now why did Scripture state it in this language? To teach [us] that the tame bull pays only with its body, and if it gored and subsequently died, the one [owner] who sustained the damage receives only the carcass, and if it does not equal half his damage, he has a loss. Or if a bull worth a maneh [one hundred zuz] gored a bull worth five hundred zuz, he [the owner] receives only the bull, for the tame bull did not become obligated to obligate its owner to pay from the best of his property (B.K. 16b).   ומכרו את השור וגו': בשוים הכתוב מדבר, שור שוה מאתיים שהמית שור שוה מאתיים, בין שהנבלה שוה הרבה, בין שהיא שוה מעט, כשנוטל זה חצי החי וחצי המת, וזה חצי החי וחצי המת, נמצא כל אחד מפסיד חצי נזק [שהזיקה המיתה, למדנו שהתם משלם חצי נזק, שמן השוין אתה למד לשאינן שוין] כי דין התם לשלם חצי נזק לא פחות ולא יותר. או יכול אף בשאינן שוין בדמיהן כשהן חיים, אמר הכתוב וחצו את שניהם, אם אמרת כן, פעמים שמזיק משתכר הרבה, כשהנבלה שוה לימכר לנכרים הרבה יותר מדמי שור המזיק, ואי אפשר שיאמר הכתוב, שיהא המזיק נשכר. או פעמים שהניזק נוטל הרבה יותר מדמי נזק שלם, שחצי דמי שור המזיק שוין יותר מכל דמי שור הניזק, ואם אמרת כן, הרי תם חמור ממועד, על כרחך לא דבר הכתוב אלא בשוין. ולמדך שהתם משלם חצי נזק, ומן השוין תלמד לשאינן שוין, שהמשתלם חצי נזקו שמין לו את הנבלה, ומה שפחתו דמיו בשביל המיתה, נוטל חצי הפחת והלך, ולמה אמר הכתוב בלשון הזה ולא אמר ישלם חציו, ללמד שאין התם משלם אלא מגופו, ואם נגח ומת, אין הנזוק נוטל אלא הנבלה, ואם אינה מגעת לחצי נזקו, יפסיד. או שור שוה מנה שנגח שור שוה חמש מאות זוז, אינו נוטל אלא את השור, שלא נתחייב התם לחייב את בעליו לשלם מן העליה:
36. Or if it was known that it was a [habitually] goring bull since yesterday and the day before yesterday, and its owner does not watch it, he shall surely pay a bull for a bull, and the dead body shall be his.   לו. אוֹ נוֹדַע כִּי שׁוֹר נַגָּח הוּא מִתְּמוֹל שִׁלְשֹׁם וְלֹא יִשְׁמְרֶנּוּ בְּעָלָיו שַׁלֵּם יְשַׁלֵּם שׁוֹר תַּחַת הַשּׁוֹר וְהַמֵּת יִהְיֶה לּוֹ:
Or if it was known: Or if it was not tame, but it was known that it was a [habitually] goring bull today and from yesterday and the day before yesterday, totaling three gorings. -[From Mechilta, B.K. 23b]   או נודע: או לא היה תם, אלא נודע כי שור נגח הוא היום, ומתמול שלשום, הרי שלש נגיחות:
he shall surely pay a bull: The complete damage. [Midrash Hagadol from Mechilta d’Rabbi Shimon ben Yochai]   שלם ישלם שור: נזק שלם:
and the dead body shall be his: [I.e.,] the victim’s, and in addition to that, the damager must complete it until the victim is paid his entire damage [due to him]. -[From B.K. 10b. 53b]   והמת יהיה לו: לניזק, ועליו ישלים המזיק, עד שישתלם ניזק כל נזקו:
37. If a man steals a bull or a lamb and slaughters it or sells it, he shall pay five cattle for the bull or four sheep for the lamb.   לז. כִּי יִגְנֹב אִישׁ שׁוֹר אוֹ שֶׂה וּטְבָחוֹ אוֹ מְכָרוֹ חֲמִשָּׁה בָקָר יְשַׁלֵּם תַּחַת הַשּׁוֹר וְאַרְבַּע צֹאן תַּחַת הַשֶּׂה:
five cattle, etc.: Rabban Yochanan ben Zakkai said: The Omnipresent was considerate of people’s honor. [For] a bull, which walks with its [own] feet, and the thief was not disgraced by carrying it on his shoulder, he pays fivefold. [For] a lamb, which he [the thief] carries on his shoulder, he pays [only] fourfold because he was disgraced by it. Rabbi Meir said: Come and see how great the power of work is. [For the theft of] a bull, which caused [the owner] to stop working, he [the thief] pays five. [For the theft of] a lamb, which did not cause [the owner] to stop working, [the thief pays] four. -[From Mechilta, B.K. 79b, Tosefta B.K. 7:3]   חמשה בקר וגו': אמר רבן יוחנן בן זכאי חס המקום על כבודן של בריות, שור שהולך ברגליו ולא נתבזה בו הגנב לנושאו על כתפו, משלם חמישה, שה שנושאו על כתפו, משלם ארבעה הואיל ונתבזה בו. אמר רבי מאיר בא וראה כמה גדולה כחה של מלאכה, שור שבטלו ממלאכתו משלם חמשה שה שלא בטלו ממלאכתו ארבעה:
for the bull…for the lamb: Scripture repeated them [i.e., the mentioning of the bull and the lamb] to tell [you] that the rule of fourfold and fivefold payments applies only to a bull and a lamb. [From B.K. 67b]   תחת השור תחת השה: שנאן הכתוב לומר, שאין מדת תשלומי ארבעה וחמשה נוהגת אלא בשור ושה בלבד:

Chapter 22

1. If, while breaking in, the thief is discovered, and he is struck and dies, [it is as if] he has no blood.   א. אִם בַּמַּחְתֶּרֶת יִמָּצֵא הַגַּנָּב וְהֻכָּה וָמֵת אֵין לוֹ דָּמִים:
If, while breaking in: [I.e.,] when he was breaking into the house.   אם במחתרת: כשהיה חותר את הבית:
he has no blood: [This signifies that] this is not [considered] murder. It is as though he [the thief] was [considered] dead from the start. Here the Torah teaches you [the lesson]: If someone comes to kill you, kill him first. And this one [the thief] has come to kill you, because he knows that no one [can] hold himself back and remain silent when he sees people taking his money. Therefore, he [the thief] has come with the acknowledgement that if the owner of the property were to stand up against him, he [the owner] would kill him [the thief]. -[From Sanh. 72a]   אין לו דמים: אין זו רציחה, הרי הוא כמת מעיקרו. כאן למדתך תורה אם בא להרגך, השכם להרגו, וזה להרגך בא שהרי יודע הוא, שאין אדם מעמיד עצמו וראה שנוטלין ממונו בפניו ושותק, לפיכך על מנת כן בא, שאם יעמוד בעל הממון כנגדו יהרגנו:
2. If the sun shone upon him, [it is as if] he has blood; he shall surely pay. If he has no [money], he shall be sold for his theft.   ב. אִם זָרְחָה הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ עָלָיו דָּמִים לוֹ שַׁלֵּם יְשַׁלֵּם אִם אֵין לוֹ וְנִמְכַּר בִּגְנֵבָתוֹ:
If the sun shone upon him: This is nothing but a metaphor [meaning] if the matter is clear to you that he [the thief] is peaceably disposed toward you-similar to the sun, which represents peace in the world-so it is obvious to you that he has not come to kill [you]. Even if the owner of the money rises against him, for instance, if a father breaks in to steal his son’s property, it is known that the father has mercy on his son, and he has not come with the idea of murdering [him]. -[From Sanh. 72a, Mechilta]   אם זרחה השמש עליו: אין זה אלא כמן משל אם ברור לך הדבר שיש לו שלום עמך, כשמש הזה שהוא שלום בעולם, כך פשוט לך שאינו בא להרוג, אפילו יעמוד בעל הממון כנגדו, כגון אב החותר לגנוב ממון הבן, בידוע שרחמי האב על הבן, ואינו בא על עסקי נפשות:
he has blood: He [the thief] is considered as a live person, and it is [considered] murder if the property owner kills him.   דמים לו: כחי הוא חשוב ורציחה היא, אם יהרגהו בעל הבית:
he shall surely pay: The thief [shall pay] the money he stole, and he is not liable to death. [The thief is considered to have been sentenced to death in cases where the property owner is allowed kill him. In these cases the thief is exempt from any monetary obligation incurred when he dug into the house. In cases where the property owner may not kill him, however, the thief is not considered liable to death, and thus must pay for what he stole.] Onkelos, who rendered: “If the eye of witnesses fell upon him,” adopted another view, saying that if witnesses discovered him [the thief] before the property owner came, and when the property owner came against him, they warned him not to kill him, [the thief is considered as if] he has blood; i.e., he [the owner] is liable for him [the thief] if he kills him, because since [he has committed his crime when] people can see him, this thief has not come with the intention to murder, and he would not kill the property owner.   שלם ישלם: הגנב ממון שגנב, ואינו חייב מיתה. ואונקלוס שתרגם אם עינא דסהדיא נפלת עלוהי, לקח לו שטה אחרת, לומר שאם מצאוהו עדים קודם שבא בעל הבית, וכשבא בעל הבית נגדו, התרו בו, שלא יהרגהו, דמים לו, חייב עליו אם הרגו, שאחר שיש רואים לו, אין הגנב הזה בא על עסקי נפשות, ולא יהרוג את בעל הממון:
3. If the stolen article is found in his possession whether a bull, a donkey, or a lamb live ones he shall pay twofold.   ג. אִם הִמָּצֵא תִמָּצֵא בְיָדוֹ הַגְּנֵבָה מִשּׁוֹר עַד חֲמוֹר עַד שֶׂה חַיִּים שְׁנַיִם יְשַׁלֵּם:
If the stolen article is found in his possession: Heb. בְיָדוֹ, lit., in his hand, [meaning] in his possession, [meaning] that he neither slaughtered nor sold [it]. -[From Mechilta]   אם המצא תמצא בידו: ברשותו, שלא טבח ולא מכר:
whether a bull, a donkey: Everything is included in the [obligation to make a] twofold payment, whether it is a living thing or something that is not alive, for it says elsewhere (verse 8): “for a lamb, for a garment, for any lost article,… [he] shall pay twofold to his neighbor.” -[From B.K. 62b]   ומשור עד חמור: כל דבר בכלל תשלומי כפל בין שיש בו רוח חיים בין שאין בו רוח חיים, שהרי נאמר במקום אחר (פסוק ח) על שה על שלמה על כל אבדה וגו' ישלם שנים לרעהו:
live ones he shall pay twofold: And he shall not pay him dead ones, but either live ones or the value of live ones. -[From Mechilta]   חיים שנים ישלם: ולא ישלם לו מתים, אלא חיים או דמי חיים:
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