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Torah Reading for Mikeitz

Torah Reading for Mikeitz

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Parshat Mikeitz
Shabbat, 28 Kislev, 5778
16 December, 2017
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Complete: (Genesis 41:1 - 44:17; Numbers 7:30-35; Zachariah 2:14 - 4:7)
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First Portion

Genesis Chapter 41

1It came to pass at the end of two full years, that Pharaoh was dreaming, and behold, he was standing by the Nile.   אוַיְהִ֕י מִקֵּ֖ץ שְׁנָתַ֣יִם יָמִ֑ים וּפַרְעֹ֣ה חֹלֵ֔ם וְהִנֵּ֖ה עֹמֵ֥ד עַל־הַיְאֹֽר:
It came to pass at the end: Heb. מִקֵץ. The Targum renders: מִסוֹף, at the end, and every expression of קֵץ means end.   ויהי מקץ: כתרגומו מסוף, וכל לשון קץ סוף הוא:
by the Nile: Heb. עַל-הַיְאֹר, lit., by the canal. No other rivers are called יְאוֹרִים except the Nile, because the entire land is covered with many man-made canals (יְאוֹרִים), and the Nile rises in their midst and waters them, for it does not usually rain in Egypt as it does in other countries.   על היאור: כל שאר נהרות אינם קרוים יאורים חוץ מנילוס, מפני שכל הארץ עשויין יאורים יאורים בידי אדם ונילוס עולה בתוכם ומשקה אותם, לפי שאין גשמים יורדין במצרים תדיר כשאר ארצות:
2And behold, from the Nile were coming up seven cows, of handsome appearance and robust flesh, and they pastured in the marshland.   בוְהִנֵּ֣ה מִן־הַיְאֹ֗ר עֹלֹת֙ שֶׁ֣בַע פָּר֔וֹת יְפ֥וֹת מַרְאֶ֖ה וּבְרִיאֹ֣ת בָּשָׂ֑ר וַתִּרְעֶ֖ינָה בָּאָֽחוּ:
of handsome appearance: This was a symbol of the days of plenty, when creatures appear handsome to one another, for no one envies his fellow. — [from Gen. Rabbah 89:4]   יפות מראה: סימן הוא לימי שובע, שהבריות נראות יפות זו לזו, שאין עין בריה צרה בחברתה:
in the marshland: Heb. בָּאָחוּ, in the marsh, maresc in Old French, like“Can the reed-grass (אָחוּ) grow…” (Job 8:11).   באחו: באגם, מריש"ק בלע"ז [ביצה], כמו (איוב ח יא) ישגא אחו:
3And behold, seven other cows were coming up after them from the Nile, of ugly appearance and lean of flesh, and they stood beside the cows [which were] on the Nile bank.   גוְהִנֵּ֞ה שֶׁ֧בַע פָּר֣וֹת אֲחֵר֗וֹת עֹל֤וֹת אַֽחֲרֵיהֶן֙ מִן־הַיְאֹ֔ר רָע֥וֹת מַרְאֶ֖ה וְדַקּ֣וֹת בָּשָׂ֑ר וַתַּֽעֲמֹ֛דְנָה אֵ֥צֶל הַפָּר֖וֹת עַל־שְׂפַ֥ת הַיְאֹֽר:
and lean of flesh: Heb. וְדַקוֹת, tenves in Old French, a term meaning thin.   ודקות בשר: טינבי"ש בלע"ז [דקות], לשון דק:
4And the cows of ugly appearance and lean of flesh devoured the seven cows that were of handsome appearance and healthy; then Pharaoh awoke.   דוַתֹּאכַ֣לְנָה הַפָּר֗וֹת רָע֤וֹת הַמַּרְאֶה֙ וְדַקֹּ֣ת הַבָּשָׂ֔ר אֵ֚ת שֶׁ֣בַע הַפָּר֔וֹת יְפֹ֥ת הַמַּרְאֶ֖ה וְהַבְּרִיאֹ֑ת וַיִּיקַ֖ץ פַּרְעֹֽה:
devoured: A sign that all the joy of the plenty will be forgotten during the days of the famine.   ותאכלנה: סימן שתהא כל שמחת השובע נשכחת בימי הרעב:
5And he fell asleep and dreamed again, and behold, seven ears of grain were growing on one stalk, healthy and good.   הוַיִּישָׁ֕ן וַיַּֽחֲלֹ֖ם שֵׁנִ֑ית וְהִנֵּ֣ה | שֶׁ֣בַע שִׁבֳּלִ֗ים עֹל֛וֹת בְּקָנֶ֥ה אֶחָ֖ד בְּרִיא֥וֹת וְטֹבֽוֹת:
on one stalk: Heb. בָּקָנֶה אֶחָד, tudel , tuiel , or tue(i)l, in Old French, stalk.   בקנה אחד: טודי"ל בלע"ז [גבעול]:
healthy: Heb. בְּרִיאוֹת sains in French, healthy.   בריאות: שייני"ש בלע"ז [בריאות]:
6And behold, seven ears of grain, thin and beaten by the east wind, were growing up after them.   ווְהִנֵּה֙ שֶׁ֣בַע שִׁבֳּלִ֔ים דַּקּ֖וֹת וּשְׁדוּפֹ֣ת קָדִ֑ים צֹֽמְח֖וֹת אַֽחֲרֵיהֶֽן:
and beaten: Heb. וּשְׁדוּפוֹת. hasled(e)s in Old French, burnt up, parched; וּשְׁקִיפָן קִדּוּם [in Targum Onkelos], beaten, an expression similar to מַשְׁקוֹף, lintel, which is constantly beaten by the door, which knocks against it.   ושדופת: השלידי"ש בלע"ז [מיובשות] ושקיפן קדום, חבוטות לשון משקוף החבוט תמיד על ידי הדלת המכה עליו:
the east wind: Heb. קָדִים, the east wind, called Bise in French. (Early editions read: the southeast wind.)   קדים: רוח מזרחית שקורין ביש"א [רוח יבשה]:
7And the thin ears of grain swallowed up the seven healthy and full ears of grain; then Pharaoh awoke, and behold, a dream.   זוַתִּבְלַ֨עְנָה֙ הַשִּׁבֳּלִ֣ים הַדַּקּ֔וֹת אֵ֚ת שֶׁ֣בַע הַשִּׁבֳּלִ֔ים הַבְּרִיא֖וֹת וְהַמְּלֵא֑וֹת וַיִּיקַ֥ץ פַּרְעֹ֖ה וְהִנֵּ֥ה חֲלֽוֹם:
healthy: Heb. בְּרִיאוֹת, sains in French, healthy.   הבריאות: שייני"ש בלע"ז [בריאות]:
and behold, a dream: And behold, a whole dream was completed before him, and it required interpreters.   והנה חלום: והנה נשלם חלום שלם לפניו והוצרך לפותרים:
8Now it came to pass in the morning that his spirit was troubled; so he sent and called all the necromancers of Egypt and all its sages, and Pharaoh related to them his dream, but no one interpreted them for Pharaoh.   חוַיְהִ֤י בַבֹּ֨קֶר֙ וַתִּפָּ֣עֶם רוּח֔וֹ וַיִּשְׁלַ֗ח וַיִּקְרָ֛א אֶת־כָּל־חַרְטֻמֵּ֥י מִצְרַ֖יִם וְאֶת־כָּל־חֲכָמֶ֑יהָ וַיְסַפֵּ֨ר פַּרְעֹ֤ה לָהֶם֙ אֶת־חֲלֹמ֔וֹ וְאֵֽין־פּוֹתֵ֥ר אוֹתָ֖ם לְפַרְעֹֽה:
that his spirit was troubled: Heb. וַתִּפָּעֶם [Onkelos renders:] that his spirit was agitated, knocking within him like a bell (כְּפַעִמוֹן) (Tanchuma Buber, Mikeitz 4). Concerning Nebuchadnezzar, however, Scripture says:“and his spirit was agitated (וַתִּתְפָּעֶם)” (Dan. 2:1). There were two [reasons for this] agitation: forgetting the dream and ignorance of its interpretation. — [from Tanchuma Mikeitz 2]   ותפעם רוחו: ומטרפא רוחה מקשקשת בתוכו כפעמון. ובנבוכדנצר הוא אומר (דניאל ב א) ותתפעם רוחו, לפי שהיו שם שתי פעימות שכחת החלום והעלמת פתרונו:
the necromancers: Heb. חַרְטֻמֵי, those who would arouse themselves (נֶחֱרִים) with the bones (טִימֵי) of the dead, so that they would [be able to] inquire of the bones. ([The word] טִימֵי means “bones” in Aramaic. In the Mishnah (Oholoth 17:3), we find: A house that was full of “timia,” meaning “full of bones.”)   חרטמי: הנחרים בטימי מתים, ששואלים בעצמות. טימי, הן עצמות בלשון ארמי, ובמשנה בית שהוא מלא טמיא, מלא עצמות:
but no one interpreted them for Pharaoh: They did interpret them, but not for Pharaoh, for their voice did not reach his ears, and he had no satisfaction from their interpretation, for they said, “You will beget seven daughters, and you will bury seven daughters.” - [from Gen. Rabbah 89:6]   ואין פותר אותם לפרעה: פותרים היו אותם, אבל לא לפרעה, שלא היה קולן נכנס באזניו, ולא היה לו קורת רוח בפתרונם, שהיו אומרים שבע בנות אתה מוליד, שבע בנות אתה קובר:  
9Now the chief cupbearer spoke with Pharaoh, saying, "I call to mind my faults today.   טוַיְדַבֵּר֙ שַׂ֣ר הַמַּשְׁקִ֔ים אֶת־פַּרְעֹ֖ה לֵאמֹ֑ר אֶת־חֲטָאַ֕י אֲנִ֖י מַזְכִּ֥יר הַיּֽוֹם:
10Pharaoh was angry with his servants, and he put me in prison, in the house of the chief slaughterer, me and the chief baker.   יפַּרְעֹ֖ה קָצַ֣ף עַל־עֲבָדָ֑יו וַיִּתֵּ֨ן אֹתִ֜י בְּמִשְׁמַ֗ר בֵּ֚ית שַׂ֣ר הַטַּבָּחִ֔ים אֹתִ֕י וְאֵ֖ת שַׂ֥ר הָֽאֹפִֽים:
11And we dreamed a dream on the same night, I and he; each one according to the interpretation of his dream, we dreamed.   יאוַנַּֽחַלְמָ֥ה חֲל֛וֹם בְּלַ֥יְלָה אֶחָ֖ד אֲנִ֣י וָה֑וּא אִ֛ישׁ כְּפִתְר֥וֹן חֲלֹמ֖וֹ חָלָֽמְנוּ:
each one according to the interpretation of his dream: A dream fit for the interpretation that was interpreted for us and similar to it. [I.e., a dream for which the interpretation given was appropriate, and which was similar to that interpretation.]   איש כפתרון חלומו: חלום הראוי לפתרון שנפתר לו ודומה לו:
12And there with us was a Hebrew lad, a slave of the chief slaughterer, and we told him, and he interpreted our dreams for us; [for] each [of us], he interpreted according to his dream.   יבוְשָׁ֨ם אִתָּ֜נוּ נַ֣עַר עִבְרִ֗י עֶ֚בֶד לְשַׂ֣ר הַטַּבָּחִ֔ים וַנְּסַ֙פֶּר־ל֔וֹ וַיִּפְתָּר־לָ֖נוּ אֶת־חֲלֹֽמֹתֵ֑ינוּ אִ֥ישׁ כַּֽחֲלֹמ֖וֹ פָּתָֽר:
a Hebrew lad, a slave: Cursed are the wicked, for their favors are incomplete. He mentions him with expressions of contempt:   נער עברי עבד: ארורים הרשעים שאין טובתם שלמה. מזכירו בלשון בזיון:
a lad: a fool, unfit for a high position;   נער: שוטה ואין ראוי לגדולה:
a Hebrew: he does not even understand our language;   עברי: אפילו לשוננו אינו מכיר:
a slave: and in the statutes of Egypt it is written that a slave may neither reign nor wear princely raiment. — [from Gen. Rabbah 89:7]   עבד: וכתוב בנמוסי מצרים שאין עבד מולך ולא לובש בגדי שרים:
[for] each [of us]…according to his dream: According to the dream and close to its contents. — [from Ber. 55b]   איש כחלומו: לפי החלום וקרוב לענינו:
13And it came to pass that just as he had interpreted, so it was; me he restored to my position, and him he hanged."   יגוַיְהִ֛י כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר פָּֽתַר־לָ֖נוּ כֵּ֣ן הָיָ֑ה אֹתִ֛י הֵשִׁ֥יב עַל־כַּנִּ֖י וְאֹת֥וֹ תָלָֽה:
me he restored to my position: [“He” refers to] Pharaoh, mentioned above, as he said,“Pharaoh was angry with his servants” (verse 10). Hence, the verse is elliptical: it did not specify who restored, because it is not necessary to specify who restored, [for it could only be] the one who has the power to restore, namely Pharaoh. This is customary for all elliptical verses. Concerning the one who is to do [the thing], they leave the matter unspecified.   השיב על כני: מי שבידו להשיב, והוא פרעה הנזכר למעלה, כמו שאמר (לעיל פסוק י) פרעה קצף על עבדיו, הרי מקרא קצר ולא פירש מי השיב, לפי שאין צריך לפרש מי השיב, וכן דרך כל מקראות קצרים על מי שעליו לעשות הם סותמים את הדבר:
14So Pharaoh sent and called Joseph, and they rushed him from the dungeon, and he shaved and changed his clothes, and he [then] came to Pharaoh.   ידוַיִּשְׁלַ֤ח פַּרְעֹה֙ וַיִּקְרָ֣א אֶת־יוֹסֵ֔ף וַיְרִיצֻ֖הוּ מִן־הַבּ֑וֹר וַיְגַלַּח֙ וַיְחַלֵּ֣ף שִׂמְלֹתָ֔יו וַיָּבֹ֖א אֶל־פַּרְעֹֽה:
from the dungeon: Heb. מִן-הַבּוֹר, lit., from the pit. From the prison, which was made like a sort of pit, and so every [instance of] בּוֹר in the Scriptures is an expression of“pit.” Even if there is no water in it, it is called בּוֹר, fosse in Old French, a pit.   מן הבור: מן בית הסוהר שהוא עשוי כמין גומא, וכן כל בור שבמקרא לשון גומא הוא, ואף אם אין בו מים קרוי בור פוש"א בלע"ז [חפירה]:
and he shaved: in honor of the throne. — [from Gen. Rabbah 89:9]   ויגלח: מפני כבוד המלכות:

Second Portion

Genesis Chapter 41

15And Pharaoh said to Joseph, "I have dreamed a dream, and there is no interpreter for it, but I have heard it said of you [that] you understand a dream, to interpret it."   טווַיֹּ֤אמֶר פַּרְעֹה֙ אֶל־יוֹסֵ֔ף חֲל֣וֹם חָלַ֔מְתִּי וּפֹתֵ֖ר אֵ֣ין אֹת֑וֹ וַֽאֲנִ֗י שָׁמַ֤עְתִּי עָלֶ֨יךָ֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר תִּשְׁמַ֥ע חֲל֖וֹם לִפְתֹּ֥ר אֹתֽוֹ:
you understand a dream, to interpret it: Heb. תִּשְׁמַע. You listen to and understand a dream, to interpret it.   תשמע חלום לפתור אותו: תאזין ותבין חלום לפתור אותו:
you understand: Heb. תִּשְׁמַע. An expression of understanding and listening, similar to“Joseph understood (שֹׁמֵעַ)” (Gen. 42:23); and“whose language you will not understand (תִּשְׁמַע)” (Deut. 28:49), antandras in Old French, you understand.   תשמע: לשון הבנה והאזנה, כמו (להלן מב כג) שומע יוסף, (דברים כח מט) אשר לא תשמע לשונו, אינטינדר"א בלע"ז [להבין]:
16And Joseph replied to Pharaoh, saying, "Not I; God will give an answer [that will bring] peace to Pharaoh."   טזוַיַּ֨עַן יוֹסֵ֧ף אֶת־פַּרְעֹ֛ה לֵאמֹ֖ר בִּלְעָדָ֑י אֱלֹהִ֕ים יַֽעֲנֶ֖ה אֶת־שְׁל֥וֹם פַּרְעֹֽה:
Not I: Heb. בִּלְעָדָי. The wisdom is not mine, but God will answer. He will put an answer into my mouth that will bring peace to Pharaoh. — [from Targum Onkelos]   בלעדי: אין החכמה משלי אלא א-להים יענה, יתן עניה בפי לשלום פרעה:  
17And Pharaoh said to Joseph, "In my dream, behold, I was standing on the bank of the Nile.   יזוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר פַּרְעֹ֖ה אֶל־יוֹסֵ֑ף בַּֽחֲלֹמִ֕י הִנְנִ֥י עֹמֵ֖ד עַל־שְׂפַ֥ת הַיְאֹֽר:
18And behold, seven cows of robust flesh and handsome form were ascending from the Nile, and they pastured in the marshland.   יחוְהִנֵּ֣ה מִן־הַיְאֹ֗ר עֹלֹת֙ שֶׁ֣בַע פָּר֔וֹת בְּרִיא֥וֹת בָּשָׂ֖ר וִיפֹ֣ת תֹּ֑אַר וַתִּרְעֶ֖ינָה בָּאָֽחוּ:
19And behold, seven other cows were ascending after them, emaciated and of very ugly form and with meager flesh; I have not seen such ugly ones throughout the entire land of Egypt.   יטוְהִנֵּ֞ה שֶֽׁבַע־פָּר֤וֹת אֲחֵרוֹת֙ עֹל֣וֹת אַֽחֲרֵיהֶ֔ן דַּלּ֨וֹת וְרָע֥וֹת תֹּ֛אַר מְאֹ֖ד וְרַקּ֣וֹת בָּשָׂ֑ר לֹֽא־רָאִ֧יתִי כָהֵ֛נָּה בְּכָל־אֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרַ֖יִם לָרֹֽעַ:
emaciated: Heb. דַלוֹת similar to“Why are you becoming so thin (דַל)” (II Sam. 13:4), referring to Amnon.   דלות: כחושות, כמו (ש"ב יג ד) מדוע אתה ככה דל, דאמנון:
and with meager flesh: Heb. וְרַקוֹת בָּשָׂר Every expression of רַקוֹת in Scripture means “lacking flesh,” and in Old French [it is] bloses, deprived (deficient).   ורקות בשר: כל לשון רקות שבמקרא חסרי בשר, ובלע"ז בלושי"ש [מחוסרות]: 
20And the meager and ugly cows devoured the first seven healthy cows.   כוַתֹּאכַ֨לְנָה֙ הַפָּר֔וֹת הָֽרַקּ֖וֹת וְהָֽרָע֑וֹת אֵ֣ת שֶׁ֧בַע הַפָּר֛וֹת הָרִֽאשֹׁנ֖וֹת הַבְּרִיאֹֽת:
21And they went inside them, but it was not known that they had gone inside of them, for their appearance was as ugly as in the beginning; then I awoke.   כאוַתָּבֹ֣אנָה אֶל־קִרְבֶּ֗נָה וְלֹ֤א נוֹדַע֙ כִּי־בָ֣אוּ אֶל־קִרְבֶּ֔נָה וּמַרְאֵיהֶ֣ן רַ֔ע כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֖ר בַּתְּחִלָּ֑ה וָֽאִיקָֽץ:
22Then I saw in my dream, and behold, seven ears of grain were growing on one stalk, full and good.   כבוָאֵ֖רֶא בַּֽחֲלֹמִ֑י וְהִנֵּ֣ה | שֶׁ֣בַע שִׁבֳּלִ֗ים עֹלֹ֛ת בְּקָנֶ֥ה אֶחָ֖ד מְלֵאֹ֥ת וְטֹבֽוֹת:
23And behold, seven ears of grain, hardened, thin, and beaten by the east wind, were growing up after them.   כגוְהִנֵּה֙ שֶׁ֣בַע שִׁבֳּלִ֔ים צְנֻמ֥וֹת דַּקּ֖וֹת שְׁדֻפ֣וֹת קָדִ֑ים צֹֽמְח֖וֹת אַֽחֲרֵיהֶֽם:
hardened: Heb. צְנֻמוֹת. [The word] צוּנְמָא in Aramaic means“rock.” They were like wood, without moisture and hard as a rock. The Targum (Onkelos) renders: נָצָן לַקְיָן נָצָן means that nothing was left but the [withered] blossom (הַנֵץ) because they were emptied out of seed. [לַקְיָן means “beaten.”]   צנמות: צונמא בלשון ארמי סלע, הרי הן כעץ בלי לחלוח, וקשות כסלע, ותרגומו נצן לקין, נצן אין בהן אלא הנץ לפי שנתרוקנו מן הזרע:  
24And the thin ears of grain swallowed up the seven good ears of grain; I told the necromancers, but no one tells me [its meaning]."   כדוַתִּבְלַ֨עְןָ֙ הַשִּׁבֳּלִ֣ים הַדַּקֹּ֔ת אֵ֛ת שֶׁ֥בַע הַשִּׁבֳּלִ֖ים הַטֹּב֑וֹת וָֽאֹמַר֙ אֶל־הַֽחַרְטֻמִּ֔ים וְאֵ֥ין מַגִּ֖יד לִֽי:
25And Joseph said to Pharaoh, "Pharaoh's dream is one; what God is doing He has told Pharaoh.   כהוַיֹּ֤אמֶר יוֹסֵף֙ אֶל־פַּרְעֹ֔ה חֲל֥וֹם פַּרְעֹ֖ה אֶחָ֣ד ה֑וּא אֵ֣ת אֲשֶׁ֧ר הָֽאֱלֹהִ֛ים עֹשֶׂ֖ה הִגִּ֥יד לְפַרְעֹֽה:
26The seven good cows are seven years, and the seven good ears of grain are seven years; it is one dream.   כושֶׁ֧בַע פָּרֹ֣ת הַטֹּבֹ֗ת שֶׁ֤בַע שָׁנִים֙ הֵ֔נָּה וְשֶׁ֤בַע הַשִּׁבֳּלִים֙ הַטֹּבֹ֔ת שֶׁ֥בַע שָׁנִ֖ים הֵ֑נָּה חֲל֥וֹם אֶחָ֖ד הֽוּא:
seven years and…seven years: All of them are only [a single period of] seven. The reason the dream was repeated twice is that the matter [the good years] is ready, as he explained to him at the end. “And concerning the repetition of the dream to Pharaoh twice-that is because the matter is ready…” (verse 32). In connection with the seven good years it says, “He has told Pharaoh” (verse 25), because it was near, but in connection with the seven years of famine, it says, “He has shown Pharaoh” (verse 28). Since the matter was distant and far off, an expression of “showing a vision” is appropriate.   שבע שנים, שבע שנים: כולן אינן אלא שבע, ואשר נשנה החלום פעמים לפי שהדבר מזומן, כמו שפירש לו בסוף (פסוק לב) ועל השנות החלום וגו'. בשבע שנים הטובות נאמר (פסוק כה) הגיד לפרעה, לפי שהיה סמוך, ובשבע שני רעב נאמר (פסוק כח) הראה את פרעה, לפי שהיה הדבר מופלג ורחוק, נופל בו לשון מראה: 
27And the seven meager and ugly cows coming up after them are seven years, and the seven empty ears of grain, beaten by the east wind, will be seven years of famine.   כזוְשֶׁ֣בַע הַ֠פָּר֠וֹת הָֽרַקּ֨וֹת וְהָֽרָעֹ֜ת הָֽעֹלֹ֣ת אַֽחֲרֵיהֶ֗ן שֶׁ֤בַע שָׁנִים֙ הֵ֔נָּה וְשֶׁ֤בַע הַשִּׁבֳּלִים֙ הָֽרֵק֔וֹת שְׁדֻפ֖וֹת הַקָּדִ֑ים יִֽהְי֕וּ שֶׁ֖בַע שְׁנֵ֥י רָעָֽב:
28It is this matter that I have spoken to Pharaoh; what God is about to do He has shown Pharaoh.   כחה֣וּא הַדָּבָ֔ר אֲשֶׁ֥ר דִּבַּ֖רְתִּי אֶל־פַּרְעֹ֑ה אֲשֶׁ֧ר הָֽאֱלֹהִ֛ים עֹשֶׂ֖ה הֶרְאָ֥ה אֶת־פַּרְעֹֽה:
29Behold, seven years are coming, great plenty throughout all the land of Egypt.   כטהִנֵּ֛ה שֶׁ֥בַע שָׁנִ֖ים בָּא֑וֹת שָׂבָ֥ע גָּד֖וֹל בְּכָל־אֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם:
30And seven years of famine will arise after them, and all the plenty will be forgotten in the land of Egypt, and the famine will destroy the land.   לוְ֠קָ֠מוּ שֶׁ֨בַע שְׁנֵ֤י רָעָב֙ אַֽחֲרֵיהֶ֔ן וְנִשְׁכַּ֥ח כָּל־הַשָּׂבָ֖ע בְּאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם וְכִלָּ֥ה הָֽרָעָ֖ב אֶת־הָאָֽרֶץ:
and all the plenty will be forgotten: This is the interpretation of the swallowing.   ונשכח כל השבע: הוא פתרון הבליעה:
31And the plenty will not be known because of that famine to follow, for it [will be] very severe.   לאוְלֹֽא־יִוָּדַ֤ע הַשָּׂבָע֙ בָּאָ֔רֶץ מִפְּנֵ֛י הָֽרָעָ֥ב הַה֖וּא אַֽחֲרֵי־כֵ֑ן כִּֽי־כָבֵ֥ד ה֖וּא מְאֹֽד:
And the plenty will not be known: This is the interpretation of“but it was not known that they had gone inside them” (verse 21).   ולא יודע השבע: הוא פתרון (פסוק כא) ולא נודע כי באו אל קרבנה:
32And concerning the repetition of the dream to Pharaoh twice that is because the matter is ready [to emanate] from God, and God is hastening to execute it.   לבוְעַ֨ל הִשָּׁנ֧וֹת הַֽחֲל֛וֹם אֶל־פַּרְעֹ֖ה פַּֽעֲמָ֑יִם כִּֽי־נָכ֤וֹן הַדָּבָר֙ מֵעִ֣ם הָֽאֱלֹהִ֔ים וּמְמַהֵ֥ר הָֽאֱלֹהִ֖ים לַֽעֲשׂתֽוֹ:
ready-: Heb. נָכוֹן, ready.   נכון: מזומן:
33So now, let Pharaoh seek out an understanding and wise man and appoint him over the land of Egypt.   לגוְעַתָּה֙ יֵרֶ֣א פַרְעֹ֔ה אִ֖ישׁ נָב֣וֹן וְחָכָ֑ם וִֽישִׁיתֵ֖הוּ עַל־אֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם:
34Let Pharaoh do [this] and appoint officials over the land and prepare the land of Egypt during the seven years of plenty.   לדיַֽעֲשֶׂ֣ה פַרְעֹ֔ה וְיַפְקֵ֥ד פְּקִדִ֖ים עַל־הָאָ֑רֶץ וְחִמֵּשׁ֙ אֶת־אֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֔יִם בְּשֶׁ֖בַע שְׁנֵ֥י הַשָּׂבָֽע:
and prepare: Heb. וְחִמֵשׁ, as the Targum renders: וִיזָרֵז, and he shall prepare, and similarly,“and prepared (וַחֲמוּשִׁים)” (Exod. 13:18).   וחמש: כתרגומו ויזרזון וכן (שמות יג יח) וחמושים:
35And let them collect all the food of these coming good years, and let them gather the grain under Pharaoh's hand, food in the cities, and keep it.   להוְיִקְבְּצ֗וּ אֶת־כָּל־אֹ֨כֶל֙ הַשָּׁנִ֣ים הַטֹּב֔וֹת הַבָּאֹ֖ת הָאֵ֑לֶּה וְיִצְבְּרוּ־בָ֞ר תַּ֧חַת יַד־פַּרְעֹ֛ה אֹ֥כֶל בֶּֽעָרִ֖ים וְשָׁמָֽרוּ:
all the food: Heb. אֹכֶל. This is a noun; therefore, its accent is on the “aleph,” and it is vowelized with a“pattach katan,” but אוֹכֵל, which is a verb, e.g.,“for whoever eats (אֹכֵל) fat” (Lev. 7:25), is accented on the final syllable, on the “chaff,” and is vowelized with a“kamatz katan.”   את כל אכל: שם דבר הוא, לפיכך טעמו באל"ף ונקוד בפתח קטן, ואוכל שהוא פועל, כגון (ויקרא ז כה) כי כל אוכל חלב, טעמו למטה בכף ונקוד קמץ קטן:
under Pharaoh’s hand: In his custody and in his storehouses.   תחת יד פרעה: ברשותו ובאוצרותיו:
36Thus the food will remain as a reserve for the land for the seven years of famine which will be in the land of Egypt, so that the land will not be destroyed by the famine."   לווְהָיָ֨ה הָאֹ֤כֶל לְפִקָּדוֹן֙ לָאָ֔רֶץ לְשֶׁ֨בַע֙ שְׁנֵ֣י הָֽרָעָ֔ב אֲשֶׁ֥ר תִּֽהְיֶ֖יןָ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם וְלֹֽא־תִכָּרֵ֥ת הָאָ֖רֶץ בָּֽרָעָֽב:
Thus the food: The gathered [food] will be like any other reserve that is hidden away for the preservation of the land.   והיה האכל: הצבור כשאר פקדון הגנוז לקיום הארץ:
37The matter pleased Pharaoh and all his servants.   לזוַיִּיטַ֥ב הַדָּבָ֖ר בְּעֵינֵ֣י פַרְעֹ֑ה וּבְעֵינֵ֖י כָּל־עֲבָדָֽיו:
38So Pharaoh said to his servants, "Will we find [anyone] like this, a man in whom there is the spirit of God?"   לחוַיֹּ֥אמֶר פַּרְעֹ֖ה אֶל־עֲבָדָ֑יו הֲנִמְצָ֣א כָזֶ֔ה אִ֕ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֛ר ר֥וּחַ אֱלֹהִ֖ים בּֽוֹ:
Will we find [anyone] like this: Heb. הִנִמְצָא כָזֶה [Onkelos renders:] הִנִשְׁכַּח כְּדֵין, will we find such as this? If we go and seek him, will we find [anyone] like him?- [from Gen. Rabbah 90:1] הִנִמְצָא is an interrogative expression, as is every “hey” used as a prefix and vowelized with a“chataf pattach.”   הנמצא כזה: הנשכח כדין, אם נלך ונבקשנו הנמצא כמוהו. הנמצא לשון תמיהה, וכן כל ה"א המשמשת בראש תיבה ונקודה בחטף פתח:

Third Portion

Genesis Chapter 41

39Then Pharaoh said to Joseph, "Since God has let you know all this, there is no one as understanding and wise as you.   לטוַיֹּ֤אמֶר פַּרְעֹה֙ אֶל־יוֹסֵ֔ף אַֽחֲרֵ֨י הוֹדִ֧יעַ אֱלֹהִ֛ים אֽוֹתְךָ֖ אֶת־כָּל־זֹ֑את אֵֽין־נָב֥וֹן וְחָכָ֖ם כָּמֽוֹךָ:
there is no one as understanding and wise as you: To seek an understanding and wise man as you said, we will not [be able to] find anyone like you.   אין נבון וחכם כמוך: לבקש איש נבון וחכם שאמרת, לא נמצא כמוך:
40You shall be [appointed] over my household, and through your command all my people shall be nourished; only [with] the throne will I be greater than you."   מאַתָּה֙ תִּֽהְיֶ֣ה עַל־בֵּיתִ֔י וְעַל־פִּ֖יךָ יִשַּׁ֣ק כָּל־עַמִּ֑י רַ֥ק הַכִּסֵּ֖א אֶגְדַּ֥ל מִמֶּֽךָּ:
shall be nourished: Heb. יִשַׁק [Onkelos renders:] יִתְּזַּן, shall be nourished, shall be sustained. All my people’s necessities shall be provided through you, similar to“the steward of my household (בֶּן מֶשֶׁק)” (Gen. 15:2), and“Arm yourselves (נַשְׁקוּ) with purity” (Ps. 2:12), garnis(s) on in Old French, provision.   ישק: יתזן, יתפרנס. כל צרכי עמי יהיו נעשים על ידך, כמו (לעיל טו ב) ובן משק ביתי, וכמו (תהלים ב יב) נשקו בר, גרנישו"ן בלע"ז [אספקה]:
only [with] the throne: That I will be called king.   רק הכסא: שיהיו קורין לי מלך:
the throne: A term denoting the kingship, like“and make his throne greater than the throne of my lord, King [David]” (I Kings 1:37).   כסא: לשון של המלוכה כמו (מלכים א א לז) ויגדל את כסאו מכסא אדוני המלך:
41So Pharaoh said to Joseph, "Look, I have appointed you over the entire land of Egypt."   מאוַיֹּ֥אמֶר פַּרְעֹ֖ה אֶל־יוֹסֵ֑ף רְאֵה֙ נָתַ֣תִּי אֹֽתְךָ֔ עַ֖ל כָּל־אֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם:
I have appointed you: Heb. נָתַתִּי אֹת‏ְ. [Onkelos renders:] מַנֵיתִי יָת‏ָ, I have appointed you. It is nevertheless an expression of placing (lit., giving), like“and to place you (לְתִתּ‏ְ) above” (Deut. 26:19). Whether for greatness or lowliness, the term נְתִינָה is appropriate, like“I, [too,] have made you (נָתַתִּי אֶתְכֶם) contemptible and low” (Mal. 2:9).   נתתי אתך: מניתי יתך, ואף על פי כן לשון נתינה הוא, כמו (דברים כו יט) ולתתך עליון, בין לגדולה בין לשפלות נופל לשון נתינה עליו, כמו (מלאכי ב ט) נתתי אתכם נבזים ושפלים:
42And Pharaoh removed his ring from his hand and placed it on Joseph's hand, and he attired him [with] raiment of fine linen, and he placed the golden chain around his neck.   מבוַיָּ֨סַר פַּרְעֹ֤ה אֶת־טַבַּעְתּוֹ֙ מֵעַ֣ל יָד֔וֹ וַיִּתֵּ֥ן אֹתָ֖הּ עַל־יַ֣ד יוֹסֵ֑ף וַיַּלְבֵּ֤שׁ אֹתוֹ֙ בִּגְדֵי־שֵׁ֔שׁ וַיָּ֛שֶׂם רְבִ֥ד הַזָּהָ֖ב עַל־צַוָּארֽוֹ:
And Pharaoh removed his ring: [The] giving [of] the king’s ring is a sign to the one to whom it is given [that he is] to be second to him in greatness [rank].   ויסר פרעה את טבעתו: נתינת טבעת המלך הוא אות למי שנותנה לו להיות שני לו לגדולה:
raiment of fine linen: This is an item of value in Egypt.   בגדי שש: דבר חשיבות הוא במצרים:
chain: Heb. רְבִד, a chain, and because it consists of links placed in a row, it is called רְבִד, and similarly,“I have decked (רָבַדְתִּי) my couch” (Prov. 7:16). I have decked my couch with rows of ornaments. In the language of the Mishnah:“surrounded by rows (רוֹבְדִין) of stone” (Middoth 1:8);“on the row of stones (רוֹבֶד) in the forecourt” (Yoma 43b), which is the pavement.   רבד: ענק, ועל שהוא רצוף בטבעות קרוי רביד. וכן (משלי ז טז) רבדתי ערשי, רצפתי ערשי מרצפות. בלשון משנה (מדות א ח) מוקף רובדין של אבן, (יומא מג ב) על הרובד שבעזרה, והיא רצפה:
43And he had him ride in his chariot of second rank, and they called out before him, "[This is] the king's patron," appointing him over the entire land of Egypt.   מגוַיַּרְכֵּ֣ב אֹת֗וֹ בְּמִרְכֶּ֤בֶת הַמִּשְׁנֶה֙ אֲשֶׁר־ל֔וֹ וַיִּקְרְא֥וּ לְפָנָ֖יו אַבְרֵ֑ךְ וְנָת֣וֹן אֹת֔וֹ עַ֖ל כָּל־אֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם:
in his chariot of second rank: Heb. מִרְכֶּבֶת הַמִשְׁנֶה. The one second to his chariot, which goes next to his.   במרכבת המשנה: השניה למרכבתו, המהלכת אצל שלו:
the king’s patron: Heb. ‏ֵאַבְר, as the Targum renders: This is the patron of the king. [The word] ר‏ֵ in Aramaic means “king.” In [the chapter entitled]“The partners” (Baba Bathra 4a), he (Herod) is neither a king (רֵיכָא) nor the son of a king (בַּר רֵיכָא). [Thus, ר‏ֵ like rex in Latin, means king.] In the Aggadah (Sifrei Deut. 1), Rabbi Judah expounded: אַבְר‏ֵ refers to Joseph, who was a father (אָב) in wisdom, and tender (ר‏ַ) in years. Ben Durmaskith said to him,“How long will you pervert the Scriptures for us? אַבְר‏ֵ is only a term denoting knees (בִּרְכַּיִם) , for all would enter and exit under his hand, as the matter that is stated: ”appointing him, etc."   אברך: כתרגומו דין אבא למלכא. רך בלשון ארמי מלך. בהשותפין (בבא בתרא ד א) לא ריכא ולא בר ריכא. ובדברי אגדה דרש ר' יהודה אברך זה יוסף שהוא אב בחכמה ורך בשנים, אמר לו רבי יוסי בן דורמסקית עד מתי אתה מעוות עלינו את הכתובים, אין אברך אלא לשון ברכים, שהכל היו נכנסין ויוצאין תחת ידו, כענין שנאמר ונתון אותו וגו':
44And Pharaoh said to Joseph, "I am Pharaoh, and besides you, no one may lift his hand or his foot in the entire land of Egypt."   מדוַיֹּ֧אמֶר פַּרְעֹ֛ה אֶל־יוֹסֵ֖ף אֲנִ֣י פַרְעֹ֑ה וּבִלְעָדֶ֗יךָ לֹֽא־יָרִ֨ים אִ֧ישׁ אֶת־יָד֛וֹ וְאֶת־רַגְל֖וֹ בְּכָל־אֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם:
I am Pharaoh: I have the power to enact a decree upon my kingdom, and I decree that no one should raise his hand, etc.   אני פרעה: שיש יכולת בידי לגזור גזרות על מלכותי, ואני גוזר שלא ירים איש את ידו:
and besides you: [I.e.,] without your permission. Another interpretation: I shall be the king, and besides you, etc. This is parallel to“only [with] the throne” (verse 40). - [from Gen. Rabbah 90:2] [I.e., although I give you the exclusive power to raise your hand and foot, as explained below I am still the supreme ruler over the land.]   בלעדיך: שלא ברשותך. דבר אחר אני פרעה אני אהיה מלך ובלעדיך וגו' וזהו דוגמת (פסוק מ) רק הכסא:
his hand or his foot: As the Targum renders [no man shall raise his hand to bear arms or his foot to ride a horse.]   את ידו ואת רגלו: כתרגומו:
45And Pharaoh named Joseph Zaphenath Pa'neach, and he gave him Asenath the daughter of Poti phera, the governor of On, for a wife, and Joseph went forth over the land of Egypt.   מהוַיִּקְרָ֨א פַרְעֹ֥ה שֵֽׁם־יוֹסֵף֘ צָֽפְנַ֣ת פַּעְנֵ֒חַ֒ וַיִּתֶּן־ל֣וֹ אֶת־אָֽסְנַ֗ת בַּת־פּ֥וֹטִי פֶ֛רַע כֹּהֵ֥ן אֹ֖ן לְאִשָּׁ֑ה וַיֵּצֵ֥א יוֹסֵ֖ף עַל־אֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם:
Zaphenath-Pa’neach: He who explains hidden things, and Pa’neach has no parallel in Scripture. — [from Targum Onkelos]   צפנת פענח: מפרש הצפונות, ואין לפענח דמיון במקרא:
Poti-phera: He is Potiphar, but he was called Poti-phera because he became emasculated since he desired Joseph for homosexual relations. — [from Sotah 13b]   פוטי פרע: הוא פוטיפר, ונקרא פוטיפרע על שנסתרס מאליו, לפי שחמד את יוסף למשכב זכר:
46And Joseph was thirty years old when he stood before Pharaoh the king of Egypt, and Joseph went out from before Pharaoh and passed through the entire land of Egypt.   מווְיוֹסֵף֙ בֶּן־שְׁלשִׁ֣ים שָׁנָ֔ה בְּעָמְד֕וֹ לִפְנֵ֖י פַּרְעֹ֣ה מֶֽלֶךְ־מִצְרָ֑יִם וַיֵּצֵ֤א יוֹסֵף֙ מִלִּפְנֵ֣י פַרְעֹ֔ה וַיַּֽעֲבֹ֖ר בְּכָל־אֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם:
47And in the seven years of plenty, [the inhabitants of] the land gathered [food] by handfuls.   מזוַתַּ֣עַשׂ הָאָ֔רֶץ בְּשֶׁ֖בַע שְׁנֵ֣י הַשָּׂבָ֑ע לִקְמָצִֽים:
And…[the inhabitants of] the land gathered: Heb. וַתַּעַשׂ הָאָרֶץ, lit., and the land made. [This is to be understood] as the Targum renders:“And…the inhabitants of the land gathered.” The language, however, does not lose its meaning of making.   ותעש הארץ: כתרגומו, ואין הלשון נעקר מלשון עשייה:
by handfuls: Heb. לִקְמָצִים. Handful over handful, hand over hand, they were storing it.   לקמצים: קומץ על קומץ, יד על יד היו אוצרים:
48And he collected all the food of the seven years that was in the land of Egypt, and he placed food in the cities, the food of the field surrounding the city, he put within it.   מחוַיִּקְבֹּ֞ץ אֶת־כָּל־אֹ֣כֶל | שֶׁ֣בַע שָׁנִ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֤ר הָיוּ֙ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֔יִם וַיִּתֶּן־אֹ֖כֶל בֶּֽעָרִ֑ים אֹ֧כֶל שְׂדֵֽה־הָעִ֛יר אֲשֶׁ֥ר סְבִֽיבֹתֶ֖יהָ נָתַ֥ן בְּתוֹכָֽהּ:
the food of the field surrounding the city, he put within it: Because each land preserves its own produce, and they would put into the grain some of the soil of the place, and it would preserve the grain [and prevent it] from decaying. - [from Gen. Rabbah 90:5]   אכל שדה העיר אשר סביבותיה נתן בתוכה: שכל ארץ וארץ מעמדת פירותיה ונותנין בתבואה מעפר המקום ומעמיד את התבואה מלירקב:
49And Joseph gathered grain like the sand of the sea, in great abundance, until [one] stopped counting, because there was no number.   מטוַיִּצְבֹּ֨ר יוֹסֵ֥ף בָּ֛ר כְּח֥וֹל הַיָּ֖ם הַרְבֵּ֣ה מְאֹ֑ד עַ֛ד כִּֽי־חָדַ֥ל לִסְפֹּ֖ר כִּי־אֵ֥ין מִסְפָּֽר:
until [one] stopped counting: Until the one who counted stopped counting. This is an elliptical verse. [The subject of חָדַל is missing.]   עד כי חדל לספר: עד כי חדל לו הסופר לספור, והרי זה מקרא קצר:
because there was no number: Heb. כִּי because there was no number, and here כִּי is used as an expression of “because.”   כי אין מספר: לפי שאין מספר, והרי כי משמש בלשון דהא:
50And to Joseph were born two sons before the year of the famine set in, whom Asenath the daughter of Poti phera, the governor of On, bore to him.   נוּלְיוֹסֵ֤ף יֻלָּד֙ שְׁנֵ֣י בָנִ֔ים בְּטֶ֥רֶם תָּב֖וֹא שְׁנַ֣ת הָֽרָעָ֑ב אֲשֶׁ֤ר יָֽלְדָה־לּוֹ֙ אָֽסְנַ֔ת בַּת־פּ֥וֹטִי פֶ֖רַע כֹּהֵ֥ן אֽוֹן:
before the year of the famine set in: From here is derived that a person may not engage in marital relations during years of famine. — [from Ta’anith 11a]   בטרם תבוא שנת הרעב: מכאן שאסור לאדם לשמש מטתו בשני רעבון:   
51And Joseph named the firstborn Manasseh, for "God has caused me to forget all my toil and all my father's house."   נאוַיִּקְרָ֥א יוֹסֵ֛ף אֶת־שֵׁ֥ם הַבְּכ֖וֹר מְנַשֶּׁ֑ה כִּֽי־נַשַּׁ֤נִי אֱלֹהִים֙ אֶת־כָּל־עֲמָלִ֔י וְאֵ֖ת כָּל־בֵּ֥ית אָבִֽי:
52And the second one he named Ephraim, for "God has made me fruitful in the land of my affliction."   נבוְאֵ֛ת שֵׁ֥ם הַשֵּׁנִ֖י קָרָ֣א אֶפְרָ֑יִם כִּֽי־הִפְרַ֥נִי אֱלֹהִ֖ים בְּאֶ֥רֶץ עָנְיִֽי:

Fourth Portion

Genesis Chapter 41

53And the seven years of plenty that were in the land of Egypt were finished.   נגוַתִּכְלֶ֕ינָה שֶׁ֖בַע שְׁנֵ֣י הַשָּׂבָ֑ע אֲשֶׁ֥ר הָיָ֖ה בְּאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם:
54And the seven years of famine began, as Joseph had said, and there was famine in all the lands, but throughout the land of Egypt there was bread.   נדוַתְּחִלֶּ֜ינָה שֶׁ֣בַע שְׁנֵ֤י הָֽרָעָב֙ לָב֔וֹא כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֖ר אָמַ֣ר יוֹסֵ֑ף וַיְהִ֤י רָעָב֙ בְּכָל־הָ֣אֲרָצ֔וֹת וּבְכָל־אֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרַ֖יִם הָ֥יָה לָֽחֶם:
55When the entire land of Egypt hungered, the people cried out to Pharaoh for bread, but Pharaoh said to all the Egyptians, "Go to Joseph; what he tells you, do."   נהוַתִּרְעַב֙ כָּל־אֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֔יִם וַיִּצְעַ֥ק הָעָ֛ם אֶל־פַּרְעֹ֖ה לַלָּ֑חֶם וַיֹּ֨אמֶר פַּרְעֹ֤ה לְכָל־מִצְרַ֨יִם֙ לְכ֣וּ אֶל־יוֹסֵ֔ף אֲשֶׁר־יֹאמַ֥ר לָכֶ֖ם תַּֽעֲשֽׂוּ:
When the entire land of Egypt hungered: For their grain, which they had stored, had decayed, except that of Joseph. — [from Mid. Tanchuma Mikeitz 7]   ותרעב כל ארץ מצרים: שהרקיבה תבואתם שאצרו חוץ משל יוסף:
what he tells you, do: Since Joseph had ordered them to circumcise themselves, and when they came to Pharaoh and said, “This is what he said to us,” he (Pharaoh) said to them, “Why didn’t you gather grain? Didn’t he announce to you that years of famine were coming?” They replied, “We gathered much, but it rotted.” He (Pharaoh) replied,“If so, do whatever he tells you. He issued a decree upon the grain, and it rotted. What if he issues a decree upon us and we die?” - [from Mid. Tanchuma Mikeitz 7, Gen. Rabbah 91:5]   אשר יאמר לכם תעשו: לפי שהיה יוסף אומר להם שימולו, וכשבאו אצל פרעה ואומרים כך הוא אומר לנו, אמר להם למה לא צברתם בר, והלא הכריז לכם ששני הרעב באים, אמרו לו אספנו הרבה והרקיבה, אמר להם אם כן כל אשר יאמר לכם תעשו, הרי גזר על התבואה והרקיבה, מה אם יגזור עלינו ונמות:
56Now the famine spread over all the face of the land, and Joseph opened all [the storehouses] in which there was [grain], and he sold [it] to the Egyptians, and the famine intensified in the land of Egypt.   נווְהָֽרָעָ֣ב הָיָ֔ה עַ֖ל כָּל־פְּנֵ֣י הָאָ֑רֶץ וַיִּפְתַּ֨ח יוֹסֵ֜ף אֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֤ר בָּהֶם֙ וַיִּשְׁבֹּ֣ר לְמִצְרַ֔יִם וַיֶּֽחֱזַ֥ק הָֽרָעָ֖ב בְּאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם:
Now the famine spread over all the face of the land: Heb. פְּנֵי הָאָרֶץ. Who are the face of the land? These are the rich. — [from Gen. Rabbah 91:5]   על כל פני הארץ: מי הם פני הארץ, אלו העשירים:
all [the storehouses] in which there was: As the Targum renders: in which there was grain.   את כל אשר בהם: כתרגומו די בהון עיבורא:
and he sold [it] to the Egyptians: Heb. וַיִשְׁבֹּר לְמִצְרַיִם. The word שֶׁבֶר is [sometimes] an expression of selling and [sometimes] an expression of buying. Here it is used as an expression of selling. [In the verse]“Return, buy (שִׁבְרוּ) us a little food” (Gen. 43:2), it is an expression of buying. Do not say that it applies only to grain, for also with wine and milk we find:“and go buy (שִׁבְרוּ) without money and without a price, wine and milk” (Isa. 55:1).   וישבור למצרים: שבר לשון מכר ולשון קנין הוא, כאן משמש לשון מכר, (להלן מג ב) שברו לנו מעט אוכל, לשון קנין. ואל תאמר אינו כי אם בתבואה, שאף ביין וחלב מצינו (ישעיה נה א) ולכו שברו בלא כסף ובלא מחיר יין וחלב:
57And all [the inhabitants of] the land came to Egypt to Joseph to purchase, for the famine had intensified in the entire land.   נזוְכָל־הָאָ֨רֶץ֙ בָּ֣אוּ מִצְרַ֔יְמָה לִשְׁבֹּ֖ר אֶל־יוֹסֵ֑ף כִּֽי־חָזַ֥ק הָֽרָעָ֖ב בְּכָל־הָאָֽרֶץ:
And all [the inhabitants of] the land came to Egypt: to Joseph to purchase, but if you interpret it (this verse) according to its sequence, it should have been written:“to purchase from (מִן) Joseph.”   וכל הארץ באו מצרימה לשבור אל יוסף: (סרסהו ופרשהו וכל הארץ באו מצרים אל יוסף). אם תפרשהו כסדרו היה צריך לכתוב לשבור מן יוסף:

Genesis Chapter 42

1Jacob saw that there was grain being sold in Egypt; so Jacob said to his sons, "Why do you appear satiated?"   אוַיַּ֣רְא יַֽעֲקֹ֔ב כִּ֥י יֶשׁ־שֶׁ֖בֶר בְּמִצְרָ֑יִם וַיֹּ֤אמֶר יַֽעֲקֹב֙ לְבָנָ֔יו לָ֖מָּה תִּתְרָאֽוּ:
Jacob saw that there was grain being sold in Egypt: From where did he see it? Is it not true that he did not see it, only that he heard of it, as it is said: “Behold, I have heard, etc.” (verse 2) ? What then is the meaning of “saw” ? He saw with the divine “mirror” that he still had hope (שֶׂבֶר) in Egypt, but it was not a real prophecy to explicitly inform him that this was Joseph. — [from Gen. Rabbah 91:6]   וירא יעקב כי יש שבר במצרים: ומהיכן ראה, והלא לא ראה אלא שמע, שנאמר (להלן מב ב) הנה שמעתי וגו', ומהו וירא, ראה באספקלריא של קדש שעדיין יש לו שבר במצרים. ולא היתה נבואה ממש להודיעו בפירוש שזה יוסף:
Why do you appear satiated?“: Heb. לָמָה תִּתְרָאוּ. Why do you show yourselves before the sons of Ishmael and the sons of Esau as if you are satiated? For at that time they still had grain (Ta’anith 10b). (And it appears to me that it should be explained according to its simple meaning: לָמָה תִּתְרָאוּ -Why should everyone stare at you and wonder at you that you are not seeking food for yourselves before what you have in your hands is depleted.) From others I heard that it (תִּתְרָאוּ) is an expression of emaciation. [Thus:] Why should you become emaciated because of the famine? Similar to this is”And he who emaciates [others] (וּמַרְוֶה) -he too will become emaciated (יוֹרֶא)" (Prov. 11:25)   למה תתראו: למה תראו עצמכם בפני בני ישמעאל ובני עשו כאלו אתם שבעים, שבאותה שעה עדיין היה להם תבואה. [ולי נראה פשוטו למה תתראו, למה יהיו הכל מסתכלין בכם ומתמיהים בכם שאין אתם מבקשים לכם אוכל בטרם שיכלה מה שבידכם]. ומפי אחרים שמעתי שהוא לשון כחישה, למה תהיו כחושים ברעב. ודומה לו (משלי יא כה) ומרוה גם הוא יורה:
2And he said, "Behold, I have heard that there is grain being sold in Egypt. Go down there and buy us [some] from there, so that we will live and not die."   בוַיֹּ֕אמֶר הִנֵּ֣ה שָׁמַ֔עְתִּי כִּ֥י יֶשׁ־שֶׁ֖בֶר בְּמִצְרָ֑יִם רְדוּ־שָׁ֨מָּה֙ וְשִׁבְרוּ־לָ֣נוּ מִשָּׁ֔ם וְנִֽחְיֶ֖ה וְלֹ֥א נָמֽוּת:
Go down there: Heb. רְדוּ. But he did not say,“Go (לְכוּ).” He alluded to the 210 years that they were enslaved in Egypt, according to the numerical value of רְדוּ. — [from Gen Rabbah 91:2, Tan. Mikeitz 8]   רדו שמה: ולא אמר לכו, רמז למאתים ועשר שנים שנשתעבדו למצרים, כמנין רד"ו:
3So Joseph's ten brothers went down to buy grain from Egypt.   גוַיֵּֽרְד֥וּ אֲחֵֽי־יוֹסֵ֖ף עֲשָׂרָ֑ה לִשְׁבֹּ֥ר בָּ֖ר מִמִּצְרָֽיִם:
So Joseph’s…brothers went down: But Scripture did not write “the sons of Jacob.” This teaches that they regretted selling him and decided to behave toward him in a brotherly manner and to ransom him for whatever amount of money would be demanded of them. — [from Gen. Rabbah 91:6, Tan. Mikeitz 8]   וירדו אחי יוסף: ולא כתב בני יעקב, מלמד שהיו מתחרטים במכירתו ונתנו לבם להתנהג עמו באחוה ולפדותו בכל ממון שיפסקו עליהם:
ten: Why is this written? Is it not written, (verse 4)“But Joseph’s brother, Benjamin, Jacob did not send” ? [It is therefore obvious that they were only ten.] But [this is what it means:] concerning brotherhood, they were divided into ten, for neither the love they all had for him (Joseph) nor the hate they all had for him was equal, [hence, in the attitude of brotherhood, they were divided into ten.] As concerning buying grain, they all were of one accord (lit., one heart). - [from Gen. Rabbah 91:2]   עשרה: מה תלמוד לומר, והלא כתיב (פסוק ד) ואת בנימין אחי יוסף לא שלח, אלא לענין האחוה היו חלוקין לעשרה, שלא היתה אהבת כולם ושנאת כולם שוה לו, אבל לענין לשבור בר כולם לב אחד להם:
4But Joseph's brother, Benjamin, Jacob did not send with his brothers, because, he said, "Lest misfortune befall him."   דוְאֶת־בִּנְיָמִין֙ אֲחִ֣י יוֹסֵ֔ף לֹֽא־שָׁלַ֥ח יַֽעֲקֹ֖ב אֶת־אֶחָ֑יו כִּ֣י אָמַ֔ר פֶּן־יִקְרָאֶ֖נּוּ אָסֽוֹן:
“Lest misfortune befall him.”: And at home, could not misfortune befall him? Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov said: From here [we learn] that Satan accuses [a person] at the time of danger. — [from Gen. Rabbah 91:9]   פן יקראנו אסון: ובבית לא יקראנו אסון, אמר רבי אליעזר בן יעקב מכאן שהשטן מקטרג בשעת הסכנה:
5So the sons of Israel came to purchase among those who came, for the famine was in the land of Canaan.   הוַיָּבֹ֨אוּ֙ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל לִשְׁבֹּ֖ר בְּת֣וֹךְ הַבָּאִ֑ים כִּֽי־הָיָ֥ה הָֽרָעָ֖ב בְּאֶ֥רֶץ כְּנָֽעַן:
among those who came: They hid themselves [in the crowd] so that they would not be recognized, because their father had commanded them not to all appear at one entrance, but for each to enter through his own entrance, so that the evil eye would have no power over them, for they were all handsome and strong [and thus would be envied]. — [from Tan. Mikeitz 8, Gen. Rabbah 91:6]   בתוך הבאים: מטמינין עצמן שלא יכירום, לפי שצוה להם אביהם שלא יתראו כולם בפתח אחד אלא שיכנס כל אחד בפתחו, כדי שלא תשלוט בהם עין הרע שכולם נאים וכולם גבורים:
6Now Joseph was the ruler over the land; it was he who sold grain to the entire populace of the land, and Joseph's brothers came and prostrated themselves to him, with their faces to the ground.   ווְיוֹסֵ֗ף ה֚וּא הַשַּׁלִּ֣יט עַל־הָאָ֔רֶץ ה֥וּא הַמַּשְׁבִּ֖יר לְכָל־עַ֣ם הָאָ֑רֶץ וַיָּבֹ֨אוּ֙ אֲחֵ֣י יוֹסֵ֔ף וַיִּשְׁתַּֽחֲווּ־ל֥וֹ אַפַּ֖יִם אָֽרְצָה:
and prostrated themselves to him, with their faces to the ground: Heb. וַיִשְׁתַּחִווּ. They prostrated themselves to him on their faces, and so every [expression of] הִשְׁתַּחִוָאָה means spreading out hands and feet. — [from Shev. 16b]   וישתחוו לו אפים: נשתטחו לו על פניהם, וכן כל השתחואה פשוט ידים ורגלים הוא:
7And Joseph saw his brothers, and he recognized them, but he made himself a stranger to them, and he spoke to them harshly, and he said to them, "Where do you come from?" And they said, "From the land of Canaan to purchase food."   זוַיַּ֥רְא יוֹסֵ֛ף אֶת־אֶחָ֖יו וַיַּכִּרֵ֑ם וַיִּתְנַכֵּ֨ר אֲלֵיהֶ֜ם וַיְדַבֵּ֧ר אִתָּ֣ם קָשׁ֗וֹת וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֲלֵהֶם֙ מֵאַ֣יִן בָּאתֶ֔ם וַיֹּ֣אמְר֔וּ מֵאֶ֥רֶץ כְּנַ֖עַן לִשְׁבָּר־אֹֽכֶל:
but he made himself a stranger: He behaved toward them like a stranger verbally, by speaking harshly. — [from Gen. Rabbah 91:6, Tan. Mikeitz 8]   ויתנכר אליהם: נעשה להם כנכרי בדברים, לדבר קשות:
8Now Joseph recognized his brothers, but they did not recognize him.   חוַיַּכֵּ֥ר יוֹסֵ֖ף אֶת־אֶחָ֑יו וְהֵ֖ם לֹ֥א הִכִּרֻֽהוּ:
Now Joseph recognized, etc.: Because he had left them [when they were already] full-bearded. — [from Yeb. 88a, Keth. 27b, B.M. 39b, Gen. Rabbah 91:7, Targum Jonathan]   ויכר יוסף וגו': לפי שהניחם חתומי זקן:
but they did not recognize him: Because when he left them, he was not full-bearded, and now they found him full-bearded. The Aggadic Midrash states:“And Joseph recognized his brothers” -when they were delivered into his hands, he recognized that they were his brothers, and he had compassion on them. But they did not recognize him when he fell into their hands, to behave toward him with brotherhood. — [from Yeb. 88a, Keth. 27b, B.M. 39b, Gen. Rabbah 91:7, Targum Jonathan]   והם לא הכרהו: שיצא מאצלם בלא חתימת זקן, ועכשיו בא בחתימת זקן. ומדרש אגדה ויכר יוסף את אחיו כשנמסרו בידו הכיר שהם אחיו ורחם עליהם, והם לא הכירוהו כשנפל בידם לנהוג בו אחוה:
9And Joseph remembered the dreams that he had dreamed about them, and he said to them, "You are spies; you have come to see the nakedness of the land."   טוַיִּזְכֹּ֣ר יוֹסֵ֔ף אֵ֚ת הַֽחֲלֹמ֔וֹת אֲשֶׁ֥ר חָלַ֖ם לָהֶ֑ם וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֲלֵהֶם֙ מְרַגְּלִ֣ים אַתֶּ֔ם לִרְא֛וֹת אֶת־עֶרְוַ֥ת הָאָ֖רֶץ בָּאתֶֽם:
that he had dreamed about them: Heb. לָהֶם, lit., to them, [but here it means] about them (Targum Jonathan). He knew that they (his dreams) had been fulfilled, for they (his brothers) had prostrated themselves to him. — [from Zohar, vol. 1, p. 199b]   אשר חלם להם: עליהם, וידע שנתקיימו, שהרי השתחוו לו:
the nakedness of the land: Heb. עֶרְוַת הָאָרֶץ, the exposure of the land, from where it can be easily conquered, similar to“he exposed (הֶעֱרָה) her fountain” (Lev. 20:18), and like“naked and bare (וְעֶרְיָה)” (Ezek. 16:7), and likewise, every [expression of] עֶרְוָה in the Scriptures is an expression of exposure. Onkelos, [however,] rendered: בִּדְקָא דְּאַרְעָא, as equivalent to הַבָּיִת בֶּדֶק (II Kings 12:6),“ the weakness of the house,” but he was not precise in explaining it according to the language of the verse.   ערות הארץ: גלוי הארץ, מהיכן היא נוחה ליכבש, כמו (ויקרא כ יח) את מקורה הערה, וכמו (יחזקאל טז ז) ערום ועריה. וכן כל ערוה שבמקרא לשון גילוי. ותרגום אונקלוס בדקא דארעא, כמו (מלכים ב' יב ו) בדק הבית, רעוע הבית, אבל לא דקדק לפרשו אחר לשון המקרא:
10And they said to him, "No, my master, your servants have come to buy food.   יוַיֹּֽאמְר֥וּ אֵלָ֖יו לֹ֣א אֲדֹנִ֑י וַֽעֲבָדֶ֥יךָ בָּ֖אוּ לִשְׁבָּר־אֹֽכֶל:
No, my master: Do not say that, but your servants have come to buy food.   לא א-דני: לא תאמר כן, שהרי עבדיך באו לשבר אוכל:
11We are all sons of one man. We are honest. Your servants were never spies."   יאכֻּלָּ֕נוּ בְּנֵ֥י אִֽישׁ־אֶחָ֖ד נָ֑חְנוּ כֵּנִ֣ים אֲנַ֔חְנוּ לֹֽא־הָי֥וּ עֲבָדֶ֖יךָ מְרַגְּלִֽים:
We are all sons of one man: The Holy Spirit flickered within them, and they included him with them, for he too was the son of their father. — [from Gen. Rabbah 91:7]   כלנו בני איש אחד נחנו: נצנצה בהם רוח הקדש וכללוהו עמהם שאף הוא בן אביהם:
honest: Heb. כֵּנִים, truthful, like“You have spoken truthfully (כֵּן)” (Exod. 10: 29);“the daughters of Zelophehad speak truthfully (כֵּן)” (Num. 27:7);“[their haughtiness] and their conception are improper (לֹא כֵן) , [as are] their branches” (Isa. 16:6). - [from Targum Onkelos]   כנים: אמתיים, כמו (שמות י כט) כן דברת, (במדבר כז ז) כן בנות צלפחד דוברות, (ישעיה טז ו) ועברתו לא כן בדיו:
12But he said to them, "No! But you have come to see the nakedness of the land."   יבוַיֹּ֖אמֶר אֲלֵהֶ֑ם לֹ֕א כִּֽי־עֶרְוַ֥ת הָאָ֖רֶץ בָּאתֶ֥ם לִרְאֽוֹת:
But you have come to see the nakedness of the land: For you have entered by way of the ten gates of the city. Why did you not enter [together] through one gate?- [from Gen. Rabbah 91:7; Tan. Buber, Mikeitz 17]   כי ערות הארץ באתם לראות: שהרי נכנסתם בעשרה שערי העיר, למה לא נכנסתם בשער אחד:
13And they said, "We, your servants, are twelve brothers, the sons of one man in the land of Canaan, and behold, the youngest is with our father today, and one is gone."   יגוַיֹּֽאמְר֗וּ שְׁנֵ֣ים עָשָׂר֩ עֲבָדֶ֨יךָ אַחִ֧ים | אֲנַ֛חְנוּ בְּנֵ֥י אִֽישׁ־אֶחָ֖ד בְּאֶ֣רֶץ כְּנָ֑עַן וְהִנֵּ֨ה הַקָּטֹ֤ן אֶת־אָבִ֨ינוּ֙ הַיּ֔וֹם וְהָֽאֶחָ֖ד אֵינֶֽנּוּ:
And they said, “We, your servants…”: And for that one who is gone, we scattered in the city to seek him. — [from Tan. Buber, Mikeitz 17]   ויאמרו שנים עשר עבדיך וגו': ובשביל אותו אחד שאיננו נתפזרנו בעיר לבקשו:
14And Joseph said to them, "This is just what I have spoken to you, saying, 'You are spies.'   ידוַיֹּ֥אמֶר אֲלֵהֶ֖ם יוֹסֵ֑ף ה֗וּא אֲשֶׁ֨ר דִּבַּ֧רְתִּי אֲלֵכֶ֛ם לֵאמֹ֖ר מְרַגְּלִ֥ים אַתֶּֽם:
This is just what I have spoken: The thing that I have spoken, namely, that you are spies, is true and correct. This is according to its simple interpretation. Its midrashic interpretation is, however: He said to them, “And if you find him (Joseph), and they (his owners) demand a large ransom from you, will you ransom him?” “Yes,” they replied. He said to them, “And if they say that they will not return him for any money, what will you do?” They said, “For this we have come, to kill or be killed.” He said to them,“That is [exactly] what I said to you; you have come to slay the people of the city. I divine with my cup that two of you destroyed the large city of Shechem.” - [from Gen. Rabbah 91:7, Tan. Mikeitz 8]   הוא אשר דברתי: הדבר אשר דברתי שאתם מרגלים הוא האמת והנכון, זהו לפי פשוטו. ומדרשו אמר להם ואלו מצאתם אותו ויפסקו עליכם ממון הרבה תפדוהו. אמרו לו הן. אמר להם ואם יאמרו לכם שלא יחזירוהו בשום ממון מה תעשו. אמרו לו לכך באנו, להרוג או ליהרג, אמר להם הוא אשר דברתי אליכם להרוג בני העיר באתם, מנחש אני בגביע שלי ששנים מכם החריבו כרך גדול של שכם:
15With this you shall be tested: By Pharaoh's life, you shall not leave this place unless your youngest brother comes here.   טובְּזֹ֖את תִּבָּחֵ֑נוּ חֵ֤י פַרְעֹה֙ אִם־תֵּֽצְא֣וּ מִזֶּ֔ה כִּ֧י אִם־בְּב֛וֹא אֲחִיכֶ֥ם הַקָּטֹ֖ן הֵֽנָּה:
By Pharaoh’s life: If Pharaoh will live. When he swore falsely, he swore by Pharaoh’s life. — [from Gen. Rabbah 91:7, Tan. Buber, Mikeitz 17]   חי פרעה: אם יחיה פרעה. שהיה נשבע לשקר, היה נשבע בחיי פרעה:
you shall not leave this place: Heb. מִזֶה, lit., from this, from this place. — [from Targum Onkelos]   אם תצאו מזה: מן המקום הזה:
16Send one of you and let him fetch your brother, and you will be imprisoned so that your words will be tested whether truth is with you, and if not, as Pharaoh lives, you are spies!"   טזשִׁלְח֨וּ מִכֶּ֣ם אֶחָד֘ וְיִקַּ֣ח אֶת־אֲחִיכֶם֒ וְאַתֶּם֙ הֵאָ֣סְר֔וּ וְיִבָּֽחֲנוּ֙ דִּבְרֵיכֶ֔ם הַֽאֱמֶ֖ת אִתְּכֶ֑ם וְאִם־לֹ֕א חֵ֣י פַרְעֹ֔ה כִּ֥י מְרַגְּלִ֖ים אַתֶּֽם:
whether truth is with you: Heb. הַאמֶת, if the truth is with you. The “hey” is vowelized with a“pattach,” which is equivalent to an expression of wonderment. — [from Targum Onkelos]. And if you do not bring him, [I swear] by Pharaoh’s life, that you are spies.   האמת אתכם: אם אמת אתכם. לפיכך ה"א נקוד פתח שהוא כמו בלשון תימה. ואם לא תביאוהו, חי פרעה כי מרגלים אתם:
17And he put them in prison for three days.   יזוַיֶּֽאֱסֹ֥ף אֹתָ֛ם אֶל־מִשְׁמָ֖ר שְׁל֥שֶׁת יָמִֽים:
prison: Heb. מִשְׁמָר, lit., watch, [meaning] the prison. — [from Targum Onkelos]   משמר: בית האסורים:
18On the third day, Joseph said to them: "Do this and live I fear God.   יחוַיֹּ֨אמֶר אֲלֵהֶ֤ם יוֹסֵף֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁ֔י זֹ֥את עֲשׂ֖וּ וִֽחְי֑וּ אֶת־הָֽאֱלֹהִ֖ים אֲנִ֥י יָרֵֽא:

Fifth Portion

Genesis Chapter 42

19If you are honest, your one brother will be confined in your prison, and you, go bring the grain for the hunger of your households.   יטאִם־כֵּנִ֣ים אַתֶּ֔ם אֲחִיכֶ֣ם אֶחָ֔ד יֵֽאָסֵ֖ר בְּבֵ֣ית מִשְׁמַרְכֶ֑ם וְאַתֶּם֙ לְכ֣וּ הָבִ֔יאוּ שֶׁ֖בֶר רַֽעֲב֥וֹן בָּֽתֵּיכֶֽם:
in your prison: In which you are now imprisoned.   בבית משמרכם: שאתם אסורים בו עכשיו:
and you, go bring: to your father’s house.   ואתם לכו הביאו: לבית אביכם:
the grain for the hunger of your households: What you have purchased for the hunger of the members of your households. — [from Targum Jonathan ben Uzziel].   שבר רעבון בתיכם: מה שקניתם לרעבון אנשי בתיכם:
20And bring your youngest brother to me, so that your words may be verified, and you will not die." And they did so.   כוְאֶת־אֲחִיכֶ֤ם הַקָּטֹן֙ תָּבִ֣יאוּ אֵלַ֔י וְיֵאָֽמְנ֥וּ דִבְרֵיכֶ֖ם וְלֹ֣א תָמ֑וּתוּ וַיַּֽעֲשׂוּ־כֵֽן:
so that your words may be verified: Heb. וְיֵאָמְנוּ, let them be confirmed and fulfilled, like“Amen, amen (אָמֵן)” (Num. 5:22), and like“may Your word now be verified (יֵאָמֵן)” (I Kings 8:26).   ויאמנו דבריכם: יתאמתו ויתקיימו, כמו (במדבר ה כב) אמן אמן, וכמו (מ"א ח כו) יאמן נא דבריך:
21And they said to one another, "Indeed, we are guilty for our brother, that we witnessed the distress of his soul when he begged us, and we did not listen. That is why this trouble has come upon us."   כאוַיֹּֽאמְר֞וּ אִ֣ישׁ אֶל־אָחִ֗יו אֲבָל֘ אֲשֵׁמִ֣ים | אֲנַ֘חְנוּ֘ עַל־אָחִ֒ינוּ֒ אֲשֶׁ֨ר רָאִ֜ינוּ צָרַ֥ת נַפְשׁ֛וֹ בְּהִתְחַֽנְנ֥וֹ אֵלֵ֖ינוּ וְלֹ֣א שָׁמָ֑עְנוּ עַל־כֵּן֙ בָּ֣אָה אֵלֵ֔ינוּ הַצָּרָ֖ה הַזֹּֽאת:
Indeed: Heb. אִבָל, as the Targum renders: בָּקוּשְׁטָא, in truth. I [also] saw in Genesis Rabbah (91:8): It is the language of the Southerners; אִבָל means בְּרַם, in truth.   אבל: כתרגומו בקושטא. וראיתי בבראשית רבה (צא ח) לישנא דרומאה הוא אבל, ברם:
has come upon us: Heb. בָּאָה. Its accent is on the“beth,” because it is in the past tense, [meaning] that it has already come, and the Targum is אָתַת לָנָא [which is the past tense in Aramaic].   באה אלינו: טעמו בבי"ת, לפי שהוא בלשון עבר שכבר באה, ותרגומו אתת לנא:
22And Reuben answered them, saying, "Didn't I tell you, saying, 'Do not sin against the lad,' but you did not listen? Behold, his blood, too, is being demanded!"   כבוַיַּ֩עַן֩ רְאוּבֵ֨ן אֹתָ֜ם לֵאמֹ֗ר הֲלוֹא֩ אָמַ֨רְתִּי אֲלֵיכֶ֧ם | לֵאמֹ֛ר אַל־תֶּֽחֶטְא֥וּ בַיֶּ֖לֶד וְלֹ֣א שְׁמַעְתֶּ֑ם וְגַם־דָּמ֖וֹ הִנֵּ֥ה נִדְרָֽשׁ:
his blood, too, is being demanded: The use of the word אֶת or the word גַם denotes inclusion. In this case it means“his blood and also the blood of his aged father.” - [from Gen. Rabbah 91:8]   וגם דמו: אתין וגמין רבויין, דמו וגם דם הזקן:
23They did not know that Joseph understood, for the interpreter was between them.   כגוְהֵם֙ לֹ֣א יָֽדְע֔וּ כִּ֥י שֹׁמֵ֖עַ יוֹסֵ֑ף כִּ֥י הַמֵּלִ֖יץ בֵּֽינֹתָֽם:
They did not know that Joseph understood: Heb. שֹׁמֵעַ, understood their language, and they were speaking in this manner in his presence. — [from Tanchuma Buber Vayigash 7]   והם לא ידעו כי שומע יוסף: מבין לשונם ובפניו היו מדברים כן:
for the interpreter was between them: For whenever they spoke with him, the interpreter, who knew both Hebrew and Egyptian, was between them, and he would interpret their words for Joseph and Joseph’s words for them. Therefore, they thought that Joseph did not understand Hebrew. — [from Targum Onkelos]   כי המליץ בינותם: כי כשהיו מדברים עמו היה המליץ ביניהם, היודע לשון עברי ולשון מצרי, והיה מליץ דבריהם ליוסף ודברי יוסף להם, לכך היו סבורים שאין יוסף מכיר בלשון עברי:
the interpreter: This was his son Manasseh. — [from Gen. Rabbah 91:8, Targum Jonathan, Targum Yerushalmi]   המליץ: זה מנשה:
24And he turned away from them and wept, then returned to them and spoke to them; and he took Simeon from among them and imprisoned him before their eyes.   כדוַיִּסֹּ֥ב מֵֽעֲלֵיהֶ֖ם וַיֵּ֑בְךְּ וַיָּ֤שָׁב אֲלֵהֶם֙ וַיְדַבֵּ֣ר אֲלֵהֶ֔ם וַיִּקַּ֤ח מֵֽאִתָּם֙ אֶת־שִׁמְע֔וֹן וַיֶּֽאֱסֹ֥ר אֹת֖וֹ לְעֵֽינֵיהֶֽם:
And he turned away from them: Heb. וַיִסֹב. He distanced himself from them so that they would not see him weeping.   ויסב מעליהם: נתרחק מעליהם שלא יראוהו בוכה:
and wept: Because he heard that they were remorseful. — [from Bereishith Rabbathi , p. 204]   ויבך: לפי ששמע שהיו מתחרטין:
Simeon: He [was the one who] had cast him into the pit. It was he who said to Levi,“Behold, that dreamer is coming” (Gen. 37:19). Another explanation: Joseph intended to separate him from Levi, lest the two of them take counsel to assassinate him.   את שמעון: הוא השליכו לבור, הוא שאמר ללוי (לעיל לז יט) הנה בעל החלומות הלזה בא. דבר אחר נתכוין יוסף להפרידו מלוי שמא יתיעצו שניהם להרוג אותו:
and imprisoned him before their eyes: He imprisoned him only before their eyes, but as soon as they left, he released him and gave him food and drink. — [from Gen. Rabbah 91:8]   ויאסור אותו לעיניהם: לא אסרו אלא לעיניהם, וכיון שיצאו הוציאו והאכילו והשקהו:  
25And Joseph commanded, and they filled their vessels with grain, and [he commanded] to return their money into each one's sack, and to give them provisions for the journey, and he did so for them.   כהוַיְצַ֣ו יוֹסֵ֗ף וַיְמַלְא֣וּ אֶת־כְּלֵיהֶם֘ בָּר֒ וּלְהָשִׁ֤יב כַּסְפֵּיהֶם֙ אִ֣ישׁ אֶל־שַׂקּ֔וֹ וְלָתֵ֥ת לָהֶ֛ם צֵדָ֖ה לַדָּ֑רֶךְ וַיַּ֥עַשׂ לָהֶ֖ם כֵּֽן:
26And they loaded their grain upon their donkeys, and they went away from there.   כווַיִּשְׂא֥וּ אֶת־שִׁבְרָ֖ם עַל־חֲמֹֽרֵיהֶ֑ם וַיֵּֽלְכ֖וּ מִשָּֽׁם:
27The one opened his sack to give fodder to his donkey at the lodging place, and he saw his money there it was, in the mouth of his sack.   כזוַיִּפְתַּ֨ח הָֽאֶחָ֜ד אֶת־שַׂקּ֗וֹ לָתֵ֥ת מִסְפּ֛וֹא לַֽחֲמֹר֖וֹ בַּמָּל֑וֹן וַיַּרְא֙ אֶת־כַּסְפּ֔וֹ וְהִנֵּה־ה֖וּא בְּפִ֥י אַמְתַּחְתּֽוֹ:
The one opened: That was Levi, who was left alone, without Simeon, his companion. — [from Gen. Rabbah]   ויפתח האחד: הוא לוי שנשאר יחיד משמעון בן זוגו:
at the lodging place: Heb.בַּמָלוֹן. In the place where they lodged at night.   במלון: במקום שלנו בלילה:
his sack: Heb. אַמְתַּחְתּוֹ. That is a sack.   אמתחתו: הוא שק:
28And he said to his brothers, "My money has been returned, and indeed, here it is in my sack! " Their hearts sank, and trembling, they turned to one another, saying, "What is this that God has done to us?"   כחוַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֶל־אֶחָיו֙ הוּשַׁ֣ב כַּסְפִּ֔י וְגַ֖ם הִנֵּ֣ה בְאַמְתַּחְתִּ֑י וַיֵּצֵ֣א לִבָּ֗ם וַיֶּֽחֶרְד֞וּ אִ֤ישׁ אֶל־אָחִיו֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר מַה־זֹּ֛את עָשָׂ֥ה אֱלֹהִ֖ים לָֽנוּ:
and indeed, here it is in my sack: The money is in it with the grain.   וגם הנה באמתחתי: גם הכסף בו עם התבואה:
What is this that God has done to us: to bring us to this accusation, for it (the money) was not returned except to accuse us falsely.   מה זאת עשה א-להים לנו: להביאנו לידי עלילה זו שלא הושב אלא להתעולל עלינו:  
29And they came to Jacob their father, to the land of Canaan, and they told him all that had befallen them, saying,   כטוַיָּבֹ֛אוּ אֶל־יַֽעֲקֹ֥ב אֲבִיהֶ֖ם אַ֣רְצָה כְּנָ֑עַן וַיַּגִּ֣ידוּ ל֔וֹ אֵ֛ת כָּל־הַקֹּרֹ֥ת אֹתָ֖ם לֵאמֹֽר:
30"The man, the lord of the land, spoke to us harshly, and he accused us of spying on the land.   לדִּ֠בֶּ֠ר הָאִ֨ישׁ אֲדֹנֵ֥י הָאָ֛רֶץ אִתָּ֖נוּ קָשׁ֑וֹת וַיִּתֵּ֣ן אֹתָ֔נוּ כִּמְרַגְּלִ֖ים אֶת־הָאָֽרֶץ:
31And we said to him, 'We are honest; we were never spies.   לאוַנֹּ֥אמֶר אֵלָ֖יו כֵּנִ֣ים אֲנָ֑חְנוּ לֹ֥א הָיִ֖ינוּ מְרַגְּלִֽים:
32We are twelve brothers, the sons of our father; one is gone, and today the youngest is with our father in the land of Canaan.'   לבשְׁנֵֽים־עָשָׂ֥ר אֲנַ֛חְנוּ אַחִ֖ים בְּנֵ֣י אָבִ֑ינוּ הָֽאֶחָ֣ד אֵינֶ֔נּוּ וְהַקָּטֹ֥ן הַיּ֛וֹם אֶת־אָבִ֖ינוּ בְּאֶ֥רֶץ כְּנָֽעַן:
33And the man, the lord of the land, said to us, 'With this I will know that you are honest; leave one of your brothers with me, and [what is needed for] the hunger of your households, take and go.   לגוַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלֵ֗ינוּ הָאִישׁ֙ אֲדֹנֵ֣י הָאָ֔רֶץ בְּזֹ֣את אֵדַ֔ע כִּ֥י כֵנִ֖ים אַתֶּ֑ם אֲחִיכֶ֤ם הָֽאֶחָד֙ הַנִּ֣יחוּ אִתִּ֔י וְאֶת־רַֽעֲב֥וֹן בָּֽתֵּיכֶ֖ם קְח֥וּ וָלֵֽכוּ:
34And bring your youngest brother to me, so that I will know that you are not spies, that you are honest; [then] I will give you your brother, and you may travel around in the land.' "   לדוְ֠הָבִ֠יאוּ אֶת־אֲחִיכֶ֣ם הַקָּטֹן֘ אֵלַי֒ וְאֵֽדְעָ֗ה כִּ֣י לֹ֤א מְרַגְּלִים֙ אַתֶּ֔ם כִּ֥י כֵנִ֖ים אַתֶּ֑ם אֶת־אֲחִיכֶם֙ אֶתֵּ֣ן לָכֶ֔ם וְאֶת־הָאָ֖רֶץ תִּסְחָֽרוּ:
and you may travel around in the land: Heb. תִּסְחָרוּ, you may go around. Likewise, every expression of merchants (סוֹחִרִים) and commerce (סְחוֹרָה) is based on the fact that they (the merchants) travel around and look for merchandise.   ואת הארץ תסחרו: תסובבו. וכל לשון סוחרים וסחורה על שם שמחזרים וסובבים אחר פרקמטיא:
35And it came to pass that they were emptying their sacks and behold! Each one's bundle of money was in his sack; they saw the bundles of their money, they and their father, and they became frightened.   להוַיְהִ֗י הֵ֚ם מְרִיקִ֣ים שַׂקֵּיהֶ֔ם וְהִנֵּה־אִ֥ישׁ צְרֽוֹר־כַּסְפּ֖וֹ בְּשַׂקּ֑וֹ וַיִּרְא֞וּ אֶת־צְרֹר֧וֹת כַּסְפֵּיהֶ֛ם הֵ֥מָּה וַֽאֲבִיהֶ֖ם וַיִּירָֽאוּ:
bundle of money: Heb. צְרוֹר כַּסְפּוֹ, his bundle of money. — [from Targum Jonathan ben Uzziel]   צרור כספו: קשר כספו:
36And their father Jacob said to them, "You have bereaved me-Joseph is gone, and Simeon is gone, and you want to take Benjamin! All these troubles have come upon me."   לווַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֲלֵהֶם֙ יַֽעֲקֹ֣ב אֲבִיהֶ֔ם אֹתִ֖י שִׁכַּלְתֶּ֑ם יוֹסֵ֤ף אֵינֶ֨נּוּ֙ וְשִׁמְע֣וֹן אֵינֶ֔נּוּ וְאֶת־בִּנְיָמִ֣ן תִּקָּ֔חוּ עָלַ֖י הָי֥וּ כֻלָּֽנָה:
You have bereaved me: [This] teaches [us] that he suspected them-perhaps they had killed him (Simeon) or sold him like Joseph. [Gen. Rabbah 91:9]   אתי שכלתם: מלמד שחשדן שמא הרגוהו או מכרוהו כיוסף:
You have bereaved: Heb. שִׁכַּלְתֶּם Anyone who has lost his children is called שַׁכּוּל.   שכלתם: כל מי שבניו אבודים קרוי שכול:
37And Reuben spoke to his father, saying, "You may put my two sons to death if I don't bring him (Benjamin) to you. Put him into my hand[s] and I will return him to you."   לזוַיֹּ֤אמֶר רְאוּבֵן֙ אֶל־אָבִ֣יו לֵאמֹ֔ר אֶת־שְׁנֵ֤י בָנַי֙ תָּמִ֔ית אִם־לֹ֥א אֲבִיאֶ֖נּוּ אֵלֶ֑יךָ תְּנָ֤ה אֹתוֹ֙ עַל־יָדִ֔י וַֽאֲנִ֖י אֲשִׁיבֶ֥נּוּ אֵלֶֽיךָ:
38But he (Jacob) said, "My son shall not go down with you, because his brother is dead, and he alone is left, and if misfortune befalls him on the way you are going, you will bring down my gray head in sorrow to the grave."   לחוַיֹּ֕אמֶר לֹֽא־יֵרֵ֥ד בְּנִ֖י עִמָּכֶ֑ם כִּֽי־אָחִ֨יו מֵ֜ת וְה֧וּא לְבַדּ֣וֹ נִשְׁאָ֗ר וּקְרָאָ֤הוּ אָסוֹן֙ בַּדֶּ֨רֶךְ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר תֵּֽלְכוּ־בָ֔הּ וְהֽוֹרַדְתֶּ֧ם אֶת־שֵֽׂיבָתִ֛י בְּיָג֖וֹן שְׁאֽוֹלָה:
My son shall not go down with you: He did not accept Reuben’s offer. He said,“This firstborn is a fool. He offers to kill his sons. Are they his sons and not my sons?” - [from Gen. Rabbah 91:9]   לא ירד בני עמכם: לא קבל דבריו של ראובן. אמר בכור שוטה הוא זה, הוא אומר להמית בניו, וכי בניו הם ולא בני:

Genesis Chapter 43

1But the hunger was severe in the land.   אוְהָֽרָעָ֖ב כָּבֵ֥ד בָּאָֽרֶץ:
2And it came to pass, when they finished eating the grain that they had brought from Egypt, that their father said to them, "Go back [and] buy us a little food."   בוַיְהִ֗י כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֤ר כִּלּוּ֙ לֶֽאֱכֹ֣ל אֶת־הַשֶּׁ֔בֶר אֲשֶׁ֥ר הֵבִ֖יאוּ מִמִּצְרָ֑יִם וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֲלֵיהֶם֙ אֲבִיהֶ֔ם שֻׁ֖בוּ שִׁבְרוּ־לָ֥נוּ מְעַט־אֹֽכֶל:
when they finished eating: Judah had said to them, “Wait for the old man until there is no more bread left in the house.” - [from Tanchuma Mikeitz 8, Gen. Rabbah 91:6]   כאשר כלו לאכול: יהודה אמר להם המתינו לזקן עד שתכלה פת מן הבית:
when they finished.: [Onkelos renders:] כַּד שֵׁצִיאוּ, when they stopped. The one who renders: כַּד סַפִּיקוּ is in error.“When the camels had finished drinking” (Gen. 24:22) is rendered: כַּד סַפִּיקוּ, which means “when they had drunk their fill,” [for] that was the end of their drinking. This instance of “when they had finished eating,” however, means“when the food was depleted,” and we render: כַּד שֵׁצִיאוּ   כאשר כלו: כד שציאו. והמתרגם כד ספיקו, טועה כאשר כלו הגמלים לשתות מתורגם כד ספיקו כששתו די ספוקם הוא גמר שתייתם. אבל זה כאשר כלו לאכול, כאשר תם האוכל הוא, ומתרגמינן כד שציאו:
3But Judah spoke to him, saying, "The man warned us repeatedly, saying, 'You shall not see my face if your brother is not with you.'   גוַיֹּ֧אמֶר אֵלָ֛יו יְהוּדָ֖ה לֵאמֹ֑ר הָעֵ֣ד הֵעִד֩ בָּ֨נוּ הָאִ֤ישׁ לֵאמֹר֙ לֹֽא־תִרְא֣וּ פָנַ֔י בִּלְתִּ֖י אֲחִיכֶ֥ם אִתְּכֶֽם:
warned us repeatedly: Heb. הָעֵד הֵעִד, an expression of warning, since a warning is usually given in the presence of witnesses (עֵדִים) . Similarly,“I warned (הַעִדֹתִי) your forefathers” (Jer. 11:7);“Go down, warn (הָעֵד) the people” (Exod. 19:21).   העד העד: לשון התראה, שסתם התראה מתרה בו בפני עדים, וכן (דברים ל יט) העידותי בכם, (שמות יט כא) רד העד בעם:
‘You shall not see my face if your brother is not with you.’: Heb. בִּלְתִּי, lit., without. You shall not see me without your brother [being] with you. Onkelos, however, renders: except when your brother is with you. He explained the verse according to its context, but he was not precise in translating it in accordance with the language of the verse.   לא תראו פני בלתי אחיכם אתכם: לא תראוני בלא אחיכם אתכם. ואנקלוס תרגם אלהין כד אחוכון עמכון, יישב ביאור הדבר על אופנו ולא דקדק לתרגם אחר לשון המקרא: 
4If you send our brother with us, we will go down and buy food for you.   דאִם־יֶשְׁךָ֛ מְשַׁלֵּ֥חַ אֶת־אָחִ֖ינוּ אִתָּ֑נוּ נֵֽרְדָ֕ה וְנִשְׁבְּרָ֥ה לְךָ֖ אֹֽכֶל:
5But if you do not send [him], we will not go down, because the man said to us, 'You shall not see my face if your brother is not with you.' "   הוְאִם־אֵֽינְךָ֥ מְשַׁלֵּ֖חַ לֹ֣א נֵרֵ֑ד כִּֽי־הָאִ֞ישׁ אָמַ֤ר אֵלֵ֨ינוּ֙ לֹֽא־תִרְא֣וּ פָנַ֔י בִּלְתִּ֖י אֲחִיכֶ֥ם אִתְּכֶֽם:
6And Israel said, "Why have you harmed me, by telling the man that you have another brother?"   ווַיֹּ֨אמֶר֙ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל לָמָ֥ה הֲרֵֽעֹתֶ֖ם לִ֑י לְהַגִּ֣יד לָאִ֔ישׁ הַע֥וֹד לָכֶ֖ם אָֽח:
7They said, "The man asked about us and about our family, saying, 'Is your father still alive? Do you have a brother?' And we told him according to these words. Could we have known that he would say, 'Bring your brother down'?"   זוַיֹּֽאמְר֡וּ שָׁא֣וֹל שָֽׁאַל־הָ֠אִ֠ישׁ לָ֣נוּ וּלְמֽוֹלַדְתֵּ֜נוּ לֵאמֹ֗ר הַע֨וֹד אֲבִיכֶ֥ם חַי֙ הֲיֵ֣שׁ לָכֶ֣ם אָ֔ח וַנַּ֨גֶּד־ל֔וֹ עַל־פִּ֖י הַדְּבָרִ֣ים הָאֵ֑לֶּה הֲיָד֣וֹעַ נֵדַ֔ע כִּ֣י יֹאמַ֔ר הוֹרִ֖ידוּ אֶת־אֲחִיכֶֽם:
about us and about our family: Heb. וּלְמוֹלַדְתֵּנוּ, about our lineage (Targum Jonathan). Midrashically, [it is explained:] Even the matters (עִנְיָנֵי) of our cradles he revealed to us. — [from Gen. Rabbah 91:10]   לנו ולמולדתנו: למשפחותינו, ומדרשו אפילו עצי עריסותינו גלה לנו:
And we told him: that we have a father and a brother.   ונגד לו: שיש לנו אב ואח:
according to these words: According to his questions that he asked, we were compelled to answer.   על פי הדברים האלה: על פי שאלותיו אשר שאל הוזקקנו להגיד:
that he would say: Heb. כִּי יֹאמַר. [This is equivalent to] אִשֶׁר יֹאמַר, that he would say. כִּי is used as an expression for אִם, and אִם is used as an expression for אִשֶׁר, that. Hence, this is one of its four usages, for this [כִּי] is like אִם, as“until (עַד אִם) I have spoken my words” (24:33). - [after targumim]   כי יאמר: אשר יאמר, כי משמש בלשון אם, ואם משמש בלשון אשר. הרי זה שימוש אחד מארבע לשונותיו שמשמש כי, והוא אם, שהרי כי זה כמו אם, כמו עד אם דברתי דברי (כד לג):
8And Judah said to Israel, his father, "Send the lad with me, and we will get up and go, and we will live and not die, both we and you and also our young children.   חוַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהוּדָ֜ה אֶל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֣ל אָבִ֗יו שִׁלְחָ֥ה הַנַּ֛עַר אִתִּ֖י וְנָק֣וּמָה וְנֵלֵ֑כָה וְנִֽחְיֶה֙ וְלֹ֣א נָמ֔וּת גַּם־אֲנַ֥חְנוּ גַם־אַתָּ֖ה גַּם־טַפֵּֽנוּ:
and we will live: The Holy Spirit flickered within him. Through this trip, your spirit will be revived, as it is said:“and the spirit of their father Jacob was revived” (Gen. 45:27).   ונחיה: נצנצה בו רוח הקודש, על ידי הליכה זו תחי רוחך שנאמר (מה כז) ותחי רוח יעקב אביהם:
and not die: of hunger. As for Benjamin, we are not sure whether he will be seized or he will not be seized, but all of us will [certainly] die of hunger if we do not go. It would be better to leave the doubtful situation and seize the [situation that is] certain. — [from Tanchuma Mikeitz 8]   ולא נמות: ברעב. בנימין ספק יתפש ספק לא יתפש, ואנו כלנו מתים ברעב אם לא נלך, מוטב שתניח את הספק ותתפוש את הודאי:
9I will guarantee him; from my hand you can demand him. If I do not bring him to you and stand him up before you, I will have sinned against you forever.   טאָֽנֹכִי֙ אֶֽעֶרְבֶ֔נּוּ מִיָּדִ֖י תְּבַקְשֶׁ֑נּוּ אִם־לֹ֨א הֲבִֽיאֹתִ֤יו אֵלֶ֨יךָ֙ וְהִצַּגְתִּ֣יו לְפָנֶ֔יךָ וְחָטָ֥אתִי לְךָ֖ כָּל־הַיָּמִֽים:
and stand him up before you: That I will not bring him to you dead, but alive.   והצגתיו לפניך: שלא אביאנו אליך מת כי אם חי:
I will have sinned against you forever: For the world to come. - [from Gen. Rabbah 91:10]   וחטאתי לך כל הימים: לעולם הבא:
10For had we not tarried, by now we would have already returned twice."   יכִּ֖י לוּלֵ֣א הִתְמַהְמָ֑הְנוּ כִּֽי־עַתָּ֥ה שַׁ֖בְנוּ זֶ֥ה פַֽעֲמָֽיִם:
had we not tarried: because of you, we would have [already] returned with Simeon, and you would not have suffered all these days.   לולא התמהמהנו: על ידך, כבר היינו שבים עם שמעון ולא נצטערת כל הימים הללו:
11So Israel, their father, said to them, "If so, then do this: take some of the choice products of the land in your vessels, and take down to the man as a gift, a little balm and a little honey, wax and lotus, pistachios and almonds.   יאוַיֹּ֨אמֶר אֲלֵהֶ֜ם יִשְׂרָאֵ֣ל אֲבִיהֶ֗ם אִם־כֵּ֣ן | אֵפוֹא֘ זֹ֣את עֲשׂוּ֒ קְח֞וּ מִזִּמְרַ֤ת הָאָ֨רֶץ֙ בִּכְלֵיכֶ֔ם וְהוֹרִ֥ידוּ לָאִ֖ישׁ מִנְחָ֑ה מְעַ֤ט צֳרִי֙ וּמְעַ֣ט דְּבַ֔שׁ נְכֹ֣את וָלֹ֔ט בָּטְנִ֖ים וּשְׁקֵדִֽים:
then: Heb. אֵפוֹא. This is a redundant word, used for stylistic purposes in the Hebrew. If [it is] so, [that] I will be compelled to do [this]-that I will [have to] send him with you-I will have to search and seek where [is the place that we can say,]“Here is (אַיֵּה פֹה) a solution as well as advice to give you, and [therefore] I say, ‘Do this.’”   אפוא: כל לשון אפוא לשון יתר הוא לתקן מלה בלשון עברי, אם כן אזדקק לעשות שאשלחנו עמכם, צריך אני לחזור ולבקש איה פה תקנה ועצה להשיאכם, ואומר אני זאת עשו:
some of the choice products of the land: Heb. מִזִמְּרַת הָאָרֶץ lit., from the song of the land. Targumim render: מִדִּמְשַׁבָּח בְּאַרְעָא,“from what is praised in the land,” about which everyone sings, [rejoicing] that it came into the world.   מזמרת הארץ: מתורגם מדמשבח בארעא שהכל מזמרים עליו כשהוא בא לעולם:
wax: Heb. נְכֹאת, wax. — [from Gen. Rabbah 91:11, Targum Onkelos] Cf. Rashi above on 37:25.   נכאת: שעוה:
pistachios: Heb. בָּטְנִים I do not know what they are. In the alphabetized dictionary of Rabbi Machir, I saw [that they are] pistachios, but I believe that they are אִפַרְסְקִים (mentioned in the Mishnah, Kilayim 1:4, and the Talmud, Shabbath 45a).   בטנים: לא ידעתי מה הם ובפרושי א' ב' של רבי מכיר ראיתי פישיטצי"ש [פיסטוקים] ודומה לי שהם אפרסקין:
12And take double the money in your hand[s], and the money that was returned in the mouth of your sacks you shall return in your hand[s], perhaps it was an error.   יבוְכֶ֥סֶף מִשְׁנֶ֖ה קְח֣וּ בְיֶדְכֶ֑ם וְאֶת־הַכֶּ֜סֶף הַמּוּשַׁ֨ב בְּפִ֤י אַמְתְּחֹֽתֵיכֶם֙ תָּשִׁ֣יבוּ בְיֶדְכֶ֔ם אוּלַ֥י מִשְׁגֶּ֖ה הֽוּא:
And…double the money: Twice as much as the first.   וכסף משנה: פי שנים כראשון:
take…in your hand[s]: to purchase food, perhaps the price has risen.   קחו בידכם: לשבור אוכל, שמא הוקר השער:
perhaps it was an error: Perhaps the one appointed over the house inadvertently forgot it.   אולי משגה הוא: שמא הממונה על הבית שכחו שוגג:
13And take your brother, and get up, go back to the man.   יגוְאֶת־אֲחִיכֶ֖ם קָ֑חוּ וְק֖וּמוּ שׁ֥וּבוּ אֶל־הָאִֽישׁ:
14And may the Almighty God grant you compassion before the man, and he will release to you your other brother and Benjamin, and as for me as I am bereaved, I am bereaved."   ידוְאֵ֣ל שַׁדַּ֗י יִתֵּ֨ן לָכֶ֤ם רַֽחֲמִים֙ לִפְנֵ֣י הָאִ֔ישׁ וְשִׁלַּ֥ח לָכֶ֛ם אֶת־אֲחִיכֶ֥ם אַחֵ֖ר וְאֶת־בִּנְיָמִ֑ין וַֽאֲנִ֕י כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר שָׁכֹ֖לְתִּי שָׁכָֽלְתִּי:
And may the Almighty God: From now on, you lack nothing but prayer. Behold I am praying for you. — [from Gen. Rabbah 91:11]   ואל שדי: מעתה אינכם חסרים כלום אלא תפלה, הריני מתפלל עליכם:
the Almighty God: Heb. א-ֵל שַׁדָּי, Whose grant of mercy is sufficient (שֶׁדַי) , and Who has sufficient power to grant, May He grant you compassion. This is its simple meaning (Zohar , vol. 2, p. 257a). Its midrashic interpretation, however, is: May He Who said to His world,“Enough!” (שֶׁאָמַר דָּי) say to my troubles,“Enough!” for I have not enjoyed tranquility since my youth. [I endured] the trouble of Laban (who tricked me and pursued me with the desire of killing me), the trouble of Esau (who wanted to kill me), the trouble of Rachel (who died in childbirth), the trouble of Dinah (who was violated and kidnapped by Shechem), the trouble of Joseph (who disappeared), the trouble of Simeon (who is being detained by the ruler of Egypt), and the trouble of Benjamin (whom he demands that I send to him) (Tanchuma Mikeitz 10).   ואל שדי: שדי בנתינת רחמיו, וכדי היכולת בידו ליתן, יתן לכם רחמים, זהו פשוטו. ומדרשו מי שאמר לעולם די יאמר די לצרותי, שלא שקטתי מנעורי, צרת לבן, צרת עשו, צרת רחל, צרת דינה, צרת יוסף, צרת שמעון, צרת בנימין:
and he will release to you: Heb. וְשִׁלַח. He will release to you, as the Targum renders, [meaning that] he will release him from his bonds, an expression similar to“he shall let him out to freedom (לַחָפְשִׁי יְשַׁלְחֶנוּ)” (Exod. 21:26). It is, however, inappropriate to translate it as an expression of sending away because they were going there to him.   ושלח לכם: ויפטר לכון, תרגומו, יפטרנו מאסיריו, לשון (שמות כא כו) לחפשי ישלחנו, ואינו נופל בתרגום [לתרגמו] לשון וישלח, שהרי לשם הם הולכים אצלו:
your…brother: This is Simeon.   את אחיכם: זה שמעון:
other: The Holy Spirit [of prophecy] was cast into him to include Joseph. - [from Avoth d’Rabbi Nathan,]   אחר: רוח הקודש נזרקה בו, לרבות יוסף:
and as for me: Until you return, I will be bereaved out of doubt.   ואני: עד שובכם אהיה שכול מספק:
as I am bereaved: of Joseph and Simeon.   כאשר שכלתי: מיוסף ומשמעון:
I am bereaved: of Benjamin.   שכלתי: מבנימין:
15So the men took this gift, and they took double the money in their hand[s] and Benjamin, and they got up and went down to Egypt and stood before Joseph.   טווַיִּקְח֤וּ הָֽאֲנָשִׁים֙ אֶת־הַמִּנְחָ֣ה הַזֹּ֔את וּמִשְׁנֶה־כֶּ֛סֶף לָֽקְח֥וּ בְיָדָ֖ם וְאֶת־בִּנְיָמִ֑ן וַיָּקֻ֨מוּ֙ וַיֵּֽרְד֣וּ מִצְרַ֔יִם וַיַּֽעַמְד֖וּ לִפְנֵ֥י יוֹסֵֽף:
and Benjamin: The Targum renders: וּדְבָרוּ יַת בִּנְיָמִן, and they led Benjamin away. [I.e., Onkelos was not satisfied with the verb נְסִיבוּ, they took, but added another verb, וּדְבָרוּ, and they led away. [That is] because [the expressions for] taking money and taking a person are not the same in Aramaic. Regarding a thing“taken in the hand,” we translate וּנְסִיב, but something taken by persuasion, we translate וּדְבָר.   ואת בנימין: מתרגמינן ודברו ית בנימין, לפי שאין לקיחת הכסף ולקיחת האדם שוה בלשון ארמי, בדבר הנקח ביד מתורגם ונסיב, ודבר הנקח בהנהגת דברים מתרגמינן ודבר:

Sixth Portion

Genesis Chapter 43

16[When] Joseph saw Benjamin with them, he said to the overseer of his house, "Bring the men into the house and [give orders] to slaughter an animal and to prepare, for the men will eat with me at lunch."   טזוַיַּ֨רְא יוֹסֵ֣ף אִתָּם֘ אֶת־בִּנְיָמִין֒ וַיֹּ֨אמֶר֙ לַֽאֲשֶׁ֣ר עַל־בֵּית֔וֹ הָבֵ֥א אֶת־הָֽאֲנָשִׁ֖ים הַבָּ֑יְתָה וּטְבֹ֤חַ טֶ֨בַח֙ וְהָכֵ֔ן כִּ֥י אִתִּ֛י יֹֽאכְל֥וּ הָֽאֲנָשִׁ֖ים בַּצָּֽהֳרָֽיִם:
and [give orders] to slaughter an animal and to prepare: Heb. וּטְבֹח ַטֶבַח וְהָכֵן, like וְלִטְבֹּח ַטֶבַח וּלְהָכֵן, and טְבֹחַ is not the imperative, for [if so,] he would have said וּטְבַח   וטבוח טבח והכן: כמו ולטבוח טבח ולהכן, ואין טבוח לשון צווי שהיה לו לומר וטבח:
at lunch: Heb. בָּצָּהֲרָיִם This is translated [by the targumim] as בְּשֵׁירוּתָא, an Aramaic term denoting the first meal of the day. In Old French disner , lunch. There are many [examples of this word] in the Talmud:“he threw his meal (שֵׁירוּתֵיהּ) to a dog” (Ta’anith 11b);“he cut [the bread] for the entire meal (שֵׁירוּתָא)” (Ber. 39b), but every [other] translation of צָהֳרַיִם is טִהִרָא.   בצהרים: זה מתורגם בשירותא, שהוא לשון סעודה ראשונה בלשון ארמי, ובלע"ז דישני"ר [ארוחת צהריים], ויש הרבה בתלמוד (תענית יא ב) שדא לכלבא שירותיה, (ברכות לט ב) בצע אכולא שירותא. אבל כל תרגום של צהרים טיהרא:
17And the man did as Joseph had said, and the man brought the men into Joseph's house.   יזוַיַּ֣עַשׂ הָאִ֔ישׁ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֖ר אָמַ֣ר יוֹסֵ֑ף וַיָּבֵ֥א הָאִ֛ישׁ אֶת־הָֽאֲנָשִׁ֖ים בֵּ֥יתָה יוֹסֵֽף:
18Now the men were frightened because they had been brought into Joseph's house, and they said, "On account of the money that came back in our sacks at first, we are brought, to roll upon us and to fall upon us and to take us as slaves and our donkeys [as well]."   יחוַיִּֽירְא֣וּ הָֽאֲנָשִׁ֗ים כִּ֣י הֽוּבְאוּ֘ בֵּ֣ית יוֹסֵף֒ וַיֹּֽאמְר֗וּ עַל־דְּבַ֤ר הַכֶּ֨סֶף֙ הַשָּׁ֤ב בְּאַמְתְּחֹתֵ֨ינוּ֙ בַּתְּחִלָּ֔ה אֲנַ֖חְנוּ מֽוּבָאִ֑ים לְהִתְגֹּלֵ֤ל עָלֵ֨ינוּ֙ וּלְהִתְנַפֵּ֣ל עָלֵ֔ינוּ וְלָקַ֧חַת אֹתָ֛נוּ לַֽעֲבָדִ֖ים וְאֶת־חֲמֹרֵֽינוּ:
Now the men were frightened: Heb. וַיִירְאוּ It is written with two“yuds,” and is translated וּדְחִילוּ,“were frightened.”   וייראו האנשים: כתוב בשני יודי"ן ותרגומו ודחילו:
because they had been brought into Joseph’s house: And it was not customary for others who came to purchase grain to lodge in Joseph’s house, but in the inns in the city. So they were frightened that this was [done] only [in order] to put them in prison.   כי הובאו בית יוסף: ואין דרך שאר הבאים לשבור בר ללון בבית יוסף, כי אם בפונדקאות שבעיר. וייראו שאין זה אלא לאספם אל משמר:
we are brought: into this house.   אנחנו מובאים: אל תוך הבית הזה:
to roll upon us: Heb. לְהִתְגֹלֵל עָלֵינוּ So that the fabricated accusation regarding the money will roll upon us and fall upon us, [“Rolling” denotes the plot, and“falling” the ultimate attack.] Onkelos, however, rendered וּלְהִתְנַפֵּל עָלֵינוּ as וּלְאִסְתְּקָפָא עִלָנָא, which is an expression denoting“fabricating false accusations,” just as the Targum renders עִלִילֹת דְּבָרִים as“and he makes a false accusation against her” (Deut. 22:14) [with the words] תַּסְקוּפֵי מִלִין He (Onkelos) does not translate it literally to conform to the language of the verse. But לְהִתְגֹלֵל, which he (Onkelos) renders לְאִתְרַבְרְבָא, “to aggrandize himself,” is an expression derived from“the golden bowl (גֻלַת)” (Eccl. 12:6);“And Huzzab the queen (גֻלְתָה) was carried away” (Nahum 2:8), which denotes royalty.   להתגולל: להיות מתגלגלת עלינו עלילת הכסף ולהיותה נופלת עלינו. ואונקלוס שתרגם ולאסתקפא עלנא, הוא לשון להתעולל, כדמתרגמינן (דברים כב יד) עלילת דברים תסקופי מילין, ולא תרגמו אחר לשון המקרא, ולהתגלל שתרגם לאתרברבא הוא לשון (קהלת יב ו) גלת הזהב, (נחום ב ח) והצב גלתה העלתה, שהוא לשון מלכות:
19So they drew near the man who was over Joseph's house, and they spoke to him at the entrance of the house.   יטוַיִּגְּשׁוּ֙ אֶל־הָאִ֔ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־בֵּ֣ית יוֹסֵ֑ף וַיְדַבְּר֥וּ אֵלָ֖יו פֶּ֥תַח הַבָּֽיִת:
20And they said, "Please, my lord, we came down at first to purchase food.   כוַיֹּֽאמְר֖וּ בִּ֣י אֲדֹנִ֑י יָרֹ֥ד יָרַ֛דְנוּ בַּתְּחִלָּ֖ה לִשְׁבָּר־אֹֽכֶל:
Please, my lord: Heb. בִּי, an expression of entreaty and supplication, in Aramaic: בָּיָיא בָּיָיא. Rashi bases this translation on Onkelos.   בי א-דני: לשון בעיא ותחנונים הוא, ובלשון ארמי בייא בייא:
we came down: Heb. יָרֹד יָרַדְנוּ. This is a degradation for us. We were accustomed to sustaining others, but now we must rely on you. — [from Gen. Rabbah 92:3]   ירד ירדנו: ירידה היא לנו, רגילים היינו לפרנס אחרים, עכשיו אנו צריכים לך:  
21And it came to pass when we came to the lodging place that we opened our sacks, and behold! each man's money was in the mouth of his sack, and we returned it in our hand[s].   כאוַיְהִ֞י כִּי־בָ֣אנוּ אֶל־הַמָּל֗וֹן וַנִּפְתְּחָה֙ אֶת־אַמְתְּחֹתֵ֔ינוּ וְהִנֵּ֤ה כֶֽסֶף־אִישׁ֙ בְּפִ֣י אַמְתַּחְתּ֔וֹ כַּסְפֵּ֖נוּ בְּמִשְׁקָל֑וֹ וַנָּ֥שֶׁב אֹת֖וֹ בְּיָדֵֽנוּ:
22And we brought down other money in our hand[s] to purchase food. We do not know who put our money into our sacks."   כבוְכֶ֧סֶף אַחֵ֛ר הוֹרַ֥דְנוּ בְיָדֵ֖נוּ לִשְׁבָּר־אֹ֑כֶל לֹ֣א יָדַ֔עְנוּ מִי־שָׂ֥ם כַּסְפֵּ֖נוּ בְּאַמְתְּחֹתֵֽינוּ:
23And he said, "Peace to you; fear not. Your God and the God of your father gave you a treasure in your sacks; your money came to me." And he brought Simeon out to them.   כגוַיֹּ֩אמֶר֩ שָׁל֨וֹם לָכֶ֜ם אַל־תִּירָ֗אוּ אֱלֹ֨הֵיכֶ֜ם וֵֽאלֹהֵ֤י אֲבִיכֶם֙ נָתַ֨ן לָכֶ֤ם מַטְמוֹן֙ בְּאַמְתְּחֹ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם כַּסְפְּכֶ֖ם בָּ֣א אֵלָ֑י וַיּוֹצֵ֥א אֲלֵהֶ֖ם אֶת־שִׁמְעֽוֹן:
Your God: In your merit, and if your merit is insufficient, the God of your father, in the merit of your father, gave you a treasure. — [from Gen. Rabbah 92:4 according to Albeck’s edition, Lekach Tov, Sechel Tov]   אלהיכם: בזכותכם, ואם אין זכותכם כדאי, ואלהי אביכם, בזכות אביכם נתן לכם מטמון:
24Then the man brought the men (the brothers) into Joseph's house, and he gave [them] water, and they washed their feet, and he gave fodder to their donkeys.   כדוַיָּבֵ֥א הָאִ֛ישׁ אֶת־הָֽאֲנָשִׁ֖ים בֵּ֣יתָה יוֹסֵ֑ף וַיִּתֶּן־מַ֨יִם֙ וַיִּרְחֲצ֣וּ רַגְלֵיהֶ֔ם וַיִּתֵּ֥ן מִסְפּ֖וֹא לַֽחֲמֹֽרֵיהֶֽם:
Then the man brought: One bringing in after another bringing in [they were brought inside twice], because they (the brothers) pushed him (the man) outside until they spoke to him at the entrance of the house. As soon as he said to them,“Peace to you,” they followed and entered after him. — [from Gen. Rabbah 92:4]   ויבא האיש: הבאה אחר הבאה, לפי שהיו דוחפים אותו לחוץ עד שדברו אליו פתח הבית, ומשאמר להם (פסוק כג) שלום לכם, נמשכו ובאו אחריו:
25And they prepared the gift until Joseph would come at lunchtime, for they heard that there they would eat bread.   כהוַיָּכִ֨ינוּ֙ אֶת־הַמִּנְחָ֔ה עַד־בּ֥וֹא יוֹסֵ֖ף בַּצָּֽהֳרָ֑יִם כִּ֣י שָֽׁמְע֔וּ כִּי־שָׁ֖ם יֹ֥אכְלוּ לָֽחֶם:
And they prepared: Heb. וַיָכִינוּ, they prepared. They adorned it with beautiful vessels. — [from Targum Onkelos]   ויכינו: הזמינו, עטרוהו בכלים נאים:
26And Joseph came home, and they brought him the gift that was in their hand[s], into the house, and they prostrated themselves to him to the ground.   כווַיָּבֹ֤א יוֹסֵף֙ הַבַּ֔יְתָה וַיָּבִ֥יאוּ ל֛וֹ אֶת־הַמִּנְחָ֥ה אֲשֶׁר־בְּיָדָ֖ם הַבָּ֑יְתָה וַיִּשְׁתַּֽחֲווּ־ל֖וֹ אָֽרְצָה:
into the house: From the anteroom into the reception hall.   הביתה: מפרוזדור לטרקלין:
27He inquired after their welfare, and he said to them, "Is your elderly father, whom you mentioned, well? Is he still alive?"   כזוַיִּשְׁאַ֤ל לָהֶם֙ לְשָׁל֔וֹם וַיֹּ֗אמֶר הֲשָׁל֛וֹם אֲבִיכֶ֥ם הַזָּקֵ֖ן אֲשֶׁ֣ר אֲמַרְתֶּ֑ם הַֽעוֹדֶ֖נּוּ חָֽי:
28And they said, "Your servant, our father, is well; he is still alive." And they bowed and prostrated themselves.   כחוַיֹּֽאמְר֗וּ שָׁל֛וֹם לְעַבְדְּךָ֥ לְאָבִ֖ינוּ עוֹדֶ֣נּוּ חָ֑י וַיִּקְּד֖וּ וַיִּשְׁתַּֽחֲוֽוּ כתיב וישתחו:
And they bowed and prostrated themselves: Because of the greeting [i.e. to acknowledge Joseph’s greeting]. Bowing (קִידָה) means inclining the head (קָדְקֹר). הִשְׁתַּחִוָאָה means prostrating oneself to the ground. — [from Ber. 34b]   ויקדו וישתחו: על שאלת שלום. קידה כפיפת קדקד, השתחוואה משתטח לארץ:
29And he lifted his eyes and saw Benjamin, his brother, the son of his mother, and he said, "Is this your little brother, whom you told me about?" And he said, "May God favor you, my son. "   כטוַיִּשָּׂ֣א עֵינָ֗יו וַיַּ֞רְא אֶת־בִּנְיָמִ֣ין אָחִיו֘ בֶּן־אִמּוֹ֒ וַיֹּ֗אמֶר הֲזֶה֙ אֲחִיכֶ֣ם הַקָּטֹ֔ן אֲשֶׁ֥ר אֲמַרְתֶּ֖ם אֵלָ֑י וַיֹּאמַ֕ר אֱלֹהִ֥ים יָחְנְךָ֖ בְּנִֽי:
“May God favor you…”: In connection with the other tribes, we heard [them marked by] favor-“with whom God has favored your servant” (Gen. 33:5). Benjamin, however, had not yet been born. Therefore, Joseph blessed him with favor. — [from Gen. Rabbah 92:5]   א-להים יחנך בני: בשאר שבטים שמענו חנינה (לעיל לג ה) אשר חנן א-להים את עבדך, ובנימין עדיין לא נולד, לכך ברכו יוסף בחנינה:

Seventh Portion

Genesis Chapter 43

30And Joseph hastened, for his mercy was stirred toward his brother, and he wanted to weep; so he went into the room and wept there.   לוַיְמַהֵ֣ר יוֹסֵ֗ף כִּֽי־נִכְמְר֤וּ רַֽחֲמָיו֙ אֶל־אָחִ֔יו וַיְבַקֵּ֖שׁ לִבְכּ֑וֹת וַיָּבֹ֥א הַחַ֖דְרָה וַיֵּ֥בְךְּ שָֽׁמָּה:
for his mercy was stirred: He (Joseph) asked him (Benjamin), “Have you a brother from your mother?” He replied, “I had a brother, but I do not know where he is.” “Have you any sons?” He replied, “I have ten.” He asked, “And what are their names?” He replied, “Bela and Becher, etc.” He asked, “What is the significance of these names?” He replied,“All of them are connected to my brother and the troubles that befell him. [My first son was named] Bela because he (my brother) was swallowed up (נִבְלַע) among the nations. [My second son was named] Becher because he (my brother) was the firstborn (בְּכוֹר) of my mother. [My third son was named] Ashbel because God put him (my brother) into captivity (שְׁבָאו ֹאֵל). [My fourth son was named] Gera because he (my brother) was a stranger (נִתְגַּיֵר) in a lodging place. And [my fifth son was named] Na’aman because he (my brother) was very pleasant [to look upon] (נָעִים). [My sixth and seventh sons were named] Ehi and Rosh because he was my brother (אָחִי), and he was my superior (רֹאשִׁי). [My eighth son was named] Muppim because he (my brother) learned from the mouth of (מִפִּי) my father. [My ninth son was named] Huppim because he (my brother) did not see my wedding (חוּפָּתִי), neither did I see his wedding (חוּפָּתוֹ). And [my tenth son was named] Ard because he (my brother) descended (יָרַד) among the nations.” This is as stated in Tractate Sotah (36b). Immediately, his (Joseph’s) mercy was stirred.   כי נכמרו רחמיו: שאלו יש לך אח מאם, אמר לו אח היה לי ואיני יודע היכן הוא. יש לך בנים, אמר לו יש לי עשרה, אמר לו ומה שמם, אמר לו (להלן מו כא) בלע ובכר וגו', אמר לו מה טיבן של שמות הללו, אמר לו כולם על שם אחי והצרות אשר מצאוהו, בלע שנבלע בין האומות. בכר שהיה בכור לאמי. אשבאל ששבאו אל. גרא שנתגייר באכסניא. ונעמן, שהיה נעים ביותר. אחי וראש אחי היה וראשי היה. מופים מפי אביו למד. וחופים שלא ראה חופתי ולא ראיתי אני חופתו. וארד שירד לבין האומות, כדאיתא במסכת סוטה (לו ב) מיד נכמרו רחמיו:
was stirred: Heb. נִכְמְרוּ, was heated. In the language of the Mishnah,“on a heating (כֹּמֶר) vessel of olives” (Sotah 74a), and in Aramaic,“because of the heating (מִכְמַר) of the meat” (Pes. 58a), and in the Scriptures,“Our skin is parched (נִכְמָרוּ) because of the heat of hunger” (Lam. 5:10). So is the way of all skin; when it is heated, it shrivels and shrinks. — [from Lam. Rabbah 5:10].   נכמרו: נתחממו, ובלשון משנה (ב"מ עד א) על הכומר של זיתים, ובלשון ארמי מכמר בשרא, ובמקרא (איכה ה י) עורנו כתנור נכמרו, נתחממו ונקמטו קמטים קמטים מפני זלעפות רעב. כן דרך כל עור כשמחממין אותו נקמט וכווץ:
31And he washed his face and came out, and he restrained himself and said, "Serve the food."   לאוַיִּרְחַ֥ץ פָּנָ֖יו וַיֵּצֵ֑א וַיִּ֨תְאַפַּ֔ק וַיֹּ֖אמֶר שִׂ֥ימוּ לָֽחֶם:
and he restrained himself: Heb. וַיִתְאַפַּק, and he strengthened himself. וַיִתְאַפַּק is an expression of“the strong (אִפִיקֵי) shields” (Job 41:7), [meaning] strength, and similarly,“and loosens the belt of the strong (אִפִיקִים)” (ibid. 12:21).   ויתאפק: נתאמץ. והוא לשון (איוב יב כא) ומזיח אפיקים רפה, וכן (איוב מא ז) אפיקי מגנים, חוזק:
32And they set for him separately and for them separately, and for the Egyptians who ate with him separately, because the Egyptians could not eat food with the Hebrews, because it is an abomination to the Egyptians.   לבוַיָּשִׂ֥ימוּ ל֛וֹ לְבַדּ֖וֹ וְלָהֶ֣ם לְבַדָּ֑ם וְלַמִּצְרִ֞ים הָאֹֽכְלִ֤ים אִתּוֹ֙ לְבַדָּ֔ם כִּי֩ לֹ֨א יֽוּכְל֜וּן הַמִּצְרִ֗ים לֶֽאֱכֹ֤ל אֶת־הָֽעִבְרִים֙ לֶ֔חֶם כִּי־תֽוֹעֵבָ֥ה הִ֖וא לְמִצְרָֽיִם:
because it is an abomination to the Egyptians: It is a hateful thing for the Egyptians to eat with the Hebrews, and Onkelos gave the reason for the matter.   כי תועבה הוא: דבר שנאוי הוא למצרים לאכול את העברים, ואונקלוס נתן טעם לדבר:
33They sat before him, the firstborn according to his age, and the youngest according to his youth, and the men looked at each other in astonishment.   לגוַיֵּֽשְׁב֣וּ לְפָנָ֔יו הַבְּכֹר֙ כִּבְכֹ֣רָת֔וֹ וְהַצָּעִ֖יר כִּצְעִֽרָת֑וֹ וַיִּתְמְה֥וּ הָֽאֲנָשִׁ֖ים אִ֥ישׁ אֶל־רֵעֵֽהוּ:
the firstborn according to his age: He knocked his goblet and announced, “Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, and Zebulun, sons of one mother, sit in this order, which is the order of your births,” and so [did he order] all of them. When he reached Benjamin, he said,“This one has no mother, and I have no mother. Let him sit beside me.” - [from Gen. Rabbah 93:7]   הבכור כבכורתו: מכה בגביע וקורא ראובן שמעון לוי ויהודה יששכר וזבולון, בני אם אחת, הסבו כסדר הזה שהיא סדר תולדותיכם וכן כולם, כיון שהגיע לבנימין אמר זה אין לו אם ואני אין לי אם ישב אצלי:
34And he had portions brought to them from before him, and Benjamin's portion was five times as large as the portions of any of them, and they drank and became intoxicated with him.   לדוַיִּשָּׂ֨א מַשְׂאֹ֜ת מֵאֵ֣ת פָּנָיו֘ אֲלֵהֶם֒ וַתֵּ֜רֶב מַשְׂאַ֧ת בִּנְיָמִ֛ן מִמַּשְׂאֹ֥ת כֻּלָּ֖ם חָמֵ֣שׁ יָד֑וֹת וַיִּשְׁתּ֥וּ וַיִּשְׁכְּר֖וּ עִמּֽוֹ:
portions: Heb. מַשְׂאֹת, meaning portions. — [from Targum Onkelos]   משאת: מנות:
five times as large: His portion with his brothers, Joseph’s portion, and those of Asenath, Manasseh, and Ephraim. — [from Gen. Rabbah 92:5, Targum Jonathan]   חמש ידות: חלקו עם אחיו ומשאת יוסף ואסנת ומנשה ואפרים:
and they drank and became intoxicated with him: Since the day that they had sold him, neither they nor he had drunk wine, but on that day they drank. — [from Gen. Rabbah 92:5]   וישכרו עמו: ומיום שמכרוהו לא שתו יין, ולא הוא שתה יין, ואותו היום שתו:

Genesis Chapter 44

1Then he commanded the overseer of his house, saying, "Fill the men's sacks with food, as much as they can carry, and put each man's money into the mouth of his sack.   אוַיְצַ֞ו אֶת־אֲשֶׁ֣ר עַל־בֵּיתוֹ֘ לֵאמֹר֒ מַלֵּ֞א אֶת־אַמְתְּחֹ֤ת הָֽאֲנָשִׁים֙ אֹ֔כֶל כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר יֽוּכְל֖וּן שְׂאֵ֑ת וְשִׂ֥ים כֶּֽסֶף־אִ֖ישׁ בְּפִ֥י אַמְתַּחְתּֽוֹ:
2And my goblet, the silver goblet, put into the mouth of the sack of the youngest, and his purchase money." And he did according to Joseph's word, which he had spoken.   בוְאֶת־גְּבִיעִ֞י גְּבִ֣יעַ הַכֶּ֗סֶף תָּשִׂים֙ בְּפִי֙ אַמְתַּ֣חַת הַקָּטֹ֔ן וְאֵ֖ת כֶּ֣סֶף שִׁבְר֑וֹ וַיַּ֕עַשׂ כִּדְבַ֥ר יוֹסֵ֖ף אֲשֶׁ֥ר דִּבֵּֽר:
goblet: Heb. גְבִיעַ, a tall cup, called maderine (a long, narrow goblet).   גביעי: כוס ארוך, וקורין לו מדירנ"א בלע"ז [כוס הדורה מעץ]:   
3The morning became light, and the men were sent [on their way] they and their donkeys.   גהַבֹּ֖קֶר א֑וֹר וְהָֽאֲנָשִׁ֣ים שֻׁלְּח֔וּ הֵ֖מָּה וַֽחֲמֹֽרֵיהֶֽם:
4They had exited the city, but had not gone far when Joseph said to the overseer of his house, "Get up, pursue the men, and when you overtake them, say to them, 'Why have you repaid good with evil?   דהֵ֠ם יָֽצְא֣וּ אֶת־הָעִיר֘ לֹ֣א הִרְחִ֒יקוּ֒ וְיוֹסֵ֤ף אָמַר֙ לַֽאֲשֶׁ֣ר עַל־בֵּית֔וֹ ק֥וּם רְדֹ֖ף אַֽחֲרֵ֣י הָֽאֲנָשִׁ֑ים וְהִשַּׂגְתָּם֙ וְאָֽמַרְתָּ֣ אֲלֵהֶ֔ם לָ֛מָּה שִׁלַּמְתֶּ֥ם רָעָ֖ה תַּ֥חַת טוֹבָֽה:
5Is not this the one my master drinks from? Why, he even divines with it! You have done evil by the way you have acted.' "   ההֲל֣וֹא זֶ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר יִשְׁתֶּ֤ה אֲדֹנִי֙ בּ֔וֹ וְה֕וּא נַחֵ֥שׁ יְנַחֵ֖שׁ בּ֑וֹ הֲרֵֽעֹתֶ֖ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר עֲשִׂיתֶֽם:
6He overtook them, and he said these words to them.   ווַיַּשִּׂגֵ֑ם וַיְדַבֵּ֣ר אֲלֵהֶ֔ם אֶת־הַדְּבָרִ֖ים הָאֵֽלֶּה:
7And they said to him, "Why should my master say such words as these? Far be it from your servants to do a thing like this!   זוַיֹּֽאמְר֣וּ אֵלָ֔יו לָ֚מָּה יְדַבֵּ֣ר אֲדֹנִ֔י כַּדְּבָרִ֖ים הָאֵ֑לֶּה חָלִ֨ילָה֙ לַֽעֲבָדֶ֔יךָ מֵֽעֲשׂ֖וֹת כַּדָּבָ֥ר הַזֶּֽה:
Far be it from your servants: Heb. חָלִילָה, it is profane for us (חוּלִין), an expression of disgrace. The Targum renders: חַס לְעַבְד‏ָ, may your servants be spared, [i.e.,] may the Holy One, blessed be He, spare us from doing this. [May He never allow us to do such a thing!] There are many such expressions in the Talmud: חַס וְשָׁלוֹם, God forbid.   חלילה לעבדיך: חולין הוא לנו, לשון גנאי. ותרגום חס לעבדיך, חס מאת הקב"ה יהי עלינו מעשות זאת והרבה חס ושלום יש בתלמוד בלשון הזה:
8Behold, the money we found in the mouth of our sacks we returned to you from the land of Canaan; so how could we steal from your master's house silver or gold?   חהֵ֣ן כֶּ֗סֶף אֲשֶׁ֤ר מָצָ֨אנוּ֙ בְּפִ֣י אַמְתְּחֹתֵ֔ינוּ הֱשִׁיבֹ֥נוּ אֵלֶ֖יךָ מֵאֶ֣רֶץ כְּנָ֑עַן וְאֵ֗יךְ נִגְנֹב֙ מִבֵּ֣ית אֲדֹנֶ֔יךָ כֶּ֖סֶף א֥וֹ זָהָֽב:
Behold, the money, etc.: This is one of the ten a fortiori conclusions (deductions from minor to major) mentioned in the Torah, and they are all enumerated in Gen. Rabbah (92:7). 10.   הן כסף אשר מצאנו: זה אחד מעשרה קל וחומר האמורים בתורה. וכולן מנויין בבראשית רבה (צב ז):
9Whichever one of your servants with whom it is found shall die, and also we will be slaves to my master."   טאֲשֶׁ֨ר יִמָּצֵ֥א אִתּ֛וֹ מֵֽעֲבָדֶ֖יךָ וָמֵ֑ת וְגַם־אֲנַ֕חְנוּ נִֽהְיֶ֥ה לַֽאדֹנִ֖י לַֽעֲבָדִֽים:
10And he said, "Now indeed, so it is as you have spoken. [But] the one with whom it is found shall be my slave, and you shall be cleared."   יוַיֹּ֕אמֶר גַּם־עַתָּ֥ה כְדִבְרֵיכֶ֖ם כֶּן־ה֑וּא אֲשֶׁ֨ר יִמָּצֵ֤א אִתּוֹ֙ יִֽהְיֶה־לִּ֣י עָ֔בֶד וְאַתֶּ֖ם תִּֽהְי֥וּ נְקִיִּֽם:
And he said, “Now indeed…”: Indeed, according to the law, it is as you have spoken, that you are all liable in this matter. I.e., [if there are] ten people, [and] in the possession of one a stolen article is found, they are all imprisoned. I will not treat you according to the strict letter of the law, however. [Instead, only] “the one with whom it (the goblet) is found shall be my slave.” - [from Gen. Rabbah 92:7]   גם עתה כדבריכם: אף זו מן הדין, אמת כדבריכם כן הוא שכולכם חייבים בדבר, עשרה שנמצאת גניבה ביד אחד מהם כולם נתפשים, אבל אני אעשה לכם לפנים משורת הדין, אשר ימצא אתו יהיה לי עבד:
11So they hastened, and each one lowered his sack to the ground, and each one opened his sack.   יאוַיְמַֽהֲר֗וּ וַיּוֹרִ֛דוּ אִ֥ישׁ אֶת־אַמְתַּחְתּ֖וֹ אָ֑רְצָה וַיִּפְתְּח֖וּ אִ֥ישׁ אַמְתַּחְתּֽוֹ:
12He searched; he started with the eldest and finished with the youngest, and the goblet was found in Benjamin's sack.   יבוַיְחַפֵּ֕שׂ בַּגָּד֣וֹל הֵחֵ֔ל וּבַקָּטֹ֖ן כִּלָּ֑ה וַיִּמָּצֵא֙ הַגָּבִ֔יעַ בְּאַמְתַּ֖חַת בִּנְיָמִֽן:
he started with the eldest: so that they would not detect that he knew where it was. — [from Gen. Rabbah 92:8]   בגדול החל: שלא ירגישו בו שהיה יודע היכן הוא:
13So they rent their garments, and each one loaded his donkey, and they returned to the city.   יגוַיִּקְרְע֖וּ שִׂמְלֹתָ֑ם וַיַּֽעֲמֹס֙ אִ֣ישׁ עַל־חֲמֹר֔וֹ וַיָּשֻׁ֖בוּ הָעִֽירָה:
and each one loaded his donkey: They were very strong men, and they did not have to assist each other to load [the donkeys]. — [from Midrash Tanchuma, Mikeitz 10]   ויעמס איש על חמורו: בעלי זרוע היו ולא הוצרכו לסייע זה את זה לטעון:
and they returned to the city: It was [in fact] a [major] metropolis. So why does the Torah say,“to the city,” meaning a city of any size? Because it was of no more importance to them (the brothers) than an average-sized city (village) of ten people as regards [to fighting a] war. — [from Gen. Rabbah 92:8]   וישבו העירה: מטרפולין היתה והוא אומר העירה, עיר כל שהיא, אלא שלא היתה חשובה בעיניהם אלא כעיר בינונית של עשרה בני אדם לענין המלחמה:
14And Judah and his brothers came to Joseph's house, and he was still there, and they fell before him upon the ground.   ידוַיָּבֹ֨א יְהוּדָ֤ה וְאֶחָיו֙ בֵּ֣יתָה יוֹסֵ֔ף וְה֖וּא עוֹדֶ֣נּוּ שָׁ֑ם וַיִּפְּל֥וּ לְפָנָ֖יו אָֽרְצָה:
and he was still there: for he was waiting for them. — [from Midrash Tanchuma, Mikeitz 10]   עודנו שם: שהיה ממתין להם:
15And Joseph said to them, "What is this deed that you have committed? Don't you know that a person like me practices divination?"   טווַיֹּ֤אמֶר לָהֶם֙ יוֹסֵ֔ף מָֽה־הַמַּֽעֲשֶׂ֥ה הַזֶּ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר עֲשִׂיתֶ֑ם הֲל֣וֹא יְדַעְתֶּ֔ם כִּֽי־נַחֵ֧שׁ יְנַחֵ֛שׁ אִ֖ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֥ר כָּמֹֽנִי:
Don’t you know that a person like me practices divination?: Don’t you know that a person as esteemed as I knows how to test and ascertain through knowledge, reason, and discernment that you stole the goblet?- [from Targum Onkelos]   הלא ידעתם כי נחש ינחש וגו': הלא ידעתם כי איש חשוב כמוני יודע לנחש ולדעת מדעת ומסברא ובינה כי אתם גנבתם הגביע:
16And Judah said, "What shall we say to my master? What shall we speak, and how shall we exonerate ourselves? God has found your servants' iniquity, behold, we are my lord's servants, both we and the one in whose possession the goblet has been found."   טזוַיֹּ֣אמֶר יְהוּדָ֗ה מַה־נֹּאמַר֙ לַֽאדֹנִ֔י מַה־נְּדַבֵּ֖ר וּמַה־נִּצְטַדָּ֑ק הָֽאֱלֹהִ֗ים מָצָא֙ אֶת־עֲוֹ֣ן עֲבָדֶ֔יךָ הִנֶּנּ֤וּ עֲבָדִים֙ לַֽאדֹנִ֔י גַּם־אֲנַ֕חְנוּ גַּ֛ם אֲשֶׁר־נִמְצָ֥א הַגָּבִ֖יעַ בְּיָדֽוֹ:
God has found: We know that we have not sinned, but this has come from the Omnipresent to bring this upon us. The Creditor has found a place to collect His debt. — [from Gen. Rabbah 92:9]   הא-להים מצא: יודעים אנו שלא סרחנו, אבל מאת הקב"ה נהיתה להביא לנו זאת. מצא בעל חוב מקום לגבות שטר חובו:
and how shall we exonerate ourselves: Heb. נִצְטַדָּק, an expression of justice (צֶדֶק) . Similarly, every word whose radical begins with a “zaddi,” and is to be used in the form of “hithpa’el” or “nithpa’el” (the reflexive voice), a “teth” is substituted for the “tav” [of the “hithpa’el”] and it is not placed before the first letter of the radical but in the middle of the radical letters. E.g.,“shall we exonerate ourselves (נִצְטַדָּק),” from the root צדק, justice;“was drenched (יִצְטַבַּע)” (Dan. 4:30), from the root צבע, to drench;“and disguised as ambassadors (וַיִצְטַיָרוּ)” (Josh. 9:4), from the root of“a faithful emissary (צִיר)” (Prov. 13:17);“we took…for our provision (הִצְטַיַדְנוּ)” (Josh. 9:12) from the root of“provisions (צֵידָה) for the way” (Gen. 42:25). [In cont-rast, in the case of] a word whose radical begins with a “sammech” or “sin,” when it is used in the “hith-pa’el,” [it is] a “tav” [that] separates the letters of the radical, e.g.,“and the grasshopper will drag itself along (וְיִסְתַּבֵּל)” (Eccl. 12:5), from the root kcx;“I looked (מִסְתַּכֵּל) at these horns” (Dan. 7: 8), from the root סכל“And the statutes of Omri shall be observed (וְיִשְׁתַּמֵר)” (Micah 6:16), from the root שׁמר“and he who turns away from evil is considered mad (מִשְׁתּוֹלֵל)” (Isa. 59: 15), from the root of“He leads counselors away with madness (שׁוֹלָל)” (Job 12:17);“tread (מִסְתּוֹלֵל) upon My people” (Exod. 9:17), from the root of“a way that is not trodden (סְלוּלָה)” (Jer. 18:15).   ומה נצטדק: לשון צדק, וכן כל תיבה שתחלת יסודה צד"י והיא באה לדבר בלשון מתפעל או נתפעל נותן טי"ת במקום תי"ו, ואינה נתנת לפני אות ראשונה של יסוד התיבה אלא באמצע אותיות העקר, כגון נצטדק מגזרת צדק, (דניאל ד ל) ויצטבע מגזרת צבע, (יהושע ט ד) ויצטירו מגזרת (משלי יג יז) ציר אמונים, (יהושע ט יב) הצטיידנו מגזרת (לעיל מב כה) צדה לדרך. ותיבה שתחלתה סמ"ך או שי"ן כשהיא מתפעלת התי"ו מפרדת את אותיות העקר, כגון (קהלת יב ה) ויסתבל החגב, מגזרת סבל, (דניאל ז ח) מסתכל הוית בקרניא, (מיכה ו טז) וישתמר חקות עמרי, מגזרת שמר, (ישעיה נט טו) וסר מרע משתולל, מגזרת (איוב יב יז) מוליך יועצים שולל, (שמות ט יז) מסתולל בעמי, מגזרת (ירמיה יח טו) דרך לא סלולה:
17But he said, "Far be it from me to do this! The man in whose possession the goblet was found he shall be my slave, but as for you go up in peace to your father."   יזוַיֹּ֕אמֶר חָלִ֣ילָה לִּ֔י מֵֽעֲשׂ֖וֹת זֹ֑את הָאִ֡ישׁ אֲשֶׁר֩ נִמְצָ֨א הַגָּבִ֜יעַ בְּיָד֗וֹ ה֚וּא יִֽהְיֶה־לִּ֣י עָ֔בֶד וְאַתֶּ֕ם עֲל֥וּ לְשָׁל֖וֹם אֶל־אֲבִיכֶֽם:

Maftir Portion

Numbers Chapter 7

30On the fourth day, the chieftain was of the sons of Reuben, Elitzur the son of Shedeur.   לבַּיּוֹם֙ הָֽרְבִיעִ֔י נָשִׂ֖יא לִבְנֵ֣י רְאוּבֵ֑ן אֱלִיצ֖וּר בֶּן־שְׁדֵיאֽוּר:
31His offering was one silver bowl weighing one hundred and thirty [shekels], one silver sprinkling basin [weighing] seventy shekels according to the holy shekel, both filled with fine flour mixed with olive oil for a meal offering.   לאקָרְבָּנ֞וֹ קַֽעֲרַת־כֶּ֣סֶף אַחַ֗ת שְׁלשִׁ֣ים וּמֵאָה֘ מִשְׁקָלָהּ֒ מִזְרָ֤ק אֶחָד֙ כֶּ֔סֶף שִׁבְעִ֥ים שֶׁ֖קֶל בְּשֶׁ֣קֶל הַקֹּ֑דֶשׁ שְׁנֵיהֶ֣ם | מְלֵאִ֗ים סֹ֛לֶת בְּלוּלָ֥ה בַשֶּׁ֖מֶן לְמִנְחָֽה:
32One spoon [weighing] ten [shekels] of gold filled with incense.   לבכַּ֥ף אַחַ֛ת עֲשָׂרָ֥ה זָהָ֖ב מְלֵאָ֥ה קְטֹֽרֶת:
33One young bull, one ram and one lamb in its first year for a burnt offering.   לגפַּ֣ר אֶחָ֞ד בֶּן־בָּקָ֗ר אַ֧יִל אֶחָ֛ד כֶּֽבֶשׂ־אֶחָ֥ד בֶּן־שְׁנָת֖וֹ לְעֹלָֽה:
34One young he goat for a sin offering.   לדשְׂעִיר־עִזִּ֥ים אֶחָ֖ד לְחַטָּֽאת:
35And for the peace offering: two oxen, five rams, five he goats, five lambs in their first year; this was the offering of Elitzur the son of Shedeur.   להוּלְזֶ֣בַח הַשְּׁלָמִים֘ בָּקָ֣ר שְׁנַ֒יִם֒ אֵילִ֤ם חֲמִשָּׁה֙ עַתֻּדִ֣ים חֲמִשָּׁ֔ה כְּבָשִׂ֥ים בְּנֵֽי־שָׁנָ֖ה חֲמִשָּׁ֑ה זֶ֛ה קָרְבַּ֥ן אֱלִיצ֖וּר בֶּן־שְׁדֵיאֽוּר:

Haftarah

Zechariah Chapter 2

14Sing and rejoice, O daughter of Zion, for, behold! I will come and dwell in your midst, says the Lord.   ידרָנִּ֥י וְשִׂמְחִ֖י בַּת־צִיּ֑וֹן כִּ֧י הִֽנְנִי־בָ֛א וְשָֽׁכַנְתִּ֥י בְתוֹכֵ֖ךְ נְאֻם־יְהֹוָֽה:
15And many nations shall join the Lord on that day, and they shall be My people; and I will dwell in your midst and you shall know that the Lord of Hosts sent me to you.   טווְנִלְווּ֩ גוֹיִ֨ם רַבִּ֚ים אֶל־יְהֹוָה֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֔וּא וְהָ֥יוּ לִ֖י לְעָ֑ם וְשָׁכַנְתִּ֣י בְתוֹכֵ֔ךְ וְיָדַ֕עַתְּ כִּי־יְהֹוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת שְׁלָחַ֥נִי אֵלָֽיִךְ:
And many nations shall join: shall join.  
16And the Lord shall inherit Judah as His share on the Holy Land, and He shall again choose Jerusalem.   טזוְנָחַ֨ל יְהֹוָ֚ה אֶת־יְהוּדָה֙ חֶלְק֔וֹ עַ֖ל אַדְמַ֣ת הַקֹּ֑דֶשׁ וּבָחַ֥ר ע֖וֹד בִּירֽוּשָׁלִָֽם:
And the Lord shall inherit Judah: as His inheritance and His share.  
17Silence all flesh from before the Lord, for He is aroused out of His holy habitation.   יזהַ֥ס כָּל בָּשָׂ֖ר מִפְּנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה כִּ֥י נֵע֖וֹר מִמְּע֥וֹן קָדְשֽׁוֹ:
Silence all flesh: All the rest of the nations.  
for He is aroused: An expression [denoting] arousal and awakening.  

Zechariah Chapter 3

1And He showed me Joshua, the High Priest, standing before the angel of the Lord. And Satan was standing on his right, to accuse him.   אוַיַּרְאֵ֗נִי אֶת־יְהוֹשֻׁ֙עַ֙ הַכֹּהֵ֣ן הַגָּד֔וֹל עֹמֵ֕ד לִפְנֵ֖י מַלְאַ֣ךְ יְהֹוָ֑ה וְהַשָּׂטָ֛ן עֹמֵ֥ד עַל־יְמִינ֖וֹ לְשִׂטְנֽוֹ:
to accuse him: To accuse him because his sons were married to gentile women, as it is written in the Book of Ezra (10:18): “And it was found of the sons of the priests who had taken foreign wives, of the sons of Jeshua the son of Jozadak, etc.”  
2And the Lord said to Satan: The Lord shall rebuke you, O Satan; and the Lord shall rebuke you, He who chose Jerusalem. Is this one not a brand plucked from fire?   בוַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהֹוָ֜ה אֶל־הַשָּׂטָ֗ן יִגְעַ֨ר יְהֹוָ֚ה בְּךָ֙ הַשָּׂטָ֔ן וְיִגְעַ֚ר יְהֹוָה֙ בְּךָ֔ הַבֹּחֵ֖ר בִּירֽוּשָׁלִָ֑ם הֲל֧וֹא זֶ֥ה֥ א֖וּד מֻצָּ֥ל מֵאֵֽשׁ:
The Lord shall rebuke you, O Satan: The Holy One, blessed be He, shall rebuke you, O you Satan (and then he repeated and said: The Lord shall rebuke you, He who chose Jerusalem Moharaz Margolioth); and He Who rebukes you is the One Who chose Jerusalem, that you shall not enter before Him to accuse this righteous man. Is he not fit, and has he not merited this? For he was saved from the consuming fire.  
Is this one not a brand plucked from fire?: It is related in the Aggadah of [chapter] Helek Helek (Sanh. 93a) that he [Joshua] was cast into the fire with Ahab son of Kolaiah and his colleague.  
3Now Joshua was wearing filthy garments and standing before the angel.   גוִֽיהוֹשֻׁ֕עַ הָיָ֥ה לָב֖וּשׁ בְּגָדִ֣ים צוֹאִ֑ים וְעֹמֵ֖ד לִפְנֵ֥י הַמַּלְאָֽךְ:
was wearing filthy garments: This is to be explained according to the Targum: He had sons who had married women who were unfit [to marry into] the priesthood, and he was punished because he did not interfere with the [sons’ marriages].  
4And he [the angel] raised his voice and said to those standing before him, saying, "Take the filthy garments off him." And he said to him, "See, I have removed your iniquity from you, and I have clad you with clean garments."   דוַיַּ֣עַן וַיֹּ֗אמֶר אֶל־הָעֹֽמְדִ֚ים לְפָנָיו֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר הָסִ֛ירוּ הַבְּגָדִ֥ים הַצֹּאִ֖ים מֵעָלָ֑יו וַ֣יֹּאמֶר אֵלָ֗יו רְאֵ֨ה הֶֽעֱבַ֚רְתִּי מֵֽעָלֶ֙יךָ֙ עֲו‍ֹנֶ֔ךָ וְהַלְבֵּ֥שׁ אֹֽתְךָ֖ מַֽחֲלָצֽוֹת:
“Take the filthy garments off him.”: Let his sons separate from their wives, and he will be forgiven.  
clean garments: A change of beautiful garments; i.e., merits. Since he compared the iniquity to filthy garments, he compares the merit to clean garments; beautiful, white garments.  
5And I said, "Let them put a pure miter on his head," and they put the pure miter on his head. And they had clothed him with garments while the angel of the Lord was standing.   הוָֽאֹמַ֕ר יָשִׂ֛ימוּ צָנִ֥יף טָה֖וֹר עַל־רֹאשׁ֑וֹ וַיָּשִׂימוּ֩ הַצָּנִ֨יף הַטָּה֜וֹר עַל־רֹאשׁ֗וֹ וַיַּלְבִּשֻׁ֙הוּ֙ בְּגָדִ֔ים וּמַלְאַ֥ךְ יְהֹוָ֖ה עֹמֵֽד:
And I said: I, Zechariah.  
“Let them put a pure miter, etc.”: I begged mercy for him.  
6And the angel of the Lord warned Joshua, saying,   ווַיָּ֙עַד֙ מַלְאַ֣ךְ יְהֹוָ֔ה בִּֽיהוֹשֻׁ֖עַ לֵאמֹֽר:
warned: an expression of warning, as in (Deut. 31:28): “And I will warn them before the heaven and the earth.”  
7So said the Lord of Hosts: If you walk in My ways, and if you keep My charge, you, too, shall judge My house, and you, too, shall guard My courtyards, and I will give you free access among these who stand by.   זכֹּֽה־אָמַ֞ר יְהֹוָ֣ה צְבָא֗וֹת אִם־בִּדְרָכַ֚י תֵּלֵךְ֙ וְאִ֣ם אֶת־מִשְׁמַרְתִּ֣י תִשְׁמֹ֔ר וְגַם־אַתָּה֙ תָּדִ֣ין אֶת־בֵּיתִ֔י וְגַ֖ם תִּשְׁמֹ֣ר אֶת־חֲצֵרָ֑י וְנָתַתִּ֚י לְךָ֙ מַהְלְכִ֔ים בֵּ֥ין הָעֹֽמְדִ֖ים הָאֵֽלֶּה:
If you walk in My ways, etc.: Then I, too, will do this for you.  
you, too, shall judge My house: You shall judge and be the officer over My Temple.  
and I will give you free access: According to the Targum: and when the dead will be resurrected, I will resurrect you; and I will give you walkers who walk among these seraphim. According to its simple meaning, he brings him tidings that his sons will be meritorious in the future.  
who stand by: Seraphim and ministering angels, who never sit.  
8Hearken, now, O Joshua the High Priest-you and your companions who sit before you, for they are men worthy of a miracle-for, behold! I bring My servant, the Shoot.   חשְֽׁמַע־נָ֞א יְהוֹשֻׁ֣עַ | הַכֹּהֵ֣ן הַגָּד֗וֹל אַתָּה֙ וְרֵעֶ֙יךָ֙ הַיֹּֽשְׁבִ֣ים לְפָנֶ֔יךָ כִּֽי־אַנְשֵׁ֥י מוֹפֵ֖ת הֵ֑מָּה כִּֽי־הִנְנִ֥י מֵבִ֛יא אֶת־עַבְדִּ֖י צֶֽמַח:
you and your companions: They were Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah.  
for they are men worthy of a miracle: [Jonathan renders:] Men worthy to have miracles performed for them, for a miracle was performed for them, too.  
for, behold! I bring My servant, the Shoot: For now Zerubbabel, the governor of Judah, is insignificant in the king’s court, but I will make his greatness burgeon. I will also give him favor in the eyes of the king, so that he will grant [Zerubbabel’s] request for the building of the Temple and the city, as explained in Nehemiah (1:1): “The words of Nehemiah, the son of Hachaliah.” Nehemiah was identical with Zerubbabel, as we say in Sanhedrin (38a).  
9For, behold the stone that I have placed before Joshua. Seven eyes are directed to one stone. Behold! I untie its knots, says the Lord of Hosts, and I will remove the iniquity of that land in one day.   טכִּ֣י | הִנֵּ֣ה הָאֶ֗בֶן אֲשֶׁ֚ר נָתַ֙תִּי֙ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהוֹשֻׁ֔עַ עַל־אֶ֥בֶן אַחַ֖ת שִׁבְעָ֣ה עֵינָ֑יִם הִֽנְנִ֧י מְפַתֵּ֣חַ פִּתֻּחָ֗הּ נְאֻם֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת וּמַשְׁתִּ֛י אֶת־עֲו‍ֹ֥ן הָאָֽרֶץ־הַהִ֖יא בְּי֥וֹם אֶחָֽד:
For, behold the stone: The foundation of the house that you laid in the days of Cyrus - they stopped you, and that foundation and the thickness of the wall appeared little in your sight, as explained in Ezra (3:12f.) and in the prophecy of Haggai (2:2f.).  
Seven eyes are directed to one stone: It will eventually be widened seven times as much. And so did Jonathan render: On one stone, seven eyes see it. The expression of עֵינַיִם is an expression of appearances. It appears to me that the seven eyes are because of the eyes of the Holy One, blessed be He in Whose eyes and heart it is [planned] to add seven times as much because of the prophecy similar to this one (4:10): “And they shall see the plummet in the hand of Zerubbabel these seven times; the eyes of the Lord they are roving to and fro throughout the land.” This is but to say that He directed His eyes to increase the glory of the Temple in its building.  
Behold! I untie its knots: I untie its knots I thwart the plot of the enemies who wrote an accusation to stop the work.  
and I will remove: Heb. ומשתי.  
in one day: I do not know what day.  
10On that day, says the Lord of Hosts, you shall call-each man to his neighbor-to come under his vine and under his fig tree.   יבַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֗וּא נְאֻם֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת תִּקְרְא֖וּ אִ֣ישׁ לְרֵעֵ֑הוּ אֶל־תַּ֥חַת גֶּ֖פֶן וְאֶל־תַּ֥חַת תְּאֵנָֽה:

Zechariah Chapter 4

1And the angel who spoke with me returned, and he awakened me as a man who wakes up from his sleep.   אוַיָּ֕שָׁב הַמַּלְאָ֖ךְ הַדֹּבֵ֣ר בִּ֑י וַיְעִירֵ֕נִי כְּאִ֖ישׁ אֲשֶׁר־יֵע֥וֹר מִשְּׁנָתֽוֹ:
2And he said to me, "What do you see?" And I said, "I saw, and behold [there was] a candelabrum all of gold, with its oil-bowl on top of it, and its seven lamps thereon; seven tubes each to the lamps that were on top of it.   בוַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלַ֔י מָ֥ה אַתָּ֖ה רֹאֶ֑ה וָֽאֹמַ֡ר (כתיב וָיאֹמַ֡ר) רָאִ֣יתִי וְהִנֵּֽה־מְנוֹרַת֩ זָהָ֨ב כֻּלָּ֜הּ וְגֻלָּ֣הּ עַל־רֹאשָׁ֗הּ וְשִׁבְעָ֚ה נֵרֹֽתֶ֙יהָ֙ עָלֶ֔יהָ שִׁבְעָ֚ה וְשִׁבְעָה֙ מֽוּצָק֔וֹת לַנֵּר֖וֹת אֲשֶׁ֥ר עַל־רֹאשָֽׁהּ:
with its oil - bowl on top of it: as in (Josh. 15:19): “The upper springs” . This is an expression for a spring, [hence] a sort of large round bowl.  
and its seven lamps: A type of vessel into which oil and wicks are inserted.  
seven tubes each: Seven small tubes come to every lamp, for the oil flows from the bowl through those tubes into each lamp.  
3And [there were] two olive trees near it; one on the right of the bowl, and one on its left.   גוּשְׁנַ֥יִם זֵיתִ֖ים עָלֶ֑יהָ אֶחָד֙ מִימִ֣ין הַגֻּלָּ֔ה וְאֶחָ֖ד עַל־שְׂמֹאלָֽהּ:
And [there were] two olive trees near it: Beside it were two trees upon which olives were growing, one on the right of the bowl, one on the its left, etc. Here [the prophet] does not explain about the two golden vats mentioned below in the chapter, which are the sorts of bowls or vats of the oil press. [These vats] stand beside the olive trees. The olives beat themselves into the vats and are heated there as [if] in a vat or pit where olives are generally packed. There they are pressed in the oil press, and the oil falls into the vats, and from the vats into the bowl, and from the bowl into the tubes, and from the tubes into the lamps. The tubes and the lamps number forty-nine, an allusion to the light, for in the future the light of the sun will be sevenfold the light of the seven days forty-nine times the light of a day of Creation.  
4So I answered and spoke to the angel who talked with me, saying, "What are these, my lord?"   דוָאַ֙עַן֙ וָֽאֹמַ֔ר אֶל הַמַּלְאָ֛ךְ הַדֹּבֵ֥ר בִּ֖י לֵאמֹ֑ר מָ֥ה אֵ֖לֶּה אֲדֹנִֽי:
“What are these, my Lord?”: What is this, that the olive trees are picked by themselves, and the oil comes into the lamps by itself?  
5And the angel who spoke with me answered, and he said to me, "Do you not know what these are?" And I said, "No, my lord."   הוַ֠יַּעַן הַמַּלְאָ֞ךְ הַדֹּבֵ֥ר בִּי֙ וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלַ֔י הֲל֥וֹא יָדַ֖עְתּ מָה הֵ֣מָּה אֵ֑לֶּה וָֽאֹמַ֖ר לֹ֥א אֲדֹנִֽי:
6And he answered and spoke to me, saying, "This is the word of the Lord to Zerubbabel, saying: 'Not by military force and not by physical strength, but by My spirit,' says the Lord of Hosts.   ווַיַּ֜עַן וַיֹּ֚אמֶר אֵלַי֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר זֶה דְּבַר־יְהֹוָ֔ה אֶל־זְרֻבָּבֶ֖ל לֵאמֹ֑ר לֹ֚א בְחַ֙יִל֙ וְלֹ֣א בְכֹ֔חַ כִּ֣י אִם־בְּרוּחִ֔י אָמַ֖ר יְהֹוָ֥ה צְבָאֽוֹת:
“This is the word of the Lord to Zerubbabel”: This is a sign for you to promise Zerubbabel that just as the olives and this oil are finished by themselves in all respects, so will you not build My house with your [own] power or with your [own] strength.  
but by My spirit: I will place My spirit upon Darius, and he will command you to build and to pay all the building expenses from his [treasury]; and [he will] help you with wheat, wine, oil, and wood, as is explained in Ezra (6, 7): They required no aid from any man.  
7Who are you, O great mountain? Before Zerubbabel you sink to a plain! He will bring out the stone of the main architect, with shouts of grace, grace to it."   זמִֽי־אַתָּ֧ה הַֽר־הַגָּד֛וֹל לִפְנֵ֥י זְרֻבָּבֶ֖ל לְמִישֹׁ֑ר וְהוֹצִיא֙ אֶת־הָאֶ֣בֶן הָֽרֹאשָׁ֔ה תְּשֻׁא֕וֹת חֵ֥ן חֵ֖ן לָֽהּ:
Who are you, O great mountain?: You, the princes of the other side of the river Tattenai, the governor of the other side of the river; Shethar Bozenai, and their companions (Ezra 6:6), who have stopped the work until now - from now on you shall be before Zerubbabel as a plain; you have no more ruling power or superiority over him.  
He will bring out the stone of the main architect: The main architect will take the plummet in his hand to be the main architect at the head of the builders, and they will build everything according to his words [everything] that he will order concerning a beautiful and glorious building.  
with shouts of grace, grace to it: To that stone, for everyone will say, “How beautiful is this building that was made with this plummet.” [The expression] “shouts of grace” is as (Job 39:7) “the shouts of a driver,” and (Isa. 66:6) “a sound of stirring” both of which are expressions of making a voice heard.  
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