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Was Aaron Responsible for the Golden Calf?

Was Aaron Responsible for the Golden Calf?

Can’t Biblical heroes make mistakes too?

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Question:

I am thoroughly annoyed with the rabbinic interpretation of the Bible. There seems to be total whitewashing of the stories, just to make the heroes look sinless. Can’t there be a human side to the story too?

The story of the Golden Calf is my latest example. The people saw that Moses had not returned; they gathered before Aaron and they demanded that he “make for us gods that will go before us.” Next sentence, Aaron tells them to remove their gold rings and bring them to him. Aaron took their gold belongings and fashioned them into a molten calf, and the people said: “These are your gods, O Israel, who have brought you up from the land of Egypt!” Final sentence of this scene is, “Aaron built an altar and called out saying, ‘A festival for G‑d tomorrow.’”

But the rabbis say “no.” That’s not what happened—he was engaged in a stall for timeThe story is clear-cut and simple. Out of fear of the mob, or maybe a temporary loss of faith himself, Aaron showed no resistance to the people’s request. He didn’t seek to persuade them of the error of their ways.

But the rabbis say “no.” That's not what happened—he was engaged in a stall for time so that Moses would return from the mountain to prove that G‑d and Moses were still there for the House of Israel.

Why do the rabbis, time and again, resist the notion that our Biblical heroes, such as Aaron, are human beings who have human flaws? And at the cost of defying the plain meaning of the text?

Answer:

You ask from the literal words of the verse, so I will begin with an answer from the literal text—which, to be honest, bothers me more than the rabbinic explanation.

If indeed Aaron went through a weak moment, possibly even in his own faith, then: a) Moses also seems to have turned a blind eye, in one of the greatest shows of nepotism attributed to a Biblical hero; b) not only did Aaron lack in strong leadership, but he was actually dishonest, with no sense of responsibility.

Let me explain:

Moses descends the mountain, shatters the tablets, grinds up the calf, and addresses Aaron. Moses asks him (Exodus 32:21), “What did this people do to you that you brought a grave sin upon them?”

Moses seems to skip an important question. “How did you make an idol, when you just heard at Sinai that this is forbidden?”

Instead he says, “What did they do to you that you did this to them?”—implying that Aaron was forced into this. Why is he so sure that Aaron didn’t make the calf out of a lack of faith?

The worst part is Aaron’s answer in the next verse. “Let not my lord be angry! You know the people, that they are disposed toward evil.” Their fault, huh? What ever happened to taking responsibility for your actions? Who asked them for the gold and silver? Who threw it into the fire?

Then Moses punishes the people involved. Some are killed by the sword. Some die after being forced to drink the water of the ground-up Golden Calf (32:20). Many more die in a plague which G‑d sends.

And Aaron? What’s his punishment? He is appointed High Priest!And Aaron? What’s his punishment? He is appointed High Priest! The people are smitten by a plague “because they had made the calf that Aaron had made” (32:35), yet the mastermind of this outrage is rewarded with priesthood for himself and all his children.

This book has to make some sense, and I don’t think that it's trying to teach a lesson in shirking responsibility and getting away with it through nepotism. If that were the case, then these two brothers serve as the worst example of leadership, and should go down in history as crooked and evil. “The Five Books of the Nepotistic” should not be studied by billions of people, and definitely not read with a blessing before and after.

And one last question:

The people mob Aaron and ask for a new god. They are obviously in a frenzy. Their “god” appears. (According to the Midrash, they also witnessed a phenomenal supernatural show: a calf of gold emerging on its own four feet from a fire.) And Aaron announces, “The party will be tomorrow!” What sort of anti-climax is that? Imagine if on the evening of November 4th, the night that President Obama was elected, the bars would have closed and hung signs: “You just witnessed one of the greatest moments in American history, but we think you should get some sleep. The party will be tomorrow!”1

Could it be that there was some sort of intentional “buying time” going on here? Can we, the progressive and tolerant, consider that perhaps a great plan just didn’t work out as Aaron planned? Could it be that G‑d already clued Moses in on who actually was responsible, when he told him (32:7–8), “Go, descend, for your people that you have brought up from the land of Egypt have acted corruptly . . . they have made themselves a molten calf!”2

In Exodus 28:1, G‑d instructs Moses: “Bring near to yourself your brother Aaron . . . from among the children of Israel to serve Me.” Moses isn’t told just to appoint Aaron, he is told to “bring Aaron near.” The Midrash (Shemot Rabbah 37:2) explains that Moses felt that Aaron was responsible to some degree for the making of the Golden Calf, to which G‑d responded with the following parable.

A mischievous prince decided one day to destroy the walls of his father’s palace. His teacher saw, and said, “Allow me to help destroy the wall, as I am more capable than you.” When the king saw this, he realized that the teacher’s intent was to delay the prince. “If there is anyone capable of maintaining my palace,” the king proclaimed, “it is you—the wise teacher.”

Thus, G‑d told Moses: Despite your concerns, “bring him near”; trust me that Aaron, a person tactfully dedicated to the best of his people, is the finest man for the job.


The sixth of the Thirteen Principles of Faith penned by Maimonides is the belief that “G‑d communicates to mankind through prophecy.”

The criteria to be worthy of prophecy, as explained by Maimonides: one must be wise, of a clear and lucid mind, of impeccable character, utterly in control of one’s passions and desires, and of a calm and joyous constitution. In addition, the individual must shun materialism and the frivolities of life, devoting him- or herself entirely to knowing and serving G‑d.

Can we, the progressive and tolerant, consider that perhaps a great plan just didn’t work out as Aaron planned?It makes sense that only one who is entirely devoted to G‑d, with no trace of materialistic passion or any sense of ego, can be a positive conduit for Divine communication.

Yet, Judaism believes that prophecy is a real thing. In other words, Judaism believes that it is possible for a human being to reach such a great spiritual level. This is why Jews of all the generations have what is called emunat tzaddikim, “trust in the righteous”—the belief that there are righteous people who are divinely inspired, whose every limb at every moment is a conduit of the Divine will.

Aaron was the only person in his day (other than Moses) permitted by G‑d to enter the Holy of Holies. Through him G‑d directly communicated several sections of the Torah. He’s one of the 48 prophets recorded in the Bible.

Enough said.

FOOTNOTES
1. Similarly, Aaron’s instruction to “remove the gold rings that are in the ears of your wives and children” (32:2) also demonstrates that he had other intents. Why didn’t Aaron ask the Israelites to contribute from their own gold—of which they had plenty, as evidenced by the fundraiser for the Tabernacle that occurred shortly afterwards? But Aaron apparently assumed that the women and children wouldn’t be so quick to part with their jewelry.
2. Furthermore, the wording of the announcement—“These are your gods, O Israel . . .” (32:8)—is a clear indication that it was not even the children of Israel speaking, but rather the erev rav, the multitudes of Egyptians who joined our ancestors when they left Egypt (see Exodus 12:38).
Rabbi Baruch S. Davidson is a member of the Chabad.org Ask the Rabbi team.
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Discussion (18)
November 16, 2013
Moses prayed for Aaron.
Deu 9:20 And the LORD was very angry with Aaron to have destroyed him: and I prayed for Aaron also the same time.

I think this is the main reason he was forgiven. And he also drank the water within had golden power. But did he continue to sin the rest of his life?
Jey
houston, texas UAS
June 25, 2013
The golden calf and then, the red heifer, for HEI
Idol is an interesting word. People have their idols today. A show: American Idol. It feels like, idolatry can go over the top, when one person is idolized, so constantly. Maybe it becomes a substitute or a way to express love, that does exist for that one person. Even in Judaism we see it in the celebration of famous, and sensitive rabbis. Thosuands gathering to celebrate a life, of learning, sharing and love. So it's a difficult question, this question of the Golden Calf. Kaf so similar aurally, is a Hebrew letter. Examine it for its meaning, on line, the mystic significance, and see how this relates. Since everything is truly connected, and this story, has zillions of cross connects including "cross' as in angry, then I feel, there's another story running, and Moses had to have known it. He was so visibly led. Perhaps, Aaron too. A story, within, a story.

So here we are, looking at sacred cows, and wondering. We can turn a pot on the wheel and shape it. Endless metaphor!
ruth housman
marshfield hills, ma
March 1, 2013
Re:
The Torah doesn't hide the faults of our greatest leaders. And Kings, Priests, and other leaders, throughout the Tanach, are told when their behavior is not proper.
Yisroel Cotlar
Cary, NC
February 28, 2013
The cast system
We the Jews have a cast system where the high priests are above the law, and this passage is one example of that.
Ted
CA
January 13, 2013
Aaron and the molten calf
I have really enjoyed reading through this discussion. But I personally have been challenged by Moshe's words to Aaron 'What have these people done to you, that you that you have brought so great a sin upon them?'
These words really woke ME up to enquire about MY example in being a role model, or in promoting good leadership in front of those with whom I live. It disturbed me because I realised just how easy it can be to lead or encourage others into a wrong way.
Each one of us HAS an intrinsic responsability to be Watchmen within our society. We ARE expected to BE our brother's Keeper. And when we fail and others are caught in their sin BECAUSE we did not stand up / speak out in protest and warning against their sin, then THEIR blood will be upon our head.
Not a pleasant condemnation.
We are all flesh and blood, dust, and G-d knows this. Not even a man at his best can successfully live a good life. BUT G-d is greater than our sin. He is Merciful.
John Alexander Green
Kenya
April 10, 2012
Why is the letter o missing from the word GOD in this article?
Deborah Webb
Springfield, Ma USA
February 23, 2011
Was Aaron responsible?
Hashem awarded Aaron with Priesthood because he was the most qualified and had a History of being a peace maker. As punishment for his involvement Aaron lost his two sons who were smited by God.

I believe Aaron was tricked into the true intent of sorcerors who made the Golden calf and were Egyptian! So were the Israelites. Remember for all it was the first time they heard Torah or saw the Great and wonderous signs God gave them during their stay in Camps before they entered the Holy Land and also the Exodus from Egypt. Aaron being the Peace Maker that he was, set up an alter to counteract what the sorcerors were doing with the Golden Calf.

So in the end, those guilty paid and those who were not entered the Holy Land. Moshe did not go into the land of Milk and Honey because God took Moshe to Himself.
Anonymous
USA
February 17, 2011
Was Aaron responsible for the Golden Calf?
Your answer to: "Was Aaron responsible for the Golden Calf?" is very interesting. It shows how even the righteous could felt but find forgiveness. It seems the people who worshiped the idol did not repent, while others did not worship like them, including Aaron. Repentance brings forgiveness. G-d is full of mercy and love.
"Can’t Biblical heroes make mistakes too?" I am sure everyone agrees that yes, it is possible and the Biblical text is full of stories where "heroes" did many "mistakes" but again, they repented and experienced grace, love, compassion and transformation. Teshuvah is central to the Jewish faith and to every religion with roots in Judaism, including Islam, Christianity, Bah'ai etc It is one of the greatest contributions Judaism has made to humanity.
Frantz
Reading, PA
February 17, 2011
What a lesson on not judging another fellow being!
I love your answer. I personally have been accused wrongly by people who were so sure that they can judge my actions superficially instead of looking at my character history. I too have been guilty of doing the same. To me, Torah demonstrates to us real life. Things are not what necessarily meets the eyes on the surface. Many a times, we are tempted to come too fast to our own conclusions without digging deeper.
Leah
Pittsburgh, PA
February 17, 2011
Thank you Rabbi
I really like the wit of your answer!
Igerne
Paris, France
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