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G‑d spoke to Moses, saying: “Pinchas, the son of Elazar, the son of Aaron the kohen, turned away My wrath from the children of Israel with his zealotry for My sake . . . Therefore . . . I shall grant him My covenant of peace . . .”

Numbers 25:11–12

Pinchas’s deed evokes many associations—courage, decisiveness and religious passion are several that come to mind—but peace hardly seems one of them. Pinchas, after all, killed two people. True, what he did was condoned by Torah law, and his doing so saved many lives; still, one does not usually think of homicide as a peaceful act.

As the Torah tells it (see Numbers 25; Rashi ibid.; Talmud, Sanhedrin 81b–82b and 106a), the wicked prophet Balaam, having failed to undermine the people of Israel’s special relationship with G‑d by harping on their past sins, had an idea. “Their G‑d abhors promiscuity,” he said to Balak, the Moabite king who had hired him to place a curse on Israel. Corrupt them with the daughters of your realm, and you will provoke His wrath upon them.

This time Balaam succeeded. Many Jews, particularly from the tribe of Simeon, were enticed by the Midianite harlots who descended upon the Israelite camp in the Shittim valley, and were even induced to serve Baal Peor, the pagan god of their consorts. When tribunals were set up by Moses to try and punish the idolaters, Zimri, the leader of Simeon, sought to legitimize his tribe’s sins by publicly taking a Midianite woman into his tent, before the eyes of Moses and the eyes of the entire community of Israel.

Moses and the nation’s elders were at a loss as of what to do. Torah law does not provide for any conventional, court-induced punishment for such an offender. There is a law that gives license for “zealots to smite him,” but this provision eluded Moses and the entire Jewish leadership. Only Pinchas remembered it, and had the fortitude to carry it through. He killed Zimri and the Midianite woman, stopping a plague that had begun to rage as the result of G‑d’s wrath against His people.

The Grandfather Issue

The Talmud, referring to G‑d’s opening words to Moses quoted above, asks: The Torah has already told us who Pinchas is, back in the sixth chapter of Exodus and again, but a few short verses before, in Numbers 25:7. Why does the Torah again refer to him as “Pinchas, the son of Elazar, the son of Aaron?”

Rashi, quoting the Talmud and Midrash, explains:

Because the tribes of Israel were mocking him, saying: Have you seen this son of the fattener, whose mother’s father fattened calves for idolatrous sacrifices, and now he goes and kills a prince in Israel?! Therefore, G‑d traced his lineage to Aaron.

(Pinchas’s maternal grandfather was Jethro, who prior to his conversion to Judaism was a pagan priest.)

This explanation, however, seems to raise more questions than it answers:

a) What set “the tribes of Israel” against Pinchas? The animosity of one tribe, the tribe of Simeon, would be understandable: he killed their leader and put an end to their pagan orgy. But why was he condemned by the entire community of Israel, most of whom were outraged by Zimri’s act and were doubtless grateful for Pinchas’s stopping the plague?

b) Of what possible relevance is Jethro’s past? If Pinchas acted wrongly, then he is guilty of much worse than having a grandfather who fattened calves for slaughter. “Murderer” would be a more apt epithet than “fattener’s grandson.” And if it was acknowledged that killing Zimri was the right thing to do, why was the young hero and savior of his people being mocked?

c) If, for whatever reason, Pinchas is to be faulted because of Jethro’s idolatrous past, why dwell on the fact that he “fattened calves for slaughter”? What about the fact that he was a pagan priest who (as the Midrash tells us) had served every idol in the world?

d) Whatever the complaint against Pinchas was, how is it refuted by the fact that he was Aaron’s grandson?

Who Is a Zealot?

The nature of Zimri’s crime made his killing an extremely sensitive moral issue. On the one hand, the Torah deems what he did deserving of death. On the other hand, it does not entrust the carrying out of the sentence to the normal judiciary process, ruling instead that “zealots should smite him.” Who, then, qualifies as a zealot?

When a sentence is carried out after the due process of a trial and conviction, there is less of a need to dwell on the motives of the judges and executioner: they’re going by the book, and we can check their behavior against the book. But the motives of the zealot who takes unilateral action are extremely important, for his very qualifications as a zealot hinge upon the question of what exactly prompted him to do what he did. Is he truly motivated to “still G‑d’s wrath,” or has he found a holy outlet for his individual aggression? Is his act truly an act of peace, driven by the desire to reconcile an errant people with their G‑d, or is it an act of violence, made kosher by the assumption of the label “zealot”?

The true zealot is an utterly selfless individual—one who is concerned only about the relationship between G‑d and His people, with no thought for his own feelings on the matter. The moment his personal prejudices and inclinations are involved, he ceases to be a zealot.

(This may be why the law that “zealots smite him” falls under the unique legal category of halachah v’ein morin kein, “a law that is not instructed”: if a would-be zealot comes to the court and inquires if he is permitted to kill the transgressor, he is not given license to do so (Mishneh Torah, Laws of Forbidden Relations, 12:5). Indeed, the very fact that he has come to ask disqualifies him—someone who needs to ensure, in advance, that he is backed by the court is no zealot. The true zealot has no thought for himself: not of his feelings on the matter, not of his personal safety, not even of the moral and spiritual implications of his act on his own self—he doesn’t even care if what he is doing is legal or not. He is simply determined to put an end to a situation that incurs the divine wrath against Israel.)

Aaron’s Grandson

According to this, the questions posed above answer each other.

The tribes of Israel knew that the case of Zimri warranted the law that “zealots smite him.” But they were skeptical of Pinchas’s motivations. Why is it, they asked, that no one—not Moses, not the elders, nor anyone in the entire leadership of Israel—was moved to assume the role of zealot, save for Pinchas, “the youngest of the band”? Was Pinchas the most caring and selfless one of them all? Far more likely, said they, that what we have here is an angry young man who thinks he found a Torah-sanctioned outlet for his aggression.

A bit of digging around in the skeletons of Pinchas’s family closet only reinforced their initial doubts. Of course, they said. Look at his grandfather! Few professions are as inhumane as the fattening of calves for slaughter. The fact of Jethro’s idolatry is not what is relevant here, but his nature and personality. Pinchas, the “tribes of Israel” reasoned, must have inherited his grandfather’s natural cruelty, and proceeded to clothe it in the holy vestments of zealotry.

So G‑d explicitly attached Pinchas’s name to Aaron, the gentlest and most peace-loving man that Israel knew. Aaron, the “lover of peace and pursuer of peace, one who loves humanity and brings them close to Torah.” In character and temperament, G‑d was attesting, Pinchas takes after his other grandfather, Aaron. Not only is he not inclined to violence—it is the very antithesis of his natural temperament. Pinchas is a man of peace, who did what he did with the sole aim of “turning away My wrath from the children of Israel.”

Two Hypocrites

This also explains the significance of another statement by Rashi. After emphasizing that Pinchas was Aaron’s grandson, the Torah writes: “The name of the smitten Israelite, who was smitten with the Midianite, was Zimri the son of Salu, a tribal prince of the Simeonites.” On which Rashi comments, “On the same occasion that the righteous one’s lineage was cited in praise, the wicked ones lineage was cited in detriment.” But what detriment is there in Zimri’s being a Simeonite prince?

Those who looked with a negative eye on Pinchas’s motives saw his cruelty even more strongly underscored when contrasted with the motives of the man he killed. Pinchas slew a man while that man was engaged in an act of love; Pinchas was giving vent to his own violent passions, while Zimri acted out of a selfless concern for his constituents, putting his own life on the line (for surely he knew that some zealot might take it upon himself to kill him) to save his tribe through his bold attempt to legitimize their sins. If Pinchas did the right thing—these critics were saying—he did it for all the wrong reasons, while Zimri might have done a wrong thing, but was motivated by an altruistic love for his people.

G‑d, who knows the heart of every man, spoke to dispel this distorted picture. Pinchas, He attested, inherited the peace-loving nature of his grandfather, while Zimri was every inch a descendant of Simeon, whom Jacob rebuked for his heated and violent nature. (“Cursed be their anger, for it was fierce,” said Jacob of Shimon and Levi, rebuking them for the massacre of Shechem and their plot against Joseph, “and their wrath, for it was cruel”—Genesis 49:5.)

Indeed, the Talmud describes a hypocrite as one who “does the deeds of Zimri, and asks to be rewarded like Pinchas.” Zimri’s kindness was the ultimate hypocrisy: instead of fulfilling his role as the leader of his people by prevailing upon them to cease the behavior that was destroying them, he pursued the fulfillment of his own passions without regard to the terrible consequences to their spiritual and physical wellbeing—all the while disguising his act as selfless and self-sacrificial. In contrast, Pinchas’s deed was “hypocritical” in the positive sense: ostensibly violent and cruel, but in truth a selfless act of peace.

Based on the teachings of the Lubavitcher Rebbe, Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson; adapted by Yanki Tauber.
Originally published in Week in Review.
Republished with the permission of If you wish to republish this article in a periodical, book, or website, please email
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Avram Anschel August 9, 2017

"—courage, decisiveness and religious passion "

Sounds familiar today

- the commandment "1hou shalt not kill"- is unequivocal and
" I acted with - courage, decisiveness and religious passion " is
not an acceptable defence - thankfully.

Anonymous louisiana July 14, 2017

Pinchas destroys t Perhaps God found Pinchas' act as righteous as He did the slaying of the Egyptian slave master by Moshe. Pinchas delivers the soul of Israel from sight of grevious idolatrous adultery. So, too, the relationship to Levi and to priesthood by way of Aaron declares the connection by tribe and family to Moses. Reply

Avram Anschel London July 14, 2014

Altruism and zealotry. . The mind of man is vastly too complex for us to assign the title of "zealot" to any human being with any degree of certainty. Even Rabbi's seem to agree it is dangerous so to do. An altruistic act involves personal sacrifice - not a material reward .
That no man can be above the Law is an absolute.
How often do we hear today's pseudo zealots ,when standing trial , reject the jurisdiction of the court -pleading G-d alone is their judge.
No human action is unique and all human actions are unique.
If we remove the supernatural from the Pinchas story we are left with an event that is pretty sordid , especially with regard to the killing of the woman who was Zimmi's lover.
The voice of G-d is introduced only after the event itself. I ask myself why introduce the supernatural if there is nothing supernatural about the event itself. Reply

Yisroel Cotlar Cary July 11, 2014

The story of Pinchas was truly a unique situation. Pinchas was responding to a supernatural plague that was killing thousands of Jews as a result of the action of Zimri and the others who were sinning with idolatry and adultery.

For more, see "How To Take the Law Into Your Own Hands".

Avram Anschel London July 10, 2014

This Shabbat we read Parsha Pinchas : My shul Parsha commentary refers to the matter as "the execution of Zimri" - Clearly I am not alone in being disturbed by this incident - otherwise why use the euphemism of "execution " rather than the more accurate " double assassination" ? A large question hangs over the motives of Pinchas : He was being mocked so had a strong incentive to act in order to gain popular respect as well as the favour of his leader Moses who seemed powerless to stop the indiscipline in the people from growing.This motive alone would deny him the claim to have acted utterly altruistically.
One is reminded words of the English King Henry 2 ": 'Will no one rid me of this troublesome priest?'. The priest in question was Thomas- a-Beckket who was duly assassinated . History records so many parallel incidents each with their apologists but Judaism teaches the primary importance of Justice and respect of Law in human society - no one not even Pinchas can claim exemption. Reply

Avram Anschel London July 9, 2014

Zealotry Bruce Bierman states
>> G-d forbid some reactionary hot blooded vigilante reads the Pinchas parsha and believes that he too must take it upon himself to right the world's wrongs through murder, violence and vengence....... could Pinchas's swiftness of action inspire each of us to be as swift during our own moments that we are about to slip and 'miss our marks'? Cliche as it may seem, the revolution really does begin within.<<

The present day "zealots" behind the 4 murders very recently witnessed in the Territories and Israel did not stop for Talmudic philosophical contemplation.
Let us take a reality check :Rewarding Pinchas for his zealotry sets a terrible precedent for all mankind. We hope that a judicial process will follow the 4 murders.
Why was it necessary to suspend judicial process in favour of lone vigilante action
in the case of Pinchas.
" the revolution really does begin within" is a slogan for fanatics .


Rose Mercer Island July 9, 2014

Very troubling to me In light of what is happening in Israel now after the murder of 3 Israeli teens and the revenge murder of an Arab teenager by Israeli "zealots" one would think that you would offer an explanation for why Pinchas could righteously murder the Midianite woman in Zimri's tent. Why is the murder of a non-Jew and/or female (harlot or not-who knows what her story was) OK? Why is your focus so narrow? Reply

Bruce Bierman Berkeley, CA July 9, 2014

The Genius of Chassidut The genius of Chassidut, in my opinion, has always been its ability to find the deeper levels of meaning in every parsha. G-d forbid some reactionary hot blooded vigilante reads the Pinchas parsha and believes that he too must take it upon himself to right the world's wrongs through murder, violence and vengence. This is NOT the way of the Torah. All paths of Torah, according to our sages, MUST lead to SHALOM. The teachings of our Chasidic rebbes teach us to look inward. When that moment comes to quickly refrain from damaging gossip, turn away from a harmful addiction, or any other of the thousand tests we are thrown every day--- could Pinchas's swiftness of action inspire each of us to be as swift during our own moments that we are about to slip and 'miss our marks'? Cliche as it may seem, the revolution really does begin within. Reply

Avram Anschel London April 8, 2014

Pinchas: Zealot or Murderer The problem I have with Sidney Taubenfligel is the same that I have with all explanations offered by Talmudic scholars for anomalies in Torah : ie they beg the question by apparently knowing the mind of G-d . If I approach these problems with an open mind I can sometimes find rational explations. Sidney Taubenfligel ignores the crucial issue - Rewarding Pinchas for his zealotry sets a terrible precedent for mankind. Why should G-d break his own rules ? Was the Israeli settler who killed a large number of the worshippers in a Mosque a zealot ? Reply

Sidney Taubenfligel Lower East Side, NYC April 7, 2014

Re: Avram Anshel Korach's sin was very different than Zimri's. For Korach's, there had been no explicit instruction from G-d as to how to punish contesters of the Priesthood of Aaron and the leadership of Moses. Therefore, G-d Himself intervened. In Zimri's case, G-d had already instructed Moses that when someone brazenly behaves as such in public, making a public desecration of G-d's will, he should be put to death instantly by a bystander. Therefore, G-d did not actively intervene, only passively, miraculously allowing Pinchas to survive the risky job of doing what Moses had taught was G-d's will. Reply

Avram Anchel London February 28, 2014

Pinchas Zeaot or fanatc <The true zealot is an utterly selfless individual -- one who is concerned only about the relationship between G-d and His people, with no thought for his own feelings on the matter. The moment his personal prejudices and inclinations are involved, he ceases to be a zealot.>>
This is precisely the claim made by Moslim terrorists - 2 such in London murdered a soldier in street in daylight and waited to be arrested: - At their trial they showed no regret Only the killer knows the truth of his motives
If you compare Pinchas to Korach : Was Korach's offence so much worse than Zimmi's that it warranted G-d's direct intervention in one case but not the other ?
Should not have Pinchas should stood trial and .made his case .
The act of Pinchas set a terrible precedent for mankind - and undermines the Absolute value of the 6th Commandment. "You shall not murder" -
We ourselves has seen an Israeli Jewish assassin still revered by some as a zealot.

Ryan Texas July 15, 2017
in response to Avram Anchel:

Stop trying to change what G-d has already said to be a righteous act. You are blurring the Torah with your own interpretation of events in the world that do not compare to Pinchas. Reply

Anonymous Brooklyn, NY July 17, 2008

Shimon and Levy (3) Pinchos and Zimri had many Grandfathers - the point of the essay is that the Torah specifically mentions Aharon’s name by Pinchos and Shimon’s name by Zimri to teach us who they inherited their nature from. (thereby excluding all other grandparents) Reply

Anonymous Glasgow, UK July 13, 2006

Shimon and Laivi (2) Zirmi is described as a desendent of Shimon, to show that he holds his traits of anger ad cruelty; pinchas is described as grandson of Aaron to show he is influenced by his peacefull traits.
But to say Pinchas was a grandson of Aaron, is not so different to saying he is related to Laivi?
And Jacob rebuked both Shimon and Laivi together.
If hashem is tellig us that Zimri being of the tribe of Shimon, makes him bad, then Pinchas being of the tribe of Laivi suggests exactly the same thing here.
Perhaps there is another example, in which Shimon is rebuked for his anger and cruelty and Laivi is not involved, but if not then it cannot be ignored that Shimon and Laivi were rebuked together.
Perhaps the suggestion made in comment "Shimon and Levi" is a possible answer. Does somebody have further comments on this? Reply

Lynn Carpenter Saint Petersburg, FL via July 9, 2006

Do we really understand what we believe? Today's Parsha shows us what is real. Is tradition, what I think, and what religion teaches real? or is understanding "love of G-d" and what it's really all about? If we look towards religious practice/religion to tell us the truth, it won't. Truth is doing the will of G-d. In this instance, the will of G-d is living holy and undefiled by idolatry which is anything held in higher authority above G-d Himself first and foremost whom we worship. Pinchas has done the "mind" of G-d. He understood what it meant to love G-d and to be loved by
G-d. The others were responding out of human thnking and reactive, even judging G-ds purposes. This lesson speaks to humility before G-d and asking Him for advise, not ourselves. Reply

Alexandra Malamud Brooklyn, NY July 18, 2005

Shimon and Levi Not only Zimri was a descendant of Shimon, but Pinchas was also a descendant of Levi. Shimon and Levi, like Pinchas, punished Shechem for the wrong sexual behavior, but that was a sinful act of hatred and vengeance. Maybe, on the highest level, the souls of Zimri and Pinchas conspired to atone for the sin of their ancestors; Zimri by provoking, and Pinchas by performing the act of righteous zealotry. Reply

Arkady Bronx, New York July 9, 2004

Question I am confused, earlier in the article it is stated "There is a law that gives license for "zealots to smite him," but this provision eluded Moses and the entire Jewish leadership. Only Pinchas remembered it, and had the fortitude to carry it through." If this is the case, then how is Pinchas actually acting out of his own Zealot beliefs? Reply

Anonymous dobbs ferry, ny via July 8, 2004

website Thank you for the inspirational website!! May Hashem continue to help and guide you with your endeavors and good deeds. Reply

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