Contact Us



Nemesis of G‑dliness


The people of Israel journeyed . . . and they camped in Rephidim . . .

[Moses] named the place “Challenge and Strife,” because of the strife of the people of Israel and their challenging of G‑d, saying, “Is G‑d amongst us or not?”

Then came Amalek and attacked Israel in Rephidim . . . (Exodus 17:1–8)

Remember what Amalek did to you on the road, on your way out of Egypt. That he encountered you on the way, and cut off those lagging to your rear, when you were tired and exhausted; he did not fear G‑d. Therefore . . . you must obliterate the memory of Amalek from under the heavens. Do not forget. (Deuteronomy 25:17–19)

The Jewish people had just experienced one of the greatest manifestations of divine power in history. Ten supernatural plagues had compelled the mightiest nation on earth to free them from their servitude. The sea had split before them, and manna had rained from the heavens to nourish them. How could they possibly question, “Is G‑d amongst us or not?”

Yet such is the nature of doubt. There is doubt that is based on a rational query. There is doubt that rises from the doubter’s subjective motives and desires. But then there is doubt pure and simple: irrational doubt, doubt more powerful than reason. Doubt that neutralizes the most convincing arguments and the most inspiring experiences with nothing more than a cynical shrug.

Such was the doubt that left the Jewish people susceptible to attack from Amalek. Amalek, in the spiritual sphere, is the essence of baseless, irrational indifference. In the words of the Midrash:

To what is the incident (of Amalek) comparable? To a boiling tub of water which no creature was able to enter. Along came one evildoer and jumped into it. Although he was burned, he cooled it for the others.

So, too, when Israel came out of Egypt, and G‑d split the sea before them and drowned the Egyptians within it, the fear of them fell upon all the nations. But when Amalek came and challenged them, although he received his due from them, he cooled1 the awe of the nations of the world for them.2

This is why Amalek, and what he represents, constitutes the archenemy of the Jewish people and their mission in life. As Moses proclaimed following the war with Amalek, “G‑d has sworn by His throne; G‑d is at war with Amalek for all generations.”3 Truth can refute the logical arguments offered against it. Truth can prevail even over man’s selfish drives and desires, for intrinsic to the nature of man is the axiom that “the mind rules over the heart”—that it is within a person’s capacity to so thoroughly appreciate a truth that it is ingrained in his character and implemented in his behavior. But man’s rational faculties are powerless against the challenge of an Amalek who leaps into the boiling tub, who brazenly mocks the truth and cools man’s most inspired moments with nothing more than a dismissive “So what?”

The Bottleneck

Amalek attacked Israel “on the road, on [the] way out of Egypt,” as they were headed toward Mount Sinai to receive G‑d’s Torah and their mandate as His people. Here, too, history mirrors the inner workings of the soul: the timing of the historical Amalek’s attack describes the internal circumstances under which the pestilence of baseless doubt rears its head.

In the Passover Haggadah we say: “In every generation one must see himself as if he personally came out of Mitzrayim.” Mitzrayim, the Hebrew word for Egypt, means “narrow straits”; on the personal level, this refers to what chassidic teaching calls the “narrowness of the neck” which interposes between the mind and the heart.

Just as physically the head and the heart are joined by a narrow passageway, the neck, so it is in the spiritual-psychological sense. For while the mind possesses an innate superiority over the heart, it is a most difficult and challenging task for a person to exercise this superiority—to direct and mold his feelings and desires to conform with what he knows to be right. This is the “Exodus from Mitzrayim” that is incumbent on each and every generation: the individual challenge to negotiate the narrow straits of one’s internal “neck,” to overcome the material enticements, the emotional subjectivity, the ego and self-interest which undermine the mind’s authority over the heart and impede its influence on the person’s character and behavior.

As long as a person is still imprisoned in his personal mitzrayim, he faces many challenges to his integrity. As long as he has not succeeded in establishing his mind as the axis on which all else revolves, his base instincts and traits—such as greed, anger, the quest for power and instant gratification—may get the better of him. But once he achieves his personal “Exodus” from the narrow straits of his psyche, once he establishes his knowledge and understanding of the truth as the determining force in his life, the battle is all but won. He may be confronted with negative ideas and rationalizations, but free of the distortions of self-interest, the truth will triumph. He may be tempted by negative drives and desires, but if in his life the mind rules the heart, it will curb and ultimately transform them.

But there remains one enemy which threatens also the post-Exodus individual: Amalek. Amalek “knows his Master and consciously rebels against Him.” Amalek does not challenge the truth with arguments, or even with selfish motivations; he just disregards it. To the axiom, “Do truth because it is true,” Amalek says, “So what?” Armed with nothing but his chutzpah, Amalek jumps into the boiling tub, contests the incontestable. And in doing so, he cools its impact.

Beyond Reason

How is one to respond to Amalek? How is one to deal with the apathy, the cynicism, the senseless doubt within? The formula that the Torah proposes is encapsulated in a single word: Zachor—“Remember.”

In his Tanya,4 Rabbi Schneur Zalman of Liadi discusses the faith in G‑d that is integral to the Jewish soul. Faith is not something that must be attained; it need only be revealed, for it is woven into the very fabric of the soul’s essence. Faith, continues Rabbi Schneur Zalman, transcends reason. Through faith one relates to the infinite truth of G‑d in its totality, unlike the perception achieved by reason, which is defined and limited by the finite nature of the human mind.

Thus Rabbi Schneur Zalman explains the amazing fact that, throughout Jewish history, many thousands of Jews have sacrificed their lives rather than renounce their faith and their bond with the Almighty—including many who had little conscious knowledge and appreciation of their Jewishness, and did not practice it in their daily lives. At their moment of truth, when they perceived that their very identity as Jews was at stake, their intrinsic faith—a faith that knows no bounds or equivocations—came to light, and overpowered all else.

Amalek is irrational and totally unresponsive to reason; the answer to Amalek is likewise supra-rational. The Jew’s response to Amalek is to remember: to call forth his soul’s reserves of supra-rational faith, a faith which may lie buried and forgotten under a mass of mundane involvements and entanglements. A faith which, when remembered, can meet his every moral challenge, rational or not.

The Hebrew word karcha, “he encountered you,” employed by the verse to describe Amalek’s attack on Israel, also translates as “he cooled you.”
Midrash Tanchuma, Ki Teitzei 9.
Chapters 18–19.
Based on the teachings of the Lubavitcher Rebbe, Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson; adapted by Yanki Tauber.
Originally published in Week in Review.
Republished with the permission of If you wish to republish this article in a periodical, book, or website, please email
© Copyright, all rights reserved. If you enjoyed this article, we encourage you to distribute it further, provided that you comply with's copyright policy.
Join the Discussion
Sort By:
1000 characters remaining
Penny Valleley Bedford August 10, 2016

Amalekites Thank you so much for an excellent teaching Reply

Anonymous Hoorn nh March 1, 2015

That is why our enemies always ( want to) cut off (our) heads... get it? Reply

Anonymous toronto February 2, 2015

Amalek The connection between Yitro and Amalek was that Yitro learned to keep Amalek far away. His life was not determined and driven by Amalek and so Amalek had no power over him. So when Amalek comes in the form of desires which attract the people he recognized it and did not give room .Do not lose the divine image to desires whether it be money or anything else which has a hold over you. Reply

Anonymous UK September 4, 2014

The Relevance of Instruction re Amalek to Life Today. I find this article really helps in my situation. I live by people who, like Amalek, are 'irrational and unresponsive to reason'. I endure anti-social and criminal acts which make life difficult. I have questioned why I am permitted to suffer in this way. I find guidance in Torah. I realise that it is not my place to judge these people or the Divine rule that permits my situation. I cannot respond to them in kind; that would be allowing them to influence me. I need to be true to the values of my faith. I always speak politely and act courteously towards them; it is very difficult and I do
not enjoy any self-righteous complacency. I do feel that I am able, with the help of HaShem, to remain uninfluenced by the situation and to be the person I wish to be.
Possibly, there are Divine reasons underlying things; I cannot judge. This article has linked me with the experience of our forebears. Thank you. Reply

Rashaun Walker Dothan March 22, 2014

:-) Great Read Reply

Anonymous Baltimore, MD October 18, 2012

Amalek There is also a point of view, as expressed in Meam Loez, that the reason for Amalek's attack was so as to prevent the Jewish people from conquering Canaan (i.e. Israel). Why would that matter to Amalek? Because Amalek was a descendant of Esau, and it is writting in the Yalkut, "As long as the wicked rule, it is as if G-d does not sit on His throne." And when will He sit on His throne? "When the Jews will come to liberate Mount Zion, to judge the Mount of Esau" (Ovadiah). In other words, Amalek was trying to prevent themselves from being punished by preventing the Jews from conquering the Land. Reply

Denise Bremridge Cape Town, South Africa via February 1, 2012

Amalek Thank you for the lessons you teach us to carry out a worthy lifestyle in these days of modern turmoil and chaos which we tend to hang onto at every turn no matter what trauma we suffer.

john trenton, ontario January 31, 2012

Amalek The jews of the first century CE considered Rome to be a second or new Babylon. Yet it is true that later on in the middle ages, as new gentile religions formed based on the older jewish traditions, definitions changed. Christianity based on rome became edom, and Ismael based from arabia became ishmael. By this reasoning one could say Amalek is a christian offspring of rome. However, going back to Torah itself (from the bronze age, before christianity and islam). Amalek was a nomadic tribe of pirates and murderers, bent on plundering and even exterminating the ancient Israelites. So any group of people who match these descriptions could be said to be "amalek". Reply

George Pugh Glen Gardner, NJ January 31, 2012

Amalek Wish modern Israel would realize these truths and live them. If not, the place will not make it though its first generation. Reply

Ken Garey Irvine, CA/USA via September 9, 2011

Amalek: Doubt and Inaction Why is doubt or Amalek the enemy? Because doubt paralyzes. It prevents action. Mitzvot require action. That is why Moses and the Israelites had to fight and kill Amalek. Obedience to Torah is freedom and security for Jews in Israel, our promised land by HaShem. If we fail to obey God, and fail to remember the lessons of the Babylon and Roman exiles, if we fail to fight and defeat our enemies, then by inaction, we allow them to fight and destroy us. Military defence is essential to the commandment to choose life. Doubt says the Palestinian Arabs are human beings with the same right to the land as Jews. Doubt says that we must not exile them. That doubt is a giant barrier to our defense, our freedom, our life. Doubt and inaction destroys Torah and is a chilul HaShem. Reply

MarV college park, MD USA March 14, 2011

Terrorism vs every other death "What differentiates terrorism from every other form of death? "

It's called globalization. So let's see. A subway car blows up in London vs. 5 die in a car crash on a winding road at 2 am. near my home.

I'd be a tad less likely to take the subway in London then drive on a winding road here next week.

London economy takes a hit.
Winding road traffic numbers stay exactly the same.

Uh. There's a BIG difference. Reply

Doron ben Avraham Haifa, Israel January 9, 2011

Amalek is the opposite of Emmunah Amalek is the opposite of Emmunah. Amalek = Doubt and Emmunah = Faith... To remember Amalek means to remember that we all fight the ‘doubt’ within us. Amalek is a force in the world and a force within us all. Develop faith by first, establishing reason, then blotting out doubt with the ensuing faith. The latter is the hardest part, but can be achieved in real time by remembering that we contain the evil force within us... Amalek = Doubt... blot out the ‘doubt’ with pure faith in every moment! Reply

Anonymous n August 6, 2010

Amalek = Germany

This is why Hitler was so obsessed with getting Mussolini/Italy on his side Reply

Yishai Menachem February 26, 2010

Who is Amalek? Amalek is no longer a who as much as a what. Amalek's gematria equals doubt. Amalek is our doubt...this is what/who must be wiped out!! Reply

gershon mcgreevy August 30, 2009

To Louis: It is written that the Edomites are the Romans. However, it is a longer stretch to say that the Amalekites (who are also from Esau's clan) are the Romans. Reply

louis sikora omaha, usa August 30, 2009

amalek Was Amalek in Italy, or his descendants. Are the descendants of Amalek some of the first to settle in Italy. Reply

Will Jones - Atlanta Atlanta, GA August 29, 2009

Remember "A Moral Reckoning," Daniel Jonah Goldhagen
T. Jefferson's letter to S. Kercheval, 19jan1810
"The New Pearl Harbor,"Griffin/Google/Scholar Reply

Anonymous Houston, TX/USA August 29, 2009

The Point In my own exodus from feelings to Truth and in the battle of who will control the being, I still wonder why G-d would allow me to be in such a position at all. I think this is the question that so many ask today, perhaps even w/o asking aloud. Why would G-d allow His people to be in such a vulnerable position in the first place? Perhaps that is really the question for me in these lean days when the heavens seem shut and G-d seems so distant. Is He calling to the Amalek in me to come out and show himself for the traitor that he is? Is it to root out all of Mitzrayim that is still in me, though my sojourn has brought me so far toward Canaan? Reply

lou secora omaha , ne July 22, 2009

amalek is amalek in rome? Reply

Anonymous March 4, 2009

Moshiach Is the idea to change the meaning of malak, to melek, so that his name is erased in meaning, and all that remains is the Moshiach HaMelek? Reply

Related Topics
This page in other languages