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Interpolated Translation for Parsha Vayikra

Interpolated Translation for Parsha Vayikra

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How God Spoke to Moses

1:1 As we have seen,1 the Tabernacle was erected and left standing for the first time on the 1st of Nisan, 2449. From that time on,2 whenever God wished to transmit any of the Torah’s laws to Moses, He first called out to Moses to meet Him in the Tabernacle. Moses heard this call audibly—not just mentally—but miraculously, it was not heard by anyone else. Each time God called out him, He did so affectionately, repeating Moses’ name (“Moses, Moses!”) as He had done at the burning bush,3 thus preparing him for the address that followed. When God wished to cover several topics in the same communication, He paused in order to give Moses time to absorb each topic before proceeding to the next.4 (These pauses are indicated by the spaces between paragraphs in the written text of the Torah.) In so doing, God demonstrated the proper and effective way to teach. Since, once the Tabernacle was erected, it was chiefly there that God spoke to Moses, it was also called the “Tent of Meeting.”

When God spoke with Moses in the Tent of Meeting, God spoke to him in the same thundering voice He used at the Giving of the Torah; nevertheless, the sound of the voice miraculously stopped at the entrance of the Tabernacle and was not heard outside of it.5 God’s voice “descended” from heaven and issued from the space between the two cherubs atop the Cover of the Altar in the inner chamber of the Tent of Meeting, and Moses heard it while standing in the outer chamber of the Tabernacle.6

God instructed Moses to address the people in a manner that would inspire them to value His commandments and to inform them that He was giving them His commandments for their sake and in their interest, out of His love for them. He further instructed Moses to report back to Him as to whether the people accepted His commandments, as he had at the Giving of the Torah.7

Ascent-Offerings of Cattle

2God’s first communication to Moses from the newly erected Tabernacle, on the 1st of Nisan, 2449, was as follows: “Speak to the Israelites and say to them: ‘The central feature of the Tabernacle’s operation is the sacrificial rites. There are numerous types of sacrifices, which may be categorized in various ways: individual or communal; voluntary or obligatory; animal, vegetable, or mineral; what occasions them; and so on.

There are four broad categories of animal sacrifices: ascent-offerings, peace-offerings, sin-offerings, and guilt-offerings. Now that the Tabernacle has been erected, it is unlikely that you will sin today, since you will be too overcome with religious awe and too anxiously expecting a sign from Me that I approve of your efforts in building the Tabernacle in order to secure My forgiveness for the incident of the Golden Calf. Thus, the first types of sacrifices you will offer will most likely be voluntary (ascent-offerings, grain-offerings, and peace-offerings) rather than obligatory (sin- and guilt-offerings); the laws governing voluntary sacrifices will therefore be given first, followed by the laws regarding obligatory sacrifices. Furthermore, the laws concerning individual sacrifices (both voluntary and obligatory) will be given before the laws of communal sacrifices, inasmuch as the latter will become relevant only later,8 once Aaron and his sons begin officiating as priests and take over the sacrificial service.9

Of the voluntary sacrifices, the first whose laws will be given is the ascent-offering, since it does effect a certain kind of atonement, as will be described presently—and therefore, despite its being voluntary, you will more likely feel compelled to offer it up as opposed to other voluntary sacrifices.10

The procedures followed when offering up voluntary and obligatory ascent-offerings are identical, so the following instructions will apply to both.11

An ascent-offering expresses the desire of the offerer to ascend to a higher level of closeness to God, either (a) in order to atone for having intentionally neglected to perform an active commandment (which it is no longer possible to perform), or (b) in order to atone for having intentionally neglected to perform the active commandment that compensates for having transgressed a passive commandment (and it is no longer possible to perform the active commandment).12

When a man or woman from among you brings a voluntary ascent-sacrifice to God, you must bring your sacrifice only from domestic animals that you own, i.e., from cattle or from the flock. You may not offer a stolen animal, one that was used for bestiality, one that was worshipped as an idol or even designated as such, one that has fatally gored someone, or one that is suffering from a fatal disease. Two or more people—or even the entire community—may bring a voluntary offering in partnership.

3 If the offerer’s sacrifice is an ascent-offering from cattle, he must bring an unblemished male. You may not bring a hermaphrodite or an animal of unknown gender. Once the offerer has orally designated a specific animal as his offering, he must bring it; he may not change his mind, and if he does, the court must prevail upon him—even forcibly if necessary—to bring it willingly, as he said he would. He must bring the animal to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting, thus being considered to have presented itbefore God. If two offerers’ designated animals become confused, each offerer should bring one of them to the entrance, intending to offer it up on behalf of whoever designated it. If a designated animal becomes confused with non-designated animals, they should all be sold together to an equal number of people (minus one) who wish to bring ascent-offerings, and then they should all be offered up ‘anonymously,’ i.e., on behalf of whoever designated them. If, however, an animal designated as an ascent-offering becomes confused with animals disqualified for use as sacrifices, or with animals designated as another type of sacrifice, this solution cannot be used.

4 He must lean his hand forcefully upon the head of the ascent-offering and it will be accepted for him to atone for him. The procedure of leaning on the animal is performed only in the Tabernacle (or its successor, the Temple), but not at a private altar, even when the use of such altars is permitted.13

5 He must slaughter the bull before God, i.e., within the precincts of the Courtyard of the Tabernacle, and to the north of the Altar.14 The animal must be slaughtered with the explicit intention that it is to be offered up as a sacrifice; if you are just manipulating the knife and slaughter the animal unintentionally, the sacrifice is invalidated.15 From this point on, the sacrificial procedures are to be performed by the priests: Aaron’s sons, or after them, those of his descendants who are priests—i.e., who have not been demoted from the priesthood16must receive the blood in a consecrated vessel17 as it issues from the animal, bring the vessel containing the blood to the Altar, and, while standing on the ground next to the Altar, dash the blood onto the northwest and southeast corners of the Outer Altar, which is located outside the entrance of the Tent of Meeting. When the blood is dashed against the two diagonally opposite corners of the Altar, it falls onto all its four sides, and thus can be considered to be encircling the Altar.

If the blood of the ascent-offering has become mixed with the blood of other ascent-offerings, or with that of other offerings whose blood is also applied to the lower half of the Altar (i.e., peace-offerings18 or guilt-offerings19), it may still be dashed onto the Altar. If, however, it has become mixed with the blood of sacrifices that had become unfit to be offered up or with that of those sin-offerings whose blood is not applied, like the ascent-offering, to the lower half of the Altar, but to the Inner Altar20 or to the upper half of the Outer Altar,21 it may not be dashed onto the Altar, and the sacrifice is thus invalidated.

If the Tabernacle has been dismantled, the blood of the animal may not be applied to the Altar, even if the Altar is still in its place.

A regular priest must not perform any sacrificial rites while attired as a high priest or vice versa.22

6 He must then skin the ascent-offering and cut it up into its constituent sections. He must not, however, cut up these sections into smaller sections.

7As will be described later,23 the sons of Aaron the priest (and after them, his priestly descendants) must make a fire on the Altar and arrange wood on the fire. No pieces of wood should protrude from the woodpile.24 Even though this is just a preparation for the actual sacrificial rites, they must perform this rite only when properly attired as priests.

8 Aaron’s sons (and after them, his priestly descendants), properly attired as priests, must then arrange all the sections into which the animal had been cut up, plus the head—whose bottom (i.e., the place where the animal was slaughtered) they have covered by placing the animal’s fat on it—on top of the wood that is on the fire on the Altar. The severed throat is covered by fat in order to present the sacrifice to God in a dignified, respectful manner.

None of the flesh of an ascent-offering may be eaten, but its hide is given to the priest.25

9Before the priest places the animal’s sections on the fire, he must first wash its innards and its legs with water. Only then, the priest must burn up all of the animal’s sections on the Altar. He must specifically burn it with the intention that it be an ascent-offering. Similarly, the slaughtering must be performed with the intention that the animal be a fire-offering, i.e., destined to be consumed by fire, and that it be pleasing to God. Once the sacrificial rites are completed and the animal has caught fire, Divine fire will descend from heaven and consume the sacrifice.26

Ascent-Offerings of Sheep or Goats

10 If his offering is brought from the flock—from sheep or from goats—as an ascent-offering, he must sacrifice an unblemished male. In addition, the animal must not be old, sick, or dirty. The offerer must lean on the animal, as was described above27 regarding ascent-offerings of cattle.

11 He must slaughter it next to the north side of the Altar, before God, i.e., within the precincts of the Courtyard of the Tabernacle. Animals brought as ascent-offerings on private altars,28 however, need not be slaughtered on the north side. From this point on, the sacrificial procedures are to be performed by the priests: Aaron’s descendants who are the priests—i.e., who have not been demoted from the priesthood29must receive the blood in a consecrated vessel, bring the vessel containing the blood to the Altar, and dash its blood upon the Altar in the same manner prescribed for the blood of an ascent-offering of cattle,30such that the blood is considered to be encircling the Altar.

The same laws that apply when the blood of an ascent-offering of cattle becomes mixed with the blood of other animals, as well as the law that blood may be applied to the Altar only when the Tabernacle is erected,31 also apply to ascent-offerings of sheep and goats.

12 He must then skin it32 and cut it up into its constituent sections. He must not, however, cut these sections into smaller sections.33 Just as with ascent-offerings of cattle,34 he must cover the bottom of the animal’s severed head with its fat. The priest must thus arrange the sections on top of the wood that is on the fire on the Altar. None of its flesh may be eaten, but its hide is given to the priest.35

13Before the priest places the animal’s sections on the fire, he must first wash the innards and the legs with water. Only then, the priest must offer up all of the animal, burning it up on the Altar. He must burn it specifically with the intention that it be an ascent-offering. Similarly, the slaughtering must be performed with the intention that the animal be a fire-offering, i.e., destined to be consumed by fire, and that it be pleasing to God. Once the sacrificial rites are completed and the animal has caught fire, Divine fire will descend from heaven and consume the sacrifice.36

Ascent-Offerings of Fowl

Second Reading 14If the offerer cannot afford to sacrifice an animal from the herd or flock, he may sacrifice a fowl. If the offerer’s sacrifice to God is an ascent-offering from fowl, he must bring one of the mature turtledoves or one of the young pigeons, of either gender. The fowl does not have to be unblemished, but it may not be missing a limb. The offerer does not lean on ascent-offerings of fowl, as he must for those of cattle, sheep, or goats.37

Turtledoves become suitable as sacrifices only once they reach the age at which their feathers have finished turning yellow. Pigeons are suitable as sacrifices from the age at which plucking a feather causes them to bleed until the age at which their feathers begin to turn yellow. Thus, both turtledoves and pigeons are unsuitable as sacrifices during the beginning stage of their feathers’ color-change.38

15 The priest must bring the fowl to the Altar, partially nip off its head by cutting through the nape of the neck, the neck bone, the esophagus, and the trachea, all with his fingernail—which he must let grow long for this purpose. He must then cut off the rest of the fowl’s head completely, even with a knife, and burn up the head on the Altar. But first, the fowl’s blood must be made to exude from its neck onto the wall of the Altar—not directly, by squeezing the fowl’s neck, but indirectly, by pressing its neck against the Altar wall.39

16 He must then cut into the fowl’s body and remove its crop, along with its entrails and40 along with the flesh and feathers opposite the crop, and then discard these pieces on the east side of the ramp next to the Altar, at the place where the ashes removed from the Altar each morning are deposited.41

The digestive organs of cattle, sheep, and goats are offered up on the Altar, whereas the digestive organs of fowl are discarded, because livestock only eat their masters’ or ownerless food, whereas fowl fly into other people’s property and “rob” them in order to eat.

17 He must then, with his hands, rip open the body of the fowl from behind with its feathers intact, but he must not tear it completely apart. The priest must then burn up the fowl’s body, with its feathers,on the Altar, on top of the wood on the fire. He must burn it specifically with the intention that it be an ascent-offering. Similarly, the slaughtering must be done with the intention that the fowl be a fire-offering, i.e., destined to be consumed by fire, and that it be pleasing to God. Once the sacrificial rites are completed and the animal has caught fire, Divine fire will descend from heaven and consume the sacrifice.42

Even though the smell of burning feathers is revolting, God insists that the feathers be burned because since it is usually poor people who offer up fowl as ascent-offerings (instead of cattle, sheep, or goats, which are much larger and far more expensive), He wants their sacrifice to look substantial so they should not feel embarrassed. Similarly, although a turtledove or pigeon is much smaller than a bull, sheep, or goat, God still considers it “pleasing” as long as the poor person has offered it up with the proper intentions.

The remainder of the laws concerning ascent-offerings will be given later.43

Grain-Offerings

2:1If the offerer cannot even afford a fowl, he may sacrifice a grain-offering instead. There are five types of grain-offerings: unbaked, baked into loaves, baked into flat cakes, fried in a shallow frying pan, and fried in a deep frying pan. We will first describe the differences between them, and then the general procedures common to all of them.

If a person declares his intention to bring a grain-offering to God without specifying which type he intends to bring, his offering must be of the first type, i.e., of unbaked fine wheat flour, prepared as follows:

He must take at least one log [344 ml or 11.6 oz]44 of olive oil, and he must pour this oil over one-tenth of an ephah [2.5 liter or 2.6 quarts] of flour, stirring the flour until the oil is thoroughly mixed with it, and then pour out the rest of the oil on top of the dough.45 He must then place a fistful of frankincense upon it, taking care not to let the frankincense mix with the commingled flour and oil. The olive oil used for all grain-offerings need not be that obtained when the olives are first crushed; it can be that produced by pressing the olives after they have been crushed, or even that produced by grounding them after they have been pressed.46

2 He must then bring the grain-offering to Aaron’s descendants, the priests, becausefrom this point on, the sacrificial procedures are to be performed by them. As will be described presently,47 the priest must bring the grain-offering to the Altar. After having done this, and while standing anywhere in the Forecourt, or even from outside it—there where the offerer first gave him the grain-offering—the priest must scoop out a precise fistful of themixture of the grain-offering’s fine flour and oil. He does this by inserting his open hand into the mixture, closing his middle three fingers on the palm of his hand, and removing the excess by running his two outer fingers down the sides of his closed three fingers. We will presently see48 that salt must be added to all grain-offerings49 when they are burned up on the Altar,50 but this fistful must consist only of the grain-offering’s flour and oil, apart from all its frankincense or any salt. The priest should therefore be careful not to collect any frankincense in his fistful.51 However, after removing the fistful and placing it in a vessel, he must gather all the frankincense and place it on top of the fistful. The priest must then bring the fistful with its frankincense to the top of the Altar, salt it, and then burn up the whole combination as the grain-offering’s memorial portion on the Altar.52 These ingredients are together termed the grain-offering’s “memorial portion” since it causes the offerer to be remembered, so to speak, on High. Removing the memorial portion from the main mixture must be performed with the intention that it be a fire-offering, i.e., destined to be consumed by fire, and that it be pleasing to God.

3 The remainder of the grain-offering will belong to the priests: first Aaron (or after him, the high priest then in office) must take whatever portion of it he chooses, and then his sons (or after them, the officiating priests53) must take whatever is left, dividing it up among them. The priests must then bake the mixture any way they like, but their portion is still considered an offering of superior holiness, and therefore they may only eat it from the point in time when the memorial portion has been burned up on the Altar as one of the fire-offerings of God. If, however, the offerer is himself a priest, then no “memorial portion” is removed from his grain-offering, for it must be burned up in its entirety; none of it may be eaten.54 It does, however, still require oil and frankincense.55

4 If you declare your intention to bring a grain-offering baked in an oven, it must consist of either ten unleavened loaves made out of one-tenth of an ephah of fine wheat flour mixed with a log of oil, or of ten flat unleavened cakes made out ofone-tenth of an ephah of fine flour smeared with a log ofoil. Either keep smearing them with oil until the log is used up, or smear them with the oil in the form of the Greek letter lambda (Λ)—which is an angular form of the Hebrew letter kaf (כ), the initial letter of the word for “priest” (kohen, כהן)56—and give the rest of the log to the priests to consume separately. After baking the dough (and, in the case of the flat cakes, after applying the oil), break each of the ten loaves in two and then each half in two, so the priest will later be able to easily remove the memorial portion.57

5 If a grain-offering fried in a shallow frying pan is your sacrifice, it must be made of one-tenth of an ephah of fine wheat flour. The flour is first placed in a vessel containing some of the required log58 of oil; it is then mixed with some more of this oil and kneaded into ten loaves.59 It is then baked in the frying pan. Since the pan is shallow, the oil will burn up before it can soften the dough, so the resulting loaves will be crisp.The flour must be unleavened.

6After baking the loaves, break each one into two pieces, and then each half in two, so the priest will later be able to easily remove the memorial portion. You must then pour the rest of the log of oil over the loaves. It is a grain-offering, and all grain-offerings must have the remainder of their log of oil poured on them (except the two types baked in an oven, as above60).

Third Reading7 If your sacrifice is a grain-offering fried in a deep frying pan, it must be made of one-tenth of an ephah of fine wheat flour mixed with a log61 of oil. Here, too,62 the flour is first placed in a vessel containing some of the required log of oil; it is then mixed with some more of this oil and kneaded into ten loaves. But since in this case the pan is deep, enough oil will remain to soften the dough, so the resulting loaves will be elastic and will therefore quiver. After frying the loaves, break each one in half and then each the half into quarters, so the priest will later be able to easily remove the memorial portion.63 After this, pour the rest of the log of oil over them.

8 Thus you must bring to God the grain-offering that will be made from any of these fivepreparations of flour. In each case,the offerer must bring it to the priest, and the priest must bring it close to the southwest corner64 of the Altar.

9What was said above65 regarding the unbaked grain-offering applies to all these types of grain-offerings: The priest must lift out the memorial fistful from the grain-offering and burn it up on the Altar. Removing the memorial portion from the flour mixture or broken loaves must be performed with the intention that it be a fire-offering, i.e., destined to be consumed by fire, and that it be pleasing to God.

It is usually poor people who bring grain-offerings, for this is all they can afford. Nevertheless, because their personal sacrifice (in offering up their only food) is greater than that of those who can afford to offer up more expensive sacrifices, God is especially appreciative of their offering, considering it as if they had offered up their very selves.66

10Similarly,67 the remainder of every grain-offering is to be treated the same way as the remainder of the unbaked grain-offering: it will belong to the priests: first Aaron (or after him, the then-current high priest) will take whatever portion of it he chooses, and then his sons (or after them, the officiating priests68) will take whatever is left, dividing it up among themselves. Nonetheless, their portion is still considered an offering of superior holiness, and therefore they may only eat it from the point in time when the memorial portion has been burned up on the Altar as one of the fire-offerings of God.

If, however, the offerer is himself a priest, then his grain-offering must be burned up in its entirety; none of it may be eaten.69 Nonetheless, oil and frankincense must still be added to the flour.70

11 No grain-offering that you sacrifice to God may be made out of anything leavened, for you must not burn up any leavening agents or any sweet fruits as a fire-offering to God.

12There are, indeed, two instances in which you are required to bring offerings of leavening agents and sweet fruitsto God, each of which is an offering of the first of your produce: (a) the first offering from the annual wheat harvest must be the two loaves of leavened bread brought by the community on Shavuot,71 and (b) the first fruits of the seven types of plants mentioned as distinguishing the Land of Israel72—which include figs and dates, whose juice is sweet—must be brought by each individual farmer.73 Nevertheless, as you will see when the laws of these offerings are given in detail, these offerings do not ascend the Altar in order to be burned up as fire-offerings to please God.

13 You must salt every one of your grain-offering sacrifices. You must not omit the salt of your God’s covenant (which He made with salt on the second day of Creation74) from being placed upon your grain-offerings. In fact, you must offer up salt on all your sacrifices, i.e., on ascent-offerings of animals (which are burned up in their entirety on the Altar) and on the portions of other animal offerings that are burned up on the Altar.

14The two just-mentioned loaves of bread brought on Shavuot are indeed the first offering brought from the annual wheat harvest; however, they are preceded by the first offering brought from the annual barley harvest, which occurs earlier. This is the omer of barley brought on the second day of Passover.75 When you bring thisgrain-offering of first grains to God, you must bring your first grain-offering from barley, as soon as it ripens. The kernels must first beroasted over the fire in order to be subsequently ground into flour, for the barley husks at this stage are still full and the kernels are soft.

15 You must put oil on it and place frankincense upon it, for it is a grain-offering like any other in this respect.

16 Then, the priest must wave it,76 bring it to the southwest corner of the Altar, and then burn up its memorial fistful, which he must take from the dough composed of its ground flour and of its oil, along with all its frankincense, which is collected separately. Removing the memorial portion from the dough must be performed with the intention that it be a fire-offering to God, i.e., destined to be consumed by fire. The remainder of the omer is eaten by the priests.

The remainder of the laws concerning grain-offerings will be given later.77

Peace-Offerings of Cattle

Fourth Reading3:1Someone wishing to draw close to God by praising Him for some reason can elect to bring a “peace-offering,” so called because it promotes peace in the world in general, and because it promotes commonality among all the participants in the sacrificial rite (the offerer, the priests, and the Altar) by allotting portions of its meat to each.78

If his sacrifice is a peace-promoting feast-offering, then if he brings it from cattle, the animal must be either male or female; he may not bring a hermaphrodite or an animal of unknown gender. It must be unblemished. Once the offerer has designated a specific animal as his offering, he must bring it to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting, thus being considered to have presented it before God.

2 He must then lean his hand forcefully upon the head of his sacrifice and slaughter it anywhere within the precincts of the Courtyard of the Tabernacle, i.e., beyond the entrance of the Tent of Meeting. Those of Aaron’s descendants who are priests—i.e., who have not been demoted from the priesthood79must receive the blood in a consecrated vessel; bring the vessel containing the blood to the Altar; and, while standing on the ground next to the Altar, dash the blood upon the northwest and southeast corners of the Altar such that the blood can be considered to be encircling the Altar.80

3 He must bring a fire-offering to God from the peace-offering, consisting of the following seven parts of the animal that must be burned up on the Altar: (1) the fat covering the innards, i.e., on the omasum and the reticulum; (2) all the fat that is on the innards, i.e., on the abomasum (or, alternatively, on the small intestine);

4(3) the two kidneys; (4) the fat that is on them; (5) the fat that is on the flanks; he must also remove (6) the diaphragm, along with the kidneys—as stated—and along with (7) part of the liver.

5 Aaron’s descendants must burn up these seven parts of the animal on the Altar. Like all other sacrifices, this one, too, may be placed on the woodpile only after the dailymorning ascent-offering81has been offered up and is on top of the wood on the fire. Slaughtering the animal must be performed with the intention that it be a fire-offering, i.e., destined to be consumed by fire, and that it be pleasing to God.

Peace-Offerings of Sheep or Goats

6The procedure for sacrificing peace-offerings of sheep is the same as that for those of cattle, except that an additional type of fat is included in the portion burned up on the Altar, as follows:

If his sacrifice is a peace-promoting feast-offering to God from the flock, the animal must be either male or female; he may not bring a hermaphrodite or an animal of unknown gender. He must bring itunblemished.

7 If he brings a sheep as his sacrifice, then after he designates the animal, he must bring it to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting, thus being considered to have presented it before God.

8 He must then lean his hand forcefully upon the head of his sacrifice and slaughter it in front of the Tent of Meeting, i.e., anywhere within the precincts of the Courtyard of the Tabernacle. Those of Aaron’s descendants who are priests—i.e., who have not been demoted from the priesthood82must receive the blood in a consecrated vessel; bring the vessel containing the blood to the Altar; and, while standing on the ground next to the Altar, dash the blood upon the northwest and southeast corners of the Altar such that the blood can be considered to be encircling the Altar.83

9 He must bring a fire-offering to God from the peace-offering,consisting of the following eight parts of the animal that must be burned up on the Altar: (1) he must remove its choicest part: the entire fatty tail beginning at84 the kidneys; (2) the fat covering the innards, i.e., on the omasum and the reticulum; (3) all the fat that is on the innards, i.e., on the abomasum (or alternatively, on the small intestine);

10(4) the two kidneys along with (5) the fat that is on them, (6) and the fat that is on the flanks. He must also remove (7) the diaphragm, along with the kidneys—as stated—and along with (8) part of the liver.

11 The priest must burn up these eight parts of the animal on the Altar, as food for the fire, to God.

12The procedure for sacrificing peace-offerings of goats is the same as that for those of sheep, except that the tail is not included among the parts burned up on the Altar, as follows:

If his sacrifice is a goat, then after he designates the animal, he must bring it to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting, thus being considered to have presented it before God.

13 He must lean his hand forcefully upon its head and slaughter it in front of the Tent of Meeting, i.e., anywhere within the precincts of the Courtyard of the Tabernacle. Aaron’s descendants who are priests, i.e., who have not been disqualified from the priesthood on account of the circumstances of their birth or marriage85must receive the blood in a consecrated vessel; bring the vessel containing the blood to the Altar; and, while standing on the ground next to the Altar, dash the blood upon the northwest and southeast corners of the Altar such that the blood can be considered to be encircling the Altar.86

14 He must bring from it his offering—a fire-offering to God—consisting of the following seven parts of the animal that must be burned up on the Altar: (1) the fat covering the innards, i.e., on the omasum and the reticulum; (2) all the fat that is on the innards, i.e., on the abomasum (or alternatively, on the small intestine);

15(3) the two kidneys along with (4) the fat that is on them, (5) and the fat that is on the flanks. He must also remove (6) the diaphragm, along with the kidneys—as stated—along with (7) part of the liver.

16 The priest must burn up these seven parts of the animal on the Altar, as food for the fire, with the intention that it be pleasing to God. All sacrificial fat belongs to God.

17The rule that all fat included in the prescribed fire-offering belongs to God is an eternal rule, which will apply in all your generations—even when you enter the Land of Israel and are allowed to consume meat without first bringing the animal as a peace-offering, and even in those times when the Tabernacle (or its successor, the Temple) is not standing and fat and blood are not used for sacrifices—and in all your habitations, even outside the Land of Israel, where sacrifices are not offered up. In all these cases, you must consume neither any sacrificial fat nor any blood.87

The remainder of the laws concerning peace-offerings will be given later.’ ”88

The Sin-Offering of the High Priest

Fifth Reading4:1 God spoke to Moses, saying,

2 With the exception of the two obligatory offerings briefly mentioned above,89 our discussion thus far has been of voluntary offerings.90 We will now turn to the subject of obligatory offerings. Speak to the Israelites, saying: ‘There are two types of sacrifices whose purpose is to counteract the effects of wrongdoing: the sin-offering and the guilt-offering. Both of these types of sacrifices counteract only specific types of sins, as will be described, but of the two, the sin-offering is more general. It will therefore be discussed first.91

If a person unintentionally transgresses any of the passive commandments of God, then he or she must sacrifice a sin-offering if (a) the punishment for transgressing that passive commandment would be excision (i.e., dying prematurely and childless92) were it committed intentionally, and (b) he either completed one of these acts or committed part of one of them—provided that the partial act was also a complete act in its own right.

The sin-offering and the circumstances that occasion it differ for a high priest, the Sanhedrin, a king, or a commoner, as follows:

3 If the anointed high priest commits the same sin that, as will be described presently,93 implicates theSanhedrin, the supreme court of the people, obligating them to bring a sin-offering—specifically, if he mistakenly concludes and rules that a particular act is permitted when in fact it is both prohibited and punishable by excision if performed intentionally, and then commits the act, relying on his mistaken conclusion—then, when his mistake is discovered, in order to atone for his sin that he has unwittingly committed, he must bring an unblemished young bull (i.e., between one and three years old94) as a sin-offering to God. However, if the high priest knew that the act was forbidden but simply committed it unintentionally, he is not required to bring a sin-offering at all, unlike the leader95 or a lay person,96 who are required to bring a sin-offering when they either (a) did not know that the act is forbidden, or (b) knew that the act is forbidden but did not realize that what they were doing was the forbidden act, or (c) knew that the act is forbidden but did not know that it is punishable by excision.97 If, however, they concluded erroneously that a specific act is permitted when in fact it is forbidden, and then committed the act relying on their erroneous conclusion, they are not liable to bring a sin-offering.

When the anointed high priest sins, it reinforces the people’s guilt, since, as will be explained later,98 they rely on him to atone for them by performing the Yom Kippur rites, and he lacks the merit to do so if he himself is tainted by sin.99 In contrast, since he represents the notion of atonement for sin, when the people see him atoning for his inadvertent sin, it impresses them with the necessity to atone for their own sins, even their inadvertent ones, and, following his example, they will not be ashamed to do so.100

4 He must bring the bull to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting, thus being considered to have presented it before God. He must lean his hand forcefully upon the bull’s head and slaughter the bull before God, i.e., within the precincts of the Courtyard of the Tabernacle.

5 The anointed high priest must receive the blood in a consecrated vessel, and take some of the bull’s blood and bring it into the Tent of Meeting.

6Standing inside the Sanctuary (the outer chamber of the Tabernacle)101 and facing the Curtain that divides the Sanctuary from the Holy of Holies (the inner chamber), the priest must dip his finger into the blood and sprinkle some of the blood seven times before God, toward the holy part of the Curtain, i.e., the part directly in front of the Ark, this being the two-and-a-half-cubit space between the slight protrusions in the Curtain caused by the Ark’s two poles.102 The blood does not have to reach the Curtain, but if some of it does, it does not thereby invalidate the procedure.

7 The priest must then place some of the blood on the four protrusions of the incense Altar, which is located inside the Tent of Meeting directly in front of the place where God’s Presence is revealed, i.e., directly in front of the Ark. (If he omits one of these blood-applications, intentionally or inadvertently, the rite is invalidated.103) He must then exit the Tent of Meeting and pour all therest of the bull’s blood onto the base of the Altar used for ascent-offerings, i.e., the Outer Altar—specifically, onto the side of the base that faces the entrance of the Tent of Meeting, i.e., the west side.104

8Before cutting the bull into pieces, he must remove all the sin-offering bull’s fat—i.e., the following seven parts—from it: (1) the fat covering the innards, i.e., on the omasum and the reticulum; (2) all the fat that is on the innards, i.e., on the abomasum (or alternatively, on the small intestine);

9(3) the two kidneys; (4) the fat that is on them; (5) the fat that is on the flanks; he must also remove (6) the diaphragm, along with the kidneys—as stated—and along with (7) part of the liver.

10 Just as with the fat parts that are removed from the bull sacrificed as a peace-offering,105 the priest must then burn them up on the Altar used for ascent-offerings, doing so specifically with the intention that they be a fire-offering, i.e., destined to be consumed by fire, and that it be pleasing to God. The high priest’s sin-offering is similar to a peace-offering also in that it promotes peace between God and the people, for, as mentioned previously,106 until the high priest has atoned for his own sin, he cannot effect atonement for the people.

11Regarding the bull’s hide, all of its flesh, its head, its legs, its innards, and its waste matter,

12 he must take all this, i.e., the entire bull (save for the parts burned up on the Altar), to an undefiled place outside the camp, namely, to the place designated, as will be described later,107 as the ash depository, and he must burn it up there in the fire, on wood. It must be burned up in this ash depository even if there happen to be no ashes there. No part of the high priest’s sin-offering may be eaten.

The Sin-Offering of the Sanhedrin

13 If the Sanhedrin, the supreme court of the entire community of Israel,108 errs because the correct decision regarding a matter—specifically, a passive commandment punishable by excision—eluded the Sanhedrin (who are allegorically termed ‘the eyes’ of the community109), and, relying on the Sanhedrin’s incorrect ruling that this matter is permissible, the people transgress any of the passive commandments of God punishable by excision if performed intentionally, thereby incurring guilt, then

14 when the sin that they had committed is discovered, the community (i.e., each tribe individually110) must bring a young bull (i.e., between one and three years old111) as a sin-offering. They must bring it before the Tent of Meeting.

15 The elders of the community, i.e., the Sanhedrin, must lean their hands forcefully upon the bull’s head before God, i.e., within the precincts of the Courtyard of the Tabernacle, and one of them or their agent must slaughter the bull before God, i.e., within the precincts of the Courtyard of the Tabernacle.

16After the blood has beenreceived in a consecrated vessel, the anointed high priest must bring some of the bull’s blood into the Tent of Meeting,

17and, standing inside the Sanctuary and facing the Curtain that divides the Sanctuary from the Holy of Holies, the high priest must dip his finger into the blood and sprinkle it seven times before God, toward the part of the dividing Curtain directly in front of the Ark, this being the two-and-a-half-cubit space between the slight protrusions in the Curtain caused by the Ark’s two poles.112 The blood does not have to reach the Curtain, but if some of it does, it does not thereby invalidate the procedure. (Here, this part of the Curtain is not termed “holy,” as it was in the description of the procedure for the high priest’s sin-offering,113 since when only the high priest sins, the holiness of the Tabernacle remains intact, whereas when the entire community sins, the holiness of the Tabernacle departs, so to speak.)

18 He must then place some of the blood on the four protrusions of the incense Altar, which is located in the Tent of Meeting directly in front of the place where God’s presence is revealed, i.e., directly in front of the Ark. He must then exit the Tent of Meeting and pour all therest of the blood onto the base of the Altar used for ascent-offerings, i.e., the Outer Altar—specifically, onto the side of the base that faces the entrance of the Tent of Meeting, i.e., the west side.

19 He must separate all its fat from it—i.e., the same fat that is removed from other offerings, as has been described114and burn it up on the Outer Altar.

20As to the non-fat portions of the animal that are also removed from other offerings—i.e., the kidneys and the diaphragm—he must do to the bull under discussion here just as he would do to the sin-offering bull of the high priest, i.e., he must remove these parts, too. (God does not wish to detail all the procedures of this sin-offering explicitly so as not to dwell on the wrongdoings of His people; He therefore refers to some of the procedures indirectly.115) Regarding the application of the blood to the four protrusions of the Inner Altar, he must do this to it in order for the priest to make atonement for the community so that they may be forgiven; if he omits one of the blood-applications, intentionally or inadvertently, the rite is invalidated.

21 He must then take therest of the bull outside the camp, i.e., to the ash depository, and burn it, just as he would burn the remainder of the first bull just described—the sin-offering of the high priest—for this is a sin-offering like that one, but for the entire community. No part of this sin-offering may be eaten, either.

The Sin-Offering of the Leader

22 If a leader of Israel sins by unintentionally transgressing any of the passive commandments of God, his God, thereby incurring guilt, then—

23 if the sin that he committed is made known to him, he must bring his offering, an unblemished male goat up to a year old,116 to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting.

24 He must lean his hand forcefully upon the goat’s head and slaughter it in the place where he slaughters ascent-offerings, i.e., on the north side of the Altar, before God, i.e., within the precincts of the Courtyard of the Tabernacle. He must slaughter it with the intention that it be a sin-offering and that it undergo the procedures applying to sin-offerings; otherwise, it becomes invalidated. The same applies to all sin-offerings.117

25 The priest must ascend the ramp of the Altar, take some of the blood of the sin-offering with his finger, and place it on the four protrusions of the Altar used for ascent-offerings. (If, however, he applies the blood to only one of the protrusions, the sacrifice is still valid after the fact.118) He must then descend the ramp and pour the rest of its blood onto the south side119 of the base of the Altar used for ascent-offerings.

26 He must burn up all its fat on the Altar, just like the fat of the peace-offering of goats.120 Thus the priest makes atonement for the leader’s sin so that he may be forgiven. The remainder of the goat is eaten by the priests, like that of the sin-offering of an individual.121

In contrast to the special sin-offering of the high priest, which, as stated above,122 will only impress the people with the importance of seeking atonement for their sins (since the concept of atonement is the essence of the priesthood), the special sin-offering for the leader will impress the people with the necessity to guard themselves from sinning in the first place (for his function is to lead the people and govern them properly). Seeing that their leader is sufficiently cognizant of the gravity of sin to take care to atone for his inadvertent sins (and is therefore certainly sufficiently cognizant of the gravity of sin to repent for his intentional sins), the rest of the people will be inspired to similarly guard themselves from sin—and of course, if they do sin, even inadvertently, to seek atonement.123

Sin-Offerings from Individuals

Sixth Reading27Now that we have discussed the special sin-offerings for the nation’s leaders, we will now turn to the sin-offering brought by an ordinary individual. If some other person, who is one of the common people of the land, unintentionally commits a sin punishable by excision if committed intentionally, by his (or her) transgressing any of the passive commandments of God, thereby incurring guilt, then—

28 if his sin that he committed is made known to him, he must bring either a goat or a sheep as a sin-offering.

If he chooses to bring a goat, then he must bring his sacrifice, an unblemished female goat, for his sin that he committed, to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting.

29 He must lean his hand forcefully on the sin-offering’s head and slaughter the animal—with the intention that it be a sin-offeringin the place where the ascent-offering is slaughtered, i.e., on the north side of the Altar within the precincts of the Courtyard of the Tabernacle.

30 The priest must ascend the ramp of the Altar, take some of animal’s blood with his finger, and place it on the four protrusions of the Altar used for ascent-offerings. If, however, he applies the blood to only one of the protrusions, the sacrifice is still valid after the fact.124 He must then descend the ramp and pour all of its remaining blood onto the south side125 of the base of the Altar.

31 He must remove all of its fat, just as the fat would be removed from the peace-offering of goats.126 The priest must then burn it up on the Altar with the intention that it please God. Thus the priest makes atonement for the individual so that he may then be forgiven.

32 If he brings a sheep for his sin-offering, he must bring an unblemished female.

33 He must lean his hand forcefully upon the sin-offering’s head and slaughter it—with the intention that it be a sin-offeringin the place where he slaughters the ascent-offering, i.e., on the north side of the Altar within the precincts of the Courtyard of the Tabernacle.

34 The priest must ascend the ramp of the Altar, take some of the blood of the sin-offering with his finger, and place it on the four protrusions of the Altar used for ascent-offerings. If, however, he applies the blood to only one of the protrusions, the sacrifice is still valid after the fact.127 He must thendescend the ramp and pour all of its remaining blood onto the south side128 of the base of the Altar.

35 He must remove all its fat, just as the sheep’s fat is removed from the peace-offering (i.e., similar to the goat but also including the tail).129 The priest must then burn them up on the Altar, upon the fires that are there on which to burn up the sacrifices offered to God. Thus the priest makes atonement for the individual for his sin that he committed, so that he may then be forgiven.

The Variable Sin-Offering

5:1In the following four cases, a person must bring, instead of the ordinary sin-offering, a sin-offering in accordance with his or her means:

You have seen130 (and will see further131) that you must recognize and respect the power of speech, particularly with regard to the consequences of oaths, vows, pledges, dedications, and the like. There are two types of oaths that, if violated, require you to bring the variable sin-offering about to be described.

The first oath regards giving testimony. In general, you should not refrain from testifying in a court case if you have any testimony to offer; in fact, if a litigant asks you to testify on his behalf and you deny having any testimony to offer, the litigant is allowed to make you swear to that effect. If a person sins by having heard a litigant summon him to testify on his behalf by administering to him an oath containing an explicit or implicit curse—and the person is indeed a witness to the incident in question by virtue of having seen it or having otherwise known what happened—if he denies under oath having witnessed the incident and therefore does not testify, he will bear the punitive consequences of his transgression unless he expiates it by offering up this sacrifice. It does not matter, in this case, whether the person swears intentionally or unintentionally.132

The second type of oath whose violation requires you to bring a variable sin-offering will be discussed presently.133

2 Or, it will be explained later that animal carcasses (other than carcasses of permitted animals that were properly ritually slaughtered) impart ritual defilement. Thus, if a person touches the carcass of any spiritually defiled animal, whether it be the carcass of a spiritually defiled wild animal,134 the carcass of a spiritually defiled domestic animal,135 or the carcass of a spiritually defiled crawling animal,136 but he forgot that he had become ritually defiled in this way, and during the period in which he did not know that he was ritually defiled he ate consecrated food or entered the precincts of the Tabernacle (which is punishable by excision if done intentionally137),and he later realizes that he was defiled when he did so, he thereby incurs guilt.

3 Or, it will be explained later that a person contracts ritual defilement through touching a corpse,138 through touching a person who had a seminal or uterine discharge,139 through touching a menstruant,140 through touching a woman after childbirth,141 or through eating carrion of a permitted fowl that was not slaughtered properly (even without otherwise touching it).142 Thus, if someoneeither (a) touches a corpse (either directly or indirectly, i.e., by touching someone who has touched a corpse and has not yet been purified of this defilement), this being the basic form of ritual defilement imparted by a human, or (b) contracts some other form of ritual defilement by touching someone who had a seminal or uterine discharge, a menstruant, or a woman after childbirth, or even (c) touches a man who is defiled on account of having conducted marital relations with a menstruant (and who has not yet been purified of his defilement) and thereby defiles him,143 or (d) eats carrion of a fowl that would have been permitted for consumption had it been properly slaughtered, and in any of these cases, he was originally aware that he had become ritually defiled in this way, but at some later point forgot about it, and during the period in which he did not know that he was ritually defiled he ate consecrated food or entered the Tabernacle precincts, and he later realizes that he was defiled when he did so—he has thereby incurred guilt.

The cases of eating consecrated food or entering the Tabernacle precincts while in a state of ritual defilement are just specific instances of the type of transgression that normally obligates a person to bring a regular sin-offering, namely, inadvertently transgressing a passive commandment punishable by excision if performed intentionally.144 The difference is that the individual is obligated to bring a variable sin-offering only if he knew originally that he had become defiled, forgot about it, and committed the sin before he remembered. Means of atonement for committing this sin under other circumstances will be discussed later.145

4 Or there is the following case, that of violating an “oath of expression”:

If a person swears, pronouncing with his lips his intention to harm himself or to do good to either himself or others in the future; or if he deliberately swears falsely regarding whether any particularevent in the past concerning which a man may make an assertion in an oath actually took place; and, after swearing concerning his intention,the details of the oath escape him, and because of this memory lapse he violates his oath; or, when he deliberately swore falsely concerning something that occurred in the past, he did not realize that doing so would obligate him to offer up this sacrifice,146 and he is later informed that (in the case of intention for the future) he violated the oath or (in the case of swearing falsely about a past event) that what he did obligates him to bring this sacrifice, he thereby incurs guilt in one of these ways.

5 When someone incurs guilt in any one of these cases, he must confess the sin that he committed

6 and bring to God an animal sacrifice in acknowledgment of his guilt in orderto atone for his sin that he committed, this animal being a female from the flock—either a sheep or a goat—which he must then designate as a sin-offering. The priest must then make atonement for his sin by offering up this animal in accordance with all the procedures previously detailed with regard to a sin-offering offered up by an individual.147

7 If he cannot afford a sheep, he must bring, in acknowledgment of his guilt for having sinned, two turtledoves or two young pigeons, of either gender and of the proper age,148 before God, i.e., to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting, one for a sin-offering and one for an ascent-offering.

8 He must bring them to the priest, who must first offer up the fowl that is designated as the sin-offering. He must nip off its head by cutting through the nape of its neck below the back of its head with his fingernail, as is done with an ascent-offering of fowl,149 but in this case he must not sever the head completely, by cuttingboth the trachea and the esophagus; rather, he must cut only one or the other.

9Holding the fowl near the Altar, he must sprinkle some of the blood of the sin-offering on the wall of the Altar by raising and lowering the fowl as its blood spurts onto the Altar.150 The remainder of the blood must then be pressed out onto the base of the Altar, as is done with ascent-offerings of fowl.151 The priest must nip the fowl’s head off and sprinkle and press out its blood with the intention that it be considered a sin-offering.

10 He must then offer up the second fowl as an ascent-offering, in accordance with the ordinance described for ascent-offerings of fowl.152 Thus the priest must make atonement for him, for his sin that he had committed, and he will then be forgiven. In this case, atonement consists of two stages: the sin-offering effects pardon and the ascent-offering is a gift to God to reinstate the forgiven sinner in His favor.153

Seventh Reading 11 But if he cannot even afford two turtledoves or two young pigeons, then he must bring as his sacrifice for his sin one-tenth of an ephah [2.5 liters or 2.6 quarts] of fine wheat flour for a sin-offering. The same procedures followed for preparing and offering up an unbaked grain-offering154 should be followed with this flour, except that he must not pour any oil over it, nor may he place any frankincense on it, for it is a sin-offering, and it is not appropriate for a sin-offering to be so embellished.

12 He must then bring it to the priest, becausefrom this point on, the sacrificial procedures are to be performed by them. The priest must bring the grain-offering to the Altar; after having done this, the priest must scoop out a precise fistful as its memorial portion and burn it up on the Altar, upon the fires that are there on which to burn up the sacrifices offered up to God. Scooping out the memorial portion and burning it up must be performed with the intention that it be considered a sin-offering.

13 Thus the priest will make atonement for his sin that he committed—whether it was through violating an oath regarding testimony, eating consecrated food or entering the Tabernacle in a state of defilement, or violating an oath of expression—through any one of these sacrificial rites, and he will be forgiven, provided that his sacrifice is in accordance with his means.

In the case of a lay sinner’s grain-offering, the remainder of the flour will belong to the priest, just like theremainder of the voluntary grain-offering, and the priests must bake the flour in any way they please and must eat it in the Tabernacle precincts. If, however, the sinner is himself a priest, then his grain-offering must be burned up in its entirety, just like a priest’s voluntary grain-offering.155

If, when the person sinned, he set aside money to purchase a goat, but before buying it he became poor, he may purchase and offer up two fowl in place of the goat; if he could only afford to set aside money for two fowl, but before buying them he became even poorer, he may purchase and offer up grain in their stead. Conversely, if, when he sinned, he could only afford to set aside money to purchase flour, but before buying it he became rich enough to afford two fowl, or even richer, so that he could afford a goat, he should offer them up instead of the grain; if he could only afford to set aside money to purchase two fowl, but before buying them he became rich enough to afford a goat, he should purchase and offer up a goat instead of the fowl.

The remainder of the laws concerning sin-offerings will be given later.’ ”156

Guilt-Offerings for Misappropriation

14 God spoke to Moses, saying,

15 “If a person acts unfaithfully to God, sinning by unintentionally making personal use of any one of the sacrificial portions that are sacred exclusively to God—i.e., any part of an ascent-offering (other than the hides) or any part of a grain-offering, peace-offering, sin-offering, or guilt-offering that is supposed to be or has been burned up on the Altar, all these being termed sacrifices of “superior holiness”—he must bring as his guilt-offering to God an unblemished ram from the flock—i.e., a male sheep more than thirteen months but less than two years old157worth at least two silver shekels of the “sacred shekel (i.e., the shekel I have designated for use in all holy purposes, which is worth 20 gerah158) for a guilt-offering.

16In addition, he must pay the monetary value of the sacred item with which he sinned by making personal use of it, plus a fine of 25% of its value, which now becomes one-fifth of the total payment,159 by giving it to the priest. The priest must then make atonement for him through the ram of the guilt-offering, and he will be forgiven. The procedures for offering up a guilt-offering will be detailed later.160

Suspensive Guilt-Offerings

17We will now discuss the various types of guilt-offerings. If a person realizes that he might have sinned by transgressing one of the passive commandments of God that are punishable by excision if committed intentionally, but he does not know for sure, he is nonetheless considered guilty of an offense, and he will bear the punitive consequences of his transgression unless he expiates it by offering up the following sacrifice.

18 He must bring an unblemished ram from the flock—i.e., a male sheep more than thirteen months but less than two years old161with the value prescribed above,162 as a guilt-offering, to the priest. The priest will then make atonement for his unintentional sin that he might have committed but does not know for sure, by performing the rites that will be detailed later,163 and he will thereby be forgiven. However, if he later discovers that he indeed sinned unintentionally, he must then bring the regular sin-offering of an individual,164 similar to how, as will be explained later,165 a decapitated calf atones for an unsolved murder until the murderer is found, in which case the murderer must be executed. In both cases, provisional atonement is provided until it becomes possible to ascertain certain guilt, in which case the preferred method of atonement can be employed.

If atonement is required for sins about which one only suspects that he might have committed, then someone who sins intentionally will certainly be punished.

19Besides this guilt-offering and the one that will be presently discussed, there are three other cases when a guilt-offering is required: (a) when someone violates a betrothed bondwoman,166 (b) when a Nazirite becomes ritually defiled,167 and (c) when someone is cured of the condition known as tzara’at,168 which will be described later.169 In the first of these three case, the offering required is a guilt-offering like the one described here, in that the animal sacrificed is a ram and must be worth at least two sacred shekels. With regard to the other two cases, however, although in each the person required to bring the guilt-offering has indeed incurred guilt before God, he is required only to bring a lamb, not a ram, and it is not required to be of any minimum value.”

Guilt-Offerings for Dishonesty

20 God spoke to Moses, saying,

21 “If a person sins,170 acting unfaithfully to God by falsely denying the claim of his fellow that (a) the latter gave him an article as a deposit on a loan; or that(b) the latter had given money into his hand, either in a business partnership or as a loan; or that(c) an object taken from the latter by robbery was in fact taken by him; or that(d) he, as an employer, withheld wages from his fellow;

22 or that(e) he found a lost article and denied having found it—and moreover, he swore falsely regarding any one of all these five cases whereby a man may sin in this way, hoping thereby to repudiate a monetary claim, then—

23 when heacknowledges that he has sinned, admits that he is guilty, and wishes to make amends, he must first return the article that he had robbed, the funds—i.e., the loan, the partnership money, or the wages—that he had withheld, the article that had been deposited with him, the article that he had found,

Maftir 24 or anything else regarding which he had sworn falsely. If he withheld money, he must pay for it first by restoring the value of its principal and then adding a fine equal to 25% of the principal, which now becomes one-fifth of the grand total. If he only repays the principal, then swears falsely that he also paid this fine, and later repents and wishes to make amends, he must pay the fine he previously avoided plus 25% of the fine, which now becomes one-fifth of the new total. If he then denies paying this new fifth, swears, and repents, and so on, he must keep adding its fifths to it until the amount of the fifth shrinks to less than the value of a perutah [25 mg or less than 0.01 oz of silver]. He must give the money—the principal and the fine—to its rightful owner (i.e., not to his child or agent)171 on the day he repents of his guilt.

25 He must then bring his guilt-offering to God: an unblemished ram from the flock with the specified value, as above, for a guilt-offering, to the priest.

26 The priest will make atonement for him before God by performing the rites that will be detailed later,172 and he will thereby be forgiven for any one of all cases whereby one may commit a sin, incurring guilt through it. Additional details of the laws of guilt-offerings for dishonesty will be given further on,173 as will the remainder of the laws regarding guilt-offerings in general.174

Footnotes
1.

Exodus 40:2, 17; below, 8:1 ff.

2.

Likutei Sichot, vol. 17, p. 11.

4.

Likutei Sichot, vol. 7, p. 24, note 36.

6.

Rashi here and Numbers 7:89.

8.

Below, chapters 16 and 23; Numbers 28-29.

9.

Likutei Sichot, vol. 17, pp. 11-12.

10.

Likutei Sichot, vol. 17, p. 10, note 9.

11.

Rashi on 9:16, below.

12.

Rashi on v. 4, below.

14.

Below, v. 11; Rashi ad loc.

15.

Rashi on 19:5, below.

16.

See below, 21:4-7.

18.

Below, 3:8.

19.

Below, 7:2.

20.

Below, 4:7 (the high priest’s sin-offering) and 4:17 (the Sanhedrin’s sin-offering).

21.

Below, 4:25 (the leader’s sin-offering) and 4:30 (an individual’s sin-offering).

22.

Rashi on vv. 7-8, below.

23.

Below, 6:1-6.

24.

Rashi on v. 8, below.

25.

Below, 7:8.

26.

Rashi on v. 7, above.

27.

V. 4; Rashi ad loc.

29.

See below, 21:4-7.

30.

Above, v. 5.

31.

Above, v. 5.

32.

Rashi on v. 6, above.

33.

Rashi on v. 6, above.

34.

Above, v. 8.

35.

Below, 7:8.

36.

Rashi on v. 7, above.

37.

V. 4, above; Rashi ad loc.

38.

Mishneh Torah, Isurei Mizbeiach 3:2, Ma’aseh HaKorbanot 1:1.

39.

See Likutei Sichot, vol. 17, pp. 16-19.

40.

Mishneh Torah, Ma’aseh HaKorbanot 6:21.

41.

Below, 6:3.

42.

Rashi on v. 7, above.

43.

Below, 6:1-2, 7:8.

44.

Rashi on v. 4, below.

45.

Rashi on v. 6, below.

46.

Rashi on v. 4, below. See Exodus 27:20.

47.

V. 8, below.

48.

V. 13, below.

49.

See below, v. 13.

50.

Mishneh Torah, Ma’aseh HaKorbanot 13:12.

51.

Below, 6:8.

52.

Mishneh Torah, Ma’aseh HaKorbanot 13:12.

54.

Below, 6:16.

55.

Rashi on 6:7, below.

56.

Likutei Sichot, vol. 26, pp. 238-246; see on Exodus 29:2.

57.

Rashi on v. 6, below.

58.

Rashi on v. 4, above.

59.

Rashi on v. 4, above.

60.

V. 4.

61.

Rashi on v. 4, above.

62.

Rashi on v. 5, above.

63.

Rashi on v. 6, above.

64.

Rashi here and on 6:7, below.

65.

V. 2, above.

66.

Rashi on v. 1, above.

67.

V. 3, above.

69.

Below, 6:16.

70.

Rashi on 6:7, below.

71.

Below, 23:16-17.

75.

Below, 23:9-14.

76.

Below, 23:11.

77.

Below, 6:7-11, 7:9-10.

79.

See below, 21:4-7.

80.

Above, 1:5.

82.

See below, 21:7.

83.

Above, 1:5.

84.

Rashi on Exodus 29:22.

85.

See below, 21:4-7.

86.

Above, 1:5.

87.

See below, 7:25-27.

88.

Below, 7:11-21, 28-38.

89.

2:12.

90.

Likutei Sichot, vol. 13, p. 24, note 1*.

91.

Likutei Sichot, vol. 17, p. 9.

92.

Rashi on 17:9, 20:20, and 23:30, below.

93.

Vv.13-21.

94.

Mishneh Torah, Ma’aseh HaKorbanot 1:14.

95.

Below, v. 22.

96.

Below, v. 27.

97.

Mishneh Torah, Shegagot 2:2.

98.

Below, 16:1-34.

99.

Vayikra Rabbah 5:6.

100.

Likutei Sichot, vol. 17, p. 39.

102.

Exodus 25:13-15, 26:33-34.

103.

Rashi on 4:20, below.

104.

Rashi on v. 18, below.

105.

Above, 3:3-4.

106.

V. 3.

107.

Below, 6:4.

110.

Mishneh Torah, Shegagot 12:1, Ma’aseh HaKorbanot 1:5.

111.

Mishneh Torah, Ma’aseh HaKorbanot 1:14.

112.

Exodus 25:13-15, 26:33-34.

113.

Above, v. 6.

114.

Above, vv. 8-9, etc.

115.

See Likutei Sichot, vol. 27, pp.16-23.

116.

Mishneh Torah, Ma’aseh HaKorbanot 1:14.

117.

See 5:9, 12, below; Mishneh Torah, Pesulei HaMukdashin 15:1-3.

118.

Rashi on 4:20, above.

119.

Zevachim 5:3, 53a.

120.

Above, 3:14-16.

121.

Below, 6:19.

122.

V. 3.

123.

Rashi on v. 22, above; Likutei Sichot, vol. 17, pp. 34-40.

124.

Rashi on 4:20, above.

125.

Zevachim 5:3, 53a.

126.

Above, 3:14-16.

127.

Rashi on 4:20, above.

128.

Zevachim 5:3, 53a.

129.

Above, 3:9-11.

131.

Below, 9:11-12; Numbers 30:2-17.

132.

Mishneh Torah, Shevuot 1:12.

133.

Below, v. 4.

134.

Below, 11:27-28.

135.

Below, 11:26.

136.

Below, 11:29-38.

137.

Below, 7:20; Numbers 19:20.

138.

Numbers 19:11-16; see also Numbers 5:1-4, 9:6-14.

139.

Below, 15:1-18, 25-33; see also Numbers 5:1-4.

140.

Below, 15:19-24.

141.

Below, 12:1-8.

142.

Below, 17:15-16, 22:8.

143.

Below, 15:24.

144.

Above, 4:2; see below, 7:21.

145.

Below, 16:6.

146.

Shabbat 69a; Shevuot 26b; Mishneh Torah, Shevuot 3:7

147.

Above, 4:27-35.

148.

Above, 1:14.

149.

Above, 1:15.

150.

Likutei Sichot, vol. 17, p. 17, note 18.

151.

Above, 1:15.

152.

Above, 1:14-17.

153.

Rashi on v. 8, above; Igeret HaTeshuvah 2 (98b), 4 (93b).

154.

Above, 2:1-3.

155.

Above, 2:3; below, 6:16.

156.

Below, 6:17-23.

157.

Parah 1:3.

159.

Mishneh Torah, Me’ilah 1:5.

160.

Below, 7:1-7.

161.

Parah 1:3.

162.

V. 15.

163.

Below, 7:1-7.

164.

Above, 4:27-35.

166.

Below, 19:20-22.

168.

Below, 14:12-14.

169.

Below, 13:1-46.

170.

Below, 19:11.

171.

Likutei Sichot, vol. 7, pp. 9-16.

172.

7:1-7.

174.

Below, 7:1-7.

From the Kehot Chumash, produced by Chabad of California with an interpolated translation and commentary based on the works of the Lubavitcher Rebbe, Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson, of righteous memory. Copyright (c) 2008 by Chabad of California, Inc. All rights reserved. For personal use only. The full volume is available for purchase at Kehotonline.
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