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Of Lice and Men

Of Lice and Men

Chief Rabbi Lord Jonathan Sacks
Chief Rabbi Lord Jonathan Sacks

Throughout all Egypt, the dust turned into lice. But when the magicians tried to produce lice by their secret arts, they could not. The lice attacked men and animals alike. The magicians said to Pharaoh, “This is the finger of G‑d.” But Pharaoh’s heart was hard, and he would not listen.1

Too little attention has been paid to the use of humor in the Torah. Its most important form is the use of satire to mock the pretensions of human beings who think they can emulate G‑d. One thing makes G‑d laugh—the sight of humanity attempting to defy heaven:

The kings of the earth take their stand,
And the rulers gather together against the L‑rd and His anointed one.
“Let us break our chains,” they say,
“and throw off their fetters.”
He who sits in heaven laughs,
G‑d scoffs at them.

There is a marvelous example in the story of the Tower of Babel. The people in the plain of Shinar decide to build a city with a tower that “will reach heaven.” This is an act of defiance against the divinely given order of nature (“The heavens are the heavens of G‑d; the earth He has given to the children of men”). The Torah then says, “But G‑d came down to see the city and the tower . . .” Down on earth, the builders thought their tower would reach heaven. From the vantage point of heaven, however, it was so miniscule that G‑d had to “come down” to see it.

Too little attention has been paid to the use of humor in the Torah.

Satire is essential to understanding at least some of the plagues. The Egyptians worshipped a multiplicity of gods, most of whom represented forces of nature. By their “secret arts” the magicians believed that they could control these forces. Magic is the equivalent in an era of myth to technology in an age of science. A civilization that believes it can manipulate the gods, believes likewise that it can exercise coercion over human beings. In such a culture, the concept of freedom is unknown.

The plagues were not merely intended to punish Pharaoh and his people for their mistreatment of the Israelites, but also to show them the powerlessness of the gods in which they believed.3 This explains the first and last of the nine plagues prior to the killing of the firstborn. The first involved the Nile. The ninth was the plague of darkness. The Nile was worshipped as the source of fertility in an otherwise desert region. The sun was seen as the greatest of the gods, Re, whose child Pharaoh was considered to be. Darkness meant the eclipse of the sun, showing that even the greatest of the Egyptian gods could do nothing in the face of the true G‑d.

What is at stake in this confrontation is the difference between myth—in which the gods are mere powers, to be tamed, propitiated or manipulated—and biblical monotheism in which ethics (justice, compassion, human dignity) constitute the meeting-point of G‑d and mankind. That is the key to the first two plagues, both of which refer back to the beginning of Egyptian persecution of the Israelites: the killing of male children at birth, first through the midwives (though, thanks to Shifrah and Puah’s moral sense, this was foiled), then by throwing them into the Nile to drown. That is why, in the first plague, the river waters turn to blood. The significance of the second, frogs, would have been immediately apparent to the Egyptians. Heqt, the frog-goddess, represented the midwife who assisted women in labor. Both plagues are coded messages meaning: “If you use the river and midwives—both normally associated with life—to bring about death, those same forces will turn against you.” An immensely significant message is taking shape: Reality has an ethical structure. If used for evil ends, the powers of nature will turn against man, so that what he does will be done to him in turn. There is justice in history.

There is justice in history.

The response of the Egyptians to these first two plagues is to see them within their own frame of reference. Plagues, for them, are forms of magic, not miracles. To Pharaoh’s “magicians,” Moses and Aaron are people like themselves who practice “secret arts.” So they replicate them: they show that they too can turn water into blood, and generate a horde of frogs. The irony here is very close to the surface. So intent are the Egyptian magicians on proving that they can do what Moses and Aaron have done, that they entirely fail to realize that far from making matters better for the Egyptians, they are making them worse: more blood, more frogs.

This brings us to the third plague, lice. One of the purposes of this plague is to produce an effect which the magicians cannot replicate. They try. They fail. Immediately they conclude, “This is the finger of G‑d.”

This is the first appearance in the Torah of an idea, surprisingly persistent in religious thinking even today, called “the god of the gaps.” This holds that a miracle is something for which we cannot yet find a scientific explanation. Science is natural; religion is supernatural. An “act of G‑d” is something we cannot account for rationally. What magicians (or technocrats) cannot reproduce must be the result of divine intervention. This leads inevitably to the conclusion that religion and science are opposed. The more we can explain scientifically or control technologically, the less need we have for faith. As the scope of science expands, the place of G‑d progressively diminishes to the vanishing point.

What the Torah is intimating is that this is a pagan mode of thought, not a Jewish one. The Egyptians admitted that Moses and Aaron were genuine prophets when they performed wonders beyond the scope of their own magic. But this is not why we believe in Moses and Aaron. On this, Maimonides is unequivocal:

Israel did not believe in Moses our teacher because of the signs he performed. When faith is predicated on signs, a lurking doubt always remains that these signs may have been performed with the aid of occult arts and witchcraft. All the signs Moses performed in the wilderness, he did because they were necessary, not to authenticate his status as a prophet . . . When we needed food, he brought down manna. When the people were thirsty, he cleaved the rock. When Korach’s supporters denied his authority, the earth swallowed them up. So too with all the other signs. What, then, were our grounds for believing in him? The revelation at Sinai, in which we saw with our own eyes and heard with our own ears . . .4

The primary way in which we encounter G‑d is not through miracles but through His word—the revelation, Torah—whichG‑d is in the events which, seeming to defy nature, we call miracles. But He is also in nature itself. is the Jewish people’s constitution as a nation under the sovereignty of G‑d. To be sure, G‑d is in the events which, seeming to defy nature, we call miracles. But He is also in nature itself. Science does not displace G‑d; it reveals, in ever more intricate and wondrous ways, the design within nature itself. Far from diminishing our religious sense, science (rightly understood) should enlarge it, teaching us to see “how great are Your works, O G‑d; You have made them all with wisdom.” Above all, G‑d is to be found in the voice heard at Sinai, teaching us how to construct a society that will be the opposite of Egypt: in which the few do not enslave the many, nor are strangers mistreated.

The best argument against the world of ancient Egypt was divine humor. The cultic priests and magicians who thought they could control the sun and the Nile discovered that they could not even produce a louse. Pharaohs like Ramses II demonstrated their godlike status by creating monumental architecture: the great temples, palaces and pyramids whose immensity seemed to betoken divine grandeur (the Talmud explains that Egyptian magic could not function on very small things). G‑d mocks them by revealing His presence in the tiniest of creatures (T. S. Eliot: “I will show you fear in a handful of dust”).

What the Egyptian magicians (and their latter-day successors) did not understand is that power over nature is not an end in itself, but solely the means to ethical ends. The lice were G‑d’s joke at the expense of the magicians, who believed that because they controlled the forces of nature, they were the masters of human destiny. They were wrong. Faith is not merely belief in the supernatural. It is the ability to hear the call of the Author of Being, to be free in such a way as to respect the freedom and dignity of others.


“I will perform acts of judgment against all the gods of Egypt; I am G‑d.” (Exodus 12:12)


Hilchot Yesodei ha-Torah 8:1.

Rabbi Jonathan Sacks is the former Chief Rabbi of Great Britain and the British Commonwealth. To read more writings and teachings by Lord Rabbi Jonathan Sacks, or to join his e‑mail list, please visit
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Julie uk January 11, 2013

Faith There are so many people who seem to think that it is essencial to control elements of the world and civilisation. I think they are afraid because they lack faith. Faith is the greatest comfort for us, beyond any material aquisition because it is grounded in the eternal G_d not in impermanent "stuff".

Thank you for this thought provoking article. Reply

David Chester Petach Tikva January 10, 2013

Another Joke in the Tanach This is the punishment that the Philistines suffered when they were obliged to return the Ark of the Covernent. Whist it was in their posession they found themselves sorely afflicted with hemorrhoids and they were supposed to model 6 of these swellings out of gold (together with 6 mice) and to return this model at the same time as the Ark! This is in the first book of Samuel, chapter 5 verse 6. Reply

Russell Kaleolani Shenn Atlanta, GA. January 9, 2013

There is more than meets the eye Rabbi Sachs you are a favorite of many readers but as the old saying goes, "he who goes to sleep with dogs will wake in the morning with lice." So, I am not going to let you nor the reader be left merely of a story of lice.

Consider the previous parsha Shemos. Yes go back to it and look at its structure in detail. What is not immediate seeing by the observer is that the structure of Shemos is parallel to the account of the sixth day of creation. Yes, by the sixth day all creatures are identified and they've been fruitful and now teem across the face of the earth. Yes, words are similar in the beginning of Shemos as well.

What were our ancestors trying to tell us? That at this point in time the divine clock was once again at the sixth day and all the names of Yacov and his sons are actually harkening back to the sixth day of creation! Most excellent yes! So, when Hashem created everything he also created the future reality of Yacov and his sons. Amazing!


Baruch Maryland January 8, 2013

Re: Moyshe's comment and the God of the Gaps Moyshe, I think your comment is very interesting, and it pertains to Rabbi Sacks' comment about the pagan fallacy of the "God of the Gaps" - that is, that anything that exceeds our scientific understanding is attributable to God.

Compare this part of the parsha, though, with the line "Let My people go, so that they may serve Me." In other words, what matters is not the physical force that moves the Higgs bosons or the other sub-atomic particles. Our physical state is less important than our actions and intentions in service to God. Reply

Moyshe Pennsylvania USA January 6, 2013

The god Particle Today there are super tunnels, miles long, in which atoms move close to the speed of light and then collide into one another so scientists can discover, and examine, all the particles and energy that materialize because of the collision.

At one time we thought we had the answer to reality with the discovery of the atom. But then we found the atom had electrons and neutrons and protons and positrons. And then came quarks and gluons and then came dark matter and anti-matter.

Now, in the colliders, we are looking for the Higgs boson, whose journalistic catchy name is the “god particle”

I venture to say that when Higgs bosom is found the first questions will be, “What caused the Higgs bosom?” “What are its parts?” We can search for as long as time and there will always be another ’cause’ for each ’effect’.

That cause is G-d. Reply

rut USA January 6, 2013

Of Lice And Men Amazing article! How revealing... Thank you Rabbi Sacks Reply

Daniel Bilar USA January 1, 2013

Agree about nature/science reenforcing Jewish Faith Hello fellow readers

I can recommend three readable books from absolute kosher, to half/half, to honest famous scientist

1) Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan "Kabbalah and the Age of the Universe" which concisely also demonstrates the methodology of science-Torah reconciliation

2) Dr. Gerald Schroeder "God According to God: A Scientist Discovers We've Been Wrong About God All Along" which raise the three important 'jumps' that are glossed over by science for life

3) Sir Martin Rees "Just Six Numbers: The Deep Forces That Shape The Universe" which shows how finetuned the universe to merely exist, let alone life, by examining six physical constants (ratios) and how sensitive the universe would be to even very small deviations Reply