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Nephilim: Fallen Angels, Giants or Men?

Nephilim: Fallen Angels, Giants or Men?

The mystery of Genesis 6:1–4


Just before the story of Noah’s ark, the Torah presents a cryptic narrative that has mystified and intrigued scholars for generations:

And it came to pass when man commenced to multiply upon the face of the earth, and daughters were born to them, that the benei elokim saw the daughters of man when they were beautifying themselves, and they took for themselves wives from whomever they chose. And the L‑rd said, “Let My spirit not quarrel forever concerning man, because he is also flesh, and his days shall be a hundred and twenty years." The nephilim were on the earth in those days, and also afterward, when the benei elokim would come to the daughters of man, and they would bear for them; they are the mighty men, who were of old, the men of renown. (Genesis 6:1–4)

Who or what exactly are the benei elokim? Who are the nephilim? How are they related to each other? And what does it all mean?

One thing benei elokim does not mean is “sons of G‑d.” In fact, Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai would “curse” anyone who translated the term benei elokim as the “sons of G‑d.”1 The word elokim in Scripture, while generally referring to G‑d, is in essence merely an expression of authority.2 Similarly, the term benei does not necessarily mean “sons,” but is often just a title. Benei chorin, for example, means those who are free—not “sons of freedom.”

Nephilim seems to be derived from the verb-root naphal, meaning “fall.” From where did they fall? Are they the same as the benei elokim? And if so, why are they called by two names?

The Midrash and commentaries offer three explanations:

Explanation 1: Angels taking a risk

The Midrash3 relates that when the generation of the Flood went astray, G‑d began to regret having created man. Then two angels, Shamchazai and Azael,4 came before G‑d and said, “Did we not warn You before You created man, saying, ‘What is man, that You should be mindful of him?’”5 G‑d replied: “Then what shall become of the world?” “We will suffice instead,” they replied. G‑d answered, “I know that would you live on that world, the evil inclination would rule you just as much as it controls man, but you would be even worse.” But the angels persisted, saying: “Let us descend to the world of men, and we will show You how we will sanctify your name.” And G‑d said: “Go down and dwell among them.”

Sure enough, as soon as the angels descended, their evil inclination overpowered them.6 When they saw the beautiful “daughters of man,”7 they became corrupted and sinned with them. They and their descendants are the nephilim, the giants and mighty ones referred to later on in the narrative.8

This story is often seen as support for the notion of “fallen angels.” But a careful reading reveals that this is not the case. G‑d sent them down knowing full well—and indeed expecting—that they would end up sinning.

In fact, in Judaism there is no such thing as fallen angels or conflict in heaven. There is only one Creator in charge of it all, with no forces opposing Him. Even “Satan” is merely the name of an angel whose divinely assigned task is to tempt people to sin.9

While the Midrash’s description of the benei elokim and the nephilim as angels and giants is perhaps the most popular reading, it is not necessarily the most literal one.10

Explanation 2: Corrupt Authorities

Based on a more literal translation of benei elokim, many explain that the term is simply referring to princes, noblemen or judges11 who abused their power, raping anyone they fancied, and forcing any women who got married to have relations with them first.12 This, together with their many other sins, were what eventually led to the great flood.13

There are, however, differences of opinion as to whether the nephilim are simply the benei elokim after they had “fallen,” or if the term refers to the descendants of these bnei elokim.14

Explanation 3: Fallen Humans

Finally, there others who take a different approach and explain benei elokim to mean people who were—at least to begin with—on a spiritually high level. They are later called nephilim, for they or their descendants (or both) fell from their spiritual heights, became corrupted, and eventually brought G‑d’s wrath upon themselves by robbing, murdering and raping without hesitation.15

We end up with several reasons why these beings are called nephilim:

1. Because they fell from their greatness.16

2. Because they caused the world to fall.17

3. Because they caused the hearts of people to fall, trembling before their great stature.18

4. Because they fell from heaven—although not without their consent.19

5. Nephilim is Hebrew for “giants”—which they were, either in stature, in authority or in spiritual greatness.20

Angels Versus Souls

We meet the nephilim again, much later, when Moses sends spies to the land of Canaan. The spies were great men, but they returned with a report that struck terror into the hearts of the Israelites, appending their own opinion that the mission of occupying this land would be futile.

Quite tellingly, they made sure to report on these angels who had fallen from heaven—perhaps because they themselves feared meeting the same fate. After all, the wilderness of Sinai was pretty much a heaven for them, with little else to do than contemplate G‑d’s Torah and His wonders. Entering the land of Canaan to conquer, work the land and harvest its produce threatened to be a tremendous descent.

The difference, however, is that the human soul is not an angel. The human soul is called a neshamah, meaning a breath, as in the verse that tells of how, when G‑d created Adam, “He blew into his nostrils the breath of life.”

An angel falls below and is disconnected. A breath, however, can never be disconnected. No matter where it may end up, how low it may have stooped, the neshamah is intrinsically bound to its origin above, and from there it receives the power to shine, even in the darkest and lowest time and place, and return to its true essence.21


Genesis Rabbah 26:5.
As we shall see, Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai himself explains (ibid.) that benei elokim means judges. However, his cursing those who translate it as “sons of G‑d” is not meant in reference to the opinion that they are angels, for (a) this opinion is found in many places in the works of the sages, including the Talmud, so it does not seem probable that he would curse those who hold so widely accepted an opinion (see footnote 5); (b) the Zohar (1:37a) quotes this explanation without any negative comments.
For more on this, see Rabbi Menachem Kasher, Torah Sheleimah, Genesis 6:2, note 9.


Thus we find G‑d telling Moses (Exodus 4:16; see also Exodus 7:1) that “he [Aaron] will be your speaker, and you will be his elokim [i.e., leader].”


This Midrash can be found with variations in a number of places in the Talmud and Midrash, including Talmud, Yoma 67b; Targum Yonatan ben Uziel to Genesis 6:4; Pirkei d’Rabbi Eliezer 22; Zohar 1:37a; and Yalkut Shimoni, Bereishit, remez 44. See also Torah Sheleimah, Genesis 6:1–4, for additional citations.


The Talmud, Yoma ibid., gives alternative names for the two angels. See Likkutei Sichot, vol. 28, p. 85, for a discussion of this issue.


For more on whether angels can sin, see Can Angels Sin?


The Talmud, Niddah 61a, explains that Og (who was a giant, and one of their descendants) survived the great flood by holding onto Noah’s ark and staying close to it.


Talmud, Bava Batra 16a.


See Rashi on Genesis 6:2 and 6:4; see also Likkutei Sichot cited above.


We find the term elokim used many times as a reference to judges; see for example, Exodus 21:6.


See Targum Yonatan ben Uziel to Genesis 6:4; Genesis Rabbah 26:5; and most of the commentaries (including that of Rabbi Shlomo Yitzchaki (Rashi) to Genesis 6:2. Some are of the opinion that it refers specifically to either the descendants of Cain (Zohar 1:37a) or Seth (Hamek Davar to Genesis 6:4).


It should be noted that while according to this approach the term benei elokim is understood to refer to princes, noblemen and judges, the term nephilim may very well still be referring to angels and giants. See, for example, Targum Yonatan ben Uziel to Genesis 6:2 and 6:4.


See supercommentaries of Nachalat Yaakov and Be’er Basadeh to Rashi, Genesis 6:4.


Ha'emek Davar, ibid.


Genesis Rabbah 26:7.


Ibid.; see Rashi to Genesis 6:4, in which he combines these first two explanations.


See commentaries of Rabbi Avraham ibn Ezra, Rabbi David Kimchi (Radak) and Rabbi Moshe ben Nachman (Ramban) to Genesis 6:4.


Rashi to Numbers 13:33, and Nachalat Yaakov to Genesis 6:4. See, however, Likkutei Sichot, vol. 28, p. 86.


Pirkei d’Rabbi Eliezer, ch. 22.


See Likutei Sichot, ibid.

Rabbi Yehuda Shurpin responds to questions for's Ask the Rabbi service.
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William LoCascio Cedar Grove March 2, 2017

Question about the Nephilim. If the Nephilim were allowed to come to earth,and God was right, that they would be corrupted(sin) leading to the Flood, which I was led to believe destroyed all but Noah and his family, How do you explain descendants of the Nephilim alive and described as the Giants of Canaan? or related to Goliath and his brothers later on in the bible Reply

Posh May 14, 2017
in response to William LoCascio:

Og survived the flood Reply

David Sandefjord February 27, 2017

I also agree with Anonymous USA I also found that Nephilim's as transgenic beings to be the most likely and plausible explanation for the extermination of the people that occupied Israel at the time of Moses and Joshua. In addition of course to my earlier flood argument. HaShem was very particular that all needed to be destroyed, man, properties and even beast and Saul lost his kingship for not obeying that. That too would indicate that there could have been something seriously wrong with their genes.

On the other hand, this could not have been a revolt since Angels don't have free will, so I feel both explanations lack the needed substance to be proven either way by means of the Torah.

So to me, this is still a great mystery, one I very much would like a definitive answer to.

Now if we go outside Torah, for instance, the Book of Yasher, the myth around the world as well as Megalithic Structures and the unexplainable out of place artifacts found all over the world. including elongated skulls of strange humanoids all over the world. These things would make explanation 1 the most plausible hadn't it been for the fact that angels do not have free will.

So I would suggest a 3rd, possible explanation, that the Nephilim indeed where hybrids but human-animal hybrids and that HaShem only after the flood created the barrier between species that stops interspecies procreation. Reply

Anonymous Netherlands February 27, 2017

Neshama breath, wind, and rest. Reply

Anonymous January 11, 2017

Aryeh explanation sounds the most reasonable but where is the source that you derived this from? Reply

David Sandefjord December 18, 2016

Reply to Debra H Debra H, the Neanderthals were Homo Sapiens with full pre-flood lifespans so that the frontal ridge of their elders were much larger than ours since that is the only bone that keeps growing throughout life. Remember, people before the flood had lifespans of many hundreds of years. Hence modern "scientists" who deny HaShem falsely concluded they were of a different species. Reply

Rolando Bartolome VA December 16, 2016

If the soul is but a breath which upon death will return to G-d, what happens then in the resurrection of the dead?

Thank you. Reply

Debra H. September 24, 2016

Explanation for neanderthals? New finds of human species around the globe? Jewish Sources on the subject? In last few years there are more findings of other human species. If world has been destroyed 974 times, why? Why or what is reason? If Hashem is only creator, why does some things appear to be one big experiment? What Jewish sources do you have to explain the differences in highly intelligent humans and those species of humans that appear more animalistic yet coexisting at same time periods??? Thanks Reply

John Shore San Angelo TX September 15, 2016

Nephilim I agree with Aryeh. It is more likely this is talking about sons of Seth would be sons of G-d and the sons of Cain would be evil. I have heard several Hebrew scholars teach that the giants were just giants of evil. I think this is what scared the ten spies sent Canaan. Thank G-d two had enough faith to come back with an outlook of optimism. Reply

Anonymous USA September 15, 2016

Explanation 1 I agree with David. I believe that is why G-d ordered them to destroy all after the spies came back. G-d is love. The only explanation to what would otherwise be genocide, is that the Nephilim were hybrid beings. We're seeing the same things happening now - scientists are mixing species in labs every day. As in the days of Noah, so shall it be in the end. Do not be deceived. Reply

Michael Pennsylvania September 27, 2017
in response to Anonymous:

Amein! Reply

Aryeh Washinton U.S. September 12, 2016

Angels with penis's? Can angels procreate, are they flesh and blood, do they have the bodily functions to have intercourse with women and impregnate them? This idea seems to me very foreign to Hebraic thinking... Please elaborate?..

Also if anyone can answer my previous post as well I'd really appreciate the feed back... Reply

David Sandefjord September 11, 2016

I find Explanation 1 the most plausible. It makes sense, all flesh was corrupted, all but Noah and his family. In modern terms, we might call them transgenetic beings that destroyed creation by intermixing species, so HaShem had to send the flood, not as much to punish but to save us from utter extinction. Cause that is what would have happened if HaShem hadn't destroyed all or almost all of them. We see this in other respects too, like that we are not to mix meats and not to wear different fabrics. A prohibition I believe was given to keep us as far away from transhumanism as possible. To protect our genome. Reply

Aryeh February 13, 2016

Who are the Nephilim? I enjoy this commentary on this difficult subject and wanted to share an additional insight and get your thoughts;
the b'nei Elohim were the sons of Seth guarding the borders of their territory and that the "daughters of men" were the decendants of Cain... With the children of Seth possessing great spiritual power and knowledge, with the decendants of Cain being primitive and barbaric. When these sons of Seth made the mistake of breaking the rules and intermixing their seed with these women producing children by them, they also consequently taught them much of the advanced knowledge they possessed... Being a primitive people that received this knowledge without achieving the spiritual heights necessary to use it appropriately they did not become more civilized but became more powerful barbarians, they form covens and train their children to use this knowledge to gain power over others to oppress them, making them "giants" in corrupt power that produced greater evil on earth. Thoughts? Reply

Barry Lehrbaum Chico October 10, 2015

I find no commentary on "They were the heroes of old, the men of renown." These I believe are the same nefarious characters as the Greek and Roman God's. Their corruption led to the flood. That's my opinion Reply

Selma Kelly Palm Springs December 29, 2014

Distinct Differences... Good morning. May I share a thought? We know that 'nephilim' means 'the fallen' & 'Bnei HaElohim' means 'those in authority.' So in one statement G-d presents the 'elohim' as a 'men made of flesh' & in the next, He presents a distinctly different being -- the Nephilim. It seems that G-d went out of His way to make a clear distinction between the two. Further, the Law of Moses had not yet been handed down & intermarriage and polygamy were not yet sins, neither was being a giant! So why did G-d want to destroy the world? So it seems that something else very terrible happened here. The further we travel down the timeline away from Eden, supernatural events occur less and less (eg: satan speaks thru a snake, donkey speaks to Balaam, Pharaoh's staff turns into a snake, etc.) Further, why would the sons of authority be afraid of giants - if they were already "in authority"? Something terrible happened here. The Nephilim did something really bad and I have a feeling I know what it is. Love. Reply

John Shore Texas October 15, 2014

Nephilim nephilim- I was taught by a Jewish scholar that they were giants(evil doers) and
they married men of God to corrupt the earth. I can find no record of angels marrying or having children. If there is a female angel where in the Tanahk?
I was also that there should be no teaching about angels. In fact the teacher
did one time and had a bad experience on the way home and thought God was
punishing him for teaching on angels. Reply

sophia ny,ny October 15, 2014

what struck me in this whole thing is the fact that when told to go and dwell among us the earth or its people of men would make the angels delve into evil, as if to say the world is evil? and i think a moral was left out of all of this, those that are not evil or who have left evil, and came back to torah and ha-shem, and it is a fact that the angels were always jealouse of man, and g-ds love for man Reply

Paul van Beek Lakeland; Florida February 11, 2014

Nephilim It seems to be impossible, but before Noah's flood these giants were only evil and "encouraged" people to do so as well. It was also "a polution" into the human race. Noah was a righteous man in the eyes of G-d! But he was also "pure"! Not defiled with the evil from that time! Reply

Anonymous October 7, 2013

a subject that's very deep and complex Nephilim, Anakim and other products of cross breeding were unlike humans because angels don't have the same kind of soul like humans. I doubt very much that anyone is a product of Nepheliim or any other giants. Some Greek manuscripts describe them as very noisy. They were all destroyed. Remember too that the angels that produced such hideous monsters were not the regular kind. They were a specific kind of angel that are relegated to the lowest compartment in Gehena after the flood. There was a gene pool problem before the Great Flood. Cross breeding was occurring on all levels, even among plants. Thus, as Bereshit states, all living things were corrupt. Humans were exceedingly violent and sexually deviant. Horrible things were occurring that can't be mentioned. A lot of this information was quite prevalent among many cultures including the Hebrews. The books of Jasher, Enoch and some others discuss some of this phenomena. And no, this isn't mythology. Reply

Heather Richmond Hill October 6, 2013

So interesting Reply

Gershom Spain October 30, 2012

What about the explanation that the nephilim were the sons of Seth that sinned because they rebelliously mingled with the daughters of Cain? According to this view, why was Noah not punished for marrying Naamah a descendent of Cain? Reply

Michael Pennsylvania September 27, 2017
in response to Gershom:

I think because it all comes down to someone's individual actions and decisions. Ruth was a Moabite, but she decided to follow HaShem, so she was accepted into Israel and married another Israelite man, Boaz. There is much said against nations who choose evil, but an individual can be redeemed from that, which is why Noah was not punished for who he married. Reply

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