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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Yehoshua - Joshua - Chapter 8

Yehoshua - Joshua - Chapter 8

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 8

1. And the Lord said to Joshua, Fear not, and be not dismayed; take all the people of war with you and arise, go up to Ai. See, I have given into your hand the king of Ai, and his people, and his city, and his land.   א. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהֹוָה אֶל יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אַל תִּירָא וְאַל תֵּחָת קַח עִמְּךָ אֵת כָּל עַם הַמִּלְחָמָה וְקוּם עֲלֵה הָעָי רְאֵה | נָתַתִּי בְיָדְךָ אֶת מֶלֶךְ הָעַי וְאֶת עַמּוֹ וְאֶת עִירוֹ וְאֶת אַרְצוֹ:
2. And you shall do to Ai and its king, as you did to Jericho and its king; only its spoil and its cattle you shall take as spoils to yourselves. Set yourself ambush for the city behind it.   ב. וְעָשִֹיתָ לָעַי וּלְמַלְכָּהּ כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשִֹיתָ לִירִיחוֹ וּלְמַלְכָּהּ רַק שְׁלָלָהּ וּבְהֶמְתָּהּ תָּבֹזּוּ לָכֶם שִׂים לְךָ אֹרֵב לָעִיר מֵאַחֲרֶיהָ:
only you shall take as spoils to yourselves: do not cause the spoils to be “cherem” [doomed] anymore [as you did in Jericho].  
3. And Joshua arose, and all the people of war, to go up against Ai; and Joshua chose thirty thousand mighty men of valor, and sent them away by night.   ג. וַיָּקָם יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וְכָל עַם הַמִּלְחָמָה לַעֲלוֹת הָעָי וַיִּבְחַר יְהוֹשֻׁעַ שְׁלשִׁים אֶלֶף אִישׁ גִּבּוֹרֵי הַחַיִל וַיִּשְׁלָחֵם לָיְלָה:
4. And he commanded them, saying, Behold you shall lie in ambush against the city, behind the city; do not go very far from the city, and all of you be ready.   ד. וַיְצַו אֹתָם לֵאמֹר רְאוּ אַתֶּם אֹרְבִים לָעִיר מֵאַחֲרֵי הָעִיר אַל תַּרְחִיקוּ מִן הָעִיר מְאֹד וִהְיִיתֶם כֻּלְּכֶם נְכֹנִים:
5. And I, and all the people that are with me, will draw near to the city; and it shall be when they come out against us, as at first, that we will flee before them.   ה. וַאֲנִי וְכָל הָעָם אֲשֶׁר אִתִּי נִקְרַב אֶל הָעִיר וְהָיָה כִּי יֵצְאוּ לִקְרָאתֵנוּ כַּאֲשֶׁר בָּרִאשֹׁנָה וְנַסְנוּ לִפְנֵיהֶם:
6. And they will come out after us until we have drawn them from the city; for they will say, They flee before us, as at first. And we will flee before them.   ו. וְיָצְאוּ אַחֲרֵינוּ עַד הַתִּיקֵנוּ אוֹתָם מִן הָעִיר כִּי יֹאמְרוּ נָסִים לְפָנֵינוּ כַּאֲשֶׁר בָּרִאשֹׁנָה וְנַסְנוּ לִפְנֵיהֶם:
we have drawn them out: Heb. הַתִּיֵקְנוּ, an expression of תִּיק, a sheath, i.e., until we have taken them out of the sheath [the protection afforded them by the fortifications of] the city. Defourrer in Fr. [to unsheathe, from fourreau, a sheath]. We may also interpret it as an expression of נְתִיקָה, drawing out, as: Draw them out like flocks to the slaughter.  
7. And you shall rise up from the ambush, and drive out (those remaining in) the city; and the Lord your God will deliver it into your hand.   ז. וְאַתֶּם תָּקֻמוּ מֵהָאוֹרֵב וְהוֹרַשְׁתֶּם אֶת הָעִיר וּנְתָנָהּ יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם בְּיֶדְכֶם:
on the west side of Ai: for Ai was on the east side of Beth-el and Beth-el was on the west side of Ai.  
and Joshua lodged among the people: to be ready early in the morning.  
and he went up: as the Omnipresent had said to him: “If he crosses before them they will cross and if not, they will not cross.”  
8. And it shall be, when you have seized the city, that you shall set the city on fire; according to the word of the Lord shall you do. See, I have commanded you.   ח. וְהָיָה כְּתָפְשְׂכֶם אֶת הָעִיר תַּצִּיתוּ אֶת הָעִיר בָּאֵשׁ כִּדְבַר יְהֹוָה תַּעֲשֹוּ רְאוּ צִוִּיתִי אֶתְכֶם:
9. And Joshua sent them; and they went to the place of ambush, and stayed between Beth-el and Ai, on the west side of Ai; and Joshua lodged that night among the people.   ט. וַיִּשְׁלָחֵם יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וַיֵּלְכוּ אֶל הַמַּאֲרָב וַיֵּשְׁבוּ בֵּין בֵּית אֵל וּבֵין הָעַי מִיָּם לָעָי וַיָּלֶן יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בַּלַּיְלָה הַהוּא בְּתוֹךְ הָעָם:
10. And Joshua rose up early in the morning, and counted the people, and he and the elders of Israel went up before the people to Ai.   י. וַיַּשְׁכֵּם יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בַּבֹּקֶר וַיִּפְקֹד אֶת הָעָם וַיַּעַל הוּא וְזִקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לִפְנֵי הָעָם הָעָי:
11. And all the people of war that were with him, went up, and drew near, and came before the city, and camped on the north side of Ai; and the valley was between him and Ai.   יא. וְכָל הָעָם הַמִּלְחָמָה אֲשֶׁר אִתּוֹ עָלוּ וַיִּגְּשׁוּ וַיָּבֹאוּ נֶגֶד הָעִיר וַיַּחֲנוּ מִצְּפוֹן לָעַי וְהַגַּי בֵּינָיו וּבֵין הָעָי:
12. And he took about five thousand men, and set them to lie in ambush between Beth-el and Ai, on the west side of Ai.   יב. וַיִּקַּח כַּחֲמֵשֶׁת אֲלָפִים אִישׁ וַיָּשֶׂם אוֹתָם אוֹרֵב בֵּין בֵּית אֵל וּבֵין הָעַי מִיָּם לָעָי:
And he took about five thousand men: one ambush, following the other ambush, closer to the city than its fellow.  
13. And the people set all the host that was on the north of the city, and their liers in wait on the west of the city. And Joshua went that night into the midst of the valley.   יג. וַיָּשִֹימוּ הָעָם אֶת כָּל הַמַּחֲנֶה אֲשֶׁר מִצְּפוֹן לָעִיר וְאֶת עֲקֵבוֹ מִיָּם לָעִיר וַיֵּלֶךְ יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בַּלַּיְלָה הַהוּא בְּתוֹךְ הָעֵמֶק:
And the people set: This setting is an expression of preparation near the wall, to wage war, as it is stated concerning the son of Hadad in (I) Kings (20:12): “Set upon the city. And they set.”  
and their liers in wait: Heb. עֲקֵבוֹ their liers in wait, like: “For he has tricked me (וַיַּעַקְבֵנִי)”  
And Joshua went that night into the midst of the valley: Our Rabbis said that he lodged in the depth of the Law.  
14. And it was when the king of Ai saw, they hastened and rose up early, and the men of the city went out against Israel to battle, he and all his people, at a time appointed, before the plain; but he did not know that there was an ambush against him behind the city.   יד. וַיְהִי כִּרְאוֹת מֶלֶךְ הָעַי וַיְמַהֲרוּ וַיַּשְׁכִּימוּ וַיֵּצְאוּ אַנְשֵׁי הָעִיר לִקְרַאת יִשְׂרָאֵל לַמִּלְחָמָה הוּא וְכָל עַמּוֹ לַמּוֹעֵד לִפְנֵי הָעֲרָבָה וְהוּא לֹא יָדַע כִּי אוֹרֵב לוֹ מֵאַחֲרֵי הָעִיר:
at a time appointed: At the time of day which they had planned [or been advised] on the preceding day, “at that time we will go out,” for they were soothsayers and diviners.  
15. And Joshua and all Israel pretended to be beaten before them, and fled by way of the desert.   טו. וַיִּנָּגְעוּ יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וְכָל יִשְׂרָאֵל לִפְנֵיהֶם וַיָּנֻסוּ דֶּרֶךְ הַמִּדְבָּר:
pretended to be beaten: Heb. וַיִּנָּגְעוּ, an expression of a plague [or beating]. [Jonathan renders] and were broken. They showed themselves as though they were beaten before them.  
16. And all the people that were in Ai were called together to pursue them; and they pursued Joshua, and were drawn away from the city.   טז. וַיִּזָּעֲקוּ כָּל הָעָם אֲשֶׁר בָּעַי לִרְדֹּף אַחֲרֵיהֶם וַיִּרְדְּפוּ אַחֲרֵי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וַיִּנָּתְקוּ מִן הָעִיר:
17. And there was not a man left in Ai or Beth-el, that did not go out after Israel; and they left the city open, and pursued Israel.   יז. וְלֹא נִשְׁאַר אִישׁ בָּעַי וּבֵית אֵל אֲשֶׁר לֹא יָצְאוּ אַחֲרֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיַּעַזְבוּ אֶת הָעִיר פְּתוּחָה וַיִּרְדְּפוּ אַחֲרֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל:
18. And the Lord said to Joshua, Stretch out the spear that is in your hand, toward Ai; for I will give it into your hand. And Joshua stretched out the spear that was in his hand, toward the city.   יח. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהֹוָה אֶל יְהוֹשֻׁעַ נְטֵה בַּכִּידוֹן אֲשֶׁר בְּיָדְךָ אֶל הָעַי כִּי בְיָדְךָ אֶתְּנֶנָּה וַיֵּט יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בַּכִּידוֹן אֲשֶׁר בְּיָדוֹ אֶל הָעִיר:
Stretch out the spear: This was the signal for the group lying in ambush to emerge from the ambush when they would see the spear stretched out toward the city. espada in Spanish, a sword.  
19. And the ambush arose quickly out of their place, and they ran as soon as he had stretched out his hand; and they entered into the city, and took it, and hastened and set the city on fire.   יט. וְהָאוֹרֵב קָם מְהֵרָה מִמְּקוֹמוֹ וַיָּרוּצוּ כִּנְטוֹת יָדוֹ וַיָּבֹאוּ הָעִיר וַיִּלְכְּדוּהָ וַיְמַהֲרוּ וַיַּצִּיתוּ אֶת הָעִיר בָּאֵשׁ:
20. And the men of Ai looked behind them, and saw, and behold, the smoke of the city ascended up to heaven, and they had no power to flee this way or that way; and the people that fled to the desert, turned back upon the pursuers.   כ. וַיִּפְנוּ אַנְשֵׁי הָעַי אַחֲרֵיהֶם וַיִּרְאוּ וְהִנֵּה עָלָה עֲשַׁן הָעִיר הַשָּׁמַיְמָה וְלֹא הָיָה בָהֶם יָדַיִם לָנוּס הֵנָּה וָהֵנָּה וְהָעָם הַנָּס הַמִּדְבָּר נֶהְפַּךְ אֶל הָרוֹדֵף:
power: lit., hands.  
and the people that fled to the desert: The Israelites who fled to the desert, as it is stated above, turned back to fight upon the pursuers.  
21. And Joshua and all Israel saw that the ambush had taken the city, and that the smoke of the city ascended. Then they turned back and slew the men of Ai.   כא. וִיהוֹשֻׁעַ וְכָל יִשְׂרָאֵל רָאוּ כִּי לָכַד הָאֹרֵב אֶת הָעִיר וְכִי עָלָה עֲשַׁן הָעִיר וַיָּשֻׁבוּ וַיַּכּוּ אֶת אַנְשֵׁי הָעָי:
22. And the others came out of the city against them, so that they were in the midst of Israel, some on this side, and some on that side; and they smote them, so that they let none of them remain or escape.   כב. וְאֵלֶּה יָצְאוּ מִן הָעִיר לִקְרָאתָם וַיִּהְיוּ לְיִשְׂרָאֵל בַּתָּוֶךְ אֵלֶּה מִזֶּה וְאֵלֶּה מִזֶּה וַיַּכּוּ אוֹתָם עַד בִּלְתִּי הִשְׁאִיר לוֹ שָׂרִיד וּפָלִיט:
And the others came out of the city: the ambush who had set fire to the city.  
23. And the king of Ai they seized alive, and brought him to Joshua.   כג. וְאֶת מֶלֶךְ הָעַי תָּפְשׂוּ חָי וַיַּקְרִבוּ אֹתוֹ אֶל יְהוֹשֻׁעַ:
24. And it was when Israel made an end of slaying all the inhabitants of Ai in the field, in the desert where they chased. them, and when they had all fallen by the edge of the sword until they were consumed, that all the Israelites returned to Ai and smote it with the edge of the sword.   כד. וַיְהִי כְּכַלּוֹת יִשְׂרָאֵל לַהֲרֹג אֶת כָּל ישְׁבֵי הָעַי בַּשָּׂדֶה בַּמִּדְבָּר אֲשֶׁר רְדָפוּם בּוֹ וַיִּפְּלוּ כֻלָּם לְפִי חֶרֶב עַד תֻּמָּם (פסקא באמצע פסוק) וַיָּשֻׁבוּ כָל יִשְׂרָאֵל הָעַי וַיַּכּוּ אֹתָהּ לְפִי חָרֶב:
25. And so it was, that all that fell that day, both of men and women, were twelve thousand, all the people of Ai.   כה. וַיְהִי כָל הַנֹּפְלִים בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא מֵאִישׁ וְעַד אִשָּׁה שְׁנֵים עָשָֹר אָלֶף כֹּל אַנְשֵׁי הָעָי:
26. And Joshua did not draw back his hand that he had stretched out with the spear, until he had completely destroyed all the inhabitants of Ai.   כו. וִיהוֹשֻׁעַ לֹא הֵשִׁיב יָדוֹ אֲשֶׁר נָטָה בַּכִּידוֹן עַד אֲשֶׁר הֶחֱרִים אֵת כָּל ישְׁבֵי הָעָי:
27. Only the cattle and the spoils of that city, Israel took for a prey to themselves, according to the word of the Lord which He had commanded Joshua.   כז. רַק הַבְּהֵמָה וּשְׁלַל הָעִיר הַהִיא בָּזְזוּ לָהֶם יִשְׂרָאֵל כִּדְבַר יְהֹוָה אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה אֶת יְהוֹשֻׁעַ:
28. And Joshua burnt Ai, and made it a heap forever, a desolation to this day.   כח. וַיִּשְׂרֹף יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֶת הָעָי וַיְשִׂימֶהָ תֵּל עוֹלָם שְׁמָמָה עַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה:
29. And the king of Ai he hanged on a gallows until evening, and as the sun set, Joshua commanded, and they took his carcass down from the gallows, and they threw it at the entrance of the gate of the city, and raised upon it a great heap of stones to this day.   כט. וְאֶת מֶלֶךְ הָעַי תָּלָה עַל הָעֵץ עַד עֵת הָעָרֶב וּכְבוֹא הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ צִוָּה יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וַיֹּרִידוּ אֶת נִבְלָתוֹ מִן הָעֵץ וַיַּשְׁלִיכוּ אוֹתָהּ אֶל פֶּתַח שַׁעַר הָעִיר וַיָּקִימוּ עָלָיו גַּל אֲבָנִים גָּדוֹל עַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה:
30. Then Joshua built an altar to the Lord God of Israel on Mount Ebal.   ל. אָז יִבְנֶה יְהוֹשֻׁעַ מִזְבֵּחַ לַיהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּהַר עֵיבָל:
Then Joshua, etc.: This section is written in the manner of ‘earlier’ and ‘later’ [events combined], for on the day they crossed the Jordan he did so.  
31. As Moses, the servant of the Lord, commanded the children of Israel, as it is written in the book of the law of Moses, an altar of whole stones, upon which no (man) has lifted up any iron. And they offered upon it burnt-offerings to the Lord and sacrificed peace-offerings.   לא. כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה מֹשֶׁה עֶבֶד יְהֹוָה אֶת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל כַּכָּתוּב בְּסֵפֶר תּוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה מִזְבַּח אֲבָנִים שְׁלֵמוֹת אֲשֶׁר לֹא הֵנִיף עֲלֵיהֶן בַּרְזֶל וַיַּעֲלוּ עָלָיו עֹלוֹת לַיהֹוָה וַיִּזְבְּחוּ שְׁלָמִים:
32. And he wrote there upon the stones a copy of the law of Moses, which he wrote in the presence of the children of Israel.   לב. וַיִּכְתָּב שָׁם עַל הָאֲבָנִים אֵת מִשְׁנֵה תּוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה אֲשֶׁר כָּתַב לִפְנֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל:
And he wrote there on the stones: They are the aforementioned stones. After this event [of building the altar] they peeled the lime off them and brought them to Gilgal.  
33. And all Israel, and their elders and officers and their judges, stood on this side of the Ark and on that side, before the priests the Levites, the bearers of the Ark of the covenant of the Lord, the stranger as well as the native born, half of them over against Mount Gerizim and half of them over against Mount Ebal, as Moses the servant of the Lord had commanded, to bless the people of Israel first.   לג. וְכָל יִשְׂרָאֵל וּזְקֵנָיו וְשֹׁטְרִים | וְשֹׁפְטָיו עֹמְדִים מִזֶּה | וּמִזֶּה | לָאָרוֹן נֶגֶד הַכֹּהֲנִים הַלְוִיִּם נֹשְׂאֵי | אֲרוֹן בְּרִית יְהֹוָה כַּגֵּר כָּאֶזְרָח חֶצְיוֹ אֶל מוּל הַר גְּרִזִים וְהַחֶצְיוֹ אֶל מוּל הַר עֵיבָל כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה מֹשֶׁה עֶבֶד יְהֹוָה לְבָרֵךְ אֶת הָעָם יִשְׂרָאֵל בָּרִאשֹׁנָה:
to bless the people of Israel first: to pronounce the blessings before the curses: Blessed be the man who will not make a graven or molten image.  
34. And afterward he read all the words of the law, the blessing and the curse, according to all that is written in the book of the Torah.   לד. וְאַחֲרֵי כֵן קָרָא אֶת כָּל דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַבְּרָכָה וְהַקְּלָלָה כְּכָל הַכָּתוּב בְּסֵפֶר הַתּוֹרָה:
35. There was not a word of all that Moses commanded, which Joshua did not read before all the congregation of Israel, with the women, and the little ones, and the strangers that walked among them.   לה. לֹא הָיָה דָבָר מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה מֹשֶׁה אֲשֶׁר לֹא קָרָא יְהוֹשֻׁעַ נֶגֶד כָּל קְהַל יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהַנָּשִׁים וְהַטַּף וְהַגֵּר הַהֹלֵךְ בְּקִרְבָּם:
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