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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Devarim - Deuteronomy - Chapter 31

Devarim - Deuteronomy - Chapter 31

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 31

1. And Moses went, and he spoke the following words to all Israel.   א. וַיֵּלֶךְ משֶׁה וַיְדַבֵּר אֶת הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה אֶל כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל:
2. He said to them, "Today I am one hundred and twenty years old. I can no longer go or come, and the Lord said to me, "You shall not cross this Jordan."   ב. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם בֶּן מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה אָנֹכִי הַיּוֹם לֹא אוּכַל עוֹד לָצֵאת וְלָבוֹא וַיהֹוָה אָמַר אֵלַי לֹא תַעֲבֹר אֶת הַיַּרְדֵּן הַזֶּה:
Moses went…I can no longer go or come: One might think [this means] that Moses’ strength had ebbed [and that is why he could no longer go or come]. Scripture [however] states [regarding Moses], “His eye had not dimmed, nor had he lost his [natural] moisture” (Deut. 34:7) [which teaches us that his powers were intact even on the day of his passing]. So what then is [the meaning of] “I can no longer”? [Here it means:] “I am not permitted,” because authority was taken from him and granted to Joshua.   וילך משה וגו', לא אוכל עוד לצאת ולבא: יכול שתשש כחו, תלמוד לומר (דברים לד, ז) לא כהתה עינו ולא נס לחה. אלא מהו לא אוכל, איני רשאי שנטלה ממני הרשות ונתנה ליהושע:
and the Lord said to me: This is the meaning of “I can no longer go or come,” because “the Lord said to me….”   וה' אמר אלי: זהו פירוש לא אוכל עוד לצאת ולבא, לפי שה' אמר אלי:
Today I am [one-hundred and twenty years old]: [That is to say,] today [is the exact day that] my days and my years have become complete; on this very day [the seventh of Adar] I was born, and on this day I will die. — [Sotah 13b] Another interpretation of “[I can no longer] go or come” is: [I can no longer figuratively go and come, i.e., I can no longer negotiate] in matters of Torah. This teaches us that the channels of transmission and the well-springs of wisdom were closed up from him [i.e., from Moses on that day]. — [Sotah 13b] [That is the order of the early editions and should be preserved. Rashi means that according to the first interpretation, that God did not permit him to go and come before the people, we do not explain the beginning of the verse to mean that Moses’ days were completed, but that God had taken away the authority from Moses. According to the Talmud, which states that Moses’ days were completed, we explain that he could not go and come in matters of Torah, and according to that interpretation, we do not explain that “the Lord said to me” as the meaning for “I can no longer go or come,” but another reason for Moses’ inability to cross the Jordan.]   אנכי היום: היום מלאו ימי ושנותי, ביום זה נולדתי וביום זה אמות. דבר אחר, לצאת ולבא בדברי תורה, מלמד שנסתמו ממנו מסורות ומעינות החכמה:
3. The Lord, your God He will cross before you; He will destroy these nations from before you so that you will possess them. Joshua he will cross before you, as the Lord has spoken.   ג. יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ הוּא | עֹבֵר לְפָנֶיךָ הוּא יַשְׁמִיד אֶת הַגּוֹיִם הָאֵלֶּה מִלְּפָנֶיךָ וִירִשְׁתָּם יְהוֹשֻׁעַ הוּא עֹבֵר לְפָנֶיךָ כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהֹוָה:
4. And the Lord will do to them, as He did to the Amorite kings, Sihon and Og, and to their land, [all of] which He destroyed.   ד. וְעָשָׂה יְהֹוָה לָהֶם כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה לְסִיחוֹן וּלְעוֹג מַלְכֵי הָאֱמֹרִי וּלְאַרְצָם אֲשֶׁר הִשְׁמִיד אֹתָם:
5. And [when] the Lord delivers them before you, you shall do to them according to all the commandment that I have commanded you.   ה. וּנְתָנָם יְהֹוָה לִפְנֵיכֶם וַעֲשִׂיתֶם לָהֶם כְּכָל הַמִּצְוָה אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִי אֶתְכֶם:
6. Be strong and courageous! Neither fear, nor be dismayed of them, for the Lord, your God He is the One Who goes with you. He will neither fail you, nor forsake you."   ו. חִזְקוּ וְאִמְצוּ אַל תִּירְאוּ וְאַל תַּעַרְצוּ מִפְּנֵיהֶם כִּי | יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ הוּא הַהֹלֵךְ עִמָּךְ לֹא יַרְפְּךָ וְלֹא יַעַזְבֶךָּ:
He will neither fail you: Heb. לֹא יַרְפְּךָ. [The word יַרְפְּךָ stems from the root רפה, meaning“weak.” Thus, the expression here means:] God will not give you [cause for] weakness [resulting] from your being forsaken by Him.   לא ירפך: לא יתן לך רפיון להיות נעזב ממנו:
7. And Moses called Joshua and said to him in the presence of all Israel, "Be strong and courageous! For you shall come with this people to the land which the Lord swore to their forefathers to give them. And you shall apportion it to them as an inheritance.   ז. וַיִּקְרָא משֶׁה לִיהוֹשֻׁעַ וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו לְעֵינֵי כָל יִשְׂרָאֵל חֲזַק וֶאֱמָץ כִּי אַתָּה תָּבוֹא אֶת הָעָם הַזֶּה אֶל הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע יְהֹוָה לַאֲבֹתָם לָתֵת לָהֶם וְאַתָּה תַּנְחִילֶנָּה אוֹתָם:
for you shall come with this people: Heb. כִּי אַתָּה תָּבוֹא אֶת-הָעָם הַזֶּה [as the Targum renders:]“For you shall come with this people,” [hence, the אֶת here means “with.” Accordingly, Moses’ statement of leadership role to Joshua can be understood as follows]: Moses said to Joshua, “The elders of the generation will be with you, [for] everything should be done according to their opinion and counsel.” In contrast, however, the Holy One, Blessed is He, said to Joshua,“For you shall bring (תָּבִיא) the children of Israel to the land which I have sworn to them” (verse 23). [God’s statement of leadership role to Joshua here means:] “You shall bring them [even if it is] against their will! Everything depends [only] upon you; [if necessary,] you must take a rod and beat them over their heads! There can be [only] one leader for a generation, not two leaders for a generation.”- [Sanh. . 8a]   כי אתה תבוא את העם הזה: ארי את תיעול עם עמא הדין. משה אמר לו ליהושע, זקנים שבדור יהיו עמך הכל לפי דעתן ועצתן, אבל הקדוש ברוך הוא אמר ליהושע כי אתה תביא את בני ישראל אל הארץ אשר נשבעתי להם (דברים לא, כג), תביא על כרחם הכל תלוי בך, טול מקל והך על קדקדן. דבר אחד לדור, ולא שני דברים לדור:
8. The Lord He is the One Who goes before you; He will be with you; He will neither fail you, nor forsake you. Do not fear, and do not be dismayed."   ח. וַיהֹוָה הוּא | הַהֹלֵךְ לְפָנֶיךָ הוּא יִהְיֶה עִמָּךְ לֹא יַרְפְּךָ וְלֹא יַעַזְבֶךָּ לֹא תִירָא וְלֹא תֵחָת:
9. Then Moses wrote this Torah, and gave it to the priests, the descendants of Levi, who carried the ark of the covenant of the Lord, and to all the elders of Israel.   ט. וַיִּכְתֹּב משֶׁה אֶת הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת וַיִּתְּנָהּ אֶל הַכֹּהֲנִים בְּנֵי לֵוִי הַנֹּשְׂאִים אֶת אֲרוֹן בְּרִית יְהֹוָה וְאֶל כָּל זִקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל:
And Moses then wrote [this Torah] and gave it [to the kohanim]: When it was entirely completed, he gave it to the members of his tribe [i.e., Levi. The verse here is referring to the entire Torah as we know it. Compare Rashi on verse 11].   ויכתוב משה וגו' ויתנה: כשנגמרה כלה, נתנה לבני שבטו:
10. Then, Moses commanded them, saying, "At the end of [every] seven years, at an appointed time, in the Festival of Succoth, [after] the year of release,   י. וַיְצַו משֶׁה אוֹתָם לֵאמֹר מִקֵּץ | שֶׁבַע שָׁנִים בְּמֹעֵד שְׁנַת הַשְּׁמִטָּה בְּחַג הַסֻּכּוֹת:
At the end of [every] seven years: [When the verse says “end,” it refers to] the first year of the [recurring, seven-year] Shemittah [cycle, which is, effectively, the “end” of the previous cycle]. This is the eighth year [of the cycle] (Sotah 41a). [Now, only the seventh year of each cycle is actually called the Shemittah year, so] why is [this eighth year] referred to [here in the verse] as “ Shemittah ”? Because the [laws of the] seventh year still apply to it, in that the harvest [of the produce] at the end of the seventh year extends into the year following the seventh. Therefore, all the laws pertaining to the seventh year apply to this produce, even though the eighth year has already begun. — [R.H. 12b]   מקץ שבע שנים: בשנה ראשונה של שמטה, שהיא שנה בשמינית. ולמה קורא אותה שנת השמטה, שעדיין שביעית נוהגת בה בקציר של שביעית היוצא למוצאי שביעית:
11. When all Israel comes to appear before the Lord, your God, in the place He will choose, you shall read this Torah before all Israel, in their ears.   יא. בְּבוֹא כָל יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵרָאוֹת אֶת פְּנֵי יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בַּמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יִבְחָר תִּקְרָא אֶת הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת נֶגֶד כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּאָזְנֵיהֶם:
you shall read this Torah: The king [of Israel] would read from the beginning of “These are the words…” (Deut. 1:1), as we find in tractate Sotah (41a). [Thus, in contrast to verse 9, the expression, “this Torah” refers to just the book of Deuteronomy. See Rashi on verse 9. When reading the book of Deuteronomy to the people at that appointed time, the king would sit] upon a wooden platform that was erected in the courtyard [of the Temple].   תקרא את התורה הזאת: המלך היה קורא מתחלת אלה הדברים, כדאיתא במסכת סוטה (מא א) על בימה של עץ שהיו עושין בעזרה:
12. Assemble the people: the men, the women, and the children, and your stranger in your cities, in order that they hear, and in order that they learn and fear the Lord, your God, and they will observe to do all the words of this Torah.   יב. הַקְהֵל אֶת הָעָם הָאֲנָשִׁים וְהַנָּשִׁים וְהַטַּף וְגֵרְךָ אֲשֶׁר בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ לְמַעַן יִשְׁמְעוּ וּלְמַעַן יִלְמְדוּ וְיָרְאוּ אֶת יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם וְשָׁמְרוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת כָּל דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת:
The men: [were to be there, in order] to learn [the words of the Torah being read];   האנשים: ללמוד:
the women: [were to be present, in order] to listen [to those words];   והנשים: לשמוע:
the children: Why did they come? So that a reward would be given to those who bring them along. — [Chag. 3a]   והטף: למה בא, לתת שכר למביאיהם:
13. And their children, who did not know, will hear and learn to fear the Lord, your God, all the days that you live on the land, to which you are crossing the Jordan, to possess.   יג. וּבְנֵיהֶם אֲשֶׁר לֹא יָדְעוּ יִשְׁמְעוּ וְלָמְדוּ לְיִרְאָה אֶת יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם כָּל הַיָּמִים אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם חַיִּים עַל הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם עֹבְרִים אֶת הַיַּרְדֵּן שָׁמָּה לְרִשְׁתָּהּ:
14. And the Lord said to Moses, "Behold, your days are approaching [for you] to die. Call Joshua and stand in the Tent of Meeting, and I will inspire him. So Moses and Joshua went, and stood in the Tent of Meeting.   יד. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהֹוָה אֶל משֶׁה הֵן קָרְבוּ יָמֶיךָ לָמוּת קְרָא אֶת יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וְהִתְיַצְּבוּ בְּאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וַאֲצַוֶּנּוּ וַיֵּלֶךְ משֶׁה וִיהוֹשֻׁעַ וַיִּתְיַצְּבוּ בְּאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד:
and I will inspire him: [Usually, “and I will command him.” Here, however, the meaning is:]“And I will urge him on.”   ואצונו: ואזרזנו:
15. And the Lord appeared in the Tent, in a pillar of cloud. The pillar of cloud stood at the entrance to the Tent.   טו. וַיֵּרָא יְהֹוָה בָּאֹהֶל בְּעַמּוּד עָנָן וַיַּעֲמֹד עַמּוּד הֶעָנָן עַל פֶּתַח הָאֹהֶל:
16. And the Lord said to Moses: Behold, you are [about to] lie with your forefathers, and this nation will rise up and stray after the deities of the nations of the land, into which they are coming. And they will forsake Me and violate My covenant which I made with them.   טז. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהֹוָה אֶל משֶׁה הִנְּךָ שֹׁכֵב עִם אֲבֹתֶיךָ וְקָם הָעָם הַזֶּה וְזָנָה | אַחֲרֵי | אֱלֹהֵי נֵכַר הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר הוּא בָא שָׁמָּה בְּקִרְבּוֹ וַעֲזָבַנִי וְהֵפֵר אֶת בְּרִיתִי אֲשֶׁר כָּרַתִּי אִתּוֹ:
the nations of the land: The peoples of the land.   נכר הארץ: גויי הארץ:
17. And My fury will rage against them on that day, and I will abandon them and hide My face from them, and they will be consumed, and many evils and troubles will befall them, and they will say on that day, 'Is it not because our God is no longer among us, that these evils have befallen us?'   יז. וְחָרָה אַפִּי בוֹ בַיּוֹם הַהוּא וַעֲזַבְתִּים וְהִסְתַּרְתִּי פָנַי מֵהֶם וְהָיָה לֶאֱכֹל וּמְצָאֻהוּ רָעוֹת רַבּוֹת וְצָרוֹת וְאָמַר בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא הֲלֹא עַל כִּי אֵין אֱלֹהַי בְּקִרְבִּי מְצָאוּנִי הָרָעוֹת הָאֵלֶּה:
and hide My face: As though I do not see their distress.   והסתרתי פני: כמו שאיני רואה בצרתם:
18. And I will hide My face on that day, because of all the evil they have committed, when they turned to other deities.   יח. וְאָנֹכִי הַסְתֵּר אַסְתִּיר פָּנַי בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא עַל כָּל הָרָעָה אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה כִּי פָנָה אֶל אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים:
19. And now, write for yourselves this song, and teach it to the Children of Israel. Place it into their mouths, in order that this song will be for Me as a witness for the children of Israel.   יט. וְעַתָּה כִּתְבוּ לָכֶם אֶת הַשִּׁירָה הַזֹּאת וְלַמְּדָהּ אֶת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל שִׂימָהּ בְּפִיהֶם לְמַעַן תִּהְיֶה לִּי הַשִּׁירָה הַזֹּאת לְעֵד בִּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל:
this song: [This refers to the passage beginning with] הַאֲזִינוּ הַשָּׁמַיִם [until] וְכִפֶּר אַדְמָתוֹ עַמּוֹ (Deut. 32:1-43).   את השירה הזאת: (לקמן לב, א) האזינו השמים עד (לב, מג) וכפר אדמתו עמו:
20. When I bring them to the land which I have sworn to their forefathers [to give them], a land flowing with milk and honey, they will eat and be satisfied, and live on the fat [of the land]. Then, they will turn to other deities and serve them, provoking Me and violating My covenant.   כ. כִּי אֲבִיאֶנּוּ אֶל הָאֲדָמָה | אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי לַאֲבֹתָיו זָבַת חָלָב וּדְבַשׁ וְאָכַל וְשָׂבַע וְדָשֵׁן וּפָנָה אֶל אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים וַעֲבָדוּם וְנִאֲצוּנִי וְהֵפֵר אֶת בְּרִיתִי:
provoking me: Heb. וְנִאֲצוּנִי, and they will provoke me to anger. Similarly, any mention of the word נִאוּץ [in Scripture] denotes anger.   ונאצוני: והכעיסוני וכן כל נאוץ לשון כעס:
21. And it will be, when they will encounter many evils and troubles, this song will bear witness against them, for it will not be forgotten from the mouth of their offspring. For I know their inclination what they [are planning] to do today, [even] before I bring them in to the land which I have sworn [to give them]."   כא. וְהָיָה כִּי תִמְצֶאןָ אֹתוֹ רָעוֹת רַבּוֹת וְצָרוֹת וְעָנְתָה הַשִּׁירָה הַזֹּאת לְפָנָיו לְעֵד כִּי לֹא תִשָּׁכַח מִפִּי זַרְעוֹ כִּי יָדַעְתִּי אֶת יִצְרוֹ אֲשֶׁר הוּא עֹשֶׂה הַיּוֹם בְּטֶרֶם אֲבִיאֶנּוּ אֶל הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבָּעְתִּי:
this song will bear witness against them: that in it, I had warned them concerning all the things that are now befalling them. [Consequently, when they read this song, they will not be able to claim, “Had we known all the evils that would befall us, we would never have transgressed God’s word!”]   וענתה השירה הזאת לפניו לעד: שהתריתי בו בתוכה על כל המוצאות אותן:
for it will not be forgotten from the mouth of their offspring: This is a promise to Israel that the Torah will never be entirely forgotten by their offspring. — [Shab. 138b]   כי לא תשכח מפי זרעו: הרי זו הבטחה לישראל, שאין תורה משתכחת מזרעם לגמרי:
22. And Moses wrote this song on that day, and taught it to the children of Israel.   כב. וַיִּכְתֹּב משֶׁה אֶת הַשִּׁירָה הַזֹּאת בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא וַיְלַמְּדָהּ אֶת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל:
23. And He commanded Joshua the son of Nun, and said: "Be strong and courageous! For you shall bring the children of Israel to the land that I have sworn to them, and I will be with you."   כג. וַיְצַו אֶת יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בִּן נוּן וַיֹּאמֶר חֲזַק וֶאֱמָץ כִּי אַתָּה תָּבִיא אֶת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי לָהֶם וְאָנֹכִי אֶהְיֶה עִמָּךְ:
And He commanded Joshua the son of Nun: This refers above (verse 16), where the subject is the Shechinah. [That God is the speaker is evident from the use of the first person]: “to the land that I have sworn to them.”   ויצו את יהושע בן נון: מוסב למעלה כלפי שכינה, כמו שמפורש (פסוק כא) אל הארץ אשר נשבעתי להם:
24. And it was, when Moses finished writing the words of this Torah in a scroll, until their very completion,   כד. וַיְהִי | כְּכַלּוֹת משֶׁה לִכְתֹּב אֶת דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת עַל סֵפֶר עַד תֻּמָּם:
25. that Moses commanded the Levites, who carried the ark of the covenant of the Lord, saying:   כה. וַיְצַו משֶׁה אֶת הַלְוִיִּם נֹשְׂאֵי אֲרוֹן בְּרִית יְהֹוָה לֵאמֹר:
26. "Take this Torah scroll and place it along side the ark of covenant of the Lord, your God, and it will be there as a witness.   כו. לָקֹחַ אֵת סֵפֶר הַתּוֹרָה הַזֶּה וְשַׂמְתֶּם אֹתוֹ מִצַּד אֲרוֹן בְּרִית יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם וְהָיָה שָׁם בְּךָ לְעֵד:
Take: [This verb is employing the form known as פָּעוֹל, denoting ongoing fulfillment, a form] similar to זָכוֹר, remember (Exod. 20:8) [see Rashi on that verse]; שָׁמוֹר, observe (Deut. 5:12), and הָלוֹךְ (Gen. 8:5) [lit., going, where it means “constantly diminished” in the expression הָיוּ הָלוֹךְ וְחָסוֹר, and הָלוֹךְ וְנָסוֹעַ (Gen. 12:9), continually traveling].   לקח: כמו (שמות כ, ח), (דברים ה יא) זכור, שמור, (שמואל ב' ג, כד) הלוך:
alongside the ark of covenant of the Lord, your God: The Sages of Israel differ (B.B. 14b). Some say that a board projected outward from the ark, and there it was laid, while others maintain that it was laid alongside the tablets, inside the ark.   מצד ארון ברית ה': נחלקו בו חכמי ישראל בבבא בתרא (יד ב) יש מהם אומרים דף היה בולט מן הארון מבחוץ ושם היה מונח ויש אומרים מצד הלוחות היה מונח בתוך הארון:
27. For I know your rebellious spirit and your stubbornness. Even while I am alive with you today you are rebelling against the Lord, and surely after my death!   כז. כִּי אָנֹכִי יָדַעְתִּי אֶת מֶרְיְךָ וְאֶת עָרְפְּךָ הַקָּשֶׁה הֵן בְּעוֹדֶנִּי חַי עִמָּכֶם הַיּוֹם מַמְרִים הֱיִתֶם עִם יְהֹוָה וְאַף כִּי אַחֲרֵי מוֹתִי:
28. Assemble to me all the elders of your tribes and your officers, and I will speak these words into their ears, and I will call upon the heaven and the earth as witnesses against them.   כח. הַקְהִילוּ אֵלַי אֶת כָּל זִקְנֵי שִׁבְטֵיכֶם וְשֹׁטְרֵיכֶם וַאֲדַבְּרָה בְאָזְנֵיהֶם אֵת הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה וְאָעִידָה בָּם אֶת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֶת הָאָרֶץ:
Assemble to me: On this day they did not blow the trumpets to assemble the congregation [as they usually did (see Num. 10:2-3,7)], because the verse says, “Make for yourself [two trumpets of silver… and they will be for you to call the assembly]” (Num. 10:2). [Now, this was a commandment directed personally to Moses, because “for yourself” and “for you” are both written in the singular form. Hence, Moses made these trumpets and kept them in his possession,] and he did not give Joshua authority over them during Moses’ lifetime. Moreover, these trumpets were hidden away [by God] even during his [Moses’] lifetime, prior to the day of his passing, thus affirming the words of the verse, “and there is no ruling on the day of death” (Ecc. 8:8). - [Tanchuma Beha’alotecha 10]   הקהילו אלי: ולא תקעו אותו היום בחצוצרות להקהיל את הקהל, לפי שנאמר (במדבר י, ב) עשה לך, ולא השליט יהושע עליהם בחייו של משה. ואף בחייו נגנזו קודם יום מותו, לקיים מה שנאמר (קהלת ח, ח) ואין שלטון ביום המות:
and I will call upon the heaven and the earth as witnesses against them: You might object, “But did God not already call them as witnesses earlier [saying,] ‘I call upon the heaven and the earth as witnesses’ (Deut. 30:19)?” [The answer is that] there God was addressing Israel [regarding this matter], but He was not [directly] addressing the heaven and the earth. Now [however] God comes to say, “Listen, O Heavens…” (Deut. 32:1), [addresses the heaven and the earth directly.   ואעידה בם את השמים ואת הארץ: ואם תאמר הרי כבר העיד למעלה (לעיל ל, יט) העידותי בכם היום וגו', התם לישראל אמר, אבל לשמים ולארץ לא אמר ועכשיו בא לומר האזינו השמים וגו':
29. For I know that after my death, you will surely become corrupted, and deviate from the way which I had commanded you. Consequently, the evil will befall you at the end of days, because you did evil in the eyes of the Lord, to provoke Him to anger through the work of your hands.   כט. כִּי יָדַעְתִּי אַחֲרֵי מוֹתִי כִּי הַשְׁחֵת תַּשְׁחִתוּן וְסַרְתֶּם מִן הַדֶּרֶךְ אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִי אֶתְכֶם וְקָרָאת אֶתְכֶם הָרָעָה בְּאַחֲרִית הַיָּמִים כִּי תַעֲשׂוּ אֶת הָרַע בְּעֵינֵי יְהֹוָה לְהַכְעִיסוֹ בְּמַעֲשֵׂה יְדֵיכֶם:
[For I know that] after my death, you will surely become corrupted: But actually, throughout all the days of Joshua, they [the Jews] did not become corrupt, for the verse states, “And the people served the Lord all the days of Joshua” (Jud. 2:7). [What, then, did Moses mean when he said that they would become corrupted after his death? We learn] from here that a person’s disciple is as dear to him as his own self, for as long as Joshua was alive [even after Moses’ passing], for Moses it was as though he himself was alive. [Hence, when Moses said“after my death,” he was in fact alluding to the death of Joshua, thus referring to the period after Joshua’s passing.]   אחרי מותי כי השחת תשחתון: והרי כל ימי יהושע לא השחיתו, שנאמר (יהושע כד, לא) ויעבדו בני ישראל את ה' כל ימי יהושע, מכאן שתלמידו של אדם חביב עליו כגופו, שכל זמן שיהושע חי נראה למשה כאלו הוא חי:
30. Then, Moses spoke into the ears of the entire assembly of Israel the words of the following song, until their completion.   ל. וַיְדַבֵּר משֶׁה בְּאָזְנֵי כָּל קְהַל יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת דִּבְרֵי הַשִּׁירָה הַזֹּאת עַד תֻּמָּם:
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