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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Devarim - Deuteronomy - Chapter 28

Devarim - Deuteronomy - Chapter 28

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 28

1. And it will be if you obey the Lord, your God, to observe to fulfill all His commandments which I command you this day, the Lord, your God, will place you supreme above all the nations of the earth.   א. וְהָיָה אִם שָׁמוֹעַ תִּשְׁמַע בְּקוֹל יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לִשְׁמֹר לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת כָּל מִצְו‍ֹתָיו אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ הַיּוֹם וּנְתָנְךָ יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ עֶלְיוֹן עַל כָּל גּוֹיֵי הָאָרֶץ:
2. And all these blessings will come upon you and cleave to you, if you obey the Lord, your God.   ב. וּבָאוּ עָלֶיךָ כָּל הַבְּרָכוֹת הָאֵלֶּה וְהִשִּׂיגֻךָ כִּי תִשְׁמַע בְּקוֹל יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ:
3. You shall be blessed in the city, and you shall be blessed in the field.   ג. בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה בָּעִיר וּבָרוּךְ אַתָּה בַּשָּׂדֶה:
4. Blessed will be the fruit of your womb, the fruit of your soil, the fruit of your livestock, the offspring of your cattle, and the flocks of your sheep.   ד. בָּרוּךְ פְּרִי בִטְנְךָ וּפְרִי אַדְמָתְךָ וּפְרִי בְהֶמְתֶּךָ שְׁגַר אֲלָפֶיךָ וְעַשְׁתְּרוֹת צֹאנֶךָ:
the offspring of your cattle: Heb. שְׁגַר אֲלָפֶיךָ‏, the young which are born from your cattle, [that is,] which the animal sends forth (מְשַׁגֶּרֶת) from its womb.   שגר אלפיך: ולדות בקרך שהבהמה משגרת ממעיה:
and the flocks of your sheep: Heb. וְעַשְׁתְּרוֹת צֹאנֶךָ [This expression is to be understood] as it is rendered by the Targum [Onkelos]: “וְעֶדְרֵי עָנָךְ, and the flocks of your sheep.” Our Rabbis, however, said: Why are [sheep] עַשְׁתְּרוֹת ? Because they enrich (מַעֲשִׁירוֹת) their owners (Chul. 84b) and maintain them, as עַשְׁתְּרוֹת, which are strong rocks.   ועשתרות צאנך: כתרגומו. ורבותינו אמרו למה נקרא שמם עשתרות שמעשירות את בעליהן ומחזיקות אותם כעשתרות הללו שהן סלעים חזקים:
5. Blessed will be your basket and your kneading bowl.   ה. בָּרוּךְ טַנְאֲךָ וּמִשְׁאַרְתֶּךָ:
Blessed will be your basket: Your fruits. Another explanation of טַנְאֲךָ: liquids which you strain through baskets [used as strainers].   ברוך טנאך: פירותיך. דבר אחר טנאך דבר לח שאתה מסנן בסלים:
and your kneading bowl: Heb. וּמִשְׁאַרְתֶּךָ. Something dry, which remains (נִשְׁאָר) in the receptacle and does not flow through. [This interpretation follows the latter interpretation in the above Rashi. According to the former interpretation, this means simply “your kneading bowl.”   ומשארתך: דבר יבש שנשאר בכלי ואינו זב:
6. You shall be blessed when you come, and you shall be blessed when you depart.   ו. בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה בְּבֹאֶךָ וּבָרוּךְ אַתָּה בְּצֵאתֶךָ:
Blessed will you be when you come, and blessed will you be when you depart: May your departure from the world be as free of sin as was your entry into the world. — [B.M. 107a]   ברוך אתה בבאך וברוך אתה בצאתך: שתהא יציאתך מן העולם בלא חטא כביאתך לעולם:
7. The Lord will cause your enemies who rise up against you, to be beaten before you; they will come out against you in one direction, but they will flee from you in seven directions.   ז. יִתֵּן יְהֹוָה אֶת אֹיְבֶיךָ הַקָּמִים עָלֶיךָ נִגָּפִים לְפָנֶיךָ בְּדֶרֶךְ אֶחָד יֵצְאוּ אֵלֶיךָ וּבְשִׁבְעָה דְרָכִים יָנוּסוּ לְפָנֶיךָ:
but they will flee from you in seven directions: Such is the way of those who flee out of fear: they scatter in all directions.   ובשבעה דרכים ינוסו לפניך: כן דרך הנבהלים לברוח מתפזרין לכל צד:
8. The Lord will order the blessing to be with you in your granaries, and in every one of your endeavors, and He will bless you in the land which the Lord, your God, is giving you.   ח. יְצַו יְהֹוָה אִתְּךָ אֶת הַבְּרָכָה בַּאֲסָמֶיךָ וּבְכֹל מִשְׁלַח יָדֶךָ וּבֵרַכְךָ בָּאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ:
9. The Lord will establish you as His holy people as He swore to you, if you observe the commandments of the Lord, your God, and walk in His ways.   ט. יְקִימְךָ יְהֹוָה לוֹ לְעַם קָדוֹשׁ כַּאֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע לָךְ כִּי תִשְׁמֹר אֶת מִצְו‍ֹת יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וְהָלַכְתָּ בִּדְרָכָיו:
10. Then all the peoples of the earth will see that the name of the Lord is called upon you, and they will fear you.   י. וְרָאוּ כָּל עַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ כִּי שֵׁם יְהֹוָה נִקְרָא עָלֶיךָ וְיָרְאוּ מִמֶּךָּ:
11. And the Lord will grant you good surplus in the fruit of your womb, in the fruit of your livestock, and in the fruit of your soil, on the land which the Lord swore to your forefathers, to give you.   יא. וְהוֹתִרְךָ יְהֹוָה לְטוֹבָה בִּפְרִי בִטְנְךָ וּבִפְרִי בְהֶמְתְּךָ וּבִפְרִי אַדְמָתֶךָ עַל הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע יְהֹוָה לַאֲבֹתֶיךָ לָתֶת לָךְ:
12. The Lord will open up for you His good treasury, the heaven, to give your land its rain in its [right] time, and to bless everything you do. And you will lend many nations, but you will not [need to] borrow.   יב. יִפְתַּח יְהֹוָה | לְךָ אֶת אוֹצָרוֹ הַטּוֹב אֶת הַשָּׁמַיִם לָתֵת מְטַר אַרְצְךָ בְּעִתּוֹ וּלְבָרֵךְ אֵת כָּל מַעֲשֵׂה יָדֶךָ וְהִלְוִיתָ גּוֹיִם רַבִּים וְאַתָּה לֹא תִלְוֶה:
13. And the Lord will set you at the head, and not at the tail, and you will be only at the top, and you will not be at the bottom, if you obey the commandments of the Lord, your God, which I am commanding you this day, to observe to fulfill [them].   יג. וּנְתָנְךָ יְהֹוָה לְרֹאשׁ וְלֹא לְזָנָב וְהָיִיתָ רַק לְמַעְלָה וְלֹא תִהְיֶה לְמָטָּה כִּי תִשְׁמַע אֶל מִצְוֹת | יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ הַיּוֹם לִשְׁמֹר וְלַעֲשׂוֹת:
14. And you shall not turn right or left from all of the words I am commanding you this day, to follow other deities to worship them.   יד. וְלֹא תָסוּר מִכָּל הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוֶּה אֶתְכֶם הַיּוֹם יָמִין וּשְׂמֹאול לָלֶכֶת אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים לְעָבְדָם:
15. And it will be, if you do not obey the Lord, your God, to observe to fulfill all His commandments and statutes which I am commanding you this day, that all these curses will come upon you and overtake you.   טו. וְהָיָה אִם לֹא תִשְׁמַע בְּקוֹל יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לִשְׁמֹר לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת כָּל מִצְו‍ֹתָיו וְחֻקֹּתָיו אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ הַיּוֹם וּבָאוּ עָלֶיךָ כָּל הַקְּלָלוֹת הָאֵלֶּה וְהִשִּׂיגוּךָ:
16. You shall be cursed in the city, and you shall be cursed in the field.   טז. אָרוּר אַתָּה בָּעִיר וְאָרוּר אַתָּה בַּשָּׂדֶה:
17. Cursed will be your [food] basket and your kneading bowl.   יז. אָרוּר טַנְאֲךָ וּמִשְׁאַרְתֶּךָ:
18. Cursed will be the fruit of your womb, the fruit of your soil, the fruit of your livestock, those born from your cattle and the flock of your sheep.   יח. אָרוּר פְּרִי בִטְנְךָ וּפְרִי אַדְמָתֶךָ שְׁגַר אֲלָפֶיךָ וְעַשְׁתְּרֹת צֹאנֶךָ:
19. You shall be cursed when you come, and you shall be cursed when you depart.   יט. אָרוּר אַתָּה בְּבֹאֶךָ וְאָרוּר אַתָּה בְּצֵאתֶךָ:
20. The Lord will send the curse of shortages, confusion, and turmoil upon you, in every one of your endeavors which you undertake, until it destroys you and until you quickly vanish, because of your evil deeds in forsaking Me.   כ. יְשַׁלַּח יְהֹוָה | בְּךָ אֶת הַמְּאֵרָה אֶת הַמְּהוּמָה וְאֶת הַמִּגְעֶרֶת בְּכָל מִשְׁלַח יָדְךָ אֲשֶׁר תַּעֲשֶׂה עַד הִשָּׁמֶדְךָ וְעַד אֲבָדְךָ מַהֵר מִפְּנֵי רֹעַ מַעֲלָלֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר עֲזַבְתָּנִי:
the curse of shortages: Heb. הַמְּאֵרָה, “shortage,” similar to“ צָרַעַת מַמְאֶרֶת,”“a lesion which causes loss [to the person stricken with it]” (Lev.13:51).   המארה: חסרון כמו צרעת ממארת (ויקרא יג, נב):
confusion: Heb. הַמְּהוּמָה [Rendered by Onkelos as שִׁגוּשַׁיָא, meaning] confusion, the sound of panic.   המהומה: שגוש קול בהלות:
21. The Lord will make pestilence cleave to you, until it has exterminated you from upon the land, to which you are coming, to possess it.   כא. יַדְבֵּק יְהֹוָה בְּךָ אֶת הַדָּבֶר עַד כַּלֹּתוֹ אֹתְךָ מֵעַל הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה בָא שָׁמָּה לְרִשְׁתָּהּ:
22. The Lord will strike you with consumption, fever, illnesses with burning fevers, a disease which causes unquenchable thirst, with the sword, with blast, and with yellowing, and they will pursue you until you perish.   כב. יַכְּכָה יְהֹוָה בַּשַּׁחֶפֶת וּבַקַּדַּחַת וּבַדַּלֶּקֶת וּבַחַרְחֻר וּבַחֶרֶב וּבַשִּׁדָּפוֹן וּבַיֵּרָקוֹן וּרְדָפוּךָ עַד אָבְדֶךָ:
consumption: Heb. בַּשַּׁחֶפֶת, [a disease] whereby one’s flesh wastes away and swells.   בשחפת: שבשרו נשחף ונפוח:
fever: Heb. וּבַקַּדַּחַת, as in the expression “For a fire burns (קָדְחָה) in My nose” (Deut. 32:22). [In this context, the term refers to] the feverish “fire” of the sick, malevei in Old French, which means intense heat.   ובקדחת: לשון כי אש קדחה באפי (דברים לב, כב) והיא אש של חולים מלויי"ד בלע"ז (פיעבערהימצע) שהיא חמה מאד:
illnesses with burning fevers: Heb. וּבַדַּלֶּקֶת. A feverish heat, more intense than קַדַּחַת. [All] these [terms listed in these verses, refer to] various types of diseases.   ובדלקת: חמה יותר מקדחת ומיני חלאים הם:
a disease which causes unquenchable thirst: Heb. וּבַחַרְחֻר. This is a disease which heats up inside the body, causing him [the patient] to suffer continuous thirst for water, esardement in Old French, parching fever, as in the expressions: “and my bones dried out (חָרָה) from the heat” (Job. 30:30), and “The bellows is heated (נִחַר) from the fire” (Jer. 6:29).   ובחרחר: חולי המחממו תוך הגוף וצמא תמיד למים ובלע"ז אישרדימינ"ט (התיבשות) לשון ועצמי חרה מני חרב (איוב ל, ל) נחר מפוח מאש (ירמי' ו, כט):
and with the sword: He will bring [hostile] armies upon you.   ובחרב: יביא עליך גייסות:
with blast, and with yellowing: Diseases of the grain in the field.   שדפון וירקון: מכות תבואה שבשדות:
blast: Heb. שִׁדָּפוֹן, an easterly wind, hasled in Old French, [meaning that the east wind causes the grain to be blasted].   שדפון: רוח קדים אשלי"דה בלע"ז (זאננפערבראננט):
yellowing: Heb. יֵרָקוֹן, drought, whereby the surface of the grain pales and turns yellow, chaume (?) in Old French.   ירקון: יובש ופני התבואה מכסיפין ונהפכין לירקון קמ"א בלע"ז (געלב):
until you perish: Heb. עַד אָבְדֶךָ. [This phrase could be misconstrued to mean: “until you become lost” by God and found by others. Therefore, Rashi cites] the Targum [which] renders the phrase as: עַד דְתֵיבָד, “until you perish,” meaning, “you will perish, of your own accord.”   עד אבדך: תרגום עד דתיביד כלומר עד אבוד אותך שתכלה מאליך:
23. And your skies above you will be [like] copper, and the earth below you [like] iron.   כג. וְהָיוּ שָׁמֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר עַל רֹאשְׁךָ נְחשֶׁת וְהָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר תַּחְתֶּיךָ בַּרְזֶל:
And your skies above you will be [like] copper: These curses [proclaimed here at Mount Ebal] were pronounced by Moses himself [albeit through divine inspiration], whereas those [curses] made at Mount Sinai (Lev. 26:14-39) Moses pronounced from the mouth of the Holy One, Blessed is He (Meg. 31b). This is demonstrated by the verses themselves: The verse there says, “But if you will not listen to me ” (Lev. 26:14), and, “And if you regard Me as coincidence” (26:21), [all referring to God in the first person]. Here, however, the verse says, “obey the Lord, your God ” (verse 15),“ The Lord will make… ” (verse 21), and “ The Lord will strike you” (verse 22) [all referring to God in the third person, demonstrating that Moses is speaking]. Moses made his curses milder [than those at Mount Sinai], for he expressed them in the singular form [as if spoken to an individual]. Furthermore, in this curse [in our verse here], Moses made his milder [than the corresponding curse at Mount Sinai by God], for in the first curses [in Lev.], God said, “[And I shall make] your skies like iron, and your earth like copper” (Lev. 26:19), [meaning that] that the skies will not sweat [i.e., be moist], just as iron does not sweat; consequently, there will be drought in the world. But the earth will sweat, just as copper sweats, thereby causing its fruits to rot. Here, however, Scripture says, “Your skies…copper, and your earth…iron.” [This means] that the skies will sweat [i.e., be moist], and thus, even though they will not pour down rain, there will not be a consuming drought in the world. Also, [this means that] the earth will not sweat, just as iron does not sweat; thus, the fruits will not rot (Torath Kohanim 26:28). [Although the curse here contains these milder elements as explained,] it is, nevertheless, a curse, for whether it [the earth] is like copper or whether it is like iron, it will not produce fruit. And similarly, the skies [whether they become like copper or iron] will not pour down rain.   והיו שמיך אשר על ראשך נחשת: קללות הללו משה מפי עצמו אמרן ושבהר סיני מפי הקב"ה אמרן כמשמען ושם נאמר (ויקרא כו, יד) ואם לא תשמעו לי, ואם תלכו עמי קרי (ויקרא כו, כא) וכן הוא אומר (פסוק טו) בקול ה' אלהיך (פסוק כא) ידבק ה' בך, יככה ה' (פסוק כב) הקיל משה בקללותיו לאמרן בלשון יחיד וגם כן בקללה זו הקל שבראשונות הוא אומר את שמיכם כברזל את ארצכם כנחושה, (ויקרא כו, יט) שלא יהיו השמים מזיעין כדרך שאין הברזל מזיע, ומתוך כך יהא חורב בעולם והארץ תהא מזיעה כדרך שהנחשת מזיע, והיא מרקבת פירותיה, וכאן הוא אומר שמיך נחשת וארצך ברזל, שיהיו שמים מזיעין אף על פי שלא יריקו מטר מכל מקום לא יהיה חורב של אבדון בעולם, והארץ לא תהא מזיעה כדרך שאין הברזל מזיע, ואין הפירות מרקיבין. ומכל מקום קללה היא, בין שהיא כנחשת בין שהיא כברזל, לא תוציא פירות, וכן השמים לא יריקו מטר:
24. The Lord will turn the rain of your land into powder and dust, raining down upon you from the heavens until you are destroyed.   כד. יִתֵּן יְהֹוָה אֶת מְטַר אַרְצְךָ אָבָק וְעָפָר מִן הַשָּׁמַיִם יֵרֵד עָלֶיךָ עַד הִשָּׁמְדָךְ:
[The Lord will turn] the rain of your land into powder and dust: [How do these two opposites coincide, rain and dust? The Talmud answers] (Ta’anith 3b): “[The text is referring to] a wind which follows the rain.” Rain will fall, but insufficiently; moreover, there will not even be enough rain to cause the dust to settle. Then, a wind will come and raise the dust and cover the vegetation [sprouting] from the seeds, which are still moist from the water. [The dust] will adhere to them, forming [a layer of] mud, [which] will dry up [on the vegetation], causing it to rot. [This, then, is the meaning of the curse:“The Lord will turn the rain of your land into powder and dust.”]   מטר ארצך אבק ועפר: זיקא דבתר מטרא, מטר יורד ולא כל צרכו ואין בו כדי להרביץ את העפר, והרוח באה ומעלה את האבק ומכסה את עשב הזרעים שהן לחים מן המים ונדבק בהם ונעשה טיט ומתיבש ומרקיבין:
25. The Lord will cause you to be broken before your enemy: you will come out against them in one direction, but you will flee from them in seven directions. And you will become a terrifying [example] to all the kingdoms on earth.   כה. יִתֶּנְךָ יְהֹוָה | נִגָּף לִפְנֵי אֹיְבֶיךָ בְּדֶרֶךְ אֶחָד תֵּצֵא אֵלָיו וּבְשִׁבְעָה דְרָכִים תָּנוּס לְפָנָיו וְהָיִיתָ לְזַעֲוָה לְכֹל מַמְלְכוֹת הָאָרֶץ:
a terrifying [example]: [an example of] fear (אֵימָה) and trembling (זִיעַ) . [This means that] anyone who hears about your plagues, will“tremble in fear (יָזוּעוּ) ,” saying:“Woe to us! Let this not befall us, in the way in which it has befallen these [people]!”   לזעוה: לאימה ולזיע, שיזועו כל שומעי מכותיך ממך ויאמרו אוי לנו שלא יבוא עלינו כדרך שבא על אלו:
26. Your corpse will be food for all birds of the heaven and for the beasts of the earth, and no one will frighten them [away].   כו. וְהָיְתָה נִבְלָתְךָ לְמַאֲכָל לְכָל עוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּלְבֶהֱמַת הָאָרֶץ וְאֵין מַחֲרִיד:
27. The Lord will strike you with the boils of Egypt, with hemorrhoids, with oozing sores, and with dry lesions, from which you will be unable to be cured.   כז. יַכְּכָה יְהֹוָה בִּשְׁחִין מִצְרַיִם וּבַטְחֹרִים וּבַגָּרָב וּבֶחָרֶס אֲשֶׁר לֹא תוּכַל לְהֵרָפֵא:
The boils of Egypt: This was a very severe [lesion]: it was moist on the inside and dry on the outside, as taught in tractate Bech. (41a).   בשחין מצרים: רע היה מאד, לח מבחוץ ויבש מבפנים, כדאיתא בבכורות (מא א):
oozing sores: [This means] wet boils.   גרב: שחין לח:
dry lesions: [This means] boils dry as shards.   חרס: שחין יבש כחרס:
28. The Lord will strike you with insanity, with blindness, and with bewilderment.   כח. יַכְּכָה יְהֹוָה בְּשִׁגָּעוֹן וּבְעִוָּרוֹן וּבְתִמְהוֹן לֵבָב:
and with bewilderment: Heb. וּבְתִמְהוֹן לֵבָב, lit.“clogging of the heart,” estordison in Old French.   ובתמהון לבב: אוטם הלב אשטורדישו"ן בלע"ז [תדהמה]:
29. You will grope at midday, as the blind man gropes in the dark, and you will be unsuccessful in your ways. You will be only oppressed and robbed all the days, and no one will save [you].   כט. וְהָיִיתָ מְמַשֵּׁשׁ בַּצָּהֳרַיִם כַּאֲשֶׁר יְמַשֵּׁשׁ הָעִוֵּר בָּאֲפֵלָה וְלֹא תַצְלִיחַ אֶת דְּרָכֶיךָ וְהָיִיתָ אַךְ עָשׁוּק וְגָזוּל כָּל הַיָּמִים וְאֵין מוֹשִׁיעַ:
oppressed: Heb. עָשׁוּק, you will experience controversy regarding everything you do.   עשוק: בכל מעשיך יהיה ערעור:
30. You will betroth a woman, but another man will lie with her. You will build a house, but you will not live in it. You will plant a vineyard, but you will not redeem it[s fruits].   ל. אִשָּׁה תְאָרֵשׂ וְאִישׁ אַחֵר יִשְׁכָּבֶנָּה בַּיִת תִּבְנֶה וְלֹא תֵשֵׁב בּוֹ כֶּרֶם תִּטַּע וְלֹא תְחַלְּלֶנּוּ:
will lie with her: Heb. יִשְׁגָּלֶנָּה. [This word stems] from the root שֵׁגָל, meaning a פִּלֶגֶשׁ [which refers to a wife without a Jewish marriage contract, i.e., a concubine. Nevertheless,] Scripture euphemizes the term [by having it read as יִשְׁכָּבֶנָּה instead], thus [giving it] a more delicate implication. This is [like] a modification made by scribes. — [see Meg.. 25b; and compare Rashi on Gen. 18:22]   ישגלנה: לשון שגל, פלגש, והכתוב כנהו לשבח ישכבנה ותקון סופרים הוא זה:
redeem it[s fruits]: Heb. תְחַלְלֶנּוּ [This is referring to the fruits of a tree, which must not be used for the first three years of the tree’s life. Then, the fruits of the fourth year take on holy status and are taken to Jerusalem to be eaten. If it is too difficult to take them to Jerusalem, they are redeemed with money, which is, in turn, taken to Jerusalem, where food is purchased for it. Here, then, the curse means that the person will plant his vineyard, but will not live to redeem it] in the fourth year to eat its fruits.   תחללנו: בשנה הרביעית לאכול פריו:
31. Your ox will be slaughtered before your eyes, but you will not eat from it. Your donkey will be snatched right in front of you, and it will not return to you. Your flock will be given over to your enemies, and you will have no savior.   לא. שׁוֹרְךָ טָבוּחַ לְעֵינֶיךָ וְלֹא תֹאכַל מִמֶּנּוּ חֲמֹרְךָ גָּזוּל מִלְּפָנֶיךָ וְלֹא יָשׁוּב לָךְ צֹאנְךָ נְתֻנוֹת לְאֹיְבֶיךָ וְאֵין לְךָ מוֹשִׁיעַ:
32. Your sons and daughters will be given over to another people, and your eyes will see [this] and long for them all day long, but you will be powerless.   לב. בָּנֶיךָ וּבְנֹתֶיךָ נְתֻנִים לְעַם אַחֵר וְעֵינֶיךָ רֹאוֹת וְכָלוֹת אֲלֵיהֶם כָּל הַיּוֹם וְאֵין לְאֵל יָדֶךָ:
and long for them: Heb. וְכָלוֹת אֲלֵיהֶם. [Meaning: Your eyes] will longingly look out for the return [of your children], but they will not return. The expression כִּלְיוֹן עֵינַיִם refers to a hope which never materializes.   וכלות אליהם: מצפות אליהם שישובו ואינם שבים. כל תוחלת שאינה באה קרויה כליון עינים:
33. A people unknown to you will eat up the fruit of your soil and [the result of] all your toil. You will be only wronged and crushed all the days.   לג. פְּרִי אַדְמָתְךָ וְכָל יְגִיעֲךָ יֹאכַל עַם אֲשֶׁר לֹא יָדָעְתָּ וְהָיִיתָ רַק עָשׁוּק וְרָצוּץ כָּל הַיָּמִים:
34. You will go insane from the vision before your eyes that you will behold.   לד. וְהָיִיתָ מְשֻׁגָּע מִמַּרְאֵה עֵינֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר תִּרְאֶה:
35. The Lord will strike you on the knees and on the legs with a terrible skin eruption from which you will be unable to be cured; [it will eventually cover you] from the sole of your foot to the top of your head.   לה. יַכְּכָה יְהֹוָה בִּשְׁחִין רָע עַל הַבִּרְכַּיִם וְעַל הַשֹּׁקַיִם אֲשֶׁר לֹא תוּכַל לְהֵרָפֵא מִכַּף רַגְלְךָ וְעַד קָדְקֳדֶךָ:
36. The Lord will lead you and your king whom you will have established over you, to a nation unknown to you or your fathers; and there, you will serve other deities [made] of wood and stone.   לו. יוֹלֵךְ יְהֹוָה אֹתְךָ וְאֶת מַלְכְּךָ אֲשֶׁר תָּקִים עָלֶיךָ אֶל גּוֹי אֲשֶׁר לֹא יָדַעְתָּ אַתָּה וַאֲבֹתֶיךָ וְעָבַדְתָּ שָּׁם אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים עֵץ וָאָבֶן:
37. And you will become an [object of] astonishment, an example, and a topic of discussion, among all the peoples to whom the Lord will lead you.   לז. וְהָיִיתָ לְשַׁמָּה לְמָשָׁל וְלִשְׁנִינָה בְּכֹל הָעַמִּים אֲשֶׁר יְנַהֶגְךָ יְהֹוָה שָׁמָּה:
an object of astonishment: Heb. לְשַׁמָּה. [This word is] similar to תִּמָּהוֹן [meaning, astonishment], estordison in Old French. [Thus, the meaning here is:] whoever sees you will be astonished about you.   לשמה: אשטורדישו"ן [תדהמה] כל הרואה אותך ישום עליך:
an example: When some terrible trouble befalls a person, [people] will say:“This is like the trouble that happened to so-and-so.”   למשל: כשתבא מכה רעה על אדם, יאמרו זו דומה למכת פלוני:
and a topic of discussion: Heb. וְלִשְׁנִינָה. An expression similar to“And you will teach them (וְשִׁנַּנְתֶּם)” (Deut. 6:7) [… and speak of them. That is, people] will speak about you. The Targum [Onkelos] renders this [word] in the same way, [namely:] וּלְשׁוֹעִי, [which is similar to] וְאֶשְׁתָּעִי, [meaning to talk].   ולשנינה: לשון ושננתם (לעיל ו, ז) ידברו בך, וכן תרגומו ולשועי, לשון ספור, ואשתעי:
38. You will take much seed out to the field, yet you will gather in little, for the locusts will finish it.   לח. זֶרַע רַב תּוֹצִיא הַשָּׂדֶה וּמְעַט תֶּאֱסֹף כִּי יַחְסְלֶנּוּ הָאַרְבֶּה:
will finish it: Heb. יַחְסְלֶנּוּ-means, the locusts will consume it. And because [the word חסל means to consume], the locust is also called חָסִיל (see e.g., Joel 1:4), for it consumes everything in its path. [Yerushalmi Taanit 3:6.]   יחסלנו: יכלנו, ועל שם כך נקרא חסיל, שמכלה את הכל:
39. You will plant vineyards and work [them], but you will neither drink of [their] wine, or gather [the grapes], because the worms will devour them.   לט. כְּרָמִים תִּטַּע וְעָבָדְתָּ וְיַיִן לֹא תִשְׁתֶּה וְלֹא תֶאֱגֹר כִּי תֹאכְלֶנּוּ הַתֹּלָעַת:
40. You will have olive trees throughout all your boundaries, but you will not anoint with [their] oil, because your olive trees will drop off.   מ. זֵיתִים יִהְיוּ לְךָ בְּכָל גְּבוּלֶךָ וְשֶׁמֶן לֹא תָסוּךְ כִּי יִשַּׁל זֵיתֶךָ:
will drop off: [Meaning, the olive tree] will shed its fruit. This is similar to the verb,“and the iron flew off [or slipped off] (וְנָשַׁל)” (Deut. 19:5).   כי ישל: ישיר פירותיו, לשון (לעיל יט, ה) ונשל הברזל:
41. You will bear sons and daughters, but you will not have them, because they will go into captivity.   מא. בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת תּוֹלִיד וְלֹא יִהְיוּ לָךְ כִּי יֵלְכוּ בַּשֶּׁבִי:
42. All your trees and all the fruit of your soil the cicada will make destitute.   מב. כָּל עֵצְךָ וּפְרִי אַדְמָתֶךָ יְיָרֵשׁ הַצְּלָצַל:
the cicada will make destitute: [The word יְיָרֵשׁ stems from the word רָשׁ, which means destitute or devoid. Thus, the verse here means that] the locusts will cause the tree to be devoid of fruit. [Therefore,]   יירש הצלצל: יעשנו הארבה רש מן הפרי:
will make destitute: Heb. יְיָרֵשׁ [has the meaning of] יַעֲנִי, “making it destitute.”   יירש: יעני:
the cicada: Heb. הַצְּלָצַל, a [particular] species of locust [which makes a loud sound (צְלִיל)]. Now, [the word יְיָרֵשׁ] must not be understood as denoting יְרוּשָׁה, “inheritance,” for in that case, the Scripture would have written: יִירַשׁ [i.e., with a different vocalization. Similarly,] it should not be understood to mean הוֹרָשָׁה,“driving out” for in that case, Scripture would have written: יוֹרִישׁ. [Rather, the word means “to make destitute, devoid,” as explained above.]   צלצל: מין ארבה. ואי אפשר לפרש יירש לשון ירושה, שאם כן היה לו לכתוב ירש, ולא לשון הורשה וגירושין, שאם כן היה לכתוב יוריש:
43. The stranger who is among you will arise above you, higher and higher, while you will descend lower and lower.   מג. הַגֵּר אֲשֶׁר בְּקִרְבְּךָ יַעֲלֶה עָלֶיךָ מַעְלָה מָּעְלָה וְאַתָּה תֵרֵד מַטָּה מָּטָּה:
44. He will lend to you, but you will not lend to him. He will be at the head, while you will be at the tail.   מד. הוּא יַלְוְךָ וְאַתָּה לֹא תַלְוֶנּוּ הוּא יִהְיֶה לְרֹאשׁ וְאַתָּה תִּהְיֶה לְזָנָב:
45. All these curses will befall you, pursuing you and overtaking you to destroy you because you did not obey the Lord, your God, to observe His commandments and statutes which He commanded you.   מה. וּבָאוּ עָלֶיךָ כָּל הַקְּלָלוֹת הָאֵלֶּה וּרְדָפוּךָ וְהִשִּׂיגוּךָ עַד הִשָּׁמְדָךְ כִּי לֹא שָׁמַעְתָּ בְּקוֹל יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לִשְׁמֹר מִצְו‍ֹתָיו וְחֻקֹּתָיו אֲשֶׁר צִוָּךְ:
46. And they will be as a sign and a wonder, upon you and your offspring, forever,   מו. וְהָיוּ בְךָ לְאוֹת וּלְמוֹפֵת וּבְזַרְעֲךָ עַד עוֹלָם:
47. because you did not serve the Lord, your God, with happiness and with gladness of heart, when [you had an] abundance of everything.   מז. תַּחַת אֲשֶׁר לֹא עָבַדְתָּ אֶת יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּשִׂמְחָה וּבְטוּב לֵבָב מֵרֹב כֹּל:
when [you had an] abundance of everything: when you still had all good things.   מרב כל: בעוד שהיה לך כל טוב:
48. Therefore, you will serve your enemies, whom the Lord will send against you, [when you are] in famine, thirst, destitution, and lacking everything, and he will place an iron yoke upon your neck, until he has destroyed you.   מח. וְעָבַדְתָּ אֶת אֹיְבֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר יְשַׁלְּחֶנּוּ יְהֹוָה בָּךְ בְּרָעָב וּבְצָמָא וּבְעֵירֹם וּבְחֹסֶר כֹּל וְנָתַן עֹל בַּרְזֶל עַל צַוָּארֶךָ עַד הִשְׁמִידוֹ אֹתָךְ:
49. The Lord will bring upon you a nation from afar, from the end of the earth, as the eagle swoops down, a nation whose language you will not understand,   מט. יִשָּׂא יְהֹוָה עָלֶיךָ גּוֹי מֵרָחֹק מִקְצֵה הָאָרֶץ כַּאֲשֶׁר יִדְאֶה הַנָּשֶׁר גּוֹי אֲשֶׁר לֹא תִשְׁמַע לְשֹׁנוֹ:
as the eagle swoops down: i.e., suddenly and successfully. The horses [of this enemy nation] will run swiftly.   כאשר ידאה הנשר: פתאום ודרך מצלחת ויקלו סוסיו:
whose language you will not understand: Heb. תִּשְׁמַע. [Literally, “You will not hear his language,” i.e.,] you will not recognize its language. [We find a similar expression in Scripture:]“you understand (תִּשְׁמַע) a dream, to interpret it” (Gen. 41:15). Also,“[but they did not know] that Joseph understood (שֹׁמֵע)” (Gen. 42:23), entendre in Old French, to understand.   לא תשמע לשונו: לא תכיר לשונו, וכן (בראשית מא, טו) תשמע חלום לפתור אותו. וכן (שם מב, כג) כי שומע יוסף אינטינדר"י בלע"ז [להבין]:
50. a brazen nation, which will not respect the elderly, nor show favor to the young.   נ. גּוֹי עַז פָּנִים אֲשֶׁר לֹא יִשָּׂא פָנִים לְזָקֵן וְנַעַר לֹא יָחֹן:
51. They will devour the fruit of your livestock and the fruit of your soil, to destroy you. They will not leave over anything for you of the grain, wine, oil, offspring of your cattle or flocks of your sheep, until they annihilate you.   נא. וְאָכַל פְּרִי בְהֶמְתְּךָ וּפְרִי אַדְמָתְךָ עַד הִשָּׁמְדָךְ אֲשֶׁר לֹא יַשְׁאִיר לְךָ דָּגָן תִּירוֹשׁ וְיִצְהָר שְׁגַר אֲלָפֶיךָ וְעַשְׁתְּרֹת צֹאנֶךָ עַד הַאֲבִידוֹ אֹתָךְ:
52. And they will besiege you in all your cities, until your high and fortified walls in which you trust come down, throughout all your land. And they will besiege you in all your cities throughout all your land, which the Lord, your God, has given you.   נב. וְהֵצַר לְךָ בְּכָל שְׁעָרֶיךָ עַד רֶדֶת חֹמֹתֶיךָ הַגְּבֹהֹת וְהַבְּצֻרוֹת אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה בֹּטֵחַ בָּהֵן בְּכָל אַרְצֶךָ וְהֵצַר לְךָ בְּכָל שְׁעָרֶיךָ בְּכָל אַרְצְךָ אֲשֶׁר נָתַן יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לָךְ:
until your… walls come down: [The רֶדֶת here is [an expression of רִדּוּי וְכִבּוּשׁ] subjugation and conquest.   עד רדת חמתיך: לשון רדוי וכבוש:
53. And during the siege and the desperation which your enemies will bring upon you, you will eat the fruit of your womb, the flesh of your sons and daughters, whom the Lord, your God, gave you.   נג. וְאָכַלְתָּ פְרִי בִטְנְךָ בְּשַׂר בָּנֶיךָ וּבְנֹתֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר נָתַן לְךָ יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּמָצוֹר וּבְמָצוֹק אֲשֶׁר יָצִיק לְךָ אֹיְבֶךָ:
And during the siege and desperation… you will eat the fruit of your womb, the flesh of your sons: Because [the enemies] will besiege the city, and there will be caused desperation, the distress of famine.   ואכלת פרי בטנך בשר בניך וגו' במצור: מחמת שיהיו צרין על העיר ויהיה שם מצוק עקת רעבון:
54. The most tender and delicate man among you, will begrudge his own brother and the wife of his embrace and the rest of his children, whom he will leave over,   נד. הָאִישׁ הָרַךְ בְּךָ וְהֶעָנֹג מְאֹד תֵּרַע עֵינוֹ בְאָחִיו וּבְאֵשֶׁת חֵיקוֹ וּבְיֶתֶר בָּנָיו אֲשֶׁר יוֹתִיר:
The most tender and delicate man among you: This is referring to the same person, who is both tender and delicate. These terms denote a pampered existence. [The fact] that these two expressions refer to the same person is proved [by their use together], when it says, “מֵהִתְעַנֵּג וּמֵרֹךְ, because of delicateness and tenderness” (verse 56) [referring to the same person. And here, the verse tells us that] although he is so pampered and he [normally] cannot tolerate anything repugnant, the flesh of his sons and daughters will seem sweet to him as a result of his [intense] hunger. And it will reach a stage where he will begrudge his remaining children, by denying any of them the flesh of his sons, their brothers, which he is eating. Another explanation of הָרַךְ בְּךָ: The merciful and tenderhearted will become cruel because of the intense hunger, and they will not give the flesh of their slaughtered children to their remaining children.   הרך בך והענג: הוא הרך הוא הענוג, לשון פינוק. ומהתענג ומרך מוכיח עליהם ששניהם אחד, אף על פי שהוא מפונק ודעתו קצה בדבר מאוס, ימתק לו לרעבונו בשר בניו ובנותיו עד כי תרע עינו בבניו הנותרים מתת לאחד מהם מבשר בניו אחיהם אשר יאכל. דבר אחר הרך בך הרחמני ורך הלבב, מרוב רעבנותם, יתאכזרו ולא יתנו מבשר בניהם השחוטים לבניהם הנותרים:
55. of giving any one of them of the flesh of his children that he is eating, because not a thing will remain for him in the siege and in the desperation which your enemies will bring upon you, in all your cities.   נה. מִתֵּת | לְאַחַד מֵהֶם מִבְּשַׂר בָּנָיו אֲשֶׁר יֹאכֵל מִבְּלִי הִשְׁאִיר לוֹ כֹּל בְּמָצוֹר וּבְמָצוֹק אֲשֶׁר יָצִיק לְךָ אֹיִבְךָ בְּכָל שְׁעָרֶיךָ:
56. The most tender and delicate woman among you, who would not venture to set her foot upon the ground, because of delicateness and tenderness, will begrudge the husband of her embrace and her own son and daughter,   נו. הָרַכָּה בְךָ וְהָעֲנֻגָּה אֲשֶׁר לֹא נִסְּתָה כַף רַגְלָהּ הַצֵּג עַל הָאָרֶץ מֵהִתְעַנֵּג וּמֵרֹךְ תֵּרַע עֵינָהּ בְּאִישׁ חֵיקָהּ וּבִבְנָהּ וּבְבִתָּהּ:
will begrudge the husband of her embrace and her own son and daughter: [referring to her] grown-up [children].   תרע עינה באיש חיקה ובבנה ובבתה: הגדולים:
57. and the infants who emerge from between her legs, and her own children whom she will bear, for she will eat them in secret, in destitution, in the siege and the desperation which your enemies will inflict upon you, in your cities.   נז. וּבְשִׁלְיָתָהּ הַיּוֹצֵת | מִבֵּין רַגְלֶיהָ וּבְבָנֶיהָ אֲשֶׁר תֵּלֵד כִּי תֹאכְלֵם בְּחֹסֶר כֹּל בַּסָּתֶר בְּמָצוֹר וּבְמָצוֹק אֲשֶׁר יָצִיק לְךָ אֹיִבְךָ בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ:
and the infants who emerge from between her legs: i.e. the small children, she will begrudge all of them [the elder and the younger children] when she eats one by denying those beside her any of the flesh.   ובשליתה: בניה הקטנים בכולן תהא עינה צרה כשתאכל את האחד מליתן לאשר אצלה מן הבשר:
58. If you do not observe to fulfill all the words of this Torah, which are written in this scroll, to fear this glorious and awesome name, the Lord, your God,   נח. אִם לֹא תִשְׁמֹר לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת כָּל דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת הַכְּתֻבִים בַּסֵּפֶר הַזֶּה לְיִרְאָה אֶת הַשֵּׁם הַנִּכְבַּד וְהַנּוֹרָא הַזֶּה אֵת יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ:
59. Then the Lord [will bring upon] you and your offspring uniquely [horrible] plagues, terrible and unyielding plagues, and evil and unyielding sicknesses.   נט. וְהִפְלָא יְהֹוָה אֶת מַכֹּתְךָ וְאֵת מַכּוֹת זַרְעֶךָ מַכּוֹת גְּדֹלֹת וְנֶאֱמָנוֹת וָחֳלָיִם רָעִים וְנֶאֱמָנִים:
Then the Lord will bring upon you… plagues: [The Lord will bring upon you plagues which are more] remarkable and different from any other plagues.   והפלא ה' את מכתך: מופלאות ומובדלות משאר מכות:
unyielding: [Literally, “faithful.” I.e., these plagues will “faithfully”] chastise you in order to fulfill their mission.   ונאמנות: ליסרך לקיים שליחותן:
60. And He will bring back upon you all the diseases of Egypt which you dreaded, and they will cling to you.   ס. וְהֵשִׁיב בְּךָ אֵת כָּל מַדְוֵה מִצְרַיִם אֲשֶׁר יָגֹרְתָּ מִפְּנֵיהֶם וְדָבְקוּ בָּךְ:
which you dreaded: [You dreaded] those diseases [not that you dreaded Egypt]. When Israel saw the extraordinary plagues that befell Egypt, they were afraid of them, i.e., they were afraid that these plagues would befall them too. You should know, [that the Israelites dreaded the plagues of Egypt,] because it is written,“If you hearken…, all the sickness that I have visited upon Egypt, I will not visit upon you” (Exod. 15:26) [implying that if you do not hearken, I will place them upon you! Since Israel feared those plagues, God used them as a threat, because] one can instill fear into a person only through something he fears.   אשר יגרת מפניהם: מפני המכות כשהיו ישראל רואים מכות משונות הבאות על מצרים היו יראים מהם שלא יבואו גם עליהם, תדע שכן כתיב (שמות טו כו) אם שמוע וגו' כל המחלה אשר שמתי במצרים לא אשים עליך, אין מיראין את האדם אלא בדבר שהוא יגור ממנו:
61. Also, the Lord will bring upon you every disease and plague which is not written in this Torah scroll, to destroy you.   סא. גַּם כָּל חֳלִי וְכָל מַכָּה אֲשֶׁר לֹא כָתוּב בְּסֵפֶר הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת יַעְלֵם יְהֹוָה עָלֶיךָ עַד הִשָּׁמְדָךְ:
will bring upon you: Heb. יַעְלֵם. [This term is] an expression of עִלִיּה, going up.   יעלם: לשון עלייה:
62. And you will remain few in number, whereas you were once as numerous as the stars of the heavens because you did not obey the Lord, your God.   סב. וְנִשְׁאַרְתֶּם בִּמְתֵי מְעָט תַּחַת אֲשֶׁר הֱיִיתֶם כְּכוֹכְבֵי הַשָּׁמַיִם לָרֹב כִּי לֹא שָׁמַעְתָּ בְּקוֹל יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ:
And you will remain few in number: Instead of being numerous [“as the stars of the stars of the heaven”], you will be few [in number].   ונשארתם במתי מעט תחת וגו': מועטין חלף מרובין:
63. And it will be, just as the Lord rejoiced over you to do good for you and to increase you, so will the Lord cause to rejoice over you to annihilate you and to destroy you. And you will be uprooted from the land which you enter therein, to possess it.   סג. וְהָיָה כַּאֲשֶׁר שָׂשׂ יְהֹוָה עֲלֵיכֶם לְהֵיטִיב אֶתְכֶם וּלְהַרְבּוֹת אֶתְכֶם כֵּן יָשִׂישׂ יְהֹוָה עֲלֵיכֶם לְהַאֲבִיד אֶתְכֶם וּלְהַשְׁמִיד אֶתְכֶם וְנִסַּחְתֶּם מֵעַל הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה בָא שָׁמָּה לְרִשְׁתָּהּ:
So will the Lord cause to rejoice: [I.e., “so will He make] your enemies [rejoice] over you, to annihilate you.” [But the Holy One, Blessed is He, Himself, does not rejoice. From here, we learn that the Holy One, Blessed is He, does not rejoice over the downfall of the wicked, for in our verse it does not say יָשׂוּשׂ [in the simple conjugation], “rejoice,” but rather יָשִׂישׂ in the causative conjugation, “cause to rejoice.” I.e., God will make others rejoice over your downfall, because you acted wickedly, while He Himself will not personally rejoice over your downfall. Nevertheless, when it comes to bestowing good upon the righteous, God Himself rejoices, as it is said: “just as the Lord rejoiced (שָׂשׂ) over you [to do good for you,” where the verb שָׂשׂ is in the simple conjugation, for God Himself rejoices here]]. — [Meg. 10b]   כן ישיש ה': את אויביכם עליכם להאביד וגו':
and you will be uprooted: Heb. וְנִסַּחְתֶּם, an expression of uprooting. Similar to this is the verse,“The Lord will uproot (יִסַּח) the house of the arrogant” (Prov. 15:25).   ונסחתם: לשון עקירה וכן (משלי טו, כה) בית גאים יסח ה':
64. And the Lord will scatter you among all the nations, from one end of the earth to the other, and there you will serve other deities unknown to you or your forefathers, [deities of] wood and stone.   סד. וֶהֱפִיצְךָ יְהֹוָה בְּכָל הָעַמִּים מִקְצֵה הָאָרֶץ וְעַד קְצֵה הָאָרֶץ וְעָבַדְתָּ שָּׁם אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים אֲשֶׁר לֹא יָדַעְתָּ אַתָּה וַאֲבֹתֶיךָ עֵץ וָאָבֶן:
and there you will serve other deities: As the Targum [Onkelos] renders: [and there you will serve nations that worship idols. Thus, the verse is] not referring to actual idolatry, but rather paying customs and head taxes to idolatrous priests.   ועבדת שם אלהים אחרים: כתרגומו, לא עבודת אלהות ממש, אלא מעלים מס וגולגליות לכומרי עבודה זרה:
65. And among those nations, you will not be calm, nor will your foot find rest. There, the Lord will give you a trembling heart, dashed hopes, and a depressed soul.   סה. וּבַגּוֹיִם הָהֵם לֹא תַרְגִּיעַ וְלֹא יִהְיֶה מָנוֹחַ לְכַף רַגְלֶךָ וְנָתַן יְהֹוָה לְךָ שָׁם לֵב רַגָּז וְכִלְיוֹן עֵינַיִם וְדַאֲבוֹן נָפֶשׁ:
you will not be calm: Heb. לֹא תַרְגִּיעַ, [meaning, as Onkelos renders:] “You will not rest.” Similar to this is the verse,“and this is the rest (הַמַּרְגֵּעָה)” (Isa. 28:12).   לא תרגיע: לא תנוח, כמו (ישעיה כח, יב) וזאת המרגעה:
a trembling heart: Heb. לֵב רַגָּז, a trembling heart, as the Targum [Onkelos] renders: דָחֵיל, “fearful, trembling,” similar to“Gehinnom from beneath quaked (רָגְזָה) for you” (Isa. 14:9),“Peoples heard; they trembled (יִרְגָּזוּן) ” (Exod. 15:14), and“The foundations of heaven trembled (יִרְגָּזוּ)” (II Sam. 22:8).   לב רגז: לב חרד, כתרגומו דחל, כמו (שם יד ט) שאול מתחת רגזה לך, (שמות טו, יד) שמעו עמים ירגזון, (שמואל ב' כב, ח) מוסדות השמים ירגזו:
dashed hopes: [I.e.,] hoping for a salvation, but it never comes.   וכליון עינים: מצפה לישועה ולא תבא:
66. And your life will hang in suspense before you. You will be in fear night and day, and you will not believe in your life.   סו. וְהָיוּ חַיֶּיךָ תְּלֻאִים לְךָ מִנֶּגֶד וּפָחַדְתָּ לַיְלָה וְיוֹמָם וְלֹא תַאֲמִין בְּחַיֶּיךָ:
Your life will hang in suspense: Heb. תְּלֻאִים, [meaning that they hang in suspense] because of uncertainty. Any doubt is denoted by the term תָּלוּי, “suspended.” [Here, the doubt is that you will constantly think:] “Perhaps I will die today by the sword that is befalling us.” Our Rabbis explain this verse as referring to one who purchases produce from the marketplace. [I.e., he relies directly on the marketplace for his sustenance, with the risk that if one time there is no produce in the market, he will not have provisions. Thus, his life “hangs in suspense.”]   חייך תלואים לך: על הספק, כל ספק קרוי תלוי, שמא אמות היום בחרב הבאה עלינו. ורבותינו דרשו זה הלוקח תבואה מן השוק:
and you will not believe in your life: This refers to one who relies on the shopkeeper [for his sustenance. This curse, therefore, represents a level of trust far worse than the one who relies upon the marketplace. A person can take provisions from the marketplace to last a long time, but one who relies upon the middleman is at further risk of not receiving sustenance]. — [see Men. 103b]   ולא תאמין בחייך: זה הסומך על הפלטר:
67. In the morning, you will say, "If only it were evening! " and in the evening, you will say, "If only it were morning!" because of the fear in your heart which you will experience and because of the sights that you will behold.   סז. בַּבֹּקֶר תֹּאמַר מִי יִתֵּן עֶרֶב וּבָעֶרֶב תֹּאמַר מִי יִתֵּן בֹּקֶר מִפַּחַד לְבָבְךָ אֲשֶׁר תִּפְחָד וּמִמַּרְאֵה עֵינֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר תִּרְאֶה:
In the morning, you will say, “If only it were evening!”: [I.e.,] if it were only yesterday evening! [The trouble will be worse in the morning, so that you will yearn for the previous evening]. — [Sotah 49a]   בבקר תאמר מי יתן ערב: ויהיה הערב של אמש:
and in the evening, you will say,“If only it were morning!”: [I.e.,] if it were only morning of that day! Thus, the troubles will always progressively intensify; each hour, the curse will be more severe than the preceding one. — [ibid.]   ובערב תאמר מי יתן בקר: של שחרית, שהצרות מתחזקות תמיד וכל שעה מרובה קללתה משלפניה:
68. And the Lord will bring you back to Egypt in ships, through the way about which I had said to you, You will never see it again. And there, you will seek to be sold to your enemies for slaves and handmaids, but there will be no buyer.   סח. וֶהֱשִׁיבְךָ יְהֹוָה | מִצְרַיִם בָּאֳנִיּוֹת בַּדֶּרֶךְ אֲשֶׁר אָמַרְתִּי לְךָ לֹא תֹסִיף עוֹד לִרְאֹתָהּ וְהִתְמַכַּרְתֶּם שָׁם לְאֹיְבֶיךָ לַעֲבָדִים וְלִשְׁפָחוֹת וְאֵין קֹנֶה:
in ships: In ships of captivity.   באניות: בספינות בשביה:
And there, you will seek to be sold to your enemies: You will wish to be sold to them as slaves and handmaids.   והתמכרתם שם לאיביך: אתם מבקשים להיות נמכרים להם לעבדים ולשפחות:
but there will be no buyer: Because they will decree death and destruction upon you.   ואין קנה: כי יגזרו עליך הרג וכליון:
and you will seek to be sold: Heb. וְהִתְמַכַּרְתֶּם, in Old French epor vandrez vos. [That is, the verb is in the reflexive conjugation. Accordingly,] it is incorrect to explain וְהִתְמַכַּרְתֶּם [as if in the passive conjugation, i.e.,] as וְנִמְכַּרְתֶּם, “and you will be sold”-sold by others-because the verse continues: “but there will be no buyer.” [Thus how could they be “sold by others” if there is“no buyer”?]   והתמכרתם: בלע"ז איפורוונדרי"ץ וו"ש [ותמכרו עצמכם] ולא יתכן לפרש והתמכרתם לשון ונמכרתם על ידי מוכרים אחרים, מפני שנאמר אחריו ואין קונה:
69. These are the words of the covenant, which the Lord commanded Moses to make with the children of Israel in the land of Moab, besides the covenant which he made with them in Horeb.   סט. אֵלֶּה דִבְרֵי הַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהֹוָה אֶת משֶׁה לִכְרֹת אֶת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּאֶרֶץ מוֹאָב מִלְּבַד הַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר כָּרַת אִתָּם בְּחֹרֵב:
to make with the Children of Israel: that they should accept the Torah upon themselves with a curse and an oath.   לכרת את בני ישראל: שיקבלו עליהם את התורה באלה ובשבועה:
besides the covenant: [Namely,] the curses [which appear] in Lev. (26: 14-39), which were proclaimed at [Mount] Sinai.   מלבד הברית: קללות שבתורת כהנים שנאמרו בסיני:
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