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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Devarim - Deuteronomy - Chapter 13

Devarim - Deuteronomy - Chapter 13

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 13

1. Everything I command you that you shall be careful to do it. You shall neither add to it, nor subtract from it.   א. אֵת כָּל הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוֶּה אֶתְכֶם אֹתוֹ תִשְׁמְרוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת לֹא תֹסֵף עָלָיו וְלֹא תִגְרַע מִמֶּנּוּ:
Everything [that I command you]: less significant [commandments] as well as more significant ones. — [Sifrei]   את כל הדבר: קלה כחמורה:
that you shall be careful to do: [This statement] attaches a negative commandment to the positive commandments mentioned in this parashah , for wherever הִשָּׁמֵר is used, it is an expression of a negative commandment. Lashes, however, are not incurred for [infringement of a prohibition when] the term הִשָּׁמֵר is attached to a positive commandment.   תשמרו לעשות: ליתן לא תעשה על עשה האמורים בפרשה. שכל השמר לשון לא תעשה הוא, אלא שאין לוקין על השמר של עשה:
You shall neither add to it: [e.g., placing] five chapters in tefillin [instead of four], or [using] five species for the lulav [instead of four], or [reciting] four blessings [instead of three] for the “blessing of the kohanim.” - [Sifrei]   לא תסף עליו: חמשה טוטפות בתפילין, חמשה מינין בלולב, ארבע ברכות בברכת כהנים:
2. If there will arise among you a prophet, or a dreamer of a dream, and he gives you a sign or a wonder,   ב. כִּי יָקוּם בְּקִרְבְּךָ נָבִיא אוֹ חֹלֵם חֲלוֹם וְנָתַן אֵלֶיךָ אוֹת אוֹ מוֹפֵת:
[If there will arise among you a prophet…] and he gives you a sign: Heb. אוֹת, [meaning a sign] in the heavens, as it is stated in the case of Gideon [who said to the angel]:“then show me a sign (אוֹת) ” (Jud. 6:17), and then it says [further],“let it be dry only upon the fleece [and upon all the ground let there be dew]” (Jud. 6:39).   ונתן אליך אות: בשמים, כענין שנאמר בגדעון (שופטים ו, יז) ועשית לי אות, ואומר (שם ו, לט) יהי נא חורב אל הגזה וגו':
or a wonder: Heb. מוֹפֵת, [meaning a sign] on the earth. (other texts [of Rashi read as follows]:   או מופת: בארץ. (ס"א:
and he gives you a sign: in the heavens, as is written,“and they [i.e., the sun, the moon, and the stars] shall be for signs (לְאֹתֹת) and for seasons” [Gen. 1: 14].   ונתן אליך אות: בשמים דכתיב והיו לאותות ולמועדים:
or a wonder: on the earth, as is written, “If there will be dew on the fleece only, and upon all the ground, dry” [Jud. 6:39]). Even so, you shall not listen to him. But if you say, “Why then does the Holy One, blessed is He, give him the power to perform a sign? [Scripture replies,] ”for the Lord, your God, is testing you [… whether you really love the Lord your God]" (verse 4). - [Sifrei; San. 90a]   או מופת: בארץ דכתיב אם טל יהיה על הגזה לבדה ועל כל הארץ חורב) אעפ"כ לא תשמע לו וא"ת מפני מה נותן לו הקב"ה ממשלה לעשות אות כי מנסה ה' אלהיכם אתכם:
3. and the sign or the wonder of which he spoke to you happens, [and he] says, "Let us go after other gods which you have not known, and let us worship them,"   ג. וּבָא הָאוֹת וְהַמּוֹפֵת אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר אֵלֶיךָ לֵאמֹר נֵלְכָה אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים אֲשֶׁר לֹא יְדַעְתָּם וְנָעָבְדֵם:
4. you shall not heed the words of that prophet, or that dreamer of a dream; for the Lord, your God, is testing you, to know whether you really love the Lord, your God, with all your heart and with all your soul.   ד. לֹא תִשְׁמַע אֶל דִּבְרֵי הַנָּבִיא הַהוּא אוֹ אֶל חוֹלֵם הַחֲלוֹם הַהוּא כִּי מְנַסֶּה יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֶתְכֶם לָדַעַת הֲיִשְׁכֶם אֹהֲבִים אֶת יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם בְּכָל לְבַבְכֶם וּבְכָל נַפְשְׁכֶם:
5. You shall follow the Lord, your God, fear Him, keep His commandments, heed His voice, worship Him, and cleave to Him.   ה. אַחֲרֵי יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם תֵּלֵכוּ וְאֹתוֹ תִירָאוּ וְאֶת מִצְו‍ֹתָיו תִּשְׁמֹרוּ וּבְקֹלוֹ תִשְׁמָעוּ וְאֹתוֹ תַעֲבֹדוּ וּבוֹ תִדְבָּקוּן:
keep His commandments: the Torah of Moses.   ואת מצותיו תשמרו: תורת משה:
heed His voice: the voice of the prophets.   ובקולו תשמעו: בקול הנביאים:
worship Him: in His sanctuary. — [Sifrei]   ואתו תעבודו: במקדשו:
and cleave to Him: Cleave to His ways: bestow kindness, bury the dead, and visit the sick, just as the Holy One, blessed is He, did. — [Sotah 14a]   ובו תדבקון: הדבק בדרכיו. גמול חסדים, קבור מתים, בקר חולים, כמו שעשה הקב"ה:
6. And that prophet, or that dreamer of a dream shall be put to death; because he spoke falsehood about the Lord, your God Who brought you out of the land of Egypt, and Who redeemed you from the house of bondage, to lead you astray from the way in which the Lord, your God, commanded you to go; so shall you clear away the evil from your midst.   ו. וְהַנָּבִיא הַהוּא אוֹ חֹלֵם הַחֲלוֹם הַהוּא יוּמָת כִּי דִבֶּר סָרָה עַל יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם הַמּוֹצִיא אֶתְכֶם | מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם וְהַפֹּדְךָ מִבֵּית עֲבָדִים לְהַדִּיחֲךָ מִן הַדֶּרֶךְ אֲשֶׁר צִוְּךָ יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לָלֶכֶת בָּהּ וּבִעַרְתָּ הָרָע מִקִּרְבֶּךָ:
[Because he spoke] falsehood: Heb. סָרָה, lit. something turned away, removed from the world, which neither existed nor was created, and which I never commanded him to say; destodre in Old French, to distort.   סרה: דבר המוסר מן העולם שלא היה ולא נברא ולא צויתיו לדבר כן, דישטולוד"א בלע"ז [הסרה]:
and redeemed you from of the house of bondage: Even if God had no [other claim] on you other than that He had redeemed you, it would be sufficient [to demand your obedience]. — [Sifrei]   והפדך מבית עבדים: אפילו אין לו עליך אלא שפדאך, דיו:
7. If your brother, the son of your mother, tempts you in secret or your son, or your daughter, or the wife of your embrace, or your friend, who is as your own soul saying, "Let us go and worship other gods, which neither you, nor your forefathers have known."   ז. כִּי יְסִיתְךָ אָחִיךָ בֶן אִמֶּךָ אוֹ בִנְךָ אוֹ בִתְּךָ אוֹ | אֵשֶׁת חֵיקֶךָ אוֹ רֵעֲךָ אֲשֶׁר כְּנַפְשְׁךָ בַּסֵּתֶר לֵאמֹר נֵלְכָה וְנַעַבְדָה אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים אֲשֶׁר לֹא יָדַעְתָּ אַתָּה וַאֲבֹתֶיךָ:
If [your brother…] tempts you: The term הֲסָתָה always denotes inciting as it is said, אִם ה׳ הֶסִיתְךָ, “If the Lord has incited you against me” (I Sam. 26:19); ametra in Old French, will incite, that he tempts him to do so.   כי יסיתך: אין הסתה אלא גרוי, שנאמר (שמואל א' כו יט) אם ה' הסיתך בי, אמיטר"א בלע"ז [יסית], שמשיאו לעשות כן:
your brother: from the father[’s side].   אחיך: מאב:
the son of your mother: from the mother[’s side].   בן אמך: מאם:
of your embrace: The one that lies in your embrace and is attached (מְחֻקָּה) to you; afichiede in Old French, bound, attached (Greenberg), afichier in Old French, to attach (Gukovitzki). This is similar to וּמֵחֵיק הָאָרֶץ (Ezek. 43:14), which refers to the base [of the altar] that is affixed firmly in the ground.   חיקך: השוכבת בחיקך ומחוקה בך אפיקייד"א בלע"ז [דבוקה], וכן (יחזקאל מג, יד) ומחיק הארץ, מיסוד התקוע בארץ:
[Or your friend,] who is as your own soul: This refers to your father. Scripture enumerates those [persons] who are dear to you; how much more so [must you apply this] to others [and not spare them]!   אשר כנפשך: זה אביך. פירש לך הכתוב את החביבין לך, קל וחומר לאחרים:
[If your brother…tempts you] in secret: Scripture speaks of what commonly [occurs, but does not exclude the other case, i.e., one who entices publicly], for usually the one who entices speaks clandestinely. Similarly, Solomon [describing an episode of enticement,] says: “In the twilight, in the evening time, in the blackness of night and the darkness” (Prov. 7:9). - [Sifrei]   בסתר: דבר הכתוב בהווה, שאין דברי מסית אלא בסתר. וכן שלמה הוא אומר (משלי ז, ט) בנשף בערב יום באישון לילה ואפלה:
[Let us go and worship other gods,] which neither you nor your forefathers have known: This would be a great disgrace for you, for not even the heathen nations forsake what their forefathers have handed down to them. Yet this [man] says to you, “Abandon what your forefathers have handed down to you!” - [Sifrei]   אשר לא ידעת אתה ואבותיך: דבר זה גנאי גדול הוא לך שאף האומות אין מניחין מה שמסרו להם אבותיהם, וזהו אומר לך עזוב מה שמסרו לך אבותיך:
8. Of the gods of the peoples around you, [whether] near to you or far from you, from one end of the earth to the other end of the earth;   ח. מֵאֱלֹהֵי הָעַמִּים אֲשֶׁר סְבִיבֹתֵיכֶם הַקְּרֹבִים אֵלֶיךָ אוֹ הָרְחֹקִים מִמֶּךָּ מִקְצֵה הָאָרֶץ וְעַד קְצֵה הָאָרֶץ:
Let us go and worship other gods…] whether near to you or far [from you]: Why did [Scripture] specify [gods] that are“near… or far”? Rather, this is what Scripture says: Through [knowing] the character of those [gods] close to you, you learn the character of those far from you; just as those close to you are devoid of substance, so are those far from you devoid of substance. — [San. 61b; Sifrei]   הקרובים אליך או הרחוקים: למה פרט קרובים ורחוקים, אלא כך אמר הכתוב, מטיבן של קרובים אתה למד טיבן של רחוקים, כשם שאין ממש בקרובים כך אין ממש ברחוקים:
[gods… far from you,] from one end of the earth [to the other end of the earth]: This refers to the sun, the moon, and the legion of heavens [i.e., the stars], which extend from one end of the world to the other. — [Sifrei]   מקצה הארץ: זו חמה ולבנה וצבא השמים שהן מהלכין מסוף העולם ועד סופו:
9. You shall not desire him, and you shall not hearken to him; neither shall you pity him, have mercy upon him, nor shield him.   ט. לֹא תֹאבֶה לוֹ וְלֹא תִשְׁמַע אֵלָיו וְלֹא תָחוֹס עֵינְךָ עָלָיו וְלֹא תַחְמֹל וְלֹא תְכַסֶּה עָלָיו:
You shall not desire him: Heb. לֹא-תֹאבֶה. You shall feel no longing (תאב) towards him; do not love him (לֹא תֹאהֲבֶנוּ)). Since it is said, “You shall love your fellow man as yourself” (Lev. 19:18), [therefore it is necessary to tell us that] this person, [however,] you shall not love.   לא תאבה לו: לא תהא תאב לו. לא תאהבנו. לפי שנאמר (ויקרא יט, יח) ואהבת לרעך כמוך, את זה לא תאהב:
and do not hearken to him: when he pleads for his life, that you should pardon him. [It is necessary to state this] because it says, “[If you see the donkey of your enemy] you shall surely help him” (Exod. 23:5); this person, [however,] you shall not help.   ולא תשמע אליו: בהתחננו על נפשו למחול לו, לפי שנאמר (שמות כג, ה) עזוב תעזוב עמו, לזה לא תעזוב:
neither shall you pity him: [It is necessary to state this] because it says, “you shall not stand idly by the blood of your fellow man” (Lev. 19:16). This person [however] you shall not pity. — [Sifrei]   ולא תחוס עינך עליו: לפי שנאמר (ויקרא יט, טז) לא תעמוד על דם רעך, על זה לא תחוס:
[neither shall you…] have mercy upon him: Do not search for merits in his favor.   ולא תחמול: לא תהפוך בזכותו:
nor shall you shield him: If you are aware of something that will condemn him, you are not permitted to remain silent. — [Sifrei]   ולא תכסה עליו: אם אתה יודע לו חובה אינך רשאי לשתוק:
10. But you shall surely kill him, your hand shall be the first against him to put him to death, and afterwards the hand of all the people.   י. כִּי הָרֹג תַּהַרְגֶנּוּ יָדְךָ תִּהְיֶה בּוֹ בָרִאשׁוֹנָה לַהֲמִיתוֹ וְיַד כָּל הָעָם בָּאַחֲרֹנָה:
But you shall surely kill him: (If he has left the court, acquitted, have him returned for conviction;) if [on the other hand,] he has left the court convicted, do not return him for acquittal. — [Sifrei]   כי הרג תהרגנו: [אם יצא מבית דין זכאי, החזירהו לחובה] יצא מבית דין חייב, אל תחזירהו לזכות:
Your hand shall be the first against him [to put him to death]: The one who was tempted [to idolatry by this person] has the duty to put him to death. [However] if he did not die by his hand, he must die by the hand of others, as is stated (in this verse), “and afterwards the hand of all the people, etc.” - [Sifrei]   ידך תהיה בו בראשונה: מצוה ביד הניסת להמיתו. לא מת בידו, ימות ביד אחרים, שנאמר ויד כל העם וגו':
11. And you shall stone him with stones so that he dies, because he sought to lead you astray from the Lord, your God, Who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage.   יא. וּסְקַלְתּוֹ בָאֲבָנִים וָמֵת כִּי בִקֵּשׁ לְהַדִּיחֲךָ מֵעַל יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ הַמּוֹצִיאֲךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מִבֵּית עֲבָדִים:
12. And all Israel shall listen and fear, and they shall no longer do any evil such as this in your midst.   יב. וְכָל יִשְׂרָאֵל יִשְׁמְעוּ וְיִרָאוּן וְלֹא יוֹסִפוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת כַּדָּבָר הָרָע הַזֶּה בְּקִרְבֶּךָ:
13. If you hear in one of your cities which the Lord, your God, is giving you to dwell therein, saying,   יג. כִּי תִשְׁמַע בְּאַחַת עָרֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לְךָ לָשֶׁבֶת שָׁם לֵאמֹר:
[If you will hear in one of your cities which the Lord, your God, gives you] to dwell therein: [The words“to dwell therein” are added] to exclude Jerusalem, which was not apportioned as a dwelling place [for a particular tribe]. — [Sifrei]   לשבת שם: פרט לירושלים שלא ניתנה לדירה:
If you hear… saying: Heb. לֵאמֹר, lit. to say. [If you hear people] saying thus:   כי תשמע וגו' לאמר: אומרים כן, יצאו וגו':
14. "Unfaithful men have gone forth from among you and have led the inhabitants of their city astray, saying, 'Let us go and worship other gods, which you have not known.' "   יד. יָצְאוּ אֲנָשִׁים בְּנֵי בְלִיַּעַל מִקִּרְבֶּךָ וַיַּדִּיחוּ אֶת ישְׁבֵי עִירָם לֵאמֹר נֵלְכָה וְנַעַבְדָה אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים אֲשֶׁר לֹא יְדַעְתֶּם:
[Unfaithful] men: Heb. בְּנֵי-בְלִיַּעַל -people without a yoke בְּלִי עוֹל, who have thrown off the yoke of the Omnipresent. — [Sifrei]   בני בליעל: בלי עול. שפרקו עולו של מקום:
[Unfaithful] men: But not women.   אנשים: ולא נשים:
the inhabitants of their city: But not the inhabitants of another city. From here [our Rabbis] said: A city is not considered a“wayward city” (עִיר הַנִדַּחַת) unless men (אֲנָשִׁים) lead it astray, and unless those who lead it astray are from within it. — [San. 111b]   ישבי עירם: ולא יושבי עיר אחרת. מכאן אמרו אין נעשית עיר הנדחת עד שידיחוה אנשים, ועד שיהיו מדיחיה מתוכה:
15. Then you shall inquire, investigate, and ask thoroughly, and, behold, it is true, the matter is certain, that such abomination has been committed in your midst:   טו. וְדָרַשְׁתָּ וְחָקַרְתָּ וְשָׁאַלְתָּ הֵיטֵב וְהִנֵּה אֱמֶת נָכוֹן הַדָּבָר נֶעֶשְׂתָה הַתּוֹעֵבָה הַזֹּאת בְּקִרְבֶּךָ:
Then you shall inquire, investigate, and ask thoroughly: Heb. וְדָרַשְׁתָּ וְחָקַרְתָּ וְשָׁאַלְתָּ הֵיטֵב. From this verse [in combination with others as explained], our Rabbis learned [the law of] the “seven investigations” [in a court of law], since Scripture uses many expressions [of investigation]. Here there are three expressions: דְרִישָׁה, חֲקִירָה, and הֵיטֵב [i.e., “inquiry,” “investigation,” and “thoroughly”]. The term וְשָׁאַלְתָּ, “ask,” is not counted as one [of the seven investigations (חֲקִירוֹת)] and the the cross-examinations (בְּדִיקוֹת) [regarding accompanying circumstances] are derived from it. [So far, we have three expressions.] And elsewhere [in the case of collusive witnesses,] it says: וְדָרְשׁוּ הַשּׁוֹפְטִים הֵיטֵב, “And the judges shall inquire thoroughly” (Deut. 19:18). [This adds two more expressions, דְרִישָׁה and הֵיטֵב, to make five altogether.] And still elsewhere [in the case of idolatry,] it says: וְדָרַשְׁתָּ הֵיטֵב, “And you shall inquire thoroughly” (Deut. 17:4) [thus adding two more expressions, דְרִישָׁה and הֵיטֵב, to make up a final total of seven investigatory expressions demonstrating the law of “seven investigations”]. And our Rabbis learned a גְּזֵירָה שָׁוָה [i.e., an inference from an identical word in two passages, which teaches us that the laws in one passage apply to the other passage as well] from [the words] הֵיטֵב הֵיטֵב, to place what is stated in one context in the other context. [I.e., it is accounted as if all seven written in the context of the “wayward city,” as well as in the cases of collusive witnesses and individuals who worshipped idols. I.e., all the seven expressions can be connected together to make seven investigations.] - [San. 40a; Sifrei] [The judges would ask the witnesses the following seven questions: 1) In what shemitah cycle was the crime committed? 2) In what year? 3) In what month? 4) In what day of the month? 5) On what day [of the week]? 6) In what hour? 7) In what place? (San. 5:1)]   ודרשת וחקרת ושאלת היטב: מכאן למדו שבע חקירות מרבוי המקרא. כאן יש שלש דרישה וחקירה והיטב. ושאלת, אינו מן המנין, וממנו למדו בדיקות. ובמקום אחר הוא אומר (דברים יט, יח) ודרשו השופטים היטב. ועוד במקום אחר הוא אומר (שם יז, ד) ודרשת היטב. ולמדו היטב היטב לגזירה שוה, ליתן האמור של זה בזה:
16. You shall surely strike down the inhabitants of that city with the edge of the sword, destroy it with all that is in it and its livestock, with the edge of the sword.   טז. הַכֵּה תַכֶּה אֶת ישְׁבֵי הָעִיר הַהִוא לְפִי חָרֶב הַחֲרֵם אֹתָהּ וְאֶת כָּל אֲשֶׁר בָּהּ וְאֶת בְּהֶמְתָּהּ לְפִי חָרֶב:
You shall surely strike down: Heb. הַכֵּה תַכֶּה. [The double expression is used to explain that] if you cannot execute the death penalty that is prescribed for them, put them to death in some other manner. — [Sifrei ; B.M 31b]   הכה תכה: אם אינך יכול להמיתם במיתה הכתובה בהם, המיתם באחרת:
17. And you shall collect all its spoil into the midst of its open square, and burn with fire the city and all its spoil, completely, for the Lord, your God; and it shall be a heap of destruction forever, never to be rebuilt.   יז. וְאֶת כָּל שְׁלָלָהּ תִּקְבֹּץ אֶל תּוֹךְ רְחֹבָהּ וְשָׂרַפְתָּ בָאֵשׁ אֶת הָעִיר וְאֶת כָּל שְׁלָלָהּ כָּלִיל לַיהֹוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וְהָיְתָה תֵּל עוֹלָם לֹא תִבָּנֶה עוֹד:
[and burn with fire the city…] for the Lord your God: [i.e.,] for His Name and for His sake.   לה' אלהיך: לשמו ובשבילו:
18. And nothing that is doomed to destruction shall cling to your hand, so that the Lord may return from His fierce wrath, and grant you compassion, and be compassionate with you, and multiply you, as He swore to your forefathers.   יח. וְלֹא יִדְבַּק בְּיָדְךָ מְאוּמָה מִן הַחֵרֶם לְמַעַן יָשׁוּב יְהֹוָה מֵחֲרוֹן אַפּוֹ וְנָתַן לְךָ רַחֲמִים וְרִחַמְךָ וְהִרְבֶּךָ כַּאֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע לַאֲבֹתֶיךָ:
that the Lord may return from His fierce wrath: For as long as idol worship [exists] in the world, the fierce wrath [of God exists] in the world. — [Sifrei; San. 111b]   למען ישוב ה' מחרון אפו: שכל זמן שעבודה זרה בעולם, חרון אף בעולם:
19. For you shall hearken to the voice of the Lord your God, to keep all His commandments which I command you this day, to do that which is proper in the eyes of the Lord, your God.   יט. כִּי תִשְׁמַע בְּקוֹל יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לִשְׁמֹר אֶת כָּל מִצְו‍ֹתָיו אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ הַיּוֹם לַעֲשׂוֹת הַיָּשָׁר בְּעֵינֵי יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ:
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