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Devarim - Deuteronomy - Chapter 9

Devarim - Deuteronomy - Chapter 9

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Chapter 9

1Hear, O Israel: Today, you are crossing the Jordan to come in to possess nations greater and stronger than you, great cities, fortified up to the heavens.   אשְׁמַ֣ע יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל אַתָּ֨ה עֹבֵ֤ר הַיּוֹם֙ אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּ֔ן לָבֹא֙ לָרֶ֣שֶׁת גּוֹיִ֔ם גְּדֹלִ֥ים וַֽעֲצֻמִ֖ים מִמֶּ֑ךָּ עָרִ֛ים גְּדֹלֹ֥ת וּבְצֻרֹ֖ת בַּשָּׁמָֽיִם:
greater and mightier than you: You are mighty, but they are mightier than you. — [Sifrei on Deut.11:24]   גדולים ועצומים ממך: אתה עצום, והם עצומים ממך:
2A great and tall people, the children of the 'Anakim, whom you know and of whom you have heard said, "Who can stand against the children of 'Anak?!"   בעַם־גָּד֥וֹל וָרָ֖ם בְּנֵ֣י עֲנָקִ֑ים אֲשֶׁ֨ר אַתָּ֤ה יָדַ֨עְתָּ֙ וְאַתָּ֣ה שָׁמַ֔עְתָּ מִ֣י יִתְיַצֵּ֔ב לִפְנֵ֖י בְּנֵ֥י עֲנָֽק:
3You shall know this day, that it is the Lord your God Who passes over before you as a consuming fire He will destroy them, and He will subdue them before you; and you shall drive them out and destroy them quickly, as the Lord spoke to you.   גוְיָֽדַעְתָּ֣ הַיּ֗וֹם כִּי֩ יְהֹוָ֨ה אֱלֹהֶ֜יךָ הוּא־הָֽעֹבֵ֤ר לְפָנֶ֨יךָ֙ אֵ֣שׁ אֹֽכְלָ֔ה ה֧וּא יַשְׁמִידֵ֛ם וְה֥וּא יַכְנִיעֵ֖ם לְפָנֶ֑יךָ וְהֽוֹרַשְׁתָּ֤ם וְהַֽאֲבַדְתָּם֙ מַהֵ֔ר כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֛ר דִּבֶּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה לָֽךְ:
4Do not say to yourself, when the Lord, your God, has repelled them from before you, saying, "Because of my righteousness, the Lord has brought me to possess this land," and [that] because of the wickedness of these nations, the Lord drives them out from before you.   דאַל־תֹּאמַ֣ר בִּלְבָֽבְךָ֗ בַּֽהֲדֹ֣ף יְהֹוָה֩ אֱלֹהֶ֨יךָ אֹתָ֥ם | מִלְּפָנֶ֘יךָ֘ לֵאמֹר֒ בְּצִדְקָתִי֙ הֱבִיאַ֣נִי יְהֹוָ֔ה לָרֶ֖שֶׁת אֶת־הָאָ֣רֶץ הַזֹּ֑את וּבְרִשְׁעַת֙ הַגּוֹיִ֣ם הָאֵ֔לֶּה יְהֹוָ֖ה מֽוֹרִישָׁ֥ם מִפָּנֶֽיךָ:
Do not say to yourself: “My righteousness and the nations’ evil brought it about.”   אל תאמר בלבבך: צדקתי ורשעת הגוים גרמו:
5Not because of your righteousness or because of the honesty of your heart, do you come to possess their land, but because of the wickedness of these nations, the Lord your God drives them out from before you, and in order to establish the matter that the Lord swore to your forefathers, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.   הלֹ֣א בְצִדְקָֽתְךָ֗ וּבְי֨שֶׁר֙ לְבָ֣בְךָ֔ אַתָּ֥ה בָ֖א לָרֶ֣שֶׁת אֶת־אַרְצָ֑ם כִּ֞י בְּרִשְׁעַ֣ת | הַגּוֹיִ֣ם הָאֵ֗לֶּה יְהֹוָ֤ה אֱלֹהֶ֨יךָ֙ מֽוֹרִישָׁ֣ם מִפָּנֶ֔יךָ וּלְמַ֜עַן הָקִ֣ים אֶת־הַדָּבָ֗ר אֲשֶׁ֨ר נִשְׁבַּ֤ע יְהֹוָה֙ לַֽאֲבֹתֶ֔יךָ לְאַבְרָהָ֥ם לְיִצְחָ֖ק וּלְיַֽעֲקֹֽב:
for the wickedness of these nations: Here [the word] כִּי means“but.” [See Rashi on Deut. 7:17.]   לא בצדקתך וגו' אתה בא לרשת וגו' כי ברשעת הגוים: הרי כי משמש בלשון אלא:
6You shall know that, not because of your righteousness, the Lord, your God, gives you this land to possess it; for you are a stiffnecked people.   ווְיָֽדַעְתָּ֗ כִּ֠י לֹ֤א בְצִדְקָֽתְךָ֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱ֠לֹהֶ֠יךָ נֹתֵ֨ן לְךָ֜ אֶת־הָאָ֧רֶץ הַטּוֹבָ֛ה הַזֹּ֖את לְרִשְׁתָּ֑הּ כִּ֥י עַם־קְשֵׁה־עֹ֖רֶף אָֽתָּה:
7Remember do not forget, how you angered the Lord, your God, in the desert; from the day that you went out of the land of Egypt, until you came to this place, you have been rebelling against the Lord.   זזְכֹר֙ אַל־תִּשְׁכַּ֔ח אֵ֧ת אֲשֶׁר־הִקְצַ֛פְתָּ אֶת־יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ בַּמִּדְבָּ֑ר לְמִן־הַיּ֞וֹם אֲשֶׁר־יָצָ֣אתָ | מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֗יִם עַד־בֹּֽאֲכֶם֙ עַד־הַמָּק֣וֹם הַזֶּ֔ה מַמְרִ֥ים הֱיִיתֶ֖ם עִם־יְהֹוָֽה:
8At Horeb, you angered the Lord, and the Lord was incensed with you to destroy you.   חוּבְחֹרֵ֥ב הִקְצַפְתֶּ֖ם אֶת־יְהֹוָ֑ה וַיִּתְאַנַּ֧ף יְהֹוָ֛ה בָּכֶ֖ם לְהַשְׁמִ֥יד אֶתְכֶֽם:
9When I ascended the mountain to receive the stone tablets, the tablets of the covenant which the Lord made with you, I remained on the mountain forty days and forty nights; I neither ate bread nor drank water;   טבַּֽעֲלֹתִ֣י הָהָ֗רָה לָקַ֜חַת לוּחֹ֤ת הָֽאֲבָנִים֙ לוּחֹ֣ת הַבְּרִ֔ית אֲשֶׁר־כָּרַ֥ת יְהֹוָ֖ה עִמָּכֶ֑ם וָֽאֵשֵׁ֣ב בָּהָ֗ר אַרְבָּעִ֥ים יוֹם֙ וְאַרְבָּעִ֣ים לַ֔יְלָה לֶ֚חֶם לֹ֣א אָכַ֔לְתִּי וּמַ֖יִם לֹ֥א שָׁתִֽיתִי:
I remained on the mountain: Heb. וָאֵשֵׁב. The word יְשִׁיבָה means“staying” [i.e., I stayed on the mountain]. — [Meg. 21a]   ואשב בהר: אין ישיבה אלא לשון עכבה:
10and the Lord gave me two stone tablets, inscribed by the finger of God, and on them was [inscribed] according to all the words that the Lord spoke with you on the mountain from the midst of the fire on the day of the assembly.   יוַיִּתֵּ֨ן יְהֹוָ֜ה אֵלַ֗י אֶת־שְׁנֵי֙ לוּחֹ֣ת הָֽאֲבָנִ֔ים כְּתֻבִ֖ים בְּאֶצְבַּ֣ע אֱלֹהִ֑ים וַֽעֲלֵיהֶ֗ם כְּכָל־הַדְּבָרִ֡ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר דִּבֶּר֩ יְהֹוָ֨ה עִמָּכֶ֥ם בָּהָ֛ר מִתּ֥וֹךְ הָאֵ֖שׁ בְּי֥וֹם הַקָּהָֽל:
tablets: [This word] is written לוּחֹת [in a singular form, and not, לוּחוֹת, to indicate that] both of them were identical. — [Tanchuma 10]   לוחת: לוחת כתיב, ששתיהם שוות:
11And it came to pass at the end of forty days and forty nights, that the Lord gave me two stone tablets, the tablets of the covenant.   יאוַיְהִ֗י מִקֵּץ֙ אַרְבָּעִ֣ים י֔וֹם וְאַרְבָּעִ֖ים לָ֑יְלָה נָתַ֨ן יְהֹוָ֜ה אֵלַ֗י אֶת־שְׁנֵ֛י לֻחֹ֥ת הָֽאֲבָנִ֖ים לֻח֥וֹת הַבְּרִֽית:
12And the Lord said to me, "Arise, descend quickly from here, for your people whom you have brought out of Egypt have become corrupt; they have quickly deviated from the way which I commanded them; they have made for themselves a molten image."   יבוַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהֹוָ֜ה אֵלַ֗י ק֣וּם רֵ֤ד מַהֵר֙ מִזֶּ֔ה כִּ֚י שִׁחֵ֣ת עַמְּךָ֔ אֲשֶׁ֥ר הוֹצֵ֖אתָ מִמִּצְרָ֑יִם סָ֣רוּ מַהֵ֗ר מִן־הַדֶּ֨רֶךְ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר צִוִּיתִ֔ם עָשׂ֥וּ לָהֶ֖ם מַסֵּכָֽה:
13And the Lord spoke to me [further], saying, "I have seen this people, and, behold, it is a stiffnecked people.   יגוַיֹּ֥אמֶר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֵלַ֣י לֵאמֹ֑ר רָאִ֨יתִי֙ אֶת־הָעָ֣ם הַזֶּ֔ה וְהִנֵּ֥ה עַם־קְשֵׁה־עֹ֖רֶף הֽוּא:
14Leave Me alone, and I will destroy them and obliterate their name from beneath the heavens, and I will make you into a nation mightier and more numerous than they."   ידהֶ֤רֶף מִמֶּ֨נִּי֙ וְאַשְׁמִידֵ֔ם וְאֶמְחֶ֣ה אֶת־שְׁמָ֔ם מִתַּ֖חַת הַשָּׁמָ֑יִם וְאֶֽעֱשֶׂה֙ אוֹתְךָ֔ לְגֽוֹי־עָצ֥וּם וָרָ֖ב מִמֶּֽנּוּ:
15So I turned and came down from the mountain, and the mountain was burning with fire, and the two tablets of the covenant were on my two hands.   טווָאֵ֗פֶן וָֽאֵרֵד֙ מִן־הָהָ֔ר וְהָהָ֖ר בֹּעֵ֣ר בָּאֵ֑שׁ וּשְׁנֵי֙ לוּחֹ֣ת הַבְּרִ֔ית עַ֖ל שְׁתֵּ֥י יָדָֽי:
16And I saw, and behold, you had sinned against the Lord, your God; you had made yourselves a molten calf; you had deviated quickly from the way which the Lord had commanded you.   טזוָאֵ֗רֶא וְהִנֵּ֤ה חֲטָאתֶם֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֔ם עֲשִׂיתֶ֣ם לָכֶ֔ם עֵ֖גֶל מַסֵּכָ֑ה סַרְתֶּ֣ם מַהֵ֔ר מִן־הַדֶּ֕רֶךְ אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּ֥ה יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶתְכֶֽם:
17So I grasped the two tablets, cast them out of my two hands, and shattered them before your eyes.   יזוָֽאֶתְפֹּשׂ֙ בִּשְׁנֵ֣י הַלֻּחֹ֔ת וָֽאַשְׁלִכֵ֔ם מֵעַ֖ל שְׁתֵּ֣י יָדָ֑י וָֽאֲשַׁבְּרֵ֖ם לְעֵֽינֵיכֶֽם:
18And I fell down before the Lord as before, forty days and forty nights; I neither ate bread nor drank water, because of all your sins you had committed, by doing evil in the eyes of the Lord to anger Him.   יחוָֽאֶתְנַפַּל֩ לִפְנֵ֨י יְהֹוָ֜ה כָּרִֽאשֹׁנָ֗ה אַרְבָּעִ֥ים יוֹם֙ וְאַרְבָּעִ֣ים לַ֔יְלָה לֶ֚חֶם לֹ֣א אָכַ֔לְתִּי וּמַ֖יִם לֹ֣א שָׁתִ֑יתִי עַ֤ל כָּל־חַטַּאתְכֶם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר חֲטָאתֶ֔ם לַֽעֲשׂ֥וֹת הָרַ֛ע בְּעֵינֵ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה לְהַכְעִיסֽוֹ:
And I fell down before the Lord, as before, forty days: As it says, “And now I will go up to the Lord, perhaps I will atone [for the golden calf]” (Exod. 32:30). At that ascent, I stayed there forty days; consequently, these ended on the twenty-ninth of Av, since he [Moses] ascended on the eighteenth of Tammuz. On the same day, God was reconciled with Israel and He said to Moses, “Hew for yourself two tablets” (Exod. 34:1). He [Moses] remained there another forty days; consequently, these ended on Yom Kippur [the tenth of Tishri]. On that very day, the Holy One, blessed is He, was joyfully reconciled with Israel, and He said to Moses, “I have forgiven according to your words” (Num. 14:20). Therefore [Yom Kippur] was designated [as a day] for pardon and forgiveness. And from where do we know that [God] was reconciled [with Israel] in complete acceptance? Because it says referring to the forty [days] of the later tablets, “And I remained on the mountain as the first days” (Deut. 10:10). Just as the first [forty days] were with [God’s] good will, so too, the last [forty days] were with [God’s] good will. We may now deduce that the intermediate [forty days] were with [God’s] anger. — [Seder Olam , ch. 6]   ואתנפל לפני ה' כראשונה ארבעים יום: שנאמר (שמות לב, ל) ועתה אעלה אל ה' אולי אכפרה. באותה עלייה נתעכבתי ארבעים יום. נמצאו כלים בכ"ט באב. שהוא עלה בשמונה עשר בתמוז, בו ביום נתרצה הקדוש ברוך הוא לישראל ואמר לו למשה (דברים י, א) פסל לך שני לוחות, עשה עוד ארבעים יום, נמצאו כלים ביום הכפורים. בו ביום נתרצה הקב"ה לישראל בשמחה ואמר לו למשה (במדבר יד, כ) סלחתי כדברך. לכך הוקבע למחילה ולסליחה. ומנין שנתרצה ברצון שלם, שנאמר בארבעים של לוחות אחרונות (דברים י, י) ואנכי עמדתי בהר כימים הראשונים, מה הראשונים ברצון אף אחרונים ברצון, אמור מעתה אמצעיים היו בכעס:
19For I was frightened of the wrath and the fury that the Lord was angry with you to destroy you, and the Lord hearkened to me also at that time.   יטכִּ֣י יָגֹ֗רְתִּי מִפְּנֵ֤י הָאַף֙ וְהַ֣חֵמָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר קָצַ֧ף יְהֹוָ֛ה עֲלֵיכֶ֖ם לְהַשְׁמִ֣יד אֶתְכֶ֑ם וַיִּשְׁמַ֤ע יְהֹוָה֙ אֵלַ֔י גַּ֖ם בַּפַּ֥עַם הַהִֽוא:
20And with Aaron, the Lord was very furious, to destroy him; so I prayed also for Aaron at that time.   כוּבְאַֽהֲרֹ֗ן הִתְאַנַּ֧ף יְהֹוָ֛ה מְאֹ֖ד לְהַשְׁמִיד֑וֹ וָֽאֶתְפַּלֵּ֛ל גַּם־בְּעַ֥ד אַֽהֲרֹ֖ן בָּעֵ֥ת הַהִֽוא:
And with Aaron, the Lord was very furious: Because he listened to you.   ובאהרן התאנף ה': לפי ששמע לכם:
to destroy him: This refers to the destruction of [his] children. Similarly, it states, “And I destroyed his fruit [i.e., children] from above” (Amos 2:9). - [Pesikta Rabbathi, Acharei Moth]   להשמידו: זה כלוי בנים. וכן הוא אומר (עמוס ב, ט) ואשמיד פריו ממעל:
so I prayed also for Aaron: And my prayer succeeded to atone for half, thus [only] two [of his sons] died, and two remained [alive].   ואתפלל גם בעד אהרן: והועילה תפלתי לכפר מחצה, ומתו שנים ונשארו השנים:
21And I took your sin the calf, which you had made, and I burned it with fire, and I crushed it, grinding it well, until it was fine dust, and I cast its dust into the brook that descends from the mountain.   כאוְאֶת־חַטַּאתְכֶ֞ם אֲשֶׁר־עֲשִׂיתֶ֣ם אֶת־הָעֵ֗גֶל לָקַ֘חְתִּי֘ וָֽאֶשְׂרֹ֣ף אֹת֣וֹ | בָּאֵשׁ֒ וָֽאֶכֹּ֨ת אֹת֤וֹ טָחוֹן֙ הֵיטֵ֔ב עַ֥ד אֲשֶׁר־דַּ֖ק לְעָפָ֑ר וָֽאַשְׁלִךְ֙ אֶת־עֲפָר֔וֹ אֶל־הַנַּ֖חַל הַיֹּרֵ֥ד מִן־הָהָֽר:
grinding: Heb. טָחוֹן. This is the present tense [of the verb], like הָלוֹךְ וְגָדֵל, “continuously growing” (Gen. 26:13), moulant in French, grinding.   טחון: לשון הווה כמו (בראשית כו, יג) הלוך וגדל מולאנ"ט בלע"ז [בטחנו]:
22And at Tav'erah, and at Massah, and at Kivroth Hata'avah, you provoked the Lord to anger.   כבוּבְתַבְעֵרָה֙ וּבְמַסָּ֔ה וּבְקִבְרֹ֖ת הַתַּֽאֲוָ֑ה מַקְצִפִ֥ים הֱיִיתֶ֖ם אֶת־יְהֹוָֽה:
23And when the Lord sent you from Kadesh Barnea, saying, "Go up and possess the land I have given you," you defied the word of the Lord your God, and you did not believe Him, nor did you obey Him.   כגוּבִשְׁלֹ֨חַ יְהֹוָ֜ה אֶתְכֶ֗ם מִקָּדֵ֤שׁ בַּרְנֵ֨עַ֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר עֲלוּ֙ וּרְשׁ֣וּ אֶת־הָאָ֔רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֥ר נָתַ֖תִּי לָכֶ֑ם וַתַּמְר֗וּ אֶת־פִּ֤י יְהֹוָה֙ אֱלֹ֣הֵיכֶ֔ם וְלֹ֤א הֶֽאֱמַנְתֶּם֙ ל֔וֹ וְלֹ֥א שְׁמַעְתֶּ֖ם בְּקֹלֽוֹ:
24You have been rebelling against the Lord since the day I became acquainted with you.   כדמַמְרִ֥ים הֱיִיתֶ֖ם עִם־יְהֹוָ֑ה מִיּ֖וֹם דַּעְתִּ֥י אֶתְכֶֽם:
25So I fell down before the Lord the forty days and the forty nights that I had fallen down; because the Lord had said to destroy you.   כהוָֽאֶתְנַפַּ֞ל לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֗ה אֵ֣ת אַרְבָּעִ֥ים הַיּ֛וֹם וְאֶת־אַרְבָּעִ֥ים הַלַּ֖יְלָה אֲשֶׁ֣ר הִתְנַפָּ֑לְתִּי כִּֽי־אָמַ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה לְהַשְׁמִ֥יד אֶתְכֶֽם:
And I fell down [before the Lord the forty days… which I had fallen down]: These are the same [forty days] mentioned above (verse 18). And it is repeated here because now the content of his prayer is written, as it is stated [in the next verse],“O Lord God, do not destroy Your people, etc.”   ואתנפל וגו': אלו הן עצמם האמורים למעלה (פסוק יח) וכפלן כאן, לפי שכתוב כאן סדר תפלתו, שנאמר (פסוק כו) ה' אלהים אל תשחת עמך וגו':
26And I prayed to the Lord and said, "O Lord God, do not destroy Your people and Your inheritance, which You have redeemed in Your greatness, and which You have brought out of Egypt with mighty hand.   כווָֽאֶתְפַּלֵּ֣ל אֶל־יְהֹוָה֘ וָֽאֹמַר֒ אֲדֹנָ֣י יֱהֹוִ֗ה אַל־תַּשְׁחֵ֤ת עַמְּךָ֙ וְנַֽחֲלָ֣תְךָ֔ אֲשֶׁ֥ר פָּדִ֖יתָ בְּגָדְלֶ֑ךָ אֲשֶׁר־הוֹצֵ֥אתָ מִמִּצְרַ֖יִם בְּיָ֥ד חֲזָקָֽה:
27Remember your servants, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob; do not turn to the stubbornness of this people, to their wickedness, or to their sin.   כזזְכֹר֙ לַֽעֲבָדֶ֔יךָ לְאַבְרָהָ֥ם לְיִצְחָ֖ק וּלְיַֽעֲקֹ֑ב אַל־תֵּ֗פֶן אֶל־קְשִׁי֙ הָעָ֣ם הַזֶּ֔ה וְאֶל־רִשְׁע֖וֹ וְאֶל־חַטָּאתֽוֹ:
28Lest [the people of] the land from which you brought us out will say, 'Because of the Lord's inability to bring them to the land about which He spoke to them, and because of His hatred toward them, He has brought them out to slay them in the desert.'   כחפֶּן־יֹֽאמְר֗וּ הָאָ֘רֶץ֘ אֲשֶׁ֣ר הֽוֹצֵאתָ֣נוּ מִשָּׁם֒ מִבְּלִי֙ יְכֹ֣לֶת יְהֹוָ֔ה לַֽהֲבִיאָ֕ם אֶל־הָאָ֖רֶץ אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּ֣ר לָהֶ֑ם וּמִשִּׂנְאָת֣וֹ אוֹתָ֔ם הֽוֹצִיאָ֖ם לַֽהֲמִתָ֥ם בַּמִּדְבָּֽר:
29But they are Your people and Your inheritance, which You brought out with Your great strength and with Your outstretched arm."   כטוְהֵ֥ם עַמְּךָ֖ וְנַֽחֲלָתֶ֑ךָ אֲשֶׁ֤ר הוֹצֵ֨אתָ֙ בְּכֹֽחֲךָ֣ הַגָּדֹ֔ל וּבִזְרֹֽעֲךָ֖ הַנְּטוּיָֽה:
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