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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Devarim - Deuteronomy - Chapter 5

Devarim - Deuteronomy - Chapter 5

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 5

1. And Moses called all Israel and said to them, "Hear, O Israel, the statutes and ordinances which I speak in your ears this day, and learn them, and observe [them] to do them.   א. וַיִּקְרָא משֶׁה אֶל כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת הַחֻקִּים וְאֶת הַמִּשְׁפָּטִים אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי דֹּבֵר בְּאָזְנֵיכֶם הַיּוֹם וּלְמַדְתֶּם אֹתָם וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם לַעֲשֹׂתָם:
2. The Lord our God made a covenant with us in Horeb.   ב. יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ כָּרַת עִמָּנוּ בְּרִית בְּחֹרֵב:
3. Not with our forefathers did the Lord make this covenant, but with us, we, all of whom are here alive today.   ג. לֹא אֶת אֲבֹתֵינוּ כָּרַת יְהֹוָה אֶת הַבְּרִית הַזֹּאת כִּי אִתָּנוּ אֲנַחְנוּ אֵלֶּה פֹה הַיּוֹם כֻּלָּנוּ חַיִּים:
Not with our forefathers: Alone did the Lord make [this covenant], but with us.   לא את אבתינו: בלבד כרת ה' וגו' כי אתנו:
4. Face to face, the Lord spoke with you at the mountain out of the midst of the fire:   ד. פָּנִים | בְּפָנִים דִּבֶּר יְהֹוָה עִמָּכֶם בָּהָר מִתּוֹךְ הָאֵשׁ:
Face to face: Rabbi Berechiah said, “So said Moses: 'Do not say that I am misleading you about something that does not exist, as an agent does, acting between the seller and the buyer, [because] behold, the seller Himself is speaking with you.’” (Pesikta Rabbathi).   פנים בפנים: אמר ר' ברכיה כך אמר משה אל תאמרו אני מטעה אתכם על לא דבר, כדרך שהסרסור עושה בין המוכר ללוקח, הרי המוכר עצמו מדבר עמכם:
5. (and I stood between the Lord and you at that time, to tell you the word of the Lord, for you were afraid of the fire, and you did not go up on the mountain) saying,   ה. אָנֹכִי עֹמֵד בֵּין יְהֹוָה וּבֵינֵיכֶם בָּעֵת הַהִוא לְהַגִּיד לָכֶם אֶת דְּבַר יְהֹוָה כִּי יְרֵאתֶם מִפְּנֵי הָאֵשׁ וְלֹא עֲלִיתֶם בָּהָר לֵאמֹר:
saying: This refers back to (verse 4), “the Lord spoke with you at the mountain out of the midst of the fire… saying, ‘I am the Lord…,’ and I stood between the Lord and you”.   לאמר: מוסב על (פסוק ד) דבר ה' עמכם בהר מתוך האש לאמר אנכי ה' וגו' ואנכי עומד בין ה' וביניכם:
6. "I am the Lord your God, Who took you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage.   ו. אָנֹכִי יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִיךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מִבֵּית עֲבָדִים:
7. You shall not have the gods of others in My presence.   ז. לֹא יִהְיֶה לְךָ אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים עַל פָּנָי:
in My presence: Heb. עַל-פָּנָי, lit. before Me, i.e., wherever I am, and that is the entire world. Another explanation: As long as I exist [i.e., forever] (Mechilta). I have already explained the Ten Commandments (see Exodus 20:1-14).   על פני: בכל מקום אשר אני שם וזהו כל העולם. דבר אחר כל זמן שאני קיים. עשרת הדברות כבר פירשתים:
8. You shall not make for yourself a graven image, or any likeness which is in the heavens above, which is on the earth below, or which is in the water beneath the earth.   ח. לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה לְךָ פֶסֶל כָּל תְּמוּנָה אֲשֶׁר בַּשָּׁמַיִם מִמַּעַל וַאֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ מִתָּחַת וַאֲשֶׁר בַּמַּיִם מִתַּחַת לָאָרֶץ:
9. You shall not prostrate yourself before them, nor worship them, for I, the Lord your God, am a zealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the sons, upon the third and the fourth generations of those who hate Me.   ט. לֹא תִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה לָהֶם וְלֹא תָעָבְדֵם כִּי אָנֹכִי יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֵל קַנָּא פֹּקֵד עֲו‍ֹן אָבוֹת עַל בָּנִים וְעַל שִׁלֵּשִׁים וְעַל רִבֵּעִים לְשׂנְאָי:
10. And [I] perform loving kindness to thousands [of generations] of those who love Me and to those who keep My commandments.   י. וְעֹשֶׂה חֶסֶד לַאֲלָפִים לְאֹהֲבַי וּלְשֹׁמְרֵי מִצְו‍ֹתָי:
11. You shall not take the name of the Lord, your God, in vain, for the Lord will not hold blameless anyone who takes His name in vain.   יא. לֹא תִשָּׂא אֶת שֵׁם יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לַשָּׁוְא כִּי לֹא יְנַקֶּה יְהֹוָה אֵת אֲשֶׁר יִשָּׂא אֶת שְׁמוֹ לַשָּׁוְא:
12. Keep the Sabbath day to sanctify it, as the Lord your God commanded you.   יב. שָׁמוֹר אֶת יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת לְקַדְּשׁוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוְּךָ יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ:
Keep [the Sabbath day]: But in the first set [of Ten Commandments] (in Exod. 20) it says: “Remember [the Sabbath day]!” The explanation is: Both of them (“Remember” and “Keep”) were spoken simultaneously as one word and were heard simultaneously. (Mechilta 20:8)   שמור: ובראשונות הוא אומר (שמות כ, ז) זכור שניהם בדבור אחד ובתיבה אחת נאמרו ובשמיעה אחת נשמעו:
just as [the Lord your God] commanded you: Before the giving of the Torah, at Marah (Shab. 87b).   כאשר צוך: קודם מתן תורה במרה:
13. Six days may you work, and perform all your labor,   יג. שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תַּעֲבֹד וְעָשִׂיתָ כָּל מְלַאכְתֶּךָ:
14. but the seventh day is a Sabbath to the Lord your God; you shall perform no labor, neither you, your son, your daughter, your manservant, your maidservant, your ox, your donkey, any of your livestock, nor the stranger who is within your cities, in order that your manservant and your maidservant may rest like you.   יד. וְיוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי שַׁבָּת לַיהֹוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה כָל מְלָאכָה אַתָּה | וּבִנְךָ וּבִתֶּךָ וְעַבְדְּךָ וַאֲמָתֶךָ וְשׁוֹרְךָ וַחֲמֹרְךָ וְכָל בְּהֶמְתֶּךָ וְגֵרְךָ אֲשֶׁר בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ לְמַעַן יָנוּחַ עַבְדְּךָ וַאֲמָתְךָ כָּמוֹךָ:
15. And you shall remember that you were a slave in the land of Egypt, and that the Lord your God took you out from there with a strong hand and with an outstretched arm; therefore, the Lord, your God, commanded you to observe the Sabbath day.   טו. וְזָכַרְתָּ כִּי עֶבֶד הָיִיתָ בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם וַיֹּצִאֲךָ יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ מִשָּׁם בְּיָד חֲזָקָה וּבִזְרֹעַ נְטוּיָה עַל כֵּן צִוְּךָ יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת:
And you shall remember that you were a slave…: God redeemed you on the condition that you will be His slave and keep His commandments.   וזכרת כי עבד היית וגו': על מנת כן פדאך שתהיה לו עבד ותשמור מצותיו:
16. Honor your father and your mother as the Lord your God commanded you, in order that your days be lengthened, and that it may go well with you on the land that the Lord, your God, is giving you.   טז. כַּבֵּד אֶת אָבִיךָ וְאֶת אִמֶּךָ כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוְּךָ יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְמַעַן | יַאֲרִיכֻן יָמֶיךָ וּלְמַעַן יִיטַב לָךְ עַל הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ:
as the Lord your God commanded you: Also regarding the honoring of father and mother they were commanded at Marah, as it is said: (Exod. 15:25),“There He gave them a statute and an ordinance.” (San. 56b)   כאשר צוך: אף על כבוד אב ואם נצטוו במרה שנאמר (שמות טו כה) שם שם לו חוק ומשפט:
17. You shall not murder. And you shall not commit adultery. And you shall not steal. And you shall not bear false witness against your neighbor.   יז. לֹא תִרְצַח ס וְלֹא תִנְאָף ס וְלֹא תִגְנֹב ס וְלֹא תַעֲנֶה בְרֵעֲךָ עֵד שָׁוְא:
And you shall not commit adultery: Adultery applies only [to relations] with a married woman.   ולא תנאף: אין לשון ניאוף אלא באשת איש:
18. And you shall not covet your neighbor's wife, nor shall you desire your neighbor's house, his field, his manservant, his maidservant, his ox, his donkey, or anything that belongs to your neighbor.   יח. וְלֹא תַחְמֹד אֵשֶׁת רֵעֶךָ ס וְלֹא תִתְאַוֶּה בֵּית רֵעֶךָ שָׂדֵהוּ וְעַבְדּוֹ וַאֲמָתוֹ שׁוֹרוֹ וַחֲמֹרוֹ וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר לְרֵעֶךָ:
nor shall you desire: Heb. וְלֹא תִתְאַוֶּה. [As the Targum [Onkelos] renders:] וְלֹא תֵרוֹג,“you shall not desire.” This too is an expression of coveting (חֶמְדָּה) , just as“pleasant (נֶחְמָד) to see” (Gen. 2:9), which the Targum [Onkelos] interprets as“desirable (דִּמִרַגֵּג) to see.”   ולא תתאוה: לא תירוג אף הוא לשון חמדה, כמו (בראשית ב, ט) נחמד למראה, דמתרגמינן דמרגג למחזי:
19. The Lord spoke these words to your entire assembly at the mountain out of the midst of the fire, the cloud, and the opaque darkness, with a great voice, which did not cease. And He inscribed them on two stone tablets and gave them to me.   יט. אֶת הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה דִּבֶּר יְהֹוָה אֶל כָּל קְהַלְכֶם בָּהָר מִתּוֹךְ הָאֵשׁ הֶעָנָן וְהָעֲרָפֶל קוֹל גָּדוֹל וְלֹא יָסָף וַיִּכְתְּבֵם עַל שְׁנֵי לֻחֹת אֲבָנִים וַיִּתְּנֵם אֵלָי:
which did not cease: Heb. וְלֹא יָסָף, interpreted by the Targum [Onkelos]: וְלָא פְּסָק“and it did not cease.” [Because it is human nature that one is unable to utter all his words in one breath, but he must pause, whereas the characteristic of the Holy One, blessed is He, is not so. God did not pause, and since He did not pause, He did not have to resume,] for His voice is strong and exists continuously (San. 17a). Another explanation of וְלֹא יָסָף : He never again revealed Himself so publicly [as He did on Mount Sinai. Accordingly, we render: and He did not continue].   ולא יסף: מתרגמינן ולא פסק כי קולו חזק וקיים לעולם. דבר אחר ולא יסף לא הוסיף להראות באותו פומבי:
20. And it was, when you heard the voice from the midst of the darkness, and the mountain was burning with fire, that you approached me, all the heads of your tribes and your elders.   כ. וַיְהִי כְּשָׁמְעֲכֶם אֶת הַקּוֹל מִתּוֹךְ הַחשֶׁךְ וְהָהָר בֹּעֵר בָּאֵשׁ וַתִּקְרְבוּן אֵלַי כָּל רָאשֵׁי שִׁבְטֵיכֶם וְזִקְנֵיכֶם:
21. And you said, "Behold, the Lord, our God, has shown us His glory and His greatness, and we heard His voice from the midst of the fire; we saw this day that God speaks with man, yet [man] remains alive.   כא. וַתֹּאמְרוּ הֵן הֶרְאָנוּ יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ אֶת כְּבֹדוֹ וְאֶת גָּדְלוֹ וְאֶת קֹלוֹ שָׁמַעְנוּ מִתּוֹךְ הָאֵשׁ הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה רָאִינוּ כִּי יְדַבֵּר אֱלֹהִים אֶת הָאָדָם וָחָי:
22. So now, why should we die? For this great fire will consume us; if we continue to hear the voice of the Lord, our God, anymore, we will die.   כב. וְעַתָּה לָמָּה נָמוּת כִּי תֹאכְלֵנוּ הָאֵשׁ הַגְּדֹלָה הַזֹּאת אִם יֹסְפִים | אֲנַחְנוּ לִשְׁמֹעַ אֶת קוֹל יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ עוֹד וָמָתְנוּ:
23. For who is there of all flesh, who heard the voice of the living God speaking from the midst of the fire, as we have, and lived?   כג. כִּי מִי כָל בָּשָׂר אֲשֶׁר שָׁמַע קוֹל אֱלֹהִים חַיִּים מְדַבֵּר מִתּוֹךְ הָאֵשׁ כָּמֹנוּ וַיֶּחִי:
24. You approach, and hear all that the Lord, our God, will say, and you speak to us all that the Lord, our God, will speak to you, and we will hear and do.   כד. קְרַב אַתָּה וּשֲׁמָע אֵת כָּל אֲשֶׁר יֹאמַר יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ וְאַתְּ | תְּדַבֵּר אֵלֵינוּ אֵת כָּל אֲשֶׁר יְדַבֵּר יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ אֵלֶיךָ וְשָׁמַעְנוּ וְעָשִׂינוּ:
And you speak to us: Heb. וְאַתְּ, a feminine form]-You weakened my strength as that of a female, for I was distressed regarding you, and you weakened me, since I saw that you were not anxious to approach God out of love. Would it not have been preferable for you to learn [directly] from the mouth of the Almighty God, rather than to learn from me?   ואת תדבר אלינו: התשתם את כחי כנקבה שנצטערתי עליכם ורפיתם את ידי כי ראיתי שאינכם חרדים להתקרב אליו מאהבה. וכי לא היה יפה לכם ללמוד מפי הגבורה ולא ללמוד ממני:
25. And the Lord heard the sound of your words when you spoke to me, and the Lord said to me, "I have heard the sound of the words of this people that they have spoken to you; they have done well in all that they have spoken.   כה. וַיִּשְׁמַע יְהֹוָה אֶת קוֹל דִּבְרֵיכֶם בְּדַבֶּרְכֶם אֵלָי וַיֹּאמֶר יְהֹוָה אֵלַי שָׁמַעְתִּי אֶת קוֹל דִּבְרֵי הָעָם הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר דִּבְּרוּ אֵלֶיךָ הֵיטִיבוּ כָּל אֲשֶׁר דִּבֵּרוּ:
26. Would that their hearts be like this, to fear Me and to keep all My commandments all the days, that it might be well with them and with their children forever!   כו. מִי יִתֵּן וְהָיָה לְבָבָם זֶה לָהֶם לְיִרְאָה אֹתִי וְלִשְׁמֹר אֶת כָּל מִצְו‍ֹתַי כָּל הַיָּמִים לְמַעַן יִיטַב לָהֶם וְלִבְנֵיהֶם לְעֹלָם:
27. Go say to them, 'Return to your tents.'   כז. לֵךְ אֱמֹר לָהֶם שׁוּבוּ לָכֶם לְאָהֳלֵיכֶם:
28. But as for you, stand here with Me, and I will speak to you all the commandments, the statutes, and the ordinances which you will teach them, that they may do them in the land which I give them to possess.   כח. וְאַתָּה פֹּה עֲמֹד עִמָּדִי וַאֲדַבְּרָה אֵלֶיךָ אֵת כָּל הַמִּצְוָה וְהַחֻקִּים וְהַמִּשְׁפָּטִים אֲשֶׁר תְּלַמְּדֵם וְעָשׂוּ בָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי נֹתֵן לָהֶם לְרִשְׁתָּהּ:
29. Keep them to perform [them] as the Lord your God has commanded you; do not turn aside either to the right or to the left.   כט. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם לַעֲשׂוֹת כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֶתְכֶם לֹא תָסֻרוּ יָמִין וּשְׂמֹאל:
30. In all the way which the Lord, your God, has commanded you, you shall go, in order that you may live and that it may be well with you, and so that you may prolong your days in the land you will possess.   ל. בְּכָל הַדֶּרֶךְ אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֶתְכֶם תֵּלֵכוּ לְמַעַן תִּחְיוּן וְטוֹב לָכֶם וְהַאֲרַכְתֶּם יָמִים בָּאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר תִּירָשׁוּן:
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