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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary

Bamidbar - Numbers - Chapter 1

Bamidbar - Numbers - Chapter 1

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Chapter 1

1The Lord spoke to Moses in the Sinai Desert, in the Tent of Meeting on the first day of the second month, in the second year after the exodus from the land of Egypt, saying.   אוַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָֹה אֶל משֶׁה בְּמִדְבַּר סִינַי בְּאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד בְּאֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי בַּשָּׁנָה הַשֵּׁנִית לְצֵאתָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם לֵאמֹר:
The Lord spoke... in the Sinai Desert... on the first of the month : Because they were dear to Him, He counted them often. When they left Egypt, He counted them (Exod. 12:37); when [many] fell because [of the sin] of the golden calf, He counted them to know the number of the survivors (Exod. 32:28); when He came to cause His Divine Presence to rest among them, He counted them. On the first of Nissan, the Mishkan was erected, and on the first of Iyar, He counted them.   וידבר. במדבר סיני באחד לחדש: וגו' מתוך חיבתן לפניו מונה אותם כל שעה, כשיצאו ממצרים מנאן, וכשנפלו בעגל מנאן לידע מנין הנותרים. כשבא להשרות שכינתו עליהן מנאן. באחד בניסן הוקם המשכן, ובאחד באייר מנאם:
2Take the sum of all the congregation of the children of Israel, by families following their fathers' houses; a head count of every male according to the number of their names.   בשְׂאוּ אֶת רֹאשׁ כָּל עֲדַת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָם לְבֵית אֲבֹתָם בְּמִסְפַּר שֵׁמוֹת כָּל זָכָר לְגֻלְגְּלֹתָם:
by families: To ascertain the number of [people in] each tribe.   למשפחתם: דע מנין כל שבט ושבט:
following their fathers’ houses: If one’s father was from one tribe and his mother from another tribe, he is counted with his father’s tribe.   לבית אבתם: מי שאביו משבט אחד ואמו משבט אחר יקום על שבט אביו:
a head count: Heb. לְגֻלְגְּלֹתָם, by means of shekels;“a bekka (half a shekel) per head (לְגֻלְגֹּלֶת.)”   לגלגלתם: על ידי שקלים בקע לגלגולת:
3From twenty years old and upwards, all who are fit to go out to the army in Israel, you shall count them by their legions you and Aaron.   גמִבֶּן עֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה וָמַעְלָה כָּל יֹצֵא צָבָא בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל תִּפְקְדוּ אֹתָם לְצִבְאֹתָם אַתָּה וְאַהֲרֹן:
all who are fit to go out to the army: This informs [us] that no one went out to the army below the age of twenty.   כל יצא צבא: מגיד שאין יוצא בצבא פחות מבן עשרים:
4With you there shall be a man from each tribe, one who is head of his father's house.   דוְאִתְּכֶם יִהְיוּ אִישׁ אִישׁ לַמַּטֶּה אִישׁ רֹאשׁ לְבֵית אֲבֹתָיו הוּא:
With you: When you count them, there should be with you a prince from each tribe.   ואתכם יהיו: כשתפקדו אותם יהיו עמכם נשיא כל שבט ושבט:
5These are the names of the men who shall stand with you; for Reuben, Elitzur the son of Shedeur.   הוְאֵלֶּה שְׁמוֹת הָאֲנָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר יַעַמְדוּ אִתְּכֶם לִרְאוּבֵן אֱלִיצוּר בֶּן שְׁדֵיאוּר:
6For Simeon, Shelumiel the son of Zurishaddai.   ולְשִׁמְעוֹן שְׁלֻמִיאֵל בֶּן צוּרִישַׁדָּי:
7For Judah, Nahshon the son of Amminadab.   זלִיהוּדָה נַחְשׁוֹן בֶּן עַמִּינָדָב:
8For Issachar, Nethanel the son of Zu'ar.   חלְיִשָּׂשכָר נְתַנְאֵל בֶּן צוּעָר:
9For Zebulun, Eliab the son of Helon.   טלִזְבוּלֻן אֱלִיאָב בֶּן חֵלֹן:
10For the children of Joseph: for Ephraim, Elishama' the son of 'Ammihud; for Manasseh, Gamliel the son of Pedazur.   ילִבְנֵי יוֹסֵף לְאֶפְרַיִם אֱלִישָׁמָע בֶּן עַמִּיהוּד לִמְנַשֶּׁה גַּמְלִיאֵל בֶּן פְּדָהצוּר:
11For Benjamin, Abidan the son of Gideoni.   יאלְבִנְיָמִן אֲבִידָן בֶּן גִּדְעֹנִי:
12For Dan, Ahi'ezer the son of 'Ammishaddai.   יבלְדָן אֲחִיעֶזֶר בֶּן עַמִּישַׁדָּי:
13For Asher, Pag'iel the son of 'Ochran.   יגלְאָשֵׁר פַּגְעִיאֵל בֶּן עָכְרָן:
14For Gad, Eliasaph the son of De'uel.   ידלְגָד אֶלְיָסָף בֶּן דְּעוּאֵל:
15For Naphtali, Ahira' the son of 'Enan.   טולְנַפְתָּלִי אֲחִירַע בֶּן עֵינָן:
16These were the ones summoned by the congregation, the princes of the tribes of their fathers; they are the heads of the thousands of Israel.   טזאֵלֶּה קְרוּאֵי (כתיב קריאי) הָעֵדָה נְשִׂיאֵי מַטּוֹת אֲבוֹתָם רָאשֵׁי אַלְפֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הֵם:
the ones summoned of the congregation: They were summoned for every important matter concerning the congregation.   אלה קרואי העדה: הנקראים לכל דבר חשיבות שבעדה:
17Then Moses and Aaron took these men, who were indicated by [their] names,   יזוַיִּקַּח משֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן אֵת הָאֲנָשִׁים הָאֵלֶּה אֲשֶׁר נִקְּבוּ בְּשֵׁמוֹת:
these men: These twelve princes.   האנשים האלה: את שנים עשר נשיאים הללו:
who were indicated: to him here by their names.   אשר נקבו: לו כאן בשמות:
18and they assembled all the congregation on the first day of the second month, and they declared their pedigrees according to their families according to their fathers' houses; according to the number of names, a head count of every male from twenty years old and upward.   יחוְאֵת כָּל הָעֵדָה הִקְהִילוּ בְּאֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי וַיִּתְיַלְדוּ עַל מִשְׁפְּחֹתָם לְבֵית אֲבֹתָם בְּמִסְפַּר שֵׁמוֹת מִבֶּן עֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה וָמַעְלָה לְגֻלְגְּלֹתָם:
and they declared their pedigrees according to their families: They brought the records of their pedigrees and witnesses of their birth claims, so that each one should trace his genealogy to a tribe.   ויתילדו על משפחתם: הביאו ספרי יחוסיהם ועידי חזקת (לידתם) [לידת] כל אחד ואחד, להתייחס על השבט:
19As the Lord commanded Moses, so did he count them in the Sinai desert.   יטכַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָֹה אֶת משֶׁה וַיִּפְקְדֵם בְּמִדְבַּר סִינָי:
20This was [the sum of] the children of Reuben, the firstborn of Israel, their descendants according to their families, according to their fathers' houses; the number of individual names of every male from twenty years old and upward, all who were fit to go out to the army.   כוַיִּהְיוּ בְנֵי רְאוּבֵן בְּכֹר יִשְׂרָאֵל תּוֹלְדֹתָם לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָם לְבֵית אֲבֹתָם בְּמִסְפַּר שֵׁמוֹת לְגֻלְגְּלֹתָם כָּל זָכָר מִבֶּן עֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה וָמַעְלָה כֹּל יֹצֵא צָבָא:
21Those counted from the tribe of Reuben [were] forty six thousand, five hundred.   כאפְּקֻדֵיהֶם לְמַטֵּה רְאוּבֵן שִׁשָּׁה וְאַרְבָּעִים אֶלֶף וַחֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת:
22Of the tribe of Simeon, their descendants according to their families, according to their fathers' houses; his tally, according to the number of individual names of every male from twenty years old and upward, all who were fit to go out to the army.   כבלִבְנֵי שִׁמְעוֹן תּוֹלְדֹתָם לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָם לְבֵית אֲבֹתָם פְּקֻדָיו בְּמִסְפַּר שֵׁמוֹת לְגֻלְגְּלֹתָם כָּל זָכָר מִבֶּן עֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה וָמַעְלָה כֹּל יֹצֵא צָבָא:
23Those counted from the tribe of Simeon: fifty nine thousand, three hundred.   כגפְּקֻדֵיהֶם לְמַטֵּה שִׁמְעוֹן תִּשְׁעָה וַחֲמִשִּׁים אֶלֶף וּשְׁלשׁ מֵאוֹת:
24Of the tribe of Gad, their descendants according to their families, according to their fathers' houses; the number of individual names of every male from twenty years old and upward, all who were fit to go out to the army.   כדלִבְנֵי גָד תּוֹלְדֹתָם לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָם לְבֵית אֲבֹתָם בְּמִסְפַּר שֵׁמוֹת מִבֶּן עֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה וָמַעְלָה כֹּל יֹצֵא צָבָא:
25Those counted from the tribe of Gad: forty five thousand, six hundred and fifty.   כהפְּקֻדֵיהֶם לְמַטֵּה גָד חֲמִשָּׁה וְאַרְבָּעִים אֶלֶף וְשֵׁשׁ מֵאוֹת וַחֲמִשִּׁים:
26Of the tribe of Judah, their descendants according to their families, according to their fathers' houses; the number of individual names of every male from twenty years old and upward, all who were fit to go out to the army.   כולִבְנֵי יְהוּדָה תּוֹלְדֹתָם לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָם לְבֵית אֲבֹתָם בְּמִסְפַּר שֵׁמֹת מִבֶּן עֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה וָמַעְלָה כֹּל יֹצֵא צָבָא:
27Those counted from the tribe of Judah: seventy four thousand, six hundred.   כזפְּקֻדֵיהֶם לְמַטֵּה יְהוּדָה אַרְבָּעָה וְשִׁבְעִים אֶלֶף וְשֵׁשׁ מֵאוֹת:
28Of the tribe of Issachar, their descendants according to their families, according to their fathers' houses; the number of individual names of every male from twenty years old and upward, all who were fit to go out to the army.   כחלִבְנֵי יִשָּׂשכָר תּוֹלְדֹתָם לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָם לְבֵית אֲבֹתָם בְּמִסְפַּר שֵׁמֹת מִבֶּן עֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה וָמַעְלָה כֹּל יֹצֵא צָבָא:
29Those counted from the tribe of Issachar: fifty four thousand, four hundred.   כטפְּקֻדֵיהֶם לְמַטֵּה יִשָּׂשכָר אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשִּׁים אֶלֶף וְאַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת:
30Of the tribe of Zebulun, their descendants according to their families, according to their fathers' houses; the number of individual names of every male from twenty years old and upward, all who were fit to go out to the army.   ללִבְנֵי זְבוּלֻן תּוֹלְדֹתָם לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָם לְבֵית אֲבֹתָם בְּמִסְפַּר שֵׁמֹת מִבֶּן עֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה וָמַעְלָה כֹּל יֹצֵא צָבָא:
31Those counted from the tribe of Zebulun: fifty seven thousand, four hundred.   לאפְּקֻדֵיהֶם לְמַטֵּה זְבוּלֻן שִׁבְעָה וַחֲמִשִּׁים אֶלֶף וְאַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת:
32Of the children of Yosef: of the tribe of Ephraim, their descendants according to their families, according to their fathers' houses; the number of individual names of every male from twenty years old and upward, all who were fit to go out to the army.   לבלִבְנֵי יוֹסֵף לִבְנֵי אֶפְרַיִם תּוֹלְדֹתָם לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָם לְבֵית אֲבֹתָם בְּמִסְפַּר שֵׁמֹת מִבֶּן עֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה וָמַעְלָה כֹּל יֹצֵא צָבָא:
33Those counted from the tribe of Ephraim: forty thousand, five hundred.   לגפְּקֻדֵיהֶם לְמַטֵּה אֶפְרָיִם אַרְבָּעִים אֶלֶף וַחֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת:
34Of the tribe of Manasseh, their descendants according to their families, according to their fathers' houses; the number of individual names of every male from twenty years old and upward, all who were fit to go out to the army.   לדלִבְנֵי מְנַשֶּׁה תּוֹלְדֹתָם לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָם לְבֵית אֲבֹתָם בְּמִסְפַּר שֵׁמוֹת מִבֶּן עֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה וָמַעְלָה כֹּל יֹצֵא צָבָא:
35Those counted from the tribe of Manasseh: thirty two thousand, two hundred.   להפְּקֻדֵיהֶם לְמַטֵּה מְנַשֶּׁה שְׁנַיִם וּשְׁלשִׁים אֶלֶף וּמָאתָיִם:
36Of the tribe of Benjamin, their descendants according to their families, according to their fathers' houses; the number of individual names of every male from twenty years old and upward, all who were fit to go out to the army.   לולִבְנֵי בִנְיָמִן תּוֹלְדֹתָם לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָם לְבֵית אֲבֹתָם בְּמִסְפַּר שֵׁמֹת מִבֶּן עֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה וָמַעְלָה כֹּל יֹצֵא צָבָא:
37Those counted from the tribe of Benjamin: thirty five thousand, four hundred.   לזפְּקֻדֵיהֶם לְמַטֵּה בִנְיָמִן חֲמִשָּׁה וּשְׁלשִׁים אֶלֶף וְאַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת:
38Of the tribe of Dan, their descendants according to their families, according to their fathers' houses; the number of individual names of every male from twenty years old and upward, all who were fit to go out to the army.   לחלִבְנֵי דָן תּוֹלְדֹתָם לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָם לְבֵית אֲבֹתָם בְּמִסְפַּר שֵׁמֹת מִבֶּן עֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה וָמַעְלָה כֹּל יֹצֵא צָבָא:
39Those counted from the tribe of Dan: sixty two thousand, seven hundred.   לטפְּקֻדֵיהֶם לְמַטֵּה דָן שְׁנַיִם וְשִׁשִּׁים אֶלֶף וּשְׁבַע מֵאוֹת:
40Of the tribe of Asher, their descendants according to their families, according to their fathers' houses; the number of individual names of every male from twenty years old and upward, all who were fit to go out to the army.   מלִבְנֵי אָשֵׁר תּוֹלְדֹתָם לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָם לְבֵית אֲבֹתָם בְּמִסְפַּר שֵׁמֹת מִבֶּן עֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה וָמַעְלָה כֹּל יֹצֵא צָבָא:
41Those counted from the tribe of Asher: forty one thousand, five hundred.   מאפְּקֻדֵיהֶם לְמַטֵּה אָשֵׁר אֶחָד וְאַרְבָּעִים אֶלֶף וַחֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת:
42Of the tribe of Naphtali, their descendants according to their families, according to their fathers' houses; the number of individual names of every male from twenty years old and upward, all who were fit to go out to the army.   מבבְּנֵי נַפְתָּלִי תּוֹלְדֹתָם לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָם לְבֵית אֲבֹתָם בְּמִסְפַּר שֵׁמֹת מִבֶּן עֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה וָמַעְלָה כֹּל יֹצֵא צָבָא:
43Those counted from the tribe of Naphtali: fifty three thousand, four hundred.   מגפְּקֻדֵיהֶם לְמַטֵּה נַפְתָּלִי שְׁלשָׁה וַחֲמִשִּׁים אֶלֶף וְאַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת:
44These are the numbered ones, whom Moses and Aaron and the twelve princes of Israel counted each one [representing] his fathers' house.   מדאֵלֶּה הַפְּקֻדִים אֲשֶׁר פָּקַד משֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן וּנְשִׂיאֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר אִישׁ אִישׁ אֶחָד לְבֵית אֲבֹתָיו הָיוּ:
45All the children of Israel were counted according to their fathers' houses, from twenty years and upward, all who were fit to go out to the army.   מהוַיִּהְיוּ כָּל פְּקוּדֵי בְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לְבֵית אֲבֹתָם מִבֶּן עֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה וָמַעְלָה כָּל יֹצֵא צָבָא בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל:
46The sum of all those who were counted: six hundred and three thousand, five hundred and fifty.   מווַיִּהְיוּ כָּל הַפְּקֻדִים שֵׁשׁ מֵאוֹת אֶלֶף וּשְׁלשֶׁת אֲלָפִים וַחֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת וַחֲמִשִּׁים:
47But the Levites, according to their father's tribe were not numbered among them.   מזוְהַלְוִיִּם לְמַטֵּה אֲבֹתָם לֹא הָתְפָּקְדוּ בְּתוֹכָם:
48The Lord spoke to Moses saying:   מחוַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָֹה אֶל משֶׁה לֵּאמֹר:
49Only the tribe of Levi you shall not number, and you shall not reckon their sum among the children of Israel.   מטאַךְ אֶת מַטֵּה לֵוִי לֹא תִפְקֹד וְאֶת רֹאשָׁם לֹא תִשָּׂא בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל:
Only the tribe of Levi you shall not number: The legion of the king deserves to be counted on its own (Tanchuma). Another explanation: The Holy One, Blessed Be He, foresaw that a decree was destined to be enacted against all those counted from twenty years and upward [condemning them] to die in the desert. He said,“Let these not be included, for they are Mine, since they did not err in [the sin of] the [golden] calf.” - [B.B. 121]   אך את מטה לוי לא תפקד: כדאי הוא לגיון של מלך להיות נמנה לבדו. דבר אחר, צפה הקב"ה שעתידה לעמוד גזירה על כל הנמנין מבן עשרים שנה ומעלה שימותו במדבר, אמר אל יהיו אלו בכלל, לפי שהם שלי, שלא טעו בעגל:
50But you shall appoint the Levites over the Tabernacle of the Testimony, over all its vessels and over all that belong to it; they shall carry the Tabernacle and they shall minister to it, and they shall encamp around the Tabernacle.   נוְאַתָּה הַפְקֵד אֶת הַלְוִיִּם עַל מִשְׁכַּן הָעֵדֻת וְעַל כָּל כֵּלָיו וְעַל כָּל אֲשֶׁר לוֹ הֵמָּה יִשְׂאוּ אֶת הַמִּשְׁכָּן וְאֶת כָּל כֵּלָיו וְהֵם יְשָׁרְתֻהוּ וְסָבִיב לַמִּשְׁכָּן יַחֲנוּ:
But you shall appoint the Levites: Heb. הַפְקֵד, as the Targum renders, מַנִי, appoint ; it is an expression of appointing to control the thing over which one is appointed, as it says,“Let the king appoint (וְיַפְקֵד) officers (פְקִידִים)” (Esther 2:3).   ואתה הפקד את הלוים: כתרגומו מני, לשון מנוי שררה על דבר שהוא ממונה עליו, כמו (אסתר ב, ג) ויפקד המלך פקידים:
51When the Tabernacle is set to travel, the Levites shall dismantle it; and when the Tabernacle camps, the Levites shall erect it; any outsider [non Levite] who approaches shall be put to death.   נאוּבִנְסֹעַ הַמִּשְׁכָּן יוֹרִידוּ אֹתוֹ הַלְוִיִּם וּבַחֲנֹת הַמִּשְׁכָּן יָקִימוּ אֹתוֹ הַלְוִיִּם וְהַזָּר הַקָּרֵב יוּמָת:
shall dismantle it: Heb. יוֹרִידוּ, as the Targum [Onkelos] renders, “They shall take it apart.” Whenever they were about to set out on a journey in the desert from one station to another, they dismantled the structure and carried it to the place where the cloud would settle. They would encamp there and set it up.   יורידו אתו: כתרגומו יפרקון, כשבאין ליסע במדבר ממסע למסע היו מפרקין אותו מהקמתו, ונושאין אותו עד מקום אשר ישכון שם הענן ויחנו שם ומקימין אותו:
any outsider who approaches: [to participate] in this work.   והזר הקרב: לעבודתם זו:
shall be put to death: at the hands of heaven.   יומת: בידי שמים:
52The children of Israel shall encamp, each man by his own camp and each man by his division.   נבוְחָנוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אִישׁ עַל מַחֲנֵהוּ וְאִישׁ עַל דִּגְלוֹ לְצִבְאֹתָם:
and each man by his division: As the divisions are arranged in this Book [of Numbers], three tribes for every division.   ואיש על דגלו: כמו שהדגלים סדורים בספר זה, שלשה שבטים לכל דגל:
53The Levites shall encamp around the Mishkan of the Testimony, so that there be no wrath upon the congregation of the children of Israel and the Levites shall keep the charge of the Mishkan of the Testimony.   נגוְהַלְוִיִּם יַחֲנוּ סָבִיב לְמִשְׁכַּן הָעֵדֻת וְלֹא יִהְיֶה קֶצֶף עַל עֲדַת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְשָׁמְרוּ הַלְוִיִּם אֶת מִשְׁמֶרֶת מִשְׁכַּן הָעֵדוּת:
so that there be no wrath: If you act in accordance with My command, there will be no wrath, but if not, and outsiders take part in this service, there will be wrath, as we find with the incident with Korah [that is says,]“for the wrath has gone forth from the Lord” (Num. 17:11).   ולא יהיה קצף: אם תעשה כמצותי לא יהיה קצף, ואם לאו שיכנסו זרים בעבודתם זו יהיה קצף, כמו שמצינו במעשה קרח (במדבר יז, יא) כי יצא הקצף וגו':
54And the children of Israel did according to all that the Lord had commanded Moses thus did they do.   נדוַיַּעֲשׂוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָֹה אֶת משֶׁה כֵּן עָשׂוּ:
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