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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Vayikra - Leviticus - Chapter 25

Vayikra - Leviticus - Chapter 25

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 25

1. And the Lord spoke to Moses on Mount Sinai, saying,   א. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהֹוָה אֶל משֶׁה בְּהַר סִינַי לֵאמֹר:
on Mount Sinai: What [special relevance] does the subject of Shemittah [the “release” of fields in the seventh year] have with Mount Sinai? Were not all the commandments stated from Sinai? However, [this teaches us that] just as with Shemittah, its general principles and its finer details were all stated from Sinai, likewise, all of them were stated-their general principles [together with] their finer details-from Sinai. This is what is taught in Torath Kohanim (25:1). [And why is Shemittah used as the example to prove this rule, especially since the very fine details are not even specified here (Sefer Hazikkaron)?] It appears to me that its explanation is as follows: [At the plains of Moab, Moses reiterated the majority of the laws of the Torah to the Israelites before their entry into the land of Israel, this reiteration comprising most of the Book of Deuteronomy. Now,] since we do not find the laws of Shemittah [“release”] of land reiterated on the plains of Moab in Deuteronomy, we learn that its general principles, finer details, and explanations were all stated at Sinai. Scripture states this [phrase] here to teach us that [just as in the case of Shemittah,] every statement [i.e., every commandment] that was conveyed to Moses came from Sinai, [including] their general principles and finer details [and that the commandments delineated in Deuteronomy were merely] repeated and reviewed on the plains of Moab [not originally given there].   בהר סיני: מה ענין שמיטה אצל הר סיני, והלא כל המצות נאמרו מסיני, אלא מה שמיטה נאמרו כללותיה ופרטותיה ודקדוקיה מסיני, אף כולן נאמרו כללותיהן ודקדוקיהן מסיני, כך שנויה בתורת כהנים. ונראה לי שכך פירושה לפי שלא מצינו שמיטת קרקעות שנשנית בערבות מואב במשנה תורה, למדנו שכללותיה ופרטותיה כולן נאמרו מסיני, ובא הכתוב ולמד כאן על כל דבור שנדבר למשה שמסיני היו כולם כללותיהן ודקדוקיהן, וחזרו ונשנו בערבות מואב:
2. Speak to the children of Israel and you shall say to them: When you come to the land that I am giving you, the land shall rest a Sabbath to the Lord.   ב. דַּבֵּר אֶל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם כִּי תָבֹאוּ אֶל הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי נֹתֵן לָכֶם וְשָׁבְתָה הָאָרֶץ שַׁבָּת לַיהֹוָה:
a Sabbath to the Lord: For the sake of the Lord, just as is stated of the Sabbath of Creation (see Exod. 20:10) [i.e., just as every seventh day is a holy Sabbath day, acclaiming that God Himself rested on the seventh day and thus acclaiming that God is the Supreme Creator of all existence, likewise, man must rest from working the land on the seventh year, for the sake of God, not for the sake of the land, so that it should gain fertility by lying fallow for a year]. — [Sifthei Chachamim ; Torath Kohanim 25:7]   שבת לה': לשם ה', כשם שנאמר בשבת בראשית:
3. You may sow your field for six years, and for six years you may prune your vineyard, and gather in its produce,   ג. שֵׁשׁ שָׁנִים תִּזְרַע שָׂדֶךָ וְשֵׁשׁ שָׁנִים תִּזְמֹר כַּרְמֶךָ וְאָסַפְתָּ אֶת תְּבוּאָתָהּ:
4. But in the seventh year, the land shall have a complete rest a Sabbath to the Lord; you shall not sow your field, nor shall you prune your vineyard.   ד. וּבַשָּׁנָה הַשְּׁבִיעִת שַׁבַּת שַׁבָּתוֹן יִהְיֶה לָאָרֶץ שַׁבָּת לַיהֹוָה שָׂדְךָ לֹא תִזְרָע וְכַרְמְךָ לֹא תִזְמֹר:
the land shall have [a complete rest]: for fields and vineyards [but you may dig holes in your land]. — [Sifthei Chachamim]   יהיה לארץ: לשדות ולכרמים:
nor shall you prune: Heb. לֹא תִזְמֹר. [This refers to the procedure in which] they cut off the [excessive] vine-branches (זְמוֹרוֹת) [and this expression] is rendered [by Onkelos] as לָא תִכְסָח, you shall not cut off, and similar to it is “as thorns cut down (כְּסוּחִים) [that are burned in fire]” (Isa. 33:12), and "it is burned with fire, it is cut (כְּסוּחָה) down.   לא תזמר: שקוצצין זמורותיה. ותרגומו לא תכסח, ודומה לו (ישעיה לג יב) קוצים כסוחים, (תהלים פ יז) שרופה באש כסוחה:
5. You shall not reap the aftergrowth of your harvest, and you shall not pick the grapes you had set aside [for yourself], [for] it shall be a year of rest for the land.   ה. אֵת סְפִיחַ קְצִירְךָ לֹא תִקְצוֹר וְאֶת עִנְּבֵי נְזִירֶךָ לֹא תִבְצֹר שְׁנַת שַׁבָּתוֹן יִהְיֶה לָאָרֶץ:
the aftergrowth of your harvest: although you did not sow it, but it grew by itself from seeds that [inadvertently] had dropped on [the ground] at the time of harvesting. This is called סְפִיחַ.   את ספיח קצירך: אפילו לא זרעתה והיא צמחה מן הזרע שנפל בה בעת הקציר, הוא קרוי ספיח:
You shall not reap: to keep it like a regular harvest, but it must be rendered ownerless, [and available] for everyone [to take at will]. — [Be’er Basadeh]   לא תקצור: להיות מחזיק בו כשאר קציר, אלא הפקר יהיה לכל:
the grapes you had set aside [for yourself]: [i.e., those grapes] that you set aside (הִנְזַרְתָּ) and kept people away from them and did not declare them ownerless.   נזירך: שהנזרת והפרשת בני אדם מהם ולא הפקרתם:
you shall not pick: Those, you shall not pick, but [you may pick] from crops declared ownerless. — [Torath Kohanim 25:8]   לא תבצר: אותם אינך בוצר, אלא מן המופקר:
6. And [the produce of] the Sabbath of the land shall be yours to eat for you, for your male and female slaves, and for your hired worker and resident who live with you,   ו. וְהָיְתָה שַׁבַּת הָאָרֶץ לָכֶם לְאָכְלָה לְךָ וּלְעַבְדְּךָ וְלַאֲמָתֶךָ וְלִשְׂכִירְךָ וּלְתוֹשָׁבְךָ הַגָּרִים עִמָּךְ:
And [the produce of] the Sabbath of the land, shall be [yours to eat]: Although I have prohibited the produce [of the Shemittah year] to you, I did not prohibit you to eat it or to derive benefit from it, only that you should not treat it as if you were its owner. Rather, everyone is deemed equal [regarding the use of the Shemittah year’s produce]-you, [your slaves,] and your hired worker and resident.   והיתה שבת הארץ וגו': אף על פי שאסרתים עליך, לא באכילה ולא בהנאה אסרתים, אלא שלא תנהוג בהם כבעל הבית, אלא הכל יהיו שוים בה, אתה ושכירך ותושבך:
And the produce of the Sabbath of the land... yours to eat: שַׁבַּת הָאָרֶץ. You may eat from what you treated as ownerless (שָׁבוּת), [see Sifthei Chachamim], but from that [produce] which is stored away, you shall not eat. — [Torath Kohanim 25:10]   שבת הארץ לכם לאכלה: מן השבות אתה אוכל, ואי אתה אוכל מן השמור:
for you, for your male and female slaves: Since Scripture says [regarding Shemittah], “and the poor of your people shall eat [it]” (Exod. 23:11), one might think that it [the produce of the Shemittah year] is prohibited to be eaten by wealthy people. Scripture, therefore, says here, “for you, for your male and female slaves,”-we see that the [wealthy] owners and the male and female slaves are included here [to permit them also to eat of the Shemittah year produce]. — [Torath Kohanim 25:12 and see Sefer Hazikkaron]   לך ולעבדך ולאמתך: לפי שנאמר (שמות כג יא) ואכלו אביוני עמך, יכול יהיו אסורים באכילה לעשירים, תלמוד לומר לך ולעבדך ולאמתך, הרי בעלים ועבדים ושפחות אמורים כאן:
and for your hired worker and resident [who live with you]: Even non-Jews. — [Torath Kohanim 25:14] [Hired worker is one hired by the day. Resident is one hired by the year (Bechor Shor).]   ולשכירך ולתושבך: אף הגוים:
7. And all of its produce may be eaten [also] by your domestic animals and by the beasts that are in your land.   ז. וְלִבְהֶמְתְּךָ וְלַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר בְּאַרְצֶךָ תִּהְיֶה כָל תְּבוּאָתָהּ לֶאֱכֹל:
by your domestic animals and by the beasts: But if a beast may eat [Shemittah produce], how much more so are domestic animals [allowed to eat it], since you are obliged to feed them! So why does Scripture mention “by your domestic animals”? [The answer is that Scripture] compares the domestic animal to the beast. As long as beasts [have a particular food available for them to] eat in the field, you may feed your domestic animals from your house. However, once that [particular food] has been consumed by the beasts in the field, you must remove what you had [stored] in your house for your domestic animals [and make that food freely available to everyone]. — [Torath Kohanim 25:15]   ולבהמתך ולחיה: אם חיה אוכלת בהמה לא כל שכן, שמזונותיה עליך, מה תלמוד לומר ולבהמתך, מקיש בהמה לחיה, כל זמן שחיה אוכלת מן השדה האכל לבהמתך מן הבית, כלה לחיה מן השדה כלה לבהמתך מן הבית:
8. And you shall count for yourself seven sabbatical years, seven years seven times. And the days of these seven sabbatical years shall amount to forty nine years for you.   ח. וְסָפַרְתָּ לְךָ שֶׁבַע שַׁבְּתֹת שָׁנִים שֶׁבַע שָׁנִים שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים וְהָיוּ לְךָ יְמֵי שֶׁבַע שַׁבְּתֹת הַשָּׁנִים תֵּשַׁע וְאַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה:
sabbatical years: Heb. שַׁבְּתֹת שָׁנִים, sabbatical years. Now, [since our verse therefore tells us to count “seven sabbatical years,”] one might think that we should observe seven consecutive sabbatical years, and then make a Jubilee year after them. Scripture, therefore, continues here, “seven years seven times,” thus showing us that every Shemittah year occurs in its own time [namely, every seventh year]. — [Torath Kohanim 25:13]   שבתת שנים: שמטות שנים. יכול יעשה שבע שנים רצופות שמטה ויעשה יובל אחריהם, תלמוד לומר שבע שנים שבע פעמים, הוי אומר כל שמטה ושמטה בזמנה:
And the days of these seven [sabbatical years will amount to forty-nine years]: [But is it not already clear that seven years seven times equals forty-nine? However, this] comes to tell us that even though you have not observed the Shemittah years [throughout that period], nevertheless, make a Jubilee at the end of forty-nine years. — [Torath Kohanim 25:14] [This is a Midrashic explanation, linking the end of our verse with the next, to read, “And the days of these seven sabbatical years will amount to forty-nine years for you (and) Then…you shall proclaim with shofar blasts.”] The simple meaning of our verse is, however, that the calculation of the years of the Shemittah cycles will amount to the number forty-nine.   והיו לך ימי שבע וגו': מגיד לך שאף על פי שלא עשית שמטות עשה יובל לסוף מ"ט שנה. ופשוטו של מקרא יעלה לך חשבון שנות השמטות למספר מ"ט:
9. You shall proclaim [with] the shofar blasts, in the seventh month, on the tenth of the month; on the Day of Atonement, you shall sound the shofar throughout your land.   ט. וְהַעֲבַרְתָּ שׁוֹפַר תְּרוּעָה בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִעִי בֶּעָשׂוֹר לַחֹדֶשׁ בְּיוֹם הַכִּפֻּרִים תַּעֲבִירוּ שׁוֹפָר בְּכָל אַרְצְכֶם:
You shall proclaim: Heb. וַהַעֲבַרְתָּ, [lit., “you shall pass” something from one place to another. But here, this term] stems from [the similar expression in the verse], “and they proclaimed (וַיַּעֲבִירוּ קוֹל) throughout the camp” (Exod. 36:6), an expression of proclamation. — [R.H. 34a]   והעברת: לשון (שמות לו ו) ויעבירו קול במחנה, לשון הכרזה:
[On the tenth of the month,] on the Day of Atonement: But since it says, “on the Day of Atonement,” do I not already know that this occurs “on the tenth of the month”? So why does Scripture need to state, “on the tenth of the month”? However, [it does so,] in order to teach you the following: [The obligation] to sound the shofar on the tenth of the month [i.e., on the Yom Kippur of the Jubilee year] overrides the [prohibition of sounding the shofar on the] Sabbath “throughout your entire land,” whereas [the obligation] to sound the shofar on Rosh Hashanah does not override the [prohibition of sounding the shofar on] Sabbath “throughout your entire land,” except in the court of law [where this prohibition does not apply (see Ramban on our verse)]. — [Torath Kohanim 25:16]   ביום הכפורים: ממשמע שנאמר ביום הכפורים איני יודע שהוא בעשור לחדש, אם כן למה נאמר בעשור לחדש, אלא לומר לך תקיעת עשור לחדש דוחה שבת בכל ארצכם, ואין תקיעת ראש השנה דוחה שבת בכל ארצכם, אלא בבית דין בלבד:
10. And you shall sanctify the fiftieth year, and proclaim freedom [for slaves] throughout the land for all who live on it. It shall be a Jubilee for you, and you shall return, each man to his property,_ and you shall return, each man to his family.   י. וְקִדַּשְׁתֶּם אֵת שְׁנַת הַחֲמִשִּׁים שָׁנָה וּקְרָאתֶם דְּרוֹר בָּאָרֶץ לְכָל ישְׁבֶיהָ יוֹבֵל הִוא תִּהְיֶה לָכֶם וְשַׁבְתֶּם אִישׁ אֶל אֲחֻזָּתוֹ וְאִישׁ אֶל מִשְׁפַּחְתּוֹ תָּשֻׁבוּ:
And you shall sanctify [the fiftieth year]: [How?] At its commencement, [this Jubilee year] is sanctified in the court, [at which time] they declare: “This year is holy!”   וקדשתם: בכניסתה מקדשין אותה בבית דין ואומרים מקודשת השנה:
and proclaim freedom: for slaves, whether a נִרְצָע [a Jewish slave who chose to remain with his master even after his being permitted to go free at the end of six years and who therefore had to have his ear bored (see Exod. 21:16) or a slave] for whom his six-year period since having been sold has not yet elapsed. Said Rabbi Judah: What does this term דְּרוֹר mean? As one who dwells (כִּמְדַייֵר) in a dwelling (בֵּי דַייְרָא) etc., who dwells wherever he wishes, and is not under the domain of others [thus, the term דְּרוֹר denotes “freedom”]. — [Torath Kohanim 25:18, R.H. 9b and see Rashi there]   וקראתם דרור: לעבדים, בין נרצע, בין שלא כלו לו שש שנים משנמכר. אמר ר' יהודה מהו לשון דרור, כמדייר בי דיירא ומסחר בכל מדינה וכו', שדר בכל מקום שהוא רוצה ואינו ברשות אחרים:
It shall be a Jubilee: This year is distinguished from all other years, for only it has a special name. And what is that name? It is called יוֹבֵל [meaning “ram’s horn” (see Rashi on Exod. 19:13)], because of the shofar that is sounded [upon its commencement].   יובל הוא: שנה זאת מובדלת משאר שנים בנקיבת שם לה לבדה. ומה שמה, יובל שמה, על שם תקיעת שופר:
and you shall return, each man to his property: that the fields revert to their owners. [This verse does not mean that the owner must return to his field, but that the ownership of the field returns to the one who had sold it (Mesiach Illemim)].   ושבתם איש אל אחזתו: שהשדות חוזרות לבעליהן:
and you shall return, each man to his family: [This clause comes] to include the “bored one.” (See second Rashi on this verse.) - [Kid. 15a]   ואיש אל משפחתו תשבו: לרבות את הנרצע:
11. This fiftieth year shall be a Jubilee for you you shall not sow, nor shall you reap its aftergrowth or pick [its grapes] that you had set aside [for yourself].   יא. יוֹבֵל הִוא שְׁנַת הַחֲמִשִּׁים שָׁנָה תִּהְיֶה לָכֶם לֹא תִזְרָעוּ וְלֹא תִקְצְרוּ אֶת סְפִיחֶיהָ וְלֹא תִבְצְרוּ אֶת נְזִרֶיהָ:
This fiftieth year shall be a Jubilee for you: What does this come to teach us?“ Since Scripture says (preceding verse),”And you shall sanctify [the fiftieth year,“ one might think that just as, at the beginning of the year, it gains sanctity progressively, so should its sanctity extend after the year, as it is with other instances of sanctification of holy times, e.g., Sabbath or a holy Festival, with which some ordinary time is added on to the holy time, here, too, some of the year following the Jubilee must be added on to it. Scripture, therefore, says, ”This fiftieth year shall be a Jubilee for you" - only the fiftieth year, with no extensions. The above] is taught in Tractate R.H. (8b) and Torath Kohanim (25:23).   יובל הוא שנת החמשים שנה: מה תלמוד לומר, לפי שנאמר וקדשתם וגו', כדאיתא בראש השנה (ח ב) ובתורת כהנים:
its [grapes that] you had set aside: Heb. נְזִרֶיהָ, those grapes stored away, but you may harvest those that have been rendered ownerless. [For] just as with Shemittah [the term נְזִירֶךָ] is stated [specifically referring to grapes (see Rashi verse 5 above)], so with Jubilee, [this term נְזִרֶיהָ] is stated [and refers specifically to grapes, for Shemittah and Jubilee are equal in all matters. (Mesiach Illemim, Devek Tov, Sifthei Chachamim) See also Be’er Basadeh, Maskil L’David]. Thus, two holy years are found right next to each other-the forty-ninth year [in each cycle] is Shemittah and the fiftieth year is Jubilee.   את נזריה: את הענבים המשומרים. אבל בוצר אתה מן המופקרים, כשם שנאמר בשביעית כך נאמר ביובל, נמצאו שתי שנים קדושות סמוכות זו לזו, שנת מ"ט שמטה ושנת החמישים יובל:
12. For it is Jubilee. It shall be holy for you; you shall eat its produce from the field.   יב. כִּי יוֹבֵל הִוא קֹדֶשׁ תִּהְיֶה לָכֶם מִן הַשָּׂדֶה תֹּאכְלוּ אֶת תְּבוּאָתָהּ:
It shall be holy for you: [The produce of Jubilee] attaches its holiness onto the money [it is sold for] like items dedicated to the Holy Temple. However, one might think that [just like items dedicated to the Holy Temple, this produce] leaves [its holy status,] to become unholy-Scripture, therefore, says here “It shall be,” [as if to say,] they shall remain as they were. — [Suk. 40b]   קדש תהיה לכם: תופסת דמיה כהקדש. יכול תצא היא לחולין, תלמוד לומר תהיה, בהוויתה תהא:
You shall eat [its produce] from the field: You shall [gauge your] eating in the house, by way of the field. [That is to say,] once [a particular food] has been consumed by the beasts in the field, you must remove [what you had stored of that food] from your house [and make it freely available to all]. (See Rashi on verse 7 above; Torath Kohanim 25:26). Just as was stated regarding Shemittah, so it is stated regarding the Jubilee.   מן השדה תאכלו: על ידי השדה אתה אוכל מן הבית, שאם כלה לחיה מן השדה אתה צריך לבער מן הבית, כשם שנאמר בשביעית כך נאמר ביובל:
13. During this Jubilee year, you shall return, each man to his property.   יג. בִּשְׁנַת הַיּוֹבֵל הַזֹּאת תָּשֻׁבוּ אִישׁ אֶל אֲחֻזָּתוֹ:
you shall return, each man to his property: But has this not already been stated, [when Scripture says], “ and you shall return, each man to his property” (verse 10 above)? However, [this clause is stated here,] to include one who sold his field, and his son arose and redeemed it, that it reverts to his father in the Jubilee. — [Torath Kohanim 25:28]   תשבו איש אל אחזתו: והרי כבר נאמר (פסוק י) ושבתם איש אל אחזתו, אלא לרבות המוכר שדהו ועמד בנו וגאלה שחוזרת לאביו ביובל:
14. And when you make a sale to your fellow Jew or make a purchase from the hand of your fellow Jew, you shall not wrong one another.   יד. וְכִי תִמְכְּרוּ מִמְכָּר לַעֲמִיתֶךָ אוֹ קָנֹה מִיַּד עֲמִיתֶךָ אַל תּוֹנוּ אִישׁ אֶת אָחִיו:
And when you make a sale to your fellow-Jew or make a purchase from your fellow-Jew: Its simple meaning is obvious. The verse can also be expounded [to teach us the following lesson]: How do we know that when you wish to sell, you should sell to your fellow-Jew? For Scripture says, “ וְכִי תִמְכְּרוּ מִמְכָּר לַעֲמִיתֶךָ,” i.e., “And when you make a sale--sell to your fellow-Jew!” And how do we know that if you come to buy, you should buy from your fellow-Jew? For Scripture continues here: “אוֹ קָנֹה מִיַּד עֲמִיתֶךָ,” i.e., “or when you buy--buy from your fellow-Jew!” - [Torath Kohanim 25:29]   וכי תמכרו וגו': לפי פשוטו כמשמעו. ועוד יש דרשה מנין כשאתה מוכר, מכור לישראל חברך, תלמוד לומר וכי תמכרו ממכר לעמיתך מכור, ומנין שאם באת לקנות קנה מישראל חברך, תלמוד לומר או קנה מיד עמיתך:
you shall not wrong: This means wronging through money (see verse 17 below and Lev. 19:33). - [Torath Kohanim 25:31]   אל תונו: זו אונאת ממון:
15. According to the number of years after the Jubilee, you shall purchase from your fellow Jew; according to the number of years of crops, he shall sell to you.   טו. בְּמִסְפַּר שָׁנִים אַחַר הַיּוֹבֵל תִּקְנֶה מֵאֵת עֲמִיתֶךָ בְּמִסְפַּר שְׁנֵי תְבוּאֹת יִמְכָּר לָךְ:
According to the number of years after the Jubilee, you shall purchase: The following is its simple meaning, to explain the verse according to its context: [The text] comes to warn against wronging [by overcharging, thereby linking verses 14-16 together (Mizrachi)], [namely, that] when you sell or purchase land, you should be aware of how many years remain until the [next] Jubilee, and according to [that number of] years and the crops that it is fit to yield, the seller should sell and the buyer should buy. For indeed, he will eventually return it to him in the Jubilee year. Thus, if there are [only] a few years [left until the next Jubilee year], and this one sells it for a high price, the purchaser has been wronged. And if there are many years [left until the next Jubilee year], and he will eat many crops from it [until Jubilee-if the purchaser had purchased the land for a low price], the seller has been wronged. Therefore, it must be purchased according to the time [left until the next Jubilee]. And this is [the meaning of] what it says, תְבוּאֹת יִמְכָּרלָ בְּמִסְפַּר שְׁנֵי, “according to the number of years of crops, he shall sell to you.” “According to the number of years of crop yields that it will remain in the hands of the purchaser, you shall sell it to him.” Now, [the word שְׁנֵי can mean “years of” or can mean “two.” Thus,] our Rabbis have expounded from here (see end of this Rashi for clarification), that one who sells his field is not permitted to redeem it in less than two years, that it must remain in the purchaser’s possession for exactly two years to the day, even if there are three crops during those two years, for example, if he sold it to him with crop standing in it [and then the ensuing years brought two more yields of produce. In that case, the seller cannot redeem after one year, claiming that two years’ crops have been issued,] for the word שְׁנֵי [which could mean two, i.e., two yields] does not leave its simple meaning [that it means years,] referring to [the number of years that elapse and] specifically, years that elapse with a yield of crop, but not years of blight. [Now, if the word שְׁנֵי means “years” and not two, then how do our Rabbis expound it to mean “two years”?] Because [the term שְׁנֵי is plural, and] the minimum quantity implied by שָׁנִים is two. — [Arachin 29b; Mizrachi]   במספר שנים אחר היובל תקנה: זהו פשוטו ליישב מקרא על אופניו על האונאה בא להזהיר, כשתמכור או תקנה קרקע דע כמה שנים יש עד היובל. ולפי השנים ותבואות השדה שהיא ראויה לעשות ימכור המוכר ויקנה הקונה, שהרי סופו להחזירה לו בשנת היובל. ואם יש שנים מועטות וזה מוכרה בדמים יקרים הרי נתאנה לוקח, ואם יש שנים מרובות ואכל ממנה תבואות הרבה ולקחה בדמים מועטים הרי נתאנה מוכר, לפיכך צריך לקנותה לפי הזמן. וזהו שנאמר במספר שני תבואות ימכר לך, לפי מנין שני התבואות שתהא עומדת ביד הלוקח תמכור לו. ורבותינו דרשו מכאן, שהמוכר שדהו אינו רשאי לגאול פחות משתי שנים, שתעמוד שתי שנים ביד הלוקח מיום ליום, ואפילו יש שלש תבואות באותן שתי שנים, כגון שמכרה לו בקמותיה. ושני אינו יוצא מפשוטו, כלומר מספר שנים של תבואות, ולא של שדפון, ומעוט שנים שנים:
16. The more [the remaining] years, you shall increase its purchase [price], and the fewer the [remaining] years, you shall decrease its purchase [price], because he is selling you a number of crops.   טז. לְפִי | רֹב הַשָּׁנִים תַּרְבֶּה מִקְנָתוֹ וּלְפִי מְעֹט הַשָּׁנִים תַּמְעִיט מִקְנָתוֹ כִּי מִסְפַּר תְּבוּאֹת הוּא מֹכֵר לָךְ:
you shall increase its purchase: You should sell it at a high price.   תרבה מקנתו: תמכרנה ביוקר:
you shall decrease its purchase: You should sell it for less money [than in the case in which many years are left until the Jubilee]. — [Mizrachi].   תמעיט מקנתו: תמעיט בדמיה:
17. And you shall not wrong, one man his fellow Jew, and you shall fear your God, for I am the Lord, your God.   יז. וְלֹא תוֹנוּ אִישׁ אֶת עֲמִיתוֹ וְיָרֵאתָ מֵאֱלֹהֶיךָ כִּי אֲנִי יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם:
And you shall not wrong, one man his fellow-Jew: Here, [as opposed to the same expression in verse 14 above (see Rashi there),] Scripture is warning against wronging verbally, namely, that one must not provoke his fellow [Jew], nor may one offer advice to him that is unsound for him but according to the mode of life or the benefit of the advisor. And if you say, “Who can tell whether I had evil intentions [when I talked to my fellow in an insulting manner? Perhaps I did so in order to make him feel remorseful and repent his ways].” (see Be’er Basadeh). Therefore, it says, “and you shall fear your God.”-The One Who knows all thoughts-He knows. Concerning anything held in the heart and known only to the one who bears this thought in his mind, it says “and you shall fear your God!” - [B.M. 58b]   ולא תונו איש את עמיתו: כאן הזהיר על אונאת דברים, שלא יקניט איש את חברו לא ישיאנו עצה שאינה הוגנת לו לפי דרכו והנאתו של יועץ. ואם תאמר, מי יודע אם נתכוונתי לרעה, לכך נאמר ויראת מאלהיך, היודע מחשבות הוא יודע. כל דבר המסור ללב, שאין מכיר אלא מי שהמחשבה בלבו, נאמר בו ויראת מאלהיך:
18. You shall perform My statutes, keep My ordinances and perform them then you will live on the land securely.   יח. וַעֲשִׂיתֶם אֶת חֻקֹּתַי וְאֶת מִשְׁפָּטַי תִּשְׁמְרוּ וַעֲשִׂיתֶם אֹתָם וִישַׁבְתֶּם עַל הָאָרֶץ לָבֶטַח:
Then you will live on the land securely: because it is through the transgression of [the laws of] Shemittah that the Israelites are exiled [from their land], as the verse says, “Then, the land will appease its Sabbaths. [All the days of desolation while you are in the land of your enemies -] the land will rest and appease its Sabbaths” (Lev. 26:34). And the seventy years of the Babylonian exile [when the land remained forcibly at rest], corresponded to the seventy years of Shemittah not observed by Israel, [and thus came to rectify and “appease” them]. [see Rashi Lev. 26:25 where the calculation is explained; Shab. 33a; and see II Chron. 36:21]   וישבתם על הארץ לבטח: שבעון שמטה ישראל גולים, שנאמר (ויקרא כו לד) אז תרצה הארץ את שבתותיה והרצת את שבתותיה, ושבעים שנה של גלות בבל, כנגד שבעים שמטות שבטלו היו:
19. And the land will then yield its fruit and you will eat to satiety, and live upon it securely.   יט. וְנָתְנָה הָאָרֶץ פִּרְיָהּ וַאֲכַלְתֶּם לָשׂבַע וִישַׁבְתֶּם לָבֶטַח עָלֶיהָ:
And the land will then yield [its fruit…and you will…] live upon it securely: i.e., you will have no worry about a year of drought.   ונתנה הארץ וגו' וישבתם לבטח עליה: שלא תדאגו משנת בצורת:
and you will eat to satiety: There will be a blessing in it even inside your innards.   ואכלתם לשבע: אף בתוך המעים תהא בו ברכה:
20. And if you should say, "What will we eat in the seventh year? We will not sow, and we will not gather in our produce!"   כ. וְכִי תֹאמְרוּ מַה נֹּאכַל בַּשָּׁנָה הַשְּׁבִיעִת הֵן לֹא נִזְרָע וְלֹא נֶאֱסֹף אֶת תְּבוּאָתֵנוּ:
and will not gather in: to the house [for storage (Sefer Hazikkaron)].   ולא נאסף: אל הבית:
our produce: for example, wine and fruit of the trees and aftergrowth that grew spontaneously [and that, therefore, was not sown by you]. — [Pes. 51b]   את תבואתנו: כגון יין ופירות האילן וספיחין הבאים מאליהם:
21. [Know then, that] I will command My blessing for you in the sixth year, and it will yield produce for three years.   כא. וְצִוִּיתִי אֶת בִּרְכָתִי לָכֶם בַּשָּׁנָה הַשִּׁשִּׁית וְעָשָׂת אֶת הַתְּבוּאָה לִשְׁלשׁ הַשָּׁנִים:
for three years: for part of the sixth year from Nissan [when the crop is reaped] until Rosh Hashanah, for the [entire] seventh [Shemittah] year, and for the eighth [year, namely,] for they will sow [a new crop] in Marcheshvan of the eighth year and reap [this new crop] in Nissan [while still eating of the sixth year’s crop].   לשלש השנים: למקצת הששית מניסן ועד ראש השנה, ולשביעית ולשמינית, שיזרעו בשמינית במרחשון ויקצרו בניסן:
22. And you will sow in the eighth year, while [still] eating from the old crops until the ninth year; until the arrival of its crop, you will eat the old [crop].   כב. וּזְרַעְתֶּם אֵת הַשָּׁנָה הַשְּׁמִינִת וַאֲכַלְתֶּם מִן הַתְּבוּאָה יָשָׁן עַד | הַשָּׁנָה הַתְּשִׁיעִת עַד בּוֹא תְּבוּאָתָהּ תֹּאכְלוּ יָשָׁן:
until the ninth year: Until the Festival of Succoth in the ninth year, the time the crop of the eighth year is brought into the house, for throughout the summer season, it was kept in granaries in the field. In Tishrei-that is the time the crop is gathered into the house. Now, there were occasions when it would need to yield for four years, namely: in the sixth year preceding the seventh Shemittah, when they would refrain from doing work on the land for two consecutive years, the seventh year and the Jubilee year. Our verse, however, refers to all the other Shemittah years [i.e., the first through sixth cycles of Shemittah]. — [see Ned. 61a]   עד השנה התשיעת: עד חג הסכות של תשיעית, שהיא עת בוא תבואתה של שמינית לתוך הבית, שכל ימות הקיץ היו בשדה בגרנות, ובתשרי הוא עת האסיף לבית. ופעמים שהיתה צריכה לעשות לארבע שנים, בששית שלפני השמטה השביעית, שהן בטלין מעבודת קרקע שתי שנים רצופות השביעית והיובל, ומקרא זה נאמר בשאר השמטות כולן:
23. The land shall not be sold permanently, for the land belongs to Me, for you are strangers and [temporary] residents with Me.   כג. וְהָאָרֶץ לֹא תִמָּכֵר לִצְמִתֻת כִּי לִי הָאָרֶץ כִּי גֵרִים וְתוֹשָׁבִים אַתֶּם עִמָּדִי:
The land shall not be sold [permanently]: [Although this is already understood from the earlier verses in our passage (10 and 13), it is stated here] to impose a negative commandment regarding the reversion of fields to their [original] owners in Jubilee, that the purchaser must not seize [the land] forcibly [in an effort to keep it as a “permanent” sale].   והארץ לא תמכר: ליתן לאו על חזרת שדות לבעלים ביובל, שלא יהא הלוקח כובשה:
permanently: לִצְמִתֻת, irreversibly. [Thus, the לֹא תִמָּכֵר לִצְמִתֻת, has the meaning of] a permanent, irreversible sale.   לצמתת: לפסיקה, למכירה פסוקה עולמית:
for the land belongs to Me: [Says God:] Do not be selfish about the land [hesitating to return it to its rightful owner at Jubilee], because the land does not belong to you. - [Torath Kohanim 25:39]   כי לי הארץ: אל תרע עינך בה שאינה שלך:
24. Therefore, throughout the land of your possession, you shall give redemption for the land.   כד. וּבְכֹל אֶרֶץ אֲחֻזַּתְכֶם גְּאֻלָּה תִּתְּנוּ לָאָרֶץ:
throughout the land of your possession: [The seemingly superfluous word here, “throughout,”] comes to include [the right of relatives to redeem] houses [of walled cities (Sifthei Chachamim , Rashi on Kid. 21a)] and a Hebrew slave. This matter is explained in the first chapter of Tractate Kid. (21a). And according to its simple meaning, [this] is connected to the passage that follows, that one who sells his property is permitted to redeem it after two years-either he or his relative, and that the purchaser cannot impede [this redemption].   ובכל ארץ אחזתכם: לרבות בתים ועבד עברי, ודבר זה מפורש בקידושין בפרק ראשון (דף כא א). ולפי פשוטו סמוך לפרשה שלאחריו, שהמוכר אחוזתו רשאי לגאלה לאחר שתי שנים או הוא או קרובו, ואין הלוקח יכול לעכב:
25. If your brother becomes destitute and sells some of his inherited property, his redeemer who is related to him shall come forth and redeem his brother's sale.   כה. כִּי יָמוּךְ אָחִיךָ וּמָכַר מֵאֲחֻזָּתוֹ וּבָא גֹאֲלוֹ הַקָּרֹב אֵלָיו וְגָאַל אֵת מִמְכַּר אָחִיו:
If your brother becomes destitute and sells: [This] teaches [us] that a person may not sell his field except when under the pressure of poverty. - [Torath Kohanim 25:41]   כי ימוך אחיך ומכר: מלמד שאין אדם רשאי למכור שדהו אלא מחמת דוחק עוני:
some of his inherited property: But not all of it. [Scripture] teaches [us] proper conduct, namely, that he should leave one field for himself. — [Torath Kohanim 25:41]   מאחזתו: ולא כולה, למד דרך ארץ שישייר שדה לעצמו:
and redeem his brother’s sale: and the purchaser cannot impede [the redemption].   וגאל את ממכר אחיו: ואין הלוקח יכול לעכב:
26. And if a man does not have a redeemer, but he gains enough means to afford its redemption,   כו. וְאִישׁ כִּי לֹא יִהְיֶה לּוֹ גֹּאֵל וְהִשִּׂיגָה יָדוֹ וּמָצָא כְּדֵי גְאֻלָּתוֹ:
And if a man does not have a redeemer: But is there a man in Israel who has no [relative] to redeem [his sale]? However, [Scripture means] a redeemer who is [financially] able to redeem his sale. — [Kid. 21a]   ואיש כי לא יהיה לו גאל: וכי יש לך אדם בישראל שאין לו גואלים, אלא גואל שיוכל לגאול ממכרו:
27. he shall calculate the years for which the land has been sold, and return the remainder to the man to whom he sold it, and [then] he may return to his inheritance.   כז. וְחִשַּׁב אֶת שְׁנֵי מִמְכָּרוֹ וְהֵשִׁיב אֶת הָעֹדֵף לָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר מָכַר לוֹ וְשָׁב לַאֲחֻזָּתוֹ:
he shall calculate the years of his sale: [The original owner asks the purchaser:] “How many years were left until the [next] Jubilee?” [He answers:] “Such-and-such [a number of years].” [The owner continues:] “And how much did I sell it to you for?” [He answers:] “For such-and-such [an amount of money].” [Continues the original owner:] “You would have eventually had to return the field to me at Jubilee.” Hence, [rather than buying actual land,] in effect, you bought [from me] a number of produce yields, according to the total for every year [remaining until Jubilee]. Now, you have eaten from it for three or four years [or whatever the amount may be]. Therefore, subtract their value from the total [i.e., from the original sale price], and take the remainder [until Jubilee].“ And this is the meaning of ”and return the remainder" of the purchase price over the crops he had eaten, and he shall give it to the purchaser.   וחשב את שני ממכרו: כמה שנים היו עד היובל, כך וכך. ובכמה מכרתיה לך בכך וכך. עתיד היית להחזירה ביובל, נמצאת קונה מספר התבואות כפי חשבון של כל שנה. אכלת אותה שלש שנים או ארבע הוצא את דמיהן מן החשבון וטול את השאר, וזהו והשיב את העדף - בדמי המקח על האכילה שאכלה, ויתנם ללוקח:
the man to whom he had sold [it]: [i.e., “the man to whom he-] this seller who is coming to redeem it- [had sold it.” If the first purchaser had sold it to another person for a higher price, the original owner makes the above calculation only with the first purchaser to whom he sold the field and not with the subsequent purchaser]. — [Arachin 30a; Mizrachi]   לאיש אשר מכר לו: המוכר הזה שבא לגאלה:
28. But if he cannot afford enough to repay him, his sale shall remain in the possession of the one who has purchased it, until the Jubilee year. And then, in the Jubilee year, it shall go out and revert to his inheritance.   כח. וְאִם לֹא מָצְאָה יָדוֹ דֵּי הָשִׁיב לוֹ וְהָיָה מִמְכָּרוֹ בְּיַד הַקֹּנֶה אֹתוֹ עַד שְׁנַת הַיּוֹבֵל וְיָצָא בַּיֹּבֵל וְשָׁב לַאֲחֻזָּתוֹ:
enough to repay him: From here, [we learn] that he cannot redeem part [of a field but either all or nothing]. — [Torath Kohanim 25:48, Arachin 30a, Kid. 20b; Sifthei Chachamim]   די השיב לו: מכאן שאינו גואל לחצאין:
until the Jubilee year: [i.e., until, but not including the Jubilee year (Torath Kohanim 25:50; Mizrachi), and hence the purchaser] must not at all enter the Jubilee year [while in possession of the field,] because the Jubilee year releases [the field from his possession] at its very onset. — [Arachin 28b and Rashi there]   עד שנת היובל: שלא יכנס לתוך אותה שנה כלום, שהיובל משמט בתחלתו:
29. And when a man sells a residential house in a walled city, its redemption may take place until the completion of the year of its sale. Its [period of] redemption shall be a full year.   כט. וְאִישׁ כִּי יִמְכֹּר בֵּית מוֹשַׁב עִיר חוֹמָה וְהָיְתָה גְּאֻלָּתוֹ עַד תֹּם שְׁנַת מִמְכָּרוֹ יָמִים תִּהְיֶה גְאֻלָּתוֹ:
a residential house in a walled city: A house (בֵּית) within a city (עִיר) surrounded by a wall (חוֹמָה) since the days of Joshua the son of Nun. — [Sifthei Chachamim ; Torath Kohanim 25:53, Arachin 32a, b]   בית מושב עיר חומה: בית בתוך עיר המוקפת חומה מימות יהושע בן נון:
its redemption may take place [until the completion of the year of its sale]: Since regarding a field, Scripture states that one may redeem it whenever one wishes after two years have elapsed [since the date of sale] and onwards [until Jubilee] and that within the first two years [following the sale] one may not redeem it, [Scripture found] it necessary to specify that in this case, the opposite applies, namely, that if one wishes to redeem it within the first year [following the sale], one may redeem it, while after that, one may not redeem it.   והיתה גאלתו: לפי שנאמר בשדה שיכול לגאלה משתי שנים ואילך כל זמן שירצה ובתוך שתי שנים הראשונים אינו יכול לגאלה, הוצרך לפרש בזה שהוא חלוף, שאם רצה לגאול בשנה ראשונה גואלה, ולאחר מכאן אינו גואלה:
its [period of] redemption shall be: [I.e., the redemption] of the house, [not the redemption of the sale or the redemption of the seller.] - [Mizrachi, Sefer Hazikkaron]   והיתה גאלתו: של בית:
a full year: Heb. יָמִים, [lit., “days,”]. The days of a full year, are called יָמִים. Likewise, “Let the maiden stay with us a year (יָמִים)” (Gen. 24:55).   ימים: ימי שנה שלימה קרויים ימים, וכן (בראשית כד נה) תשב הנערה אתנו ימים:
30. But if it is not redeemed by the end of a complete year, then that house which is in the city that has a wall, shall remain permanently [the property] of the one who purchased it throughout his generations. It will not leave [his possession] in the Jubilee.   ל. וְאִם לֹא יִגָּאֵל עַד מְלֹאת לוֹ שָׁנָה תְמִימָה וְקָם הַבַּיִת אֲשֶׁר בָּעִיר אֲשֶׁר לוֹ חֹמָה לַצְּמִיתֻת לַקֹּנֶה אֹתוֹ לְדֹרֹתָיו לֹא יֵצֵא בַּיֹּבֵל:
then that house…shall remain permanently: It shall leave the jurisdiction of the seller, and remain under the jurisdiction of the purchaser.   וקם הבית וגו' לצמיתת: יצא מכחו של מוכר ועומד בכחו של קונה:
that has a wall: Heb. אֲשֶׁר לֹא חֹמָה, [meaning “which has no wall”]. [However, Oral Tradition teaches us that] we read לוֹ, [meaning “to him” or “to it,” [hence, “a city that has a wall”]. Our Rabbis of blessed memory said: [The written version of this phrase namely, בָּעִיר אֲשֶׁר לֹא חֹמָה teaches us that] even if [the city] does not (לֹא) have a wall now, since it had one before [from the days of Joshua, the laws of our passage still apply to it]. — [Arachin 32a] [Since the word] עִיר is grammatically feminine, Scripture should have written בָּעִיר אֲשֶׁר לָהּ חֹמָה, [לָהּ being the feminine form of “to it”]. However, since לֹא had to be written inside [i.e., in the written text of the Torah, our Rabbis] set this word to be read according to the Oral Tradition as לוֹ, because they match [in pronunciation, unlike לָהּ].   אשר לא חמה: לו קרינן, אמרו רז"ל אף על פי שאין לו עכשיו, הואיל והיתה לו קודם לכן. ועיר נקבה היא והוצרך לכתוב לה, אלא מתוך שצריך לכתוב לא בפנים, תקנו לו במסורת, זה נופל על זה:
It shall not leave [his possession] in the Jubilee: [What does this phrase teach us? It has already stated that the house becomes the permanent property of the purchaser.] Said Rabbi Safra: [Even] if the Jubilee year occurs within the first year [of the sale,] it shall not leave [his possession without redemption]. — [Arachin 31b]   לא יצא ביבל: אמר רב ספרא אם פגע בו יובל בתוך שנתו לא יצא:
31. But houses in open cities, which do not have a wall surrounding them, are to be considered as the field of the land. It may have redemption and shall leave [the purchaser's possession] in the Jubilee.   לא. וּבָתֵּי הַחֲצֵרִים אֲשֶׁר אֵין לָהֶם חֹמָה סָבִיב עַל שְׂדֵה הָאָרֶץ יֵחָשֵׁב גְּאֻלָּה תִּהְיֶה לּוֹ וּבַיֹּבֵל יֵצֵא:
But houses in open cities: Heb. הַחֲצֵרִים, [to be understood] as it is rendered by the Targum [Onkelos, namely]: פַצִיחַיָא, meaning open towns, without a wall. There are many [instances of this term] in the Book of Joshua, [for example in the verse] (13:28),“the cities and their open towns (וְחַצְרֵיהֶם) ”; [likewise in the verse], “in their open cities (בְּחַצְרֵיהֶם) and in their walled cities” (Gen. 25:16).   ובתי החצרים: כתרגומו פצחין, עיירות פתוחות מאין חומה. ויש הרבה בספר יהושע (יהושע יג כח) הערים וחצריהם, (בראשית כה טז) בחצריהם ובטירותם:
[But houses in open cities…] are to be considered as the field of the land: They are like fields, which may be redeemed until the Jubilee and leave [the possession of the purchaser, reverting] to the [original] owners in the Jubilee if they had not been redeemed [until then].   על שדה הארץ יחשב: הרי הן כשדות הנגאלים עד היובל ויוצאין ביובל לבעלים אם לא נגאלו:
It may have redemption: immediately, if one wishes [to redeem it]. And by virtue of this element, they have a greater advantage [to the original owner] than do fields, since fields may not be redeemed until two years have elapsed [since the sale (see Rashi on verse 15 above)]. — [Arachin 33a]   גאלה תהיה לו: מיד אם ירצה. ובזה יפה כחו מכח שדות, שהשדות אין נגאלות עד שתי שנים:
and shall leave [the purchaser’s possession] inthe Jubilee: without payment [for regarding fields, which are required to remain with the purchaser for two years (see Rashi on verse 15 above), if the Jubilee occurs after only one year has elapsed from the sale, then the field reverts to the owner for the Jubilee year, but the purchaser takes it back for one more year afterwards (Arachin 29b). In the case of houses in open cities, however, even if the Jubilee occurs after only one year, the house reverts to the original owner, without any payment.] - [Sifthei Chachamim].   וביבל יצא: בחנם:
32. And, [regarding] the cities of the Levites, the houses of their inherited cities shall forever have a [right of] redemption for the Levites.   לב. וְעָרֵי הַלְוִיִּם בָּתֵּי עָרֵי אֲחֻזָּתָם גְּאֻלַּת עוֹלָם תִּהְיֶה לַלְוִיִּם:
And [regarding] the cities of the Levites: [namely,] the forty-eight cities that were given to the Levites (see Num. 35:7).   וערי הלוים: ארבעים ושמנה עיר שנתנו להם:
shall forever have a [right of] redemption: [If a Levite] sells a field of one of their fields that were given to them in the two-thousand cubits surrounding the cities (see Num. 35:45), he may redeem it immediately, even before two years have elapsed [since the sale]. And if he sells a house in a walled city, he may always redeem it, and the house is not transferred permanently [to the purchaser] at the end of the [first] year [after the sale, as opposed to the case of a non-Levite owner]. — [Arachin 33b]   גאלת עולם: גואל מיד אפילו לפני שתי שנים, אם מכרו שדה משדותיהם הנתונות להם באלפים אמה סביבות הערים, או אם מכרו בית בעיר חומה, גואלין לעולם, ואינו חלוט לסוף שנה:
33. And if one purchases from the Levites, whether a house or an inherited city, will leave [the possession of the purchaser] in the Jubilee, because the houses of the cities of the Levites, are their inherited property amidst the children of Israel.   לג. וַאֲשֶׁר יִגְאַל מִן הַלְוִיִּם וְיָצָא מִמְכַּר בַּיִת וְעִיר אֲחֻזָּתוֹ בַּיֹּבֵל כִּי בָתֵּי עָרֵי הַלְוִיִּם הִוא אֲחֻזָּתָם בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל:
And if one purchases from the Levites: And if someone buys (יִגְאַל) a house or a city from them.   ואשר יגאל מן הלוים: ואם יקנה בית או עיר מהם:
shall leave [the possession of the purchaser] in the Jubilee: It will leave in Jubilee, i.e., the sale of that house or city [will leave the possession of that purchaser], and will revert to the Levite who sold it. And it will not be transferred permanently [to the purchaser] like other houses in a walled city owned by an Israelite. Thus, this expression of גְּאֻלָּה [usually meaning “redemption”], here means “purchase.” Another explanation: [keeping the usual meaning of גְּאֻלָּה, namely, “redemption”]: Since it is said, “the Levites will forever have a [right of] redemption,” one might assume that Scripture is speaking only of a non-Levite who purchased a house in the Levitic cities [and that the Levite owner may always redeem this house], but if a Levite purchased from another Levite, it would be transferred permanently, Therefore, Scripture says here, “And if one redeems (יִגְאַל) from the Levites”-i.e., even when a Levite redeems from a Levite, [still the owner,] “will forever have a [right of] redemption.” - [Torath Kohanim 25:66]   ויצא ביבל: אותו ממכר של בית או של עיר וישוב ללוי שמכרו, ולא יהיה חלוט כשאר בתי ערי חומה של ישראל. וגאולה זו לשון מכירה. דבר אחר לפי שנאמר גאולת עולם תהיה ללוים (פסוק לב), יכול לא דבר הכתוב אלא בלוקח ישראל שקנה בית בערי הלוים, אבל לוי שקנה מלוי יהיה חלוט, תלמוד לומר ואשר יגאל מן הלוים, אף [לוי] הגואל מיד לוי גואל גאולת עולם:
the house... shall leave [the possession of the purchaser] in the Jubilee: [According to Rashi’s first explanation of וַאֲשֶׁר יִגְאַל מִן הַלְוִיִּם, the verse continues to state that the house purchased by a non-Levite “will leave (the possession of the purchaser) in the Jubilee,” as above. However, according to the alternative explanation, where this first phrase וַאֲשֶׁר יִגְאַל מִן הַלְוִיִּם independently teaches us about a Levite purchaser, the second phrase here, namely, “will leave (the possession of the purchaser) in the Jubilee”] this is a separate commandment, namely, that if the Levite owner] did not redeem the house, it leaves [the possession of the purchaser] in Jubilee and does not transfer permanently [to the purchaser] at the end of a year, like the house of an Israelite.   ויצא ממכר בית: הרי זו מצוה אחרת, ואם לא גאלה יוצאה ביובל, ואינו נחלט לסוף שנה כבית של ישראל:
because the houses of the cities of the Levites are their inherited property: They did not have an inheritance of fields and vineyards, but cities to live in and their open areas (see Num. 35:18). Therefore, these [cities and their open areas,] are to be considered for them [as their inheritance] in place of fields. Consequently, they have the same redemption [rights] as do fields [of non-Levites and also, this property reverts to them in Jubilee (Sifthei Chachamim). All this,] so that their inheritance never be removed from them.   כי בתי ערי הלוים הוא אחזתם: לא היה להם נחלת שדות וכרמים אלא ערים לשבת ומגרשיהם, לפיכך הם להם במקום שדות, ויש להם גאולה כשדות, כדי שלא תופקע נחלתם מהם:
34. And a field in the open areas of their cities cannot be sold, because it is their eternal inheritance.   לד. וּשֲׂדֵה מִגְרַשׁ עָרֵיהֶם לֹא יִמָּכֵר כִּי אֲחֻזַּת עוֹלָם הוּא לָהֶם:
And a field in the open areas of their cities cannot be sold: by the [Temple] treasurer. I.e., if a Levite consecrated his field and did not redeem it, and the treasurer sold it, in the Jubilee, the field does not leave [the possession of the purchaser] and [“revert”] to the kohanim, as it is said concerning [a field originally owned by] an Israelite, “and if he sold the field to another man-it may no longer be redeemed.” (Lev. 27:20). But a Levite may always redeem [his field]. - [Torath Kohanim 25:70]   ושדה מגרש עריהם לא ימכר: מכר גזבר, שאם הקדיש בן לוי את שדהו ולא גאלה ומכרה גזבר, אינה יוצאה לכהנים ביובל, כמו שנאמר בישראל (ויק' כז כ) ואם מכר את השדה לאיש אחר לא יגאל עוד, אבל בן לוי גואל לעולם:
35. If your brother becomes destitute and his hand falters beside you, you shall support him [whether] a convert or a resident, so that he can live with you.   לה. וְכִי יָמוּךְ אָחִיךָ וּמָטָה יָדוֹ עִמָּךְ וְהֶחֱזַקְתָּ בּוֹ גֵּר וְתוֹשָׁב וָחַי עִמָּךְ:
you shall support him: Do not allow him to fall down and collapse altogether, in which case it would be difficult to pick him up again [from his dire poverty]. Rather, “support him” while his hand is still faltering [for then it is easier to help him out of his trouble]. To what can this be compared? To a load on a donkey-while it is still on the donkey, one person can grasp it and hold it in place. Once it falls to the ground, however, [even] five people cannot pick it up. - [Torath Kohanim 25:71]   והחזקת בו: אל תניחהו שירד ויפול ויהיה קשה להקימו, אלא חזקהו משעת מוטת היד. למה זה דומה, למשאוי שעל החמור, עודהו על החמור אחד תופס בו ומעמידו, נפל לארץ, חמשה אין מעמידין אותו:
a convert or a resident: Even if he is a convert (גֵּר) or a “resident (תוֹשָׁב).” And what is a “resident”? Any [non-Jew] who has accepted upon himself not to worship idols, but eats carrion. - [Torath Kohanim 25:72; and compare Rashi verse 47] [These people are called “residents,” as they are permitted to reside permanently in the land of Israel (Rambam A.Z. 10:6).]   גר ותושב: אף אם הוא גר או תושב, ואיזהו תושב, כל שקבל עליו שלא לעבוד עבודה זרה, ואוכל נבלות:
36. You shall not take from him interest or increase, and you shall fear your God, and let your brother live with you.   לו. אַל תִּקַּח מֵאִתּוֹ נֶשֶׁךְ וְתַרְבִּית וְיָרֵאתָ מֵאֱלֹהֶיךָ וְחֵי אָחִיךָ עִמָּךְ:
interest or increase: The Rabbis regard these as one, [but the Torah uses two terms so that one who takes interest transgresses thereby two negative commandments. — [B.M. 60b]   נשך ותרבית: חד שווינהו רבנן, ולעבור עליו בשני לאוין:
and you shall fear your God: A person’s desire is naturally attracted to [taking] interest, and it is difficult to stay away from it, for he [rationalizes and] grants himself [false] permission because of his money which was lying idle while in his [the debtor’s] hands. [Therefore, Scripture] found it necessary to state here “and you shall fear your God.” Or if someone ascribes his money to a non-Jew in order to lend it to a Jew with interest. This is a matter held [secretly] in a man’s heart and thought. Therefore, Scripture deems it necessary to state, “and you shall fear your God” [Who is privy to all inner thoughts]. — [B.M. 61b]   ויראת מאלהיך: לפי שדעתו של אדם נמשכת אחר הרבית וקשה לפרוש הימנו ומורה לעצמו היתר בשביל מעותיו שהיו בטלות אצלו, הוצרך לומר ויראת מאלהיך. או התולה מעותיו בנכרי, כדי להלוותם לישראל ברבית, הרי זה דבר המסור ללבו של אדם ומחשבתו, לכך הוצרך לומר ויראת מאלהיך:
37. You shall not give him your money with interest, nor shall you give your food with increase.   לז. אֶת כַּסְפְּךָ לֹא תִתֵּן לוֹ בְּנֶשֶׁךְ וּבְמַרְבִּית לֹא תִתֵּן אָכְלֶךָ:
38. I am the Lord, your God, Who took you out of the land of Egypt, to give you the land of Canaan, to be a God to you.   לח. אֲנִי יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִי אֶתְכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם לָתֵת לָכֶם אֶת אֶרֶץ כְּנַעַן לִהְיוֹת לָכֶם לֵאלֹהִים:
Who took [you] out [of the land of Egypt]: and I distinguished between a firstborn [Egyptian] and a non-firstborn [in the plague of the firstborn, which preceded Israel’s Exodus (see Exod. 12:29-42)]I am also capable of discerning and exacting punishment from someone who lends money to his fellow Jew with interest and says, “It belongs to a non-Jew!” - [B.M. 61b] Another explanation: [In effect, God is saying, “I am the Lord, your God] Who took you out from the land of Egypt” on the condition that you keep My commandments-even if they are difficult for you. - [see Rashi on verse 36 above; see Torath Kohanim 25:77]   אשר הוצאתי וגו': והבחנתי בין בכור לשאינו בכור, אף אני יודע ונפרע מן המלוה מעות לישראל ברבית ואומר של נכרי הם. דבר אחר אשר הוצאתי אתכם מארץ מצרים על מנת שתקבלו עליכם מצותי אפילו הן כבדות עליכם:
to give you the land of Canaan: As a reward for accepting My commandments.   לתת לכם את ארץ כנען: בשכר שתקבלו מצותי:
[To give you the land of Canaan,] to be a God to you: for I am a God to anyone who lives in the land of Israel, but anyone who leaves it [without halachic permission] is like one who worships idols. — [Torath Kohanim 25:77; Keth. 110b]   להיות לכם לא-להים: שכל הדר בארץ ישראל אני לו לא-להים, וכל היוצא ממנה כעובד עבודה זרה:
39. And if your brother becomes destitute with you, and is sold to you, do not work him with slave labor.   לט. וְכִי יָמוּךְ אָחִיךָ עִמָּךְ וְנִמְכַּר לָךְ לֹא תַעֲבֹד בּוֹ עֲבֹדַת עָבֶד:
slave labor: Degrading work, through which he is made to look like a slave (עֶבֶד), e.g., he must not carry his clothes after him to the bathhouse, or put on his shoes for him. — [Torath Kohanim 25:80]   עבדת עבד: עבודה של גנאי, שיהא ניכר בה כעבד, שלא יוליך כליו אחריו לבית המרחץ ולא ינעול לו מנעליו:
40. As an employee or a [hired] resident, he shall be with you; until the Jubilee year he shall work with you.   מ. כְּשָׂכִיר כְּתוֹשָׁב יִהְיֶה עִמָּךְ עַד שְׁנַת הַיֹּבֵל יַעֲבֹד עִמָּךְ:
As an employee or a [hired] resident: [Give him dignified jobs, e.g.,] work in agriculture and craftsmanship; treat him like other employees.   כשכיר כתושב: עבודת קרקע ומלאכת אומנות כשאר שכירים התנהג בו:
until the Jubilee year: i.e., if the Jubilee year occurs before the six years [of his servitude have elapsed (see Exod. 21:2)], the Jubilee [immediately] takes him out [of servitude].   עד שנת היבל: אם פגע בו יובל לפני שש שנים, היובל מוציאו:
41. Then, he shall leave you he, and his children with him, and he shall return to his family and resume the status of his fathers.   מא. וְיָצָא מֵעִמָּךְ הוּא וּבָנָיו עִמּוֹ וְשָׁב אֶל מִשְׁפַּחְתּוֹ וְאֶל אֲחֻזַּת אֲבֹתָיו יָשׁוּב:
he, and his children with him: Says Rabbi Simeon: If he was sold, who sold his children [that Scripture states that his children go free with him]? However, from here, [we learn] that his master is obligated to provide food for his children [and, in this sense, they are released with their father]. — [Kid. 22a]   הוא ובניו עמו: אמר רבי שמעון אם הוא נמכר בניו מי מכרן, אלא מכאן שרבו חייב במזונות בניו:
the status of his fathers: To his fathers’ [former] honor, and he must not be degraded for it [i.e., for having been a servant]. - [Mak. 13a and Rashi there] [Thus,] אֲחֻזַּת - [means here:] “The status of.” - [Mak. 13a and Rashi there]   ואל אחזת אבתיו: אל כבוד אבותיו, ואין לזלזלו בכך:
42. For they are My servants, whom I brought out of the land of Egypt they shall not be sold as a slave is sold.   מב. כִּי עֲבָדַי הֵם אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִי אֹתָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם לֹא יִמָּכְרוּ מִמְכֶּרֶת עָבֶד:
For they are My servants: My contract came first. - [Torath Kohanim 25:85]   כי עבדי הם: שטרי קודם:
They shall not be sold in the way a slave is sold: namely, by public announcement, saying: “Here is a slave for sale!” Neither may they stand him up on an auctioning block [for public sale]. — [Torath Kohanim 25:85]   לא ימכרו ממכרת עבד: בהכרזה כאן יש עבד למכור, ולא יעמידנו על אבן הלקח:
43. You shall not work him with rigor, and you shall fear your God.   מג. לֹא תִרְדֶּה בוֹ בְּפָרֶךְ וְיָרֵאתָ מֵאֱלֹהֶיךָ:
You shall not enslave him through rigor: Unnecessary jobs, for the purpose of tormenting him. E.g., do not say to him: “Warm up this drink for me,” when you do not need it; or “Hoe under this vine until I come back” [and you may never come back there (Sifthei Chachamim on verse 53)]. Perhaps you will say, “No one really knows whether it is necessary or not, and I say that it is necessary!” This matter is held [secretly] in a man’s heart [for no one knows his true intentions]. Therefore, Scripture states, “and you shall fear [your God” for He is privy to all inner thoughts]. — [Torath Kohanim 25: 86]   לא תרדה בו בפרך: מלאכה שלא לצורך, כדי לענותו. אל תאמר לו החם לי את הכוס הזה, והוא אינו צריך, עדור תחת הגפן עד שאבוא. שמא תאמר אין מכיר בדבר אם לצורך אם לאו, ואומר אני לו שהוא לצורך, הרי הדבר הזה מסור ללב, לכך נאמר ויראת:
44. Your male slave or female slave whom you may have from the nations that are around you, from them you may acquire a male slave or a female slave.   מד. וְעַבְדְּךָ וַאֲמָתְךָ אֲשֶׁר יִהְיוּ לָךְ מֵאֵת הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר סְבִיבֹתֵיכֶם מֵהֶם תִּקְנוּ עֶבֶד וְאָמָה:
Your male slave or female slave that you have: If you say, “If so [that I may give my Jewish servant only skilled labor to do,] by whom shall I be served? Over my [Jewish] servants I do not have real power [as I must treat them like hired employees (see verse 40 above)]. Of the seven nations I am not allowed to possess [a slave], for You have warned me, ‘you shall not allow any soul to live’ (Deut. 20:16), So who will serve me [as a slave]?” [To this, God answers:]   ועבדך ואמתך אשר יהיו לך: אם תאמר אם כן במה אשתמש. בעבדי איני מושל, באומות איני נוחל, שהרי הזהרתני (דברים כ טז) לא תחיה כל נשמה, אלא מי ישמשני:
from the nations: They will be slaves for you.   מאת הגוים: הם יהיו לך לעבדים:
that are around you: But not from those [seven Canaanite nations] that are within the borders of your land, for indeed, regarding them, I said, “you shall not allow any soul to live” (Deut. 20:16).   אשר סביבתיכם: ולא שבתוך גבול ארצכם, שהרי בהם אמרתי לא תחיה כל נשמה:
45. And also from the children of the residents that live among you, from them you may acquire [slaves] and from their family that is with you whom they begot in your land, and they shall become your inheritance.   מה. וְגַם מִבְּנֵי הַתּוֹשָׁבִים הַגָּרִים עִמָּכֶם מֵהֶם תִּקְנוּ וּמִמִּשְׁפַּחְתָּם אֲשֶׁר עִמָּכֶם אֲשֶׁר הוֹלִידוּ בְּאַרְצְכֶם וְהָיוּ לָכֶם לַאֲחֻזָּה:
And also from the children of the residents: who came from surrounding lands to marry women in your land, who subsequently bore children to them. [In these cases,] the [lineage of the] child follows the father and thus, does not fall under [the commandment of], “ you shall not allow any soul to live” (Deut. 20:16). But, you are permitted to acquire him as a slave. — [Kid. 67b]   וגם מבני התושבים: שבאו מסביבותיכם לישא נשים בארצכם וילדו להם, הבן הולך אחר האב, ואינו בכלל לא תחיה, אלא אתה מותר לקנותו כעבד:
from them you may acquire: [This might mean that we may acquire slaves by buying from their slaves. However, the true meaning is:] You may acquire them [i.e., the residents’ children, as slaves]. — [Sifthei Chachamim; Torath Kohanim 25:87]   מהם תקנו: אותם תקנו:
46. You shall hold onto them as an inheritance for your children after you, as acquired property, and may thus have them serve you forever. But as for your brethren, the children of Israel, a man shall not work his brother with rigor.   מו. וְהִתְנַחַלְתֶּם אֹתָם לִבְנֵיכֶם אַחֲרֵיכֶם לָרֶשֶׁת אֲחֻזָּה לְעֹלָם בָּהֶם תַּעֲבֹדוּ וּבְאַחֵיכֶם בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אִישׁ בְּאָחִיו לֹא תִרְדֶּה בוֹ בְּפָרֶךְ:
You shall hold onto them as an inheritance for your children: You shall hold onto them as an inheritance for your children after you.“ But it would be incorrect to explain וְהִתְנַחַלְתֶּם אֹתָם לִבְנֵיכֶם as ”Bequeath them to your children“ [interpreting וְהִתְנַחַלְתֶּם as a causative,] for if so, then Scripture would have had to write וְהִנְחַלְתֶּם אֹתָם לִבְנֵיכֶם [Instead, Scripture writes:] וְהִתְנַחַלְתֶּם - [with the verb in the reflexive conjugation,] just like [the word] וְהִתְחַזַּקְתֶּם [and similarly, just as וְהִתְחַזַּקְתֶּם (in Num. 13:20) is an intransitive verb, so too, here, our verb וְהִתְנַחַלְתֶּם must be considered not to be causative but rather, reflexive (see preceding Rashi) and means ”You should keep them as an inheritance"]. — [Sefer Hazikkaron]   והתנחלתם אתם לבניכם: החזיקו בהם לנחלה לצורך בניכם אחריכם. ולא יתכן לפרש הנחילום לבניכם, שאם כן היה לו לכתוב והנחלתם אותם לבניכם. והתנחלתם כמו והתחזקתם:
[But as for… children of Israel,] a man [shall not work] his brother [with rigor]: [But has this prohibition regarding a Jewish servant not already been stated in verse 43 above?- [Mizrachi] It is repeated here,] to include [in the prohibition] a leader over his people and a king over his attendants, i.e., that these [rulers] must not work with rigor. — see Be’er Basadeh]   איש באחיו: להביא נשיא בעמיו ומלך במשרתיו שלא לרדות בפרך:
47. If a resident non Jew gains wealth with you, and your brother becomes destitute with him and is sold to a resident non Jew among you or to an idol of the family of a non Jew.   מז. וְכִי תַשִּׂיג יַד גֵּר וְתוֹשָׁב עִמָּךְ וּמָךְ אָחִיךָ עִמּוֹ וְנִמְכַּר לְגֵר תּוֹשָׁב עִמָּךְ אוֹ לְעֵקֶר מִשְׁפַּחַת גֵּר:
a resident non-Jew: Heb. גֵּר וְתוֹשָׁב. A stranger (גֵּר) who is a resident (תּוֹשָׁב),“ [stranger here meaning non-Jew,] just as the Targum [Onkelos] renders: עֲרַל תּוֹתָב, an uncircumcised resident. And the end [of the verse] proves [that it is one person, when it continues:] וְנִמְכַּר לְגֵר תּוֹשָׁב [without a "vav"].   יד גר ותושב: גר והוא תושב, כתרגומו ערל תותב, וסופו מוכיח ונמכר לגר תושב:
If a resident non-Jew gains wealth with you: What caused him to become wealthy? His connection with you. [He gained wealth through the blessing of the Jewish people]. — [Torath Kohanim 25:93]   וכי תשיג יד גר ותושב עמך: מי גרם לו שיעשיר, דבוקו עמך:
and your brother becomes destitute with him: What caused his destitution? His connection with him, because he learned from his deeds. — [Torath Kohanim 25:93]   ומך אחיך עמו: מי גרם לו שימוך, דבוקו עמו, על ידי שלמד ממעשיו:
the family of a non-Jew: [Without the word לְעֵקֶר,] this [expression] means [the Jew is sold to] an idolater; but when Scripture says לְעֵקֶר [literally “to uproot,” making it לְעֵקֶר מִשְׁפַּחַת גֵּר], it refers to [a Jew] who is sold to the idol itself [לְעֵקֶר meaning “that which is to be uprooted”] - i.e., he becomes an attendant to it. He does not worship it as a deity, but to chop wood and draw water. — [Torath Kohanim 25:94]   משפחת גר: זהו הגוי. כשהוא אומר לעקר זה הנמכר לעבודה זרה עצמה להיות לה שמש, ולא לאלהות, אלא לחטוב עצים ולשאוב מים:
48. After he is sold, he shall have redemption; one of his brothers shall redeem him.   מח. אַחֲרֵי נִמְכַּר גְּאֻלָּה תִּהְיֶה לּוֹ אֶחָד מֵאֶחָיו יִגְאָלֶנּוּ:
he shall have redemption: immediately. Do not allow him to become assimilated [Sifthei Chachamim ; Torath Kohanim 25:95] until the Jubilee year. For the purchaser’s sole purpose here was to acquire this man so that he would serve him until the Jubilee, for [the servant] goes free in the Jubilee, as is stated below, “[And if he has not been redeemed…] he shall go out in the Jubilee year” (verse 54). [Obviously], Scripture is speaking of a non-Jew who is under the jurisdiction of Israel [and therefore obeys the law to free his slave in the Jubilee year]. Nevertheless, you shall not cheat him, because [this may cause] a desecration of God’s Name, but, when [the servant] is to be redeemed, he must be meticulous in his calculation, according to what is due for each year, and the non-Jew should then deduct this amount from his price. If there were twenty years since he was sold, until the Jubilee, and he had purchased him for twenty manehs -it turns out that the non-Jew had purchased each year’s work for a maneh . Now, if this [Jewish servant] had already spent five years with him, and he comes to be redeemed, he [the non-Jew] must deduct five manehs, and the servant must give him fifteen manehs. This, then, is the meaning of: “then, the purchase price shall be divided by the number of years” [in order to determine the annual hiring rate, as above]. — [Torath Kohanim 25:103; B.K. 113b]   גאלה תהיה לו: מיד, אל תניחהו שיטמע עד שנת היובל, שהרי כל עצמו לא קנאו אלא לעובדו עד היובל, שהרי ביובל יצא, כמו שנאמר למטה (פסוק נד) ויצא בשנת היובל. ובגוי שתחת ידך הכתוב מדבר ואף על פי כן לא תבא עליו בעקיפין, מפני חלול השם, אלא כשבא ליגאל ידקדק בחשבון לפי המגיע בכל שנה ושנה ינכה לו הגוי מן דמיו, אם היו עשרים שנה משנמכר עד היובל וקנאו בעשרים מנה, נמצא שקנה הגוי עבודת שנה במנה, ואם שהה זה אצלו חמש שנים ובא ליגאל, ינכה לו חמשה מנים ויתן לו העבד ט"ו מנים, וזהו והיה כסף ממכרו במספר שנים:
49. Or his uncle or his cousin shall redeem him, or the closest [other] relative from his family shall redeem him; or, if he becomes able to afford it, he can be redeemed [on his own].   מט. אוֹ דֹדוֹ אוֹ בֶן דֹּדוֹ יִגְאָלֶנּוּ אוֹ מִשְּׁאֵר בְּשָׂרוֹ מִמִּשְׁפַּחְתּוֹ יִגְאָלֶנּוּ אוֹ הִשִּׂיגָה יָדוֹ וְנִגְאָל:
50. He shall calculate with his purchaser [the number of years] from the year of his being sold to him until the Jubilee year; then, the purchase price shall be [divided] by the number of years; as the days of a hired worker, he shall be with him.   נ. וְחִשַּׁב עִם קֹנֵהוּ מִשְּׁנַת הִמָּכְרוֹ לוֹ עַד שְׁנַת הַיֹּבֵל וְהָיָה כֶּסֶף מִמְכָּרוֹ בְּמִסְפַּר שָׁנִים כִּימֵי שָׂכִיר יִהְיֶה עִמּוֹ:
as the days of a hired worker, he shall be with him: He shall calculate the amount [of money] resulting for each year, “as if he had been employed by him for a maneh annually,” and he [the non-Jew] should then deduct it for him, [as explained in the preceding Rashi].   כימי שכיר יהיה עמו: חשבון המגיע לכל שנה ושנה יחשב כאלו נשכר עמו כל שנה במנה וינכה לו:
51. If there are still many years, according to them, he shall return his redemption [money] out of the money for which he was purchased.   נא. אִם עוֹד רַבּוֹת בַּשָּׁנִים לְפִיהֶן יָשִׁיב גְּאֻלָּתוֹ מִכֶּסֶף מִקְנָתוֹ:
If there are still many years: until the Jubilee.   אם עוד רבות בשנים: עד היובל:
according to them: Everything as I have explained.   לפיהן: הכל כמו שפירשתי:
52. But if only a few years remain until the Jubilee year, he shall make the [same] calculation; according to his years [that remain until Jubilee], he shall return the redemption [money]._   נב. וְאִם מְעַט נִשְׁאַר בַּשָּׁנִים עַד שְׁנַת הַיֹּבֵל וְחִשַּׁב לוֹ כְּפִי שָׁנָיו יָשִׁיב אֶת גְּאֻלָּתוֹ:
53. He shall be with him as an employee hired year by year; he shall not enslave him with rigor in your sight.   נג. כִּשְׂכִיר שָׁנָה בְּשָׁנָה יִהְיֶה עִמּוֹ לֹא יִרְדֶּנּוּ בְּפֶרֶךְ לְעֵינֶיךָ:
he shall not enslave him with rigor in your sight: That is to say, while you see this [i.e., a Jew must not see a non-Jew forcing this type of labor upon his Jewish servant without doing anything, but this is not a warning to the non-Jew (Gur Aryeh)]. — [Torath Kohanim 25:101]   לא ירדנו בפרך לעיניך: כלומר ואתה רואה:
54. And if he is not redeemed through [any of] these [ways], he shall go out in the Jubilee year he and his children with him.   נד. וְאִם לֹא יִגָּאֵל בְּאֵלֶּה וְיָצָא בִּשְׁנַת הַיֹּבֵל הוּא וּבָנָיו עִמּוֹ:
And if he is not redeemed through [any of] these [ways]: This [Jewish servant of a non-Jew] may be redeemed [only] through “these ways” [described in the verses here], but he may not be redeemed [i.e., released] through six [years]. — [see Exod. 21:2; Kid. 15b]   ואם לא יגאל באלה: באלה הוא נגאל, ואינו נגאל בשש:
he, and his children with him: [But are his children also sold, that Scripture finds it necessary to state here that his children go free together with him? However, we learn from here that just like a Jewish master, so too], the non-Jewish [master] is obligated to provide food for the [servant’s] children, just as an Israelite is obligated [and in this sense, they are released, along with their father]. — [Kid. 22a; see Rashi verse 41 above]   הוא ובניו עמו: הנכרי חייב במזונות בניו כישראל:
55. For the children of Israel are servants to Me; they are My servants, whom I took out of the land of Egypt. I am the Lord, your God.   נה. כִּי לִי בְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל עֲבָדִים עֲבָדַי הֵם אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִי אוֹתָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם אֲנִי יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם:
For the children of Israel are servants to Me: “My contract came before.” [And thus, when the Jubilee arrives, the servant must be released and revert to being God’s servant rather than man’s.]- [Torath Kohanim 25:85; see Rashi verse 42 above]   כי לי בני ישראל עבדים: שטרי קודם:
I am the Lord, your God: Whoever subjugates them below [on this earth,] is as if he subjugates [them] above [in heaven, for as long as a Jew is enslaved to another human being, he is not free to do the holy service of God Above (Be’er Basadeh)]. — [Torath Kohanim 25:104]   אני ה' אלהיכם: כל המשעבדן מלמטה כאלו משעבדן מלמעלה:
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