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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Vayikra - Leviticus - Chapter 22

Vayikra - Leviticus - Chapter 22

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 22

1. The Lord spoke to Moses, saying:   א. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהֹוָה אֶל משֶׁה לֵּאמֹר:
2. Speak to Aaron and to his sons, that they shall separate themselves from the holy [sacrifices] of the children of Israel, which they sanctify to Me, so as not to desecrate My Holy Name. I am the Lord.   ב. דַּבֵּר אֶל אַהֲרֹן וְאֶל בָּנָיו וְיִנָּזְרוּ מִקָּדְשֵׁי בְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְלֹא יְחַלְּלוּ אֶת שֵׁם קָדְשִׁי אֲשֶׁר הֵם מַקְדִּשִׁים לִי אֲנִי יְהֹוָה:
they shall separate themselves: The term נְזִירָה means only separation [from something]. Likewise, Scripture says, “and draws away (וְיִנָּזֵר) from following Me” (Ezek. 14:7), and, “they drew backwards (נָזֹרוּ)” (Isa. 1:4). [Thus, here, the meaning is that] when kohanim are in a state of uncleanness, they shall separate themselves (וְיִנָּזְרוּ) from the holy things. — [Torath Kohanim 22:62] Another explanation: [The commentators are at a loss to explain this expression, because the following comment easily agrees with the preceding one. See below.] “shall separate themselves from the holy [sacrifices] of the children of Israel which they sanctify to Me, so as not to desecrate My Holy Name.” [Now, the verse, in the order it is written, reads: “Aaron and his sons…shall separate themselves from the holy (sacrifices) of the children of Israel, so as not to desecrate My Holy Name-which they sanctify to Me.”] Transpose the verse and explain it [as follows]: shall separate themselves from the holy [sacrifices] of the children of Israel which they sanctify to Me, so as not to desecrate My Holy Name." [Another explanation] (see Sifthei Chachamim):   וינזרו: אין נזירה אלא פרישה, וכן הוא אומר (יחזקאל יד ז) וינזר מאחרי, (ישעיה א ד) נזורו אחור, יפרשו מן הקדשים בימי טומאתן. דבר אחר: וינזרו מקדשי בני ישראל אשר הם מקדישים לי ולא יחללו את שם קדשי, סרס המקרא ודרשהו, אשר הם מקדשים לי ולא יחללו את שם קדשי:
which they sanctify to Me: [This comes] to include offerings that the kohanim themselves sanctified [to the Holy Temple, offerings from which kohanim in the state of uncleanness shall also separate themselves]. [According to this explanation, no transposition is necessary, and the verse is to be explained as follows: When the kohanim are unclean, they must separate themselves from the holy things of the children of Israel, i.e., those consecrated by the children of Israel, and also from those consecrated by the kohanim themselves. Accordingly, the words, “another explanation,” appear at this point, not as they appear in the Mikraoth Gedoloth. According to Mizrachi and others, and according to all manuscripts and incunabula editions, these words do not appear at all. - [Torath Kohanim 22:64]   אשר הם מקדשים לי: לרבות קדשי כהנים עצמן:
3. Say to them: Throughout your generations, any man among any of your offspring who, while his defilement is still upon him, comes near to the holy sacrifices that the children of Israel consecrate to the Lord that soul shall be cut off from before me. I am the Lord.   ג. אֱמֹר אֲלֵהֶם לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם כָּל אִישׁ | אֲשֶׁר יִקְרַב מִכָּל זַרְעֲכֶם אֶל הַקֳּדָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר יַקְדִּישׁוּ בְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לַיהֹוָה וְטֻמְאָתוֹ עָלָיו וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מִלְּפָנַי אֲנִי יְהֹוָה:
Any man…who…comes near [to the holy sacrifices]: The phrase “comes near” really means “eating.” And so we find that a warning against eating holy sacrifices while in a state of uncleanness, is expressed as “touching,” [as is written], “she shall not touch anything holy” (Lev. 12:4) [which is] a warning against eating [anything holy, while in a state of uncleanness]. And our Rabbis have learnt [that these terms mean “eating” in this context] by way of a hekesh [a rule of Scriptural exposition, whereby, via Rabbinical transmission, laws from two passages are linked through their appearance in the same verse (Mizrachi).] Now, it is impossible to say that one is liable [to the penalty of excision] if he [merely] touches [holy sacrifices while he is in the state of uncleanness], for we find the penalty of excision for eating [holy sacrifices while one is unclean] stated in the passage “Command Aaron” (Lev. 7:20-21) [and moreover, there, we find] the penalty of excision for eating mentioned twice, one next to the other (see Lev. 7:20-21), and, if one would be liable just for touching, it would be unnecessary for Scripture to mention liability for eating. In a similar vein, [this explanation that our verse here refers to eating and not touching,] is expounded in Torath Kohanim (22:69), [as follows]: “…But is there [a case of] one who touches [holy sacrifices], that he should be liable [to the penalty of excision?!] If so, why does Scripture say, ”comes near“? [Because it teaches us that for eating holy sacrifices, one incurs the penalty of excision] only when they become fit to be ”brought near“ as an offering-for one becomes liable only if one [eats holy sacrifices] while one is unclean, after the parts that makes the sacrifice permissible to be eaten has been offered up [i.e., only when the sacrificial fats have been offered up and the blood has been dashed, or the offering of the fistful of flour in a meal-offering, or the sanctification in a vessel of parts of other offerings (see Hagahoth Uvei-urei HaGra on Torath Kohanim ; Mizrachi), is the holy sacrifice allowed to be eaten by the kohanim, and not before]. Now, one may ask: [Since our verse, as well as the two verses in Lev. 7:20-21, are all referring to eating holy sacrifices when one is unclean,] why is it necessary for Scripture to mention three times the penalty of excision for kohanim [eating holy sacrifices] when they are in an unclean state? These have already been expounded upon in Tractate Shevuoth (7a): ”One of them is [needed] to state the general law; one of them is [needed] to state a particular case [namely, the peace-offering, in order to preclude the eating of certain clean foods that are not sacrificed on the altar which do not have the punishment of excision; and one of them is needed to teach us that…when the verse says, “he incurs guilt” (Lev. 5:2), and may bring a קָרְבָּן עוֹלֶה וְיוֹרֵד, a sliding-scale sacrifice, Scripture is referring to…a person…who, while in an unclean state, enters the Sanctuary or eats of its holy sacrifices].   כל איש אשר יקרב: אין קריבה זו אלא אכילה, וכן מצינו שנאמרה אזהרת אכילת קדשים בטומאה בלשון נגיעה בכל קדש לא תגע (ויקרא יב ד), אזהרה לאוכל. ולמדוה רבותינו מגזירה שוה. ואי אפשר לומר שחייב על הנגיעה, שהרי נאמר כרת על האכילה בצו את אהרן (ויקרא ז כ - כא) שתי כריתות זו אצל זו, ואם על הנגיעה חייב לא הוצרך לחייבו על האכילה, וכן נדרש בתורת כהנים וכי יש נוגע חייב, אם כן מה תלמוד לומר יקרב, משיכשר לקרב, שאין חייבין עליו משום טומאה, אלא אם כן קרבו מתיריו. ואם תאמר שלש כריתות בטומאת כהנים למה, כבר נדרשו במסכת שבועות אחת לכלל ואחת לפרט וכו' (שבועות ז א):
while his defilement is still upon him: [meaning:] While the person is in a state of uncleanness. But I might think that Scripture is referring to the flesh, while the flesh is unclean,“ and the verse is speaking of someone in a clean state who eats unclean flesh [of holy sacrifices]. However, one is forced to learn the meaning of the verse from the literal meaning [of this phrase ”while its/his uncleanness is still upon it/him"]-i.e., the verse is speaking of something from which uncleanness can be removed, and this is a person, because a person can cleanse himself in a mikvah [while meat cannot be purified once it is defiled. — [Torath Kohanim 22:69; Zev. 43b]   וטמאתו עליו: וטומאת האדם עליו, יכול בבשר הכתוב מדבר, וטומאתו של בשר עליו, ובטהור שאכל את הטמא הכתוב מדבר, הרי כבר נאמר (ויק' ז יט) והבשר אשר יגע בכל טמא לא יאכל, אלא על כרחך ממשמעו אתה למד, במי שטומאתו פורחת ממנו הכתוב מדבר, וזהו האדם שיש לו טהרה בטבילה:
shall be cut off: One might suggest that [the offender is to be “cut off”] from one place to another, i.e., he shall be cut off from his place [of abode] and exiled (Be’er Basadeh) to settle in another place. Scripture, therefore, continues, “I am the Lord”- [as if to say:] “I am in every place” [and even if someone is sent into exile, I am also in that other place. Hence, the “cutting off” here refers to excision of the soul, that he will die before his time (Be’er Basadeh)]. — [Torath Kohanim 22:69]   ונכרתה וגו': יכול מצד זה לצד זה, יכרת ממקומו ויתיישב במקום אחר, תלמוד לומר אני ה', בכל מקום אני:
4. Any man whatsoever among Aaron's offspring if he has tzara'ath or has had a discharge, he shall not eat of the holy sacrifices, until he cleanses himself. And one who touches anyone who has become unclean [by contact with a dead] person, or a man from whom semen issued,   ד. אִישׁ אִישׁ מִזֶּרַע אַהֲרֹן וְהוּא צָרוּעַ אוֹ זָב בַּקֳּדָשִׁים לֹא יֹאכַל עַד אֲשֶׁר יִטְהָר וְהַנֹּגֵעַ בְּכָל טְמֵא נֶפֶשׁ אוֹ אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר תֵּצֵא מִמֶּנּוּ שִׁכְבַת זָרַע:
among Aaron’s offspring: I know only that Aaron’s offspring [are meant]. How do I know that he himself [and every Kohen Gadol (Ramban on verse 17, Rash MiShantz on Torath Kohanim) is also included]? Therefore, Scripture states [the apparently superfluous word “he” in the clause], “if he has tzara’ath ”; for one might think that since he is allowed to offer up holy sacrifices when he is an onen (Rashi Lev. 21:12 above), he would also be allowed to offer them up if he has tzara’ath or if he had a discharge. Scripture, therefore, says, “if he…” [to include Aaron and all other Kohanim Gedolim]. — [Torath Kohanim 22:70]   מזרע אהרן: אין לי אלא זרעו, גופו מנין, תלמוד לומר והוא צרוע, שיכול הואיל ומקריב אונן יקריב צרוע וזב, תלמוד לומר והוא:
until he cleanses himself: [This means] sunset [after his immersion]. Or, perhaps, it means only immersion [in a mikvah, and that suffices]? It says here, וְטָהֵר, and it says below (verse 7), וְטָהֵר, “When the sun has set, he becomes clean (וְטָהֵר).” Just as there (in verse 7), [it means] sunset, here too, [it means] sunset [that he may not eat holy things until the sun sets after his immersion]. — [Torath Kohanim 22:72]   עד אשר יטהר: ביאת השמש, או אינו אלא טבילה, נאמר כאן וטהר, ונאמר למטה וטהר (פסוק ז) ובא השמש וטהר, מה להלן ביאת שמש, אף כאן ביאת שמש:
anyone who has become unclean [by contact with a dead] person: Heb. טְמֵא נֶפֶשׁ, one who has become unclean by [contact with] a dead person.   בכל טמא נפש: במי שנטמא במת:
5. or a man who touches any creeping creature through which he becomes unclean or a person through whom he becomes unclean, whatever his uncleanness   ה. אוֹ אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יִגַּע בְּכָל שֶׁרֶץ אֲשֶׁר יִטְמָא לוֹ אוֹ בְאָדָם אֲשֶׁר יִטְמָא לוֹ לְכֹל טֻמְאָתוֹ:
[A man who touches] any creeping creature through which he becomes unclean: [The seemingly superfluous phrase “through which he becomes unclean” means,] the [minimum] size [of a part of a creeping creature] through which [contact] one is rendered unclean (Torath Kohanim 22:76) -namely, through the volume of a lentil. — [Chag. 11a]   בכל שרץ אשר יטמא לו: בשיעור הראוי לטמא, בכעדשה:
or a person: a corpse. - [Torath Kohanim 22:76] [That is to say, cleansing after contact with a dead body takes place only after immersion and sunset on the seventh day. — [Sifthei Chachamim]   או באדם: במת:
through whom he becomes unclean: The size through which [contact] one is rendered unclean-namely, the volume of an olive. [Oholoth 2:1]   אשר יטמא לו: כשיעורו לטמא, וזהו כזית:
whatever his uncleanness: [This comes] to include one who comes into contact with a man or woman who has had a discharge, or with a menstruating woman or with a woman who has given birth, [or with one who has tzara’ath]. — [Torath Kohanim 22:76]   לכל טומאתו: לרבות נוגע בזב וזבה, נדה ויולדת ובמצורע:
6. the person who touches it shall remain unclean until evening, and he shall not eat from the holy things unless he has immersed his flesh in water.   ו. נֶפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר תִּגַּע בּוֹ וְטָמְאָה עַד הָעָרֶב וְלֹא יֹאכַל מִן הַקֳּדָשִׁים כִּי אִם רָחַץ בְּשָׂרוֹ בַּמָּיִם:
The person who touches it: i.e., who touches any one of these unclean beings.   נפש אשר תגע בו: באחד מן הטמאים הללו:
7. When the sun sets, he becomes clean, and afterwards, he may eat of the holy things, for it is his food.   ז. וּבָא הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְטָהֵר וְאַחַר יֹאכַל מִן הַקֳּדָשִׁים כִּי לַחְמוֹ הוּא:
and afterwards, he may eat of the holy things: This is expounded on in [Tractate] Yev. (74b) as referring to terumah, that [the purified kohen] may eat it after sunset [of the day of his cleansing].   ואחר יאכל מן הקדשים: נדרש ביבמות בתרומה, שמותר לאכלה בהערב השמש:
he may eat of the holy things: [meaning, some of the holy things,] but not all holy things [thus, our verse refers specifically to terumah, but not sacrificial flesh, which the kohen who was stricken with tzara’ath or had a discharge may not eat until he brings his sacrifices on the morrow]. — [see preceding Rashi]   מן הקדשים: ולא כל הקדשים:
8. He shall not eat a carcass or anything that was torn, thereby becoming unclean through it. I am the Lord.   ח. נְבֵלָה וּטְרֵפָה לֹא יֹאכַל לְטָמְאָה בָהּ אֲנִי יְהֹוָה:
He shall not eat a carcass or anything that was torn, thereby becoming unclean through it: [Scripture] warned here regarding the [implications of one’s] uncleanness, as follows: If one ate a carcass of a clean bird, which [as explained (Rashi above 17:15),] does not defile through contact or by lifting it but defiles only when it is swallowed into the esophagus-this person is prohibited to eat holy things. Now, [a bird that had been torn (טְרֵפָה) and mortally wounded by a wild animal, if slaughtered properly, does not convey uncleanness. So why is it mentioned here?] We must say that וּטְרֵפָה is [stated only to teach us that the carcass of a bird conveys uncleanness only] of the species that can be prohibited because of טְרֵפָה, thus excluding the carcass of an unclean bird, whose species can never fall under the category of טְרֵפָה [because it is prohibited even if it was perfectly healthy]. — [Torath Kohanim 17:125126; see Rashi Lev . 17:15]   נבלה וטרפה לא יאכל לטמאה בה: לענין הטומאה הזהיר כאן, שאם אכל נבלת עוף טהור, שאין לה טומאת מגע ומשא אלא טומאת אכילה בבית הבליעה, אסור לאכול בקדשים. וצריך לומר וטרפה, מי שיש במינו טרפה, יצא נבלת עוף טמא שאין במינו טרפה:
9. They shall keep My charge and not bear a sin by [eating] it [while unclean] and thereby die through it since they will have desecrated it. I am the Lord Who sanctifies them.   ט. וְשָׁמְרוּ אֶת מִשְׁמַרְתִּי וְלֹא יִשְׂאוּ עָלָיו חֵטְא וּמֵתוּ בוֹ כִּי יְחַלְּלֻהוּ אֲנִי יְהֹוָה מְקַדְּשָׁם:
They shall keep My charge: [and refrain] from eating teruman while one’s body is unclean. — [Sanh. 83a]   ושמרו את משמרתי: מלאכול תרומה בטומאת הגוף:
and thereby die through it: we learn that it is death by the hands of Heaven [which is meted out “through it,”] meaning that the sin of eating while unclean brings about the death penalty by itself without any other prerequisites, such as witnesses or warning. That could be only death by the hands of Heaven. - [Gur Aryeh ; Sanh. 83a; also see Sifthei Chachamim]   ומתו בו: למדנו שהיא מיתה בידי שמים:
10. No non kohen may eat holy things; a kohen's resident and his hireling may not eat holy things.   י. וְכָל זָר לֹא יֹאכַל קֹדֶשׁ תּוֹשַׁב כֹּהֵן וְשָׂכִיר לֹא יֹאכַל קֹדֶשׁ:
No [non-kohen may] eat holy things: The text is referring to terumah, for the entire passage speaks of it (see Rashi verse 7).   לא יאכל קדש: בתרומה הכתוב מדבר, שכל הענין דבר בה:
a kohen’s resident and his hireling: [could be erroneously read as “a kohen who is a resident or a hireling.” However, the correct meaning here is:] The resident of a kohen or one who is hired by a kohen. [I. e., the word תּוֹשַׁב means “the resident of.”] Therefore, תּוֹשַׁב is vocalized with a patach [under the “shin,”] because it is in the construct state. [Had it been in the absolute state, simply meaning “resident,” the “shin” would have been vocalized with a kamatz .] Now, who is considered a “resident” [in this context]? This is a Hebrew slave whose ear has been bored [i.e., one who elected to remain a slave after six years, and resides with his master (see Exod. 21:16)], thereby becoming acquired [by his master] until the Jubilee year (see Rashi Exod. 21:6). And who is considered a hireling [in this context]? This is someone acquired for a [set] number of years [to be a Hebrew slave] and who is to be released after six years (see Exod. 21:2). The text comes to teach you here that he does not become his master’s physical property [and is, therefore, not permitted] to eat terumah . — [Torath Kohanim 22:86; Yev. . 70a]   תושב כהן ושכיר: תושבו של כהן ושכירו, לפיכך תושב זה נקוד פתח, לפי שהוא דבוק. ואיזהו תושב, זה נרצע שהוא קנוי לו עד היובל, ואיזהו שכיר, זה קנוי קנין שנים, שיוצא בשש, בא הכתוב ולמדך כאן שאין גופו קנוי לאדוניו לאכול בתרומתו:
11. And if a kohen acquires a person, an acquisition through his money, he may eat of it, and those born in his house they may eat of his food.   יא. וְכֹהֵן כִּי יִקְנֶה נֶפֶשׁ קִנְיַן כַּסְפּוֹ הוּא יֹאכַל בּוֹ וִילִיד בֵּיתוֹ הֵם יֹאכְלוּ בְלַחְמוֹ:
And if a kohen acquires a person: [This refers to] a Canaanite slave, whose body is acquired [by his master and may therefore eat from his master’s terumah].   וכהן כי יקנה נפש: עבד כנעני שקנוי לגופו:
and those born in his house: These are the children of the [non-Jewish] maidservants [who are the property of the master]. We learn also from this verse here that a kohen’s wife may eat terumah, since she too, is considered “an acquisition through his money” [for the Jewish marriage is technically attained through the acquisition of a woman by a man by giving her money or an object worth money, such as a ring] (see Keth. 57b). However, we learn other [cases, namely, about a kohen’s wife who had been acquired through other means, e.g., by contract or cohabitation,] from another verse in Scripture “Anyone who is clean in your household [may eat it]” (Num. 18:11) [the above being expounded] in [Sifrei 18:29; see Levush Haorah also Gur Aryeh.]   ויליד ביתו: אלו בני השפחות. ואשת כהן אוכלת בתרומה מן המקרא הזה, שאף היא קנין כספו. ועוד למד ממקרא אחר (במדבר יח יא) כל טהור בביתך וגו' בספרי:
12. And if a kohen's daughter is married to a non kohen, she may [no longer] eat of the separated holy things.   יב. וּבַת כֹּהֵן כִּי תִהְיֶה לְאִישׁ זָר הִוא בִּתְרוּמַת הַקֳּדָשִׁים לֹא תֹאכֵל:
married to a non-kohen: אִישׁ זָר [lit., “an alien man,” here, in the context of kehunah , this means] to a Levite or an Israelite. — [Torath Kohanim 22:92]   לאיש זר: ללוי ולישראל:
13. But if the kohen's daughter becomes widowed or divorced, and she has no offspring she may return to her father's household as in her youth [and] eat of her father's food, but no non kohen may eat of it.   יג. וּבַת כֹּהֵן כִּי תִהְיֶה אַלְמָנָה וּגְרוּשָׁה וְזֶרַע אֵין לָהּ וְשָׁבָה אֶל בֵּית אָבִיהָ כִּנְעוּרֶיהָ מִלֶּחֶם אָבִיהָ תֹּאכֵל וְכָל זָר לֹא יֹאכַל בּוֹ:
[But if the kohen’s daughter] becomes widowed or divorced: from her non- kohen husband.   אלמנה וגרושה: מן האיש הזר:
and she has no offspring: from him.   וזרע אין לה: ממנו:
she may return [to her father’s household…(and) eat of her father’s food]: But, if she does have offspring from her non- kohen husband, she is prohibited to eat terumah as long as the offspring is alive. — [Yev. 87a-b]   ושבה: הא אם יש לה זרע ממנו אסורה בתרומה כל זמן שהזרע קיים:
But no non-kohen may eat of it: [This seemingly superfluous phrase] is stated only to exclude an onen [kohen, i.e., one whose relative has died on that day,] who is permitted [to eat] terumah. [see Rashi 21:12 above] [It is as if Scripture is saying here:] “I said that only a non- kohen(זָר) [is prohibited to eat terumah]-but not an onen .” [Yev. 68b]   וכל זר לא יאכל בו: לא בא אלא להוציא את האונן שמותר בתרומה. זרות אמרתי לך, ולא אנינות:
14. And if a man unintentionally eats what is holy, he shall add a fifth of it to it and give the kohen the holy thing.   יד. וְאִישׁ כִּי יֹאכַל קֹדֶשׁ בִּשְׁגָגָה וְיָסַף חֲמִשִׁיתוֹ עָלָיו וְנָתַן לַכֹּהֵן אֶת הַקֹּדֶשׁ:
And if [a man] eats that which is holy: [This refers to] terumah .   כי יאכל קדש: תרומה:
and give the kohen the holy thing: something that is fit to become holy. He shall not pay him money, but non-consecrated fruits, which in turn become [consecrated as] terumah . — [Pes. 32a]   ונתן לכהן את הקדש: דבר הראוי להיות קדש, שאינו פורע לו מעות אלא פירות של חולין, והן נעשין תרומה:
15. And they shall not desecrate the holy things of the children of Israel, those that they have set aside for the Lord,   טו. וְלֹא יְחַלְּלוּ אֶת קָדְשֵׁי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֵת אֲשֶׁר יָרִימוּ לַיהֹוָה:
And they shall not desecrate [the holy things of the children of Israel]: By allowing non- kohanim to eat of them. [see next Rashi]   ולא יחללו וגו': להאכילם לזרים:
16. thereby bringing upon themselves to bear iniquity and guilt, when they eat their holy things, for I am the Lord Who sanctifies them.   טז. וְהִשִּׂיאוּ אוֹתָם עֲוֹן אַשְׁמָה בְּאָכְלָם אֶת קָדְשֵׁיהֶם כִּי אֲנִי יְהֹוָה מְקַדְּשָׁם:
thereby bringing upon themselves to bear-: [lit., “And they will cause them to bear (iniquity and guilt).”] They will cause themselves to bear iniquity when they [the non- kohanim] eat their holy things which were set aside for terumah , and were consecrated and consequently prohibited for them. Onkelos, however, who rendered: when they eat in uncleanness, unnecessarily rendered in this manner [because the verse deals with giving the terumah to non- kohanim, not with eating it in an unclean state].   והשיאו אותם: את עצמם יטענו עון באכלם את קדשיהם, שהובדלו לשם תרומה וקדשו ונאסרו עליהם. ואונקלוס שתרגם במיכלהון בסואבא, שלא לצורך תרגמו כן:
thereby bringing upon themselves to bear: Heb. וְהִשִּׂיאוּ אוֹתָם. This is one of the three instances in Scripture of אֶת [normally referring to a third party “him,” “them” etc.], which are expounded by Rabbi Ishmael to mean that the Torah is speaking of the persons themselves [i.e., the verb is reflexive]. Similarly, [the other two examples are]: יָבִיא אֹתוֹ בְּיוֹם מלֹאת יְמֵי נִזְרוֹ [lit., “On the day when his abstinence is completed, he shall bring him”] (Num. 6:13)- [meaning] that he should bring himself. Likewise, וַיִּקְבֹּר אוֹתוֹ בַגַּי [lit., “And he buried him in the valley” (Deut. 34:6), meaning that] Moses buried himself (see Rashi there). Thus is it expounded in Sifrei (Bamidbar 6:124).   והשיאו אותם: זה אחד משלשה אתים שהיה רבי ישמעאל דורש בתורה שמדברים באדם עצמו, וכן (במדבר ו יג) ביום מלאת ימי נזרו יביא אותו, הוא יביא את עצמו. וכן (דברים לד ו) ויקבור אותו בגיא, הוא קבר את עצמו, כך נדרש בספרי:
17. And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying,   יז. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהֹוָה אֶל משֶׁה לֵּאמֹר:
18. Speak to Aaron and to his sons and to all the children of Israel and say to them: Any man whatsoever from the house of Israel or from the strangers among Israel who offers up his sacrifice for any of their vows or for any of their donations that they may offer up to the Lord as a burnt offering   יח. דַּבֵּר אֶל אַהֲרֹן וְאֶל בָּנָיו וְאֶל כָּל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם אִישׁ אִישׁ מִבֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמִן הַגֵּר בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר יַקְרִיב קָרְבָּנוֹ לְכָל נִדְרֵיהֶם וּלְכָל נִדְבוֹתָם אֲשֶׁר יַקְרִיבוּ לַיהֹוָה לְעֹלָה:
their vows: [when a person declares:] “It is incumbent upon me” [i.e., a personal commitment to bring a burnt offering," and therefore, if the animal he set aside is lost or blemished, he must fulfill his vow with a replacement animal, whereas];   נדריהם: הרי עלי:
their donations: [when a person declares:] “Behold, [I hereby consecrate] this [animal for a burnt offering,” since the declaration falls on the animal rather than on the person, if the consecrated animal is lost or blemished, the person is not responsible]. — [Meg. 8a]   נדבותם: הרי זו:
19. to be favorable for you, [it shall be] an unblemished, male, from cattle, from sheep, or from goats.   יט. לִרְצֹנְכֶם תָּמִים זָכָר בַּבָּקָר בַּכְּשָׂבִים וּבָעִזִּים:
to be favorable for you: [God is saying here:] “Bring Me something that is worthy to appease (לִרְצוֹת) for you before Me, that will make you favorable (רָצוֹן) before Me.” [This word לִרְצֹנְכֶם has the meaning of] apaisement in French [like “appeasement” in English]. And what [animal] is worthy of attaining God’s appeasement?   לרצנכם: הביאו דבר הראוי לרצות אתכם לפני, שיהא לכם לרצון אפיימני"ט בלע"ז [פיוס]. ואיזהו הראוי לרצון:
an unblemished, male, from cattle, from sheep, or from goats: But with burnt-offerings of birds, no unblemished or male [birds] are required, and it is not rendered invalid if it has a defect unless a limb is missing. — [Torath Kohanim 22:106]   תמים זכר בבקר בכשבים ובעזים: אבל בעולת העוף אין צריך תמות וזכרות, ואינו נפסל במום אלא בחסרון אבר:
20. Any [animal] that has a blemish, you shall not offer up, for it will not be favorable for you.   כ. כֹּל אֲשֶׁר בּוֹ מוּם לֹא תַקְרִיבוּ כִּי לֹא לְרָצוֹן יִהְיֶה לָכֶם:
21. And if a man offers up a peace offering to the Lord for declaring a vow or as a donation from cattle or from the flock to be accepted, it shall be unblemished. It shall not have any defect in it.   כא. וְאִישׁ כִּי יַקְרִיב זֶבַח שְׁלָמִים לַיהֹוָה לְפַלֵּא נֶדֶר אוֹ לִנְדָבָה בַּבָּקָר אוֹ בַצֹּאן תָּמִים יִהְיֶה לְרָצוֹן כָּל מוּם לֹא יִהְיֶה בּוֹ:
for declaring a vow: For verbally designating [a particular animal. If he designated it merely in his mind, this does not obligate him as a vow]. — [Sifthei Chachamim]   לפלא נדר: להפריש בדיבורו:
22. [An animal that has] blindness, or [a] broken [bone], or [a] split [eyelid or lip], or [one that has] warts, or dry lesions or weeping sores you shall not offer up [any of] these to the Lord, nor shall you place [any] of these as a fire offering upon the altar to the Lord.   כב. עַוֶּרֶת אוֹ שָׁבוּר אוֹ חָרוּץ אוֹ יַבֶּלֶת אוֹ גָרָב אוֹ יַלֶּפֶת לֹא תַקְרִיבוּ אֵלֶּה לַיהֹוָה וְאִשֶּׁה לֹא תִתְּנוּ מֵהֶם עַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לַיהֹוָה:
[An animal that has] blindness: עַוֶּרֶת. [This is] a noun, the feminine equivalent of עִוָּרוֹן, that the animal shall not have the defect of blindness.   עורת: שם דבר של מום עורון בלשון נקבה, שלא יהא בו מום של עורת:
or [a] broken [bone]: [lit., “or broken,” i.e., the animal] shall not be [broken].   או שבור: לא יהיה:
or [a] split [eyelid or lip]: חָרוּץ [lit. cut], an eyelid that was split or notched, and similarly, its lip which was split or notched. — [Torath Kohanim 22:113]   חרוץ: ריס של עין שנסדק או שנפגם, וכן שפתו שנסדקה או נפגמה:
or [one that has] warts: Verrue [wart] in French.   יבלת: ורוא"ה בלע"ז [יבלת]:
or dry lesions: Heb. גָרָב, a type of lichen, as יַלֶּפֶת (see Rashi on 21:20). The יַלֶּפֶת is similar to “And Samson grasped (וַיִּלְפֹּת)” (Jud. 16:29) for it bonds (מְלַפֶּפֶת) itself to him until the day of [his] death, for it has no cure. — [Bech. 41a]   גרב: מין חזזית וכן ילפת. ולשון ילפת, כמו (שופטים טז כט) וילפת שמשון, שאחוזה בו עד יום מיתה, שאין לה רפואה:
you shall not offer up [(any of) these]: [This prohibition is stated] three times [here and in verses 20 and 25], as an admonition against (a) consecrating them, (b) slaughtering them and (c) dashing their blood. — [Temurah 6b]   לא תקריבו: שלש פעמים, להזהיר על הקדשן ועל שחיטתן ועל זריקת דמן:
nor shall you place [(any) of these] as a fire-offering: [This is] an admonition against the burning them [on the altar]. — [Temurah 6b; Torath Kohanim 22:116]   ואשה לא תתנו: אזהרת הקטרתן:
23. As for an ox or sheep that has mismatching limbs or uncloven hooves you may make it into a donation, but as a vow, it will not be accepted.   כג. וְשׁוֹר וָשֶׂה שָׂרוּעַ וְקָלוּט נְדָבָה תַּעֲשֶׂה אֹתוֹ וּלְנֵדֶר לֹא יֵרָצֶה:
mismatching limbs: i.e., one limb bigger than its [normal] counterpart. — [see Rashi on verse 21:18 above and Sifthei Chachamim there; Bech. 40a]   שרוע: אבר גדול מחבירו:
uncloven hooves: its hooves are uncloven [i.e., resembling those of a horse or donkey]. — [Bech. 40a]   וקלוט: פרסותיו קלוטות:
you may make it into a donation: [i.e., it may be sold and its money donated] to the maintenance of the Holy Temple.   נדבה תעשה אתו: לבדק הבית:
but as a vow: for the altar. — [Torath Kohanim 22:118]   ולנדר: למזבח:
it will not be accepted: What consecration comes to grant acceptance (לִרְצוֹת) ? I must say the consecration for the altar. - [Torath Kohanim 22:118][See Sifthei Chachamim, Mizrachi, and Nachalath Yaakov]   לא ירצה: איזהו הקדש בא לרצות, הוי אומר זה הקדש המזבח:
24. [Any animal whose testicles were] squashed, crushed, pulled out, or severed, you shall not offer up to the Lord, and in your land, you shall not do [it].   כד. וּמָעוּךְ וְכָתוּת וְנָתוּק וְכָרוּת לֹא תַקְרִיבוּ לַיהֹוָה וּבְאַרְצְכֶם לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ:
[Any animal] whose testicles were squashed, crushed, pulled out, or severed: [These terms refer to damage] to the testicles or the membrum. — [Bech. 39b]   ומעוך וכתות ונתוק וכרות: בביצים או בגיד:
squashed: Heb. וּמָעוּךְ, its testicles were squashed by hand.   מעוך: ביציו מעוכין ביד:
crushed: וְכָתוּת, more severely crushed than מָעוּךְ.   כתות: כתושים יותר ממעוך:
pulled out: Heb. נָתוּק, torn off by hand, until the threads upon which they are suspended snapped, but they are still contained within the scrotum, and the scrotum was not torn off.   נתוק: תלושין ביד עד שנפסקו חוטים שתלויים בהן, אבל נתונים הם בתוך הכיס, והכיס לא נתלש:
or severed: Heb., וְכָרוּת, severed with an instrument, but still contained within the scrotum.   וכרות: כרותין בכלי ועודן בכיס:
squashed: Heb. וּמָעוּךְ [Onkelos] renders this as וְדִימְרִיס, which is its equivalent in Aramaic, an expression of crushing.   ומעוך: תרגומו ודימריס, זה לשונו בארמית, לשון כתישה:
crushed: וְכָתוּת, [Onkelos] renders this as וְדִירְסִיס, like, “[and he will smite] the great house into splinters (רְסִיסִים)” (Amos 6:11), little pieces; likewise, קָנֶה הַמְרֻסָּס, meaning “a reed that is broken into pieces” (Shab. 80b).   וכתות: תרגומו ודירסיס, כמו (עמוס ו יא) הבית הגדול רסיסים, בקיעות דקות, וכן (שבת פ ב) קנה המרוסס:
and in your land, you shall not do: this thing, to castrate any livestock or wild animal, even of an unclean species. This is why [our verse] says here “in your land” -to include any species found in your land. — [Torath Kohanim 22:121] for it is impossible to say that castration is prohibited only in Eretz Israel [“your land,”] because [the prohibition of] castration is an obligation [associated with] the body [of a person], and every commandment associated with the body [of a person] applies both in the Land [of Israel] and outside the Land [of Israel]. - [Kid. 36b]   ובארצכם לא תעשו: דבר זה, לסרס שום בהמה וחיה ואפילו טמאה, לכך נאמר בארצכם, לרבות כל אשר בארצכם, שאי אפשר לומר לא נצטוו על הסרוס אלא בארץ, שהרי סרוס חובת הגוף הוא, וכל חובת הגוף נוהגת בין בארץ בין בחוצה לארץ:
25. And from the hand of a gentile you shall not offer up as food for your God any of these [blemished animals], for their injury is upon them, there is a defect on them; they will not be accepted for you.   כה. וּמִיַּד בֶּן נֵכָר לֹא תַקְרִיבוּ אֶת לֶחֶם אֱלֹהֵיכֶם מִכָּל אֵלֶּה כִּי מָשְׁחָתָם בָּהֶם מוּם בָּם לֹא יֵרָצוּ לָכֶם:
from the hand of a gentile: [lit., “and from the hand of a foreigner,” i.e.,] if a non-Jew brought a sacrifice and handed it over to the kohen to offer it up to Heaven, you shall not offer up on his behalf any blemished animal. And even though blemished animals are not deemed invalid as sacrifices from the children of Noah [i.e., by all non-Jews] unless they have a limb missing-that [rule] applies [only] to private altars in the fields. However, on the altar in the Mishkan, you shall not offer them up (Temurah 7b). You shall, however, accept an unblemished animal from them. That is why Scripture states earlier in this passage (verse 18 above), אִישׁ אִישׁ, “Any man whatsoever,” [where this double expression comes] to include non-Jews, who make vows and donations like Israelites. — [Temurah 2b]   ומיד בן נכר: נכרי שהביא קרבן ביד כהן להקריבו לשמים לא תקריבו לו בעל מום. ואף על פי שלא נאסרו בעלי מומין לקרבן בני נח אלא אם כן מחוסרי אבר, זאת נוהגת בבמה שבשדות, אבל על המזבח שבמשכן לא תקריבוה, אבל תמימה תקבלו מהם, לכך נאמר למעלה איש איש (לעיל פסוק יח), לרבות את הנכרים שנודרים נדרים ונדבות כישראל:
their injury: Heb. מָשְׁחָתָם, [as Onkelos renders it:] חִבּוּלְהוֹן, “their injury.”   משחתם: חבולהון:
they will not be accepted for you: to atone for you.   לא ירצו לכם: לכפר עליכם:
26. And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying:   כו. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהֹוָה אֶל משֶׁה לֵּאמֹר:
27. When an ox or a sheep or a goat is born, it shall remain under its mother for seven days, and from the eighth day onwards, it shall be accepted as a sacrifice for a fire offering to the Lord.   כז. שׁוֹר אוֹ כֶשֶׂב אוֹ עֵז כִּי יִוָּלֵד וְהָיָה שִׁבְעַת יָמִים תַּחַת אִמּוֹ וּמִיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי וָהָלְאָה יֵרָצֶה לְקָרְבַּן אִשֶּׁה לַיהֹוָה:
When [an ox or a sheep or a goat] is born: [The expression “is born” comes] to exclude [from sacrifice an animal] delivered by Caesarean section. - [Chul. 38b]   כי יולד: פרט ליוצא דופן:
28. An ox or sheep you shall not slaughter it and its offspring in one day._   כח. וְשׁוֹר אוֹ שֶׂה אֹתוֹ וְאֶת בְּנוֹ לֹא תִשְׁחֲטוּ בְּיוֹם אֶחָד:
it and its offspring: [This prohibition] applies to the female [i.e., the mother] animal, namely, that it is prohibited to slaughter a mother animal and its male or female offspring [on the same day]. The prohibition does not apply, however, to males [i.e., to the father animals], and it is permissible to slaughter the father animal along with its male or female offspring [on the same day]. — [Chul. 78b]   אתו ואת בנו: נוהג בנקבה, שאסור לשחוט האם והבן או הבת, ואינו נוהג בזכרים, ומותר לשחוט האב והבן [או האב והבת]:
[you shall not slaughter] it and its offspring: Also included [in this prohibition is slaughtering] its offspring and [then] it. — [Chul. 82a]   אתו ואת בנו: אף בנו ואותו במשמע:
29. And when you slaughter a thanksgiving offering to the Lord, you shall slaughter it so that it should be acceptable for you.   כט. וְכִי תִזְבְּחוּ זֶבַח תּוֹדָה לַיהֹוָה לִרְצֹנְכֶם תִּזְבָּחוּ:
you shall slaughter it so that it should be acceptable for you: From the very beginning of your slaughtering, take care that it should be “acceptable for you.” And what makes it acceptable?"   לרצנכם תזבחו: תחלת זביחתכם הזהרו שתהא לרצון לכם. ומהו הרצון:
It shall be eaten on that day: [Now, although it has already been stated that thanksgiving-offerings must be eaten on the day of sacrificing (Lev. 7:15), the Torah repeats this here] exclusively to warn us that the slaughtering must be performed on this condition. Do not slaughter it with the intention of eating it on the next day, for if you have this invalidating intention in mind, the sacrifice will not be “acceptable for you” (Torath Kohanim 22:135) [Indeed, it will be rejected (פִּגּוּל; see Rashi Lev. 7:18)]. Another explanation of לִרְצֹנְכֶם is: “knowingly.” From here, [we learn that] if someone slaughtered an animal in an incidental manner [i.e., according to Rashi , without intending to slaughter, just to pick up the knife or to throw it. According to Tosafoth, if he did not intend to slaughter, but only to sever the organs, or if he thought that it was an ordinary animal, and did not realize that it was to be slaughtered as a holy sacrifice], then [even though the animal is fit to be eaten as ordinary non-consecrated meat, nevertheless,] regarding being slaughtered as a holy sacrifice, it is deemed unfit. — [Chul. 13a] Now, although Scripture has already stated [that a sacrifice is “not acceptable” if, while slaughtering, one intended to eat it after its permissible time] in the case of sacrifices that may be eaten for two days (see Lev. 7:18), it specifies it again regarding those sacrifices that must be eaten on the same day (see Rashi Lev. 7:15), namely, that they [too] must be slaughtered with the intention of eating them within their permissible time.   ביום ההוא יאכל: לא בא להזהיר אלא שתהא שחיטה על מנת כן, אל תשחטוהו על מנת לאכלו למחר, שאם תחשבו בו מחשבת פסול לא יהא לכם לרצון. דבר אחר לרצונכם, לדעתכם, מכאן למתעסק שפסול בשחיטת קדשים. ואף על פי שפרט בנאכלים לשני ימים, חזר ופרט בנאכלין ליום אחד שתהא זביחתן על מנת לאכלן בזמנן:
30. It shall be eaten on that day; do not leave it over until morning. I am the Lord.   ל. בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יֵאָכֵל לֹא תוֹתִירוּ מִמֶּנּוּ עַד בֹּקֶר אֲנִי יְהֹוָה:
It shall be eaten on that day: [As explained above (see preceding Rashi)], Scripture states this here only to warn us that the slaughtering must be performed with this intention. For if it meant to fix the time limit for eating it, this has already been stated, “And the flesh of his thanksgiving peace-offering [shall be eaten on the day that it is offered…]” (Lev. 7:15). - [Torath Kohanim 7:113]   ביום ההוא יאכל: לא בא להזהיר אלא שתהא שחיטה על מנת כן, שאם לקבוע לו זמן אכילה, כבר כתוב (ויקרא ז טו) ובשר זבח תודת שלמיו וגו':
I am the Lord: Know Who decreed this matter, and do not perceive it as unimportant.   אני ה': דע מי גזר על הדבר ואל יקל בעיניך:
31. You shall keep My commandments and perform them. I am the Lord.   לא. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם מִצְו‍ֹתַי וַעֲשִׂיתֶם אֹתָם אֲנִי יְהֹוָה:
You shall keep [My commandments]: This refers to learning [God’s commandments and “keeping” them organized and memorized in one’s heart]   ושמרתם: זו המשנה:
and perform them: meaning [putting them into] action. — [Mizrachi; Torath Kohanim 22:136]   ועשיתם: זה המעשה:
32. You shall not desecrate My Holy Name. I shall be sanctified amidst the children of Israel. I am the Lord Who sanctifies you,   לב. וְלֹא תְחַלְּלוּ אֶת שֵׁם קָדְשִׁי וְנִקְדַּשְׁתִּי בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲנִי יְהֹוָה מְקַדִּשְׁכֶם:
You shall not desecrate [My Holy Name]: By transgressing My commandments intentionally. Now, is it not already implied by the verse “ You shall not desecrate [My Holy Name,” that if you do not transgress, God’s Name will be sanctified? So] what do we learn by Scripture adding “I shall be sanctified [amidst the children of Israel]?” [It teaches us:] Surrender your life [and do not transgress God’s commandments], and [thus] sanctify My Name. Now, one might think [that this commandment applies even] in private [i.e., if he is not in the presence of ten or more Jews]. Scripture, therefore, says here “[I shall be sanctified] amidst the children of Israel” [i.e., one is obliged to sacrifice one’s life to avoid transgressing God’s commandments only in the presence of ten or more Jews]. And when one sacrifices oneself, one shall do so with the willingness to die, anyone who [submits to] sacrifices himself while assuming [that God will surely perform] a miracle [for him and save his life], for this person, God does not perform a miracle, for so we find in [the case of] Hananiah, Mishael and Azariah, that [when the evil Nebuchadnezzar threatened to throw them into a fiery furnace], they did not submit themselves on the condition [that God would perform] a miracle, as Scripture says, “[Behold, there is our God Whom we worship; He can save us from the burning, fiery furnace and from your hands, O king!] But if not, let it be known to you, O king [that we will not worship your god, neither will we prostrate ourselves to the golden image that you have set up]!” (Dan. 3:1718). [We see here that whatever the outcome,] whether [God would] rescue [them] or not- [they declared, regardless] “Let it be known to you, O king [that we will not prostrate ourselves…]!” - [Torath Kohanim 22:137]   ולא תחללו: לעבור על דברי מזידין. ממשמע שנאמר ולא תחללו, מה תלמוד לומר ונקדשתי, מסור עצמך וקדש שמי. יכול ביחיד, תלמוד לומר בתוך בני ישראל, וכשהוא מוסר עצמו, ימסור עצמו על מנת למות, שכל המוסר עצמו על מנת הנס, אין עושין לו נס, שכן מצינו בחנניה מישאל ועזריה שלא מסרו עצמן על מנת הנס, שנאמר (דניאל ג יח) והן לא, ידיע להוא לך מלכא די לאלהך לא איתנא פלחין וגו', מציל ולא מציל, ידיע להוא לך וגו':
33. Who took you out of the land of Egypt, to be a God to you. I am the Lord.   לג. הַמּוֹצִיא אֶתְכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם לִהְיוֹת לָכֶם לֵאלֹהִים אֲנִי יְהֹוָה:
Who took you out [of the land of Egypt]: on this very condition [i.e., to be willing to sacrifice your lives in sanctification of My Holy Name. — [Torath Kohanim 22:138] [And do not think that since it is an obligation, you will not receive reward for sacrificing yourselves, for]   המוציא אתכם: על מנת כן:
I am the Lord: faithful to give reward [to those who fulfill My Torah. — [Torath Kohanim 22:138]   אני ה': נאמן לשלם שכר:
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