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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Vayikra - Leviticus - Chapter 21

Vayikra - Leviticus - Chapter 21

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 21

1. And the Lord said to Moses: Speak to the kohanim, the sons of Aaron, and say to them: Let none [of you] defile himself for a dead person among his people   א. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהֹוָה אֶל משֶׁה אֱמֹר אֶל הַכֹּהֲנִים בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם לְנֶפֶשׁ לֹא יִטַּמָּא בְּעַמָּיו:
Speak to the kohanim: Heb. אֱמֹר וְאָמַרְתָּ “Speak [to the Kohanim …] and say [to them],” lit. “Say…and you shall say.” [This double expression comes] to admonish the adult [Kohanim to be responsible] for the minors [that they must not contaminate them (Mizrachi)]. — [Yev. . 114a]   אמר אל הכהנים: אמור ואמרת, להזהיר גדולים על הקטנים:
the sons of Aaron: [Had Scripture used just this expression,] I would have thought that even desecrated [kohanim, those born from forbidden unions, as in verse 7, are included in this admonition to separate from uncleanness]. Scripture, therefore, states, “the kohanim ” [to teach us that the admonition applies only to non-desecrated kohanim].   בני אהרן: יכול חללים, תלמוד לומר הכהנים:
the sons of Aaron: Even those who have defects are implied.   בני אהרן: אף בעלי מומין במשמע:
the sons of Aaron: But not the daughters of Aaron, [who may become defiled for the dead]. — [Torath Kohanim 21:1,2]   בני אהרן: ולא בנות אהרן:
Let none [of you] defile himself [for a dead person] among his people: While the dead person is among his people [and therefore has people, non- kohanim, to bury him]. This comes to exclude [from the prohibition a kohen who comes across] a מֵתמִצְוָה, [a dead person for whom no one is in calling distance to attend to his burial and thus it is incumbent for people to attend to him]. — [Torath Kohanim 21:4]   לא יטמא בעמיו: בעוד שהמת בתוך עמיו, יצא מת מצוה:
2. except for his relative who is close to him, his mother, his father, his son, his daughter, his brother,   ב. כִּי אִם לִשְׁאֵרוֹ הַקָּרֹב אֵלָיו לְאִמּוֹ וּלְאָבִיו וְלִבְנוֹ וּלְבִתּוֹ וּלְאָחִיו:
except for his relative: [The expression שְׁאֵרוֹ] “his relative” refers only [here] to his wife. — [Torath Kohanim 21:5; Yev. . 22b]   כי אם לשארו: אין שארו אלא אשתו:
3. and for his virgin sister who is close to him, who was not [yet] with a man for her, he shall defile himself.   ג. וְלַאֲחֹתוֹ הַבְּתוּלָה הַקְּרוֹבָה אֵלָיו אֲשֶׁר לֹא הָיְתָה לְאִישׁ לָהּ יִטַּמָּא:
who is close [to him]: [This expression is] to include the sister who was betrothed [but not yet married] - [Torath Kohanim 21:5; Yev.. 60a]   הקרובה: לרבות את הארוסה:
who was not [yet] with a man: for relations. — [see Yev. 60a]   אשר לא היתה לאיש: למשכב:
for her, he shall defile himself: [This is] an obligation [for him to do so]. — [Torath Kohanim 21:8; Sotah 3a]   לה יטמא: מצוה:
4. [But] a husband shall not defile himself for [a wife who causes] his desecration, [while she is] among his people.   ד. לֹא יִטַּמָּא בַּעַל בְּעַמָּיו לְהֵחַלּוֹ:
[But] a husband shall not defile himself for [a wife who causes] his desecration, [while she is] among his people: He may not defile himself for his [deceased] wife who was unfit for him, and by whom he was desecrated [from his status,] while she was with him. — [Torath Kohanim 21:10; Yev.. 22b] And this is the simple meaning of the verse: “A husband shall not defile himself” for his relative [i.e., his wife], while she is still “among his people,” i.e., while she has [non- kohen] relatives who can attend to her burial, for she is therefore not under the category of an unattended deceased. And which relative [i.e., wife] are we dealing with here? [With a wife] “through whom he becomes desecrated (לְהֵחַלּוֹ),” i.e., [because she was unfit to marry him,] he subsequently becomes desecrated from his kehunah [and is unfit to perform the Holy Service].   לא יטמא בעל בעמיו להחלו: לא יטמא לאשתו פסולה שהוא מחולל בה בעודה עמו. וכן פשוטו של מקרא לא יטמא בעל בשארו בעוד שהוא בתוך עמיו, שיש לה קוברין, שאינה מת מצוה, ובאיזה שאר אמרתי, באותו שהוא להחלו, להתחלל הוא מכהונתו:
5. They shall not make bald patches on their heads, nor shall they shave the edge of their beard, nor shall they make cuts in their flesh.   ה. לֹא יִקְרְחוּ קָרְחָה בְּרֹאשָׁם וּפְאַת זְקָנָם לֹא יְגַלֵּחוּ וּבִבְשָׂרָם לֹא יִשְׂרְטוּ שָׂרָטֶת:
They shall not make bald patches on their heads: for a deceased. But are not [all] Israelites warned against this (see Deut. 14:1)]? However, when referring to the Israelites, Scripture says, “[You shall not…make any baldness] between your eyes [for the dead]” (Deut. 14:1). Thus, one might think that one is not liable [for making bald patches] anywhere else on the head. Scripture, therefore, says [regarding kohanim] “[They shall not make bald patches] on their heads” [teaching us that the prohibition applies to the entire head]. And we can extrapolate from kohanim to all Israelites through a gezeirah shavah [i.e., a Rabbinical tradition linking the laws of two otherwise unrelated verses or passages through common key words or phrases, as follows]: Here [regarding kohanim] Scripture uses the expression קָרְחָה - bald patches, and there regarding Israelites, Scripture [also] uses the expression קָרְחָה - bald patches. Thus, just as here [regarding kohanim, the prohibition applies to] the entire head, so is it understood further [regarding all Israelites], [that the prohibition applies to] the entire head, wherever one makes a bald patch on the head, [not just “between the eyes”], and just as there [regarding all Israelites, the prohibition applies to making bald patches only as a gesture of mourning] over a dead person [(see Deut. 14:1), “You shall not…make any baldness…for the dead”] - so, here [regarding kohanim, the prohibition applies to making bald patches only as a gesture of mourning] over a dead person. — [Torath Kohanim 21:11; Mak. 20a]   לא יקרחה קרחה: על מת. והלא אף ישראל הוזהרו על כך, אלא לפי שנאמר בישראל (דברים יד א) בין עיניכם, יכול לא יהא חייב על כל הראש, תלמוד לומר בראשם, וילמדו ישראל מהכהנים בגזרה שוה, נאמר כאן קרחה ונאמר להלן בישראל קרחה, מה כאן כל הראש אף להלן כל הראש במשמע, כל מקום שיקרח בראש. ומה להלן על מת, אף כאן על מת:
nor shall they shave the edge of their beard: Since it is stated in reference to all Israelites, “and you shall not destroy [the edge of your beard]” (Lev. 19:27), one might think that if one removed [the hairs] with tweezers or with a plane, one would be liable [to lashes]. Therefore, it says [here], “nor shall they shave,” [meaning] that one is liable only for something called “shaving” (גִּלוּחַ) with “destruction” (הַשְׁחָתָה) involved in it - that being a razor. — [Mak. 21a]   ופאת זקנם לא יגלחו: לפי שנאמר בישראל (ויקרא יט כז) ולא תשחית, יכול לקטו במלקט וברהיטני יהא חייב, לכך נאמר לא יגלחו, שאינו חייב אלא על דבר הקרוי גלוח ויש בו השחתה, וזהו תער:
nor shall they make cuts in their flesh: יִשְׂרְטוּ שָׂרֶטֶת, lit. “nor shall they cut a cut in their flesh.” [Why the double language?] Since regarding [all] Israelites, Scripture states (Lev. 19:28), “You shall not make cuts in your flesh for a person [who died],” one might think, that if someone made [several, e.g.,] five cuts, he would be liable for [having transgressed] only one [negative commandment]. Scripture, therefore, states, “nor shall they cut a cut,” to make one becomes liable for every individual cut made. For this word שָׂרֶטֶת is superfluous and thus is to be expounded [as above], as Scripture could have [merely] written, “nor shall they cut,” [in which case] I would have known that it means [not to cut] a cut. [Hence, the superfluous שָׂרֶטֶת was written to make one liable for each individual cut.]- [Torath Kohanim 21:12]   ובבשרם לא ישרטו שרטת: לפי שנאמר בישראל (ויקרא שם כח) ושרט לנפש לא תתנו, יכול שרט חמש שריטות לא יהא חייב אלא אחת, תלמוד לומר לא ישרטו שרטת, לחייב על כל שריטה ושריטה. שתיבה זו יתירה היא לדרוש, שהיה לו לכתוב לא ישרטו ואני יודע שהיא שרטת:
6. They shall be holy to their God, and they shall not desecrate their God's Name, for they offer up the fire offerings of the Lord, the food offering of their God, so they shall be holy.   ו. קְדשִׁים יִהְיוּ לֵאלֹהֵיהֶם וְלֹא יְחַלְּלוּ שֵׁם אֱלֹהֵיהֶם כִּי אֶת אִשֵּׁי יְהֹוָה לֶחֶם אֱלֹהֵיהֶם הֵם מַקְרִיבִם וְהָיוּ קֹדֶשׁ:
They shall be holy: [Since Scripture does not state “They are holy,” but rather “They shall be holy,” it means that if kohanim wish to defile themselves over the dead and thereby desecrate their holiness]-against their will, the court must [prevent them from doing so, and thereby] sanctify them in this respect. — [Mizrachi; Torath Kohanim 21:13]   קדשים יהיו: על כרחם יקדישום בית דין בכך:
7. They shall not marry a woman who is a prostitute or who is desecrated, and they shall not marry a woman who is divorced from her husband for he [the kohen] is holy to his God.   ז. אִשָּׁה זֹנָה וַחֲלָלָה לֹא יִקָּחוּ וְאִשָּׁה גְּרוּשָׁה מֵאִישָׁהּ לֹא יִקָּחוּ כִּי קָדשׁ הוּא לֵאלֹהָיו:
who is a prostitute: Heb. זֹנָה, [a woman] with whom an Israelite who is forbidden to her, has cohabited, for example, [relationships] punishable by excision (see Lev., Chapter 18), or a nathin [a descendant of the Gibeonites who were converted at the time of Joshua (see Josh., chapter 9) and who were forbidden to marry into Israel for all generations], or a mamzer [a product of a forbidden union]. — [Torath Kohanim 21:14; Yev. 61b]   זנה: שנבעלה בעילת ישראל האסור לה, כגון חייבי כריתות או נתין או ממזר:
who is desecrated: Heb. חֲלָלָה, [a woman] who was born from one who is unfit for the kehunah, for example, the daughter of a widow from a Kohen Gadol or the daughter of a divorcee from an ordinary kohen [the children of such unions becoming “desecrated” from the kehunah]. Also, [the term חֲלָלָה includes a woman] who becomes desecrated from the kehunah through relations with one of those who are themselves disqualified for the kehunah. — [Kid. 77a]   חללה: שנולדה מן הפסולים שבכהונה, כגון בת אלמנה מכהן גדול או בת גרושה וחלוצה מכהן הדיוט, וכן שנתחללה מן הכהונה על ידי ביאת אחד מן הפסולים לכהונה:
8. You shall sanctify him, for he offers up the food offering of your God; he shall be holy to you, for I, the Lord Who sanctifies you, am holy.   ח. וְקִדַּשְׁתּוֹ כִּי אֶת לֶחֶם אֱלֹהֶיךָ הוּא מַקְרִיב קָדשׁ יִהְיֶה לָּךְ כִּי קָדוֹשׁ אֲנִי יְהֹוָה מְקַדִּשְׁכֶם:
You shall sanctify him: Against his will- [meaning], that if he refuses to divorce [such a woman, lash him and chastise him until he divorces [her]. — [Yev. 88b; Mizrachi; Torath Kohanim 21:19]   וקדשתו: על כרחו, שאם לא רצה לגרש, הלקהו ויסרהו עד שיגרש:
he shall be holy to you: Treat him with holiness, e.g., he should be the first to commence any matter, and to [be the one who] begins the blessings at a meal. — [Gittin 59b]   קדש יהיה לך: נהוג בו קדושה לפתוח ראשון בכל דבר ולברך ראשון בסעודה:
9. If a kohen's daughter becomes desecrated through adultery she desecrates her father; she shall be burned in fire.   ט. וּבַת אִישׁ כֹּהֵן כִּי תֵחֵל לִזְנוֹת אֶת אָבִיהָ הִיא מְחַלֶּלֶת בָּאֵשׁ תִּשָּׂרֵף:
If [a kohen’s daughter] becomes desecrated through adultery: Heb. כִּי תֵחֵל. [The word תֵּחֵל here, stems from the word חִלּוּל, desecration, and not from the word הַתְחָלָה, beginning, and thus, the phrase here means:] If she becomes desecrated (תִּתְחַלֵּל) through a forbidden union, whereby she had a marriage-bond to a man and she committed adultery-whether [this bond had been] a betrothal or a marriage. And our Rabbis differ with regards to the matter [i.e., as to which stage of marriage-bond is referred to here]. All agree, however, that Scripture did not speak of a single woman. — [Sanh. 50b-51a]   כי תחל לזנות: כשתתחלל על ידי זנות, שהיתה בה זיקת בעל וזנתה או מן האירוסין או מן הנשואין. ורבותינו נחלקו בדבר, והכל מודים שלא דבר הכתוב בפנויה:
she desecrates her father: She has desecrated and degraded his honor, for [people] will say of him, “Cursed is he who fathered this one! Cursed is he who raised this one!” - [Sanh. 52a]   את אביה היא מחללת: חללה ובזתה את כבודו, שאומרים עליו ארור שזו ילד, ארור שזו גדל:
10. And the kohen who is elevated above his brothers, upon whose head the anointment oil has been poured or who has been inaugurated to wear the garments he shall not leave his hair unshorn or rend his garments.   י. וְהַכֹּהֵן הַגָּדוֹל מֵאֶחָיו אֲשֶׁר יוּצַק עַל רֹאשׁוֹ | שֶׁמֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה וּמִלֵּא אֶת יָדוֹ לִלְבּשׁ אֶת הַבְּגָדִים אֶת רֹאשׁוֹ לֹא יִפְרָע וּבְגָדָיו לֹא יִפְרֹם:
he shall not leave his hair unshorn: Heb. לֹא יִפְרָע. He shall not leave his hair unshorn as a gesture of mourning. — [Torath Kohanim 21:27] Now what is considered “leaving one’s hair unshorn?” More than thirty days. — [Sanh. 22b]   לא יפרע: לא יגדל פרע על אבל. ואיזהו גידול פרע, יותר משלשים יום:
11. And he shall not come upon any dead bodies; he shall not defile himself for his father or his mother.   יא. וְעַל כָּל נַפְשֹׁת מֵת לֹא יָבֹא לְאָבִיו וּלְאִמּוֹ לֹא יִטַּמָּא:
And [he shall not come] upon any dead bodies: [i.e., he shall not enter] the tent [or house, etc., wherein] the dead person [lies]. — [Torath Kohanim 21:28]   ועל כל נפשת מת וגו': באהל המת:
dead bodies: [This comes] to include [the law that] revi’ith [a “quarter” of a log] of blood [issued] from a dead person, defiles [anything found] in the tent. — [Sanh. 4a]   נפשת מת: להביא רביעית דם מן המת שמטמא באהל:
he shall not defile himself for his father or his mother: [Since the Kohen Gadol, unlike the ordinary kohen (see verse 2 above), is forbidden to defile himself for any dead body, even for his parents, this seemingly superfluous statement here comes only] to permit him [to defile himself] for a מֵת מִצְוָה, a dead person for whom there is no one to attend to [his burial]. — [Torath Kohanim 21:28; Nazir 48a]   לאביו ולאמו לא יטמא: לא בא אלא להתיר לו מת מצוה:
12. He shall not leave the Sanctuary, and he will not desecrate the holy things of his God, for the crown of his God's anointing oil is upon him. I am the Lord.   יב. וּמִן הַמִּקְדָּשׁ לֹא יֵצֵא וְלֹא יְחַלֵּל אֵת מִקְדַּשׁ אֱלֹהָיו כִּי נֵזֶר שֶׁמֶן מִשְׁחַת אֱלֹהָיו עָלָיו אֲנִי יְהֹוָה:
He shall not leave the Sanctuary: He shall not [leave the precincts of the Sanctuary to] follow the funeral procession [even of a relative]. — [Sanh. 18a] Furthermore, from here, our Rabbis learned that a Kohen Gadol may offer up sacrifices [even] if he is an onen [i.e., if his close relative died on that day]. [The following, therefore], is its meaning [i.e., the meaning of the verse]: Even if his father or mother died, [the Kohen Gadol] need not leave the Sanctuary, but he may perform the service. — [Sanh.. 84a]   ומן המקדש לא יצא: אינו הולך אחר המטה. ועוד מכאן למדו רבותינו שכהן גדול מקריב אונן, וכן משמעו, אף אם מתו אביו ואמו אינו צריך לצאת מן המקדש אלא עובד עבודה:
he will not desecrate the holy things: [meaning] that he does not thereby desecrate the Holy Service, for Scripture has permitted him [to perform the Holy Service under such circumstances]. However, an ordinary kohen who performs the Holy Service while being an onen, desecrates [it]. — [Sanh. 84a]   ולא יחלל את מקדש: שאינו מחלל בכך את העבודה שהתיר לו הכתוב, הא כהן הדיוט שעבד אונן חלל:
13. He shall marry a woman in her virgin state.   יג. וְהוּא אִשָּׁה בִבְתוּלֶיהָ יִקָּח:
14. A widow, a divorcee, a woman who is desecrated or a prostitute he shall not marry [any] of these. Only a virgin of his people may he take as a wife.   יד. אַלְמָנָה וּגְרוּשָׁה וַחֲלָלָה זֹנָה אֶת אֵלֶּה לֹא יִקָּח כִּי אִם בְּתוּלָה מֵעַמָּיו יִקַּח אִשָּׁה:
a woman who is desecrated: [The terms וַחֲלָלָה זֹנָה are not to be connected to mean a חֲלָלָה who is a זֹנָה, but rather, they should be read as two separate items, וַחֲלָלָה and then זֹנָה Thus, חֲלָלָה here refers to a woman] who was born from those unfit for the kehunah. — [see Rashi verse 7 above; Torath Kohanim 21: 34]   וחללה: שנולדה מפסולי כהונה:
15. And he shall not desecrate his offspring among his people, for I am the Lord, Who sanctifies him.   טו. וְלֹא יְחַלֵּל זַרְעוֹ בְּעַמָּיו כִּי אֲנִי יְהֹוָה מְקַדְּשׁוֹ:
And he shall not desecrate his offspring: But, if he does marry one of those [women listed in the verse as] being unfit [to marry a Kohen Gadol], his offspring from that woman are desecrated from the holiness of the kehunah [and are permitted to defile themselves for the dead, and they may marry a widow or a divorcee]. — [Nachalath Yaakov; Torath Kohanim 21:34]   ולא יחלל זרעו: הא אם נשא אחת מן הפסולות, זרעו הימנה חלל מדין קדושת כהונה:
16. And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying,   טז. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהֹוָה אֶל משֶׁה לֵּאמֹר:
17. Speak to Aaron, saying: Any man among your offspring throughout their generations who has a defect, shall not come near to offer up his God's food.   יז. דַּבֵּר אֶל אַהֲרֹן לֵאמֹר אִישׁ מִזַּרְעֲךָ לְדֹרֹתָם אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה בוֹ מוּם לֹא יִקְרַב לְהַקְרִיב לֶחֶם אֱלֹהָיו:
his God’s food: Heb. לֶחֶם אֱלֹהָיו, his God’s food. Any meal is termed לֶחֶם, as in, “…made a great feast (לְחֵם) ” (Dan. 5:1).   לחם אלהיו: מאכל אלהיו, כל סעודה קרויה לחם, כמו (דניאל ה א) עבד לחם רב:
18. For any man who has a defect should not approach: A blind man or a lame one, or one with a sunken nose or with mismatching limbs;   יח. כִּי כָל אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר בּוֹ מוּם לֹא יִקְרָב אִישׁ עִוֵּר אוֹ פִסֵּחַ אוֹ חָרֻם אוֹ שָׂרוּעַ:
For any man who has a defect should not approach: [But this prohibition has already been stated (preceding verse). The meaning here is that] it is not fitting that he should approach, like “[When you offer up a blind [animal]…a lame or a sick one, is there nothing wrong?] Were you to offer it to your governor, [would he accept you or would he favor you? says the Lord of Hosts” (Malachi 1:8). Thus, just as an animal with a defect is not fitting as an offering, neither is a person with a defect fit for presenting it.]   כי כל איש אשר בו מום לא יקרב: אינו דין שיקרב, כמו (מלאכי א ח) הקריבהו נא לפחתך:
with a sunken nose: Heb. חָרֻם. [This term means] that his nose is sunken between his two eyes, such that he applies [eye shadow to] his two eyes with one stroke [i.e., his nose is so sunken that its bridge does not intercede between the two eyes]. — [Torath Kohanim 21:48; Bech. 43b]   חרם: שחוטמו שקוע בין שתי העינים, שכוחל שתי עיניו כאחת:
with mismatching limbs: Heb. שָׂרוּעַ [This term means] that one of his limbs is bigger than its counterpart, [e.g.,] one of his eyes is large, and one of his eyes is smaller [normal], or one thigh longer than its [normal] counterpart. — [see Sifthei Chachamim; Bech. 40b]   שרוע: שאחד מאיבריו גדול מחברו, עינו אחת גדולה ועינו אחת קטנה, או שוקו אחת ארוכה מחברתה:
19. or a man who has a broken leg or a broken arm;   יט. אוֹ אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה בוֹ שֶׁבֶר רָגֶל אוֹ שֶׁבֶר יָד:
20. or one with long eyebrows, or a cataract, or a commingling in his eye; dry lesions or weeping sores, or one with crushed testicles   כ. אוֹ גִבֵּן אוֹ דַק אוֹ תְּבַלֻּל בְּעֵינוֹ אוֹ גָרָב אוֹ יַלֶּפֶת אוֹ מְרוֹחַ אָשֶׁךְ:
one who has unusually long eyebrows: Heb. גִּבֵּן, sourcils in French, [meaning] that his eyebrow (גַּבִּין) hairs are [abnormally] long and droop. — [Bech. 43b]   או גבן: שורצילו"ש בלע"ז [בעל גבות ארוכות] שגביני עיניו שערן ארוך ושוכב:
cataract: Heb. דַּק. [This means] that over his eyes he has a [thin] membrane (דּוֹק) which is called teile, tele, toyle, or tele in Old French, as in, “He Who stretches out [the heavens] like a curtain (דֹּק) ” (Isa. 40:22). — [Torath Kohanim 21:52; Bech. 38a]   או דק: שיש לו בעיניו דוק שקורין טיל"א [קרום], כמו (ישעיה מ כב) הנוטה כדוק:
a commingling in his eyes: Heb. תְּבֻלַּל, something that mixes (מְבַלְבֵּל) the [colors of the] eye, e.g., a white line that extends from the white [of the eye], piercing the “ring” [viz., the iris,] i.e., the [colored] annulus that encompasses the black [center of the eye, viz., the pupil,] called prunelle in French. This line pierces the iris and enters the black [pupil]. The Targum renders תְּבֻלַּל as חִילִיז, derived from חִלָּזוֹן, because this line resembles a worm. And so did the Sages of Israel call it [when they enumerate] the defects of a firstborn animal [in the context of whether it may be slaughtered outside the Temple]: עֵינָב, נָחָשׁ, חִלָּזוֹן, a worm-shaped, snake-shaped [growth], or a berry-shaped [growth]. — [Torath Kohanim 21:52, Bech. 38a, Mishnah Bech. 6:2]   או תבלל: דבר המבלבל את העין, כגון חוט לבן הנמשך מן הלבן ופוסק בסירא, שהוא עוגל המקיף את השחור, שקוראים פרוניל"א [אישון], והחוט הזה פוסק את העוגל ונכנס בשחור. ותרגום תבלול חיליז, לשון חלזון, שהוא דומה לתולעת אותו החוט. וכן כינוהו חכמי ישראל במומי הבכור חלזון נחש עינב (בכורות לח א):
or dry lesions or weeping sores: These are various types of boils.   גרב וילפת: מיני שחין הם:
dry lesions: Heb. גָרָב. This is [equivalent to] חֶרֶס, a skin disease [whose lesions are] dry [both] underneath and on the surface.   גרב: זו החרס, שחין היבש מבפנים ומבחוץ:
weeping sores: Heb. יַלֶּפֶת. This is the Egyptian lichen. And why is it called יַלֶּפֶת ? Because it bonds (מְלַפֶּפֶת) itself more and more [to the stricken person] until the day of [his] death. It is wet on its surface and dry underneath. Now, in another passage, a lesion wet on the surface and dry underneath is called גָרָב, as the verse says (Deut. 28:27), “weeping sores (גָרָב) and with dry lesions (חֶרֶס).” (But how is that so, when here, we have explained גָּרָב not only to be a completely dry lesion but also to be synonymous with חֶרֶס)? The answer is that] when גָּרָב is mentioned alongside חֶרֶס [as in Deut. 28:27], then the term גָרָב means [with wet lesions on the surface, and the term חֶרֶס refers to dry lesions both on the surface and underneath (see Rashi there)]. However, when it is mentioned alongside יַלֶּפֶת, then חֶרֶס [the dry lesion], is called גָרָב. Thus is the matter explained in Bech. (41a).   ילפת: היא חזזית המצרית. ולמה נקראת ילפת שמלפפת והולכת עד יום המיתה, והוא לח מבחוץ ויבש מבפנים. ובמקום אחר קורא לגרב שחין הלח מבחוץ ויבש מבפנים, שנאמר (דברים כח כז) ובגרב ובחרס, כשסמוך גרב אצל חרס קורא לילפת גרב, וכשהוא סמוך אצל ילפת קורא לחרס גרב, כך מפורש בבכורות (מא א):
one who has crushed testicles: Heb. מְרוֹחַ אֶשֶׁךְ [This term is to be understood] according to the Targum [Onkelos] as מְרִיס פַּחֲדִין, meaning: his testicles are crushed, like, “the sinews of his testicles (פַּחִדָיו) are knit together” (Job 40:17).   מרוח אשך: לפי התרגום מריס פחדין, שפחדיו מרוססים, שביצים שלו כתותין. פחדין כמו (איוב מ יז) גידי פחדיו ישורגו:
21. Any man among Aaron the kohen's offspring who has a defect shall not draw near to offer up the Lord's fire offerings. There is a defect in him; he shall not draw near to offer up his God's food.   כא. כָּל אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר בּוֹ מוּם מִזֶּרַע אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֵן לֹא יִגַּשׁ לְהַקְרִיב אֶת אִשֵּׁי יְהֹוָה מוּם בּוֹ אֵת לֶחֶם אֱלֹהָיו לֹא יִגַּשׁ לְהַקְרִיב:
Any man…who has a defect [shall not draw near…]: [But has this prohibition not already been stated in verse 17? This verse, however, comes to] include other types of defects [not specified in our passage]. — [Torath Kohanim 21:54]   כל איש אשר בו מום: לרבות שאר מומין:
There is a defect in him: As long as he has the defect, he is unfit [for the Holy Service]. However, if his defect goes away, he is fit [to serve]. — [Torath Kohanim 21:55]   מום בו: בעוד מומו בו פסול, הא אם עבר מומו כשר:
his God’s food: Any food is termed לֶחֶם.   לחם אלהיו: כל מאכל קרוי לחם:
22. His God's food from the most holy and from the holy ones, he may eat.   כב. לֶחֶם אֱלֹהָיו מִקָּדְשֵׁי הַקֳּדָשִׁים וּמִן הַקֳּדָשִׁים יֹאכֵל:
from the most holy: [This phrase] refers to [those sacrifices] with a higher degree of holiness;   מקדשי הקדשים: אלו קדשי הקדשים:
and from the holy ones, he may eat: These are the sacrifices with a lesser degree of holiness. Now, if sacrifices with a higher degree of holiness are mentioned [that a kohen with a defect may eat of them], why is it necessary to state [the same of] sacrifices with a lesser degree of holiness? [The answer is that] had they not been stated, I would have concluded [the following]: Indeed [a kohen] with a defect may eat of the sacrifices with a higher degree of holiness, since we find that these were allowed to [be eaten even by] a non- kohen , since Moses [who was not a kohen ,] ate of the flesh of the sacrifices of the investitures. Consequently, perhaps the most holy sacrifices carry with them this leniency]. The breast and thigh of sacrifices with a lesser degree of holiness, however, shall not be eaten [by a kohen with a defect], for we do not find an instance where a non- kohen takes a share of these!“ Therefore, Scripture states here ”or from the holy" [thereby permitting a kohen with a defect to eat from the sacrifices with a lesser degree of holiness as well]. In this way the matter is explained in [Tractate] Zevachim (101b).   ומן הקדשים יאכל: אלו קדשים קלים. ואם נאמרו קדשי הקדשים למה נאמרו קדשים קלים, אם לא נאמרו הייתי אומר בקדשי הקדשים יאכל בעל מום, שמצינו שהותרו לזר, שאכל משה בשר המלואים, אבל בחזה ושוק של קדשים קלים לא יאכל, שלא מצינו זר חולק בהן, לכך נאמרו קדשים קלים. כך מפורש בזבחים (קא ב):
23. But he shall not come to the dividing curtain, nor shall he draw near to the altar, for he has a defect, and he shall not desecrate My holy things, for I am the Lord Who sanctifies them.   כג. אַךְ אֶל הַפָּרֹכֶת לֹא יָבֹא וְאֶל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לֹא יִגַּשׁ כִּי מוּם בּוֹ וְלֹא יְחַלֵּל אֶת מִקְדָּשַׁי כִּי אֲנִי יְהֹוָה מְקַדְּשָׁם:
But [he shall not come] to the dividing curtain: to sprinkle the seven sprinklings [of blood] towards the dividing curtain. — [see Lev. 4:6]   אך אל הפרכת: להזות שבע הזאות שעל הפרכת:
[Nor shall he draw near] to the altar: [This refers to] the outer altar [(see Exod. 27:18) in the courtyard of the Sanctuary, as opposed to the inner incense altar (see Exod. 30:110) which was situated just outside the dividing curtain, all within the Holy enclosed area of the Sanctuary. Now, had our verse been referring to the inner altar, it would not have been necessary to specify the prohibition of the dividing curtain, for the dividing curtain was even closer in to the holy of holies. However, since it refers to the outer altar,] both [the altar and the curtain] are necessary to be written here; this matter is explained [in full] in Torath Kohanim (21:58).   ואל המזבח: החיצון. ושניהם הוצרכו להכתב, ומפורש בתורת כהנים:
And he shall not desecrate My Holy Services: for if [a kohen with a defect] did perform the Holy Service, [his service is considered] desecrated [and] thereby deemed invalid. — [Torath Kohanim 21:60]   ולא יחלל את מקדשי: שאם עבד, עבודתו מחוללת להפסל:
24. Moses told [this to] Aaron and his sons, and to all of the children of Israel.   כד. וַיְדַבֵּר משֶׁה אֶל אַהֲרֹן וְאֶל בָּנָיו וְאֶל כָּל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל:
Moses told: [Literally, our verse would read: “Moses spoke to Aaron and his sons, and to all of the children of Israel.” But what did he speak? He told them] this [entire] commandment [i.e., all the laws of the kehunah delineated in this passage].   וידבר משה: המצוה הזאת:
[to] Aaron and his sons, and to all the children of Israel: [But why command “all the children of Israel” about laws pertaining only to kohanim ?] So that the courts of law [comprising non- kohen judges] should warn kohanim [who have defects, to separate themselves from the Holy Service]. — [Midrash Hagadol, and see Torath Kohanim, Glosses of Gra]   אל אהרן ואל בניו ואל כל בני ישראל: להזהיר בית דין על הכהנים:
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