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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Vayikra - Leviticus - Chapter 15

Vayikra - Leviticus - Chapter 15

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 15

1. And the Lord spoke to Moses and to Aaron, saying,   א. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהֹוָה אֶל משֶׁה וְאֶל אַהֲרֹן לֵאמֹר:
2. Speak to the children of Israel, and say to them, If any man has a discharge from his flesh, his discharge is unclean.   ב. דַּבְּרוּ אֶל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַאֲמַרְתֶּם אֲלֵהֶם אִישׁ אִישׁ כִּי יִהְיֶה זָב מִבְּשָׂרוֹ זוֹבוֹ טָמֵא הוּא:
If [any man] has a discharge: One might think that if he had a discharge from any place [in the body], he becomes unclean. Scripture, therefore, says: “from his flesh,” meaning not all his flesh. Since Scripture made a distinction between flesh and flesh, I am entitled to reason: [Scripture] renders unclean a man who has a discharge, and it renders unclean a woman who has a discharge. Just as with a woman who has a discharge, from the very place [in her body] from which she becomes unclean with a minor degree of uncleanness, namely, נִדָּה, “menstrual uncleanness,” she becomes unclean with a major degree of uncleanness, namely, זִיבָה, a flow outside the menstrual period, likewise, in the case of a man who has a discharge, from the very place [in his body] from which he becomes unclean with a minor degree of uncleanness, namely, קֶרִי, a seminal emission, he becomes unclean with a major degree of uncleanness, namely, זִיבָה, an abnormal discharge. — [Torath Kohanim 15:122] [Menstruation and seminal emission both cause a minor degree of uncleanness, one that does not require seven clean days before purification, as opposed to the uncleanness of a discharge of a zav or zavah (gedolah), which do require this and are thus referred to as a major degree of uncleanness.]   כי יהיה זב: יכול זב מכל מקום יהא טמא, תלמוד לומר מבשרו ולא כל בשרו. אחר שחלק הכתוב בין בשר לבשר זכיתי לדין, טמא בזב וטמא בזבה, מה זבה ממקום שהיא מטמאה טומאה קלה, נדה, מטמאה טומאה חמורה, זיבה, אף הזב ממקום שמטמא טומאה קלה, קרי, מטמא טומאה חמורה, זיבה:
his discharge is unclean: [Apart from the discharge rendering the man unclean,] this teaches us that [the discharge itself is also unclean, i.e., that even] one drop defiles [other people, and vessels] (Torath Kohanim 15:123; Niddah 55a). [What is the difference between discharge and semen?] A [male] discharge resembles the moisture [that separates itself from and appears on] barley dough, and is a thin liquid, resembling the white of an unfertilized (מוּזֶרֶת) egg, whereas semen is thick, like the white of an egg which is מוּזֶרֶת [i.e., which has been fertilized by a male.]. — [Niddah 35b]   זובו טמא: למד על הטפה שהיא מטמאה. זוב דומה למי בצק של שעורין ודחוי, ודומה ללובן ביצה המוזרת. שכבת זרע קשור כלובן ביצה שאינה מוזרת:
3. And this shall be [the nature of] his uncleanness due to his discharge: [if] his flesh runs with his discharge, or [if] his flesh is plugged up by his discharge, that is his uncleanness.   ג. וְזֹאת תִּהְיֶה טֻמְאָתוֹ בְּזוֹבוֹ רָר בְּשָׂרוֹ אֶת זוֹבוֹ אוֹ הֶחְתִּים בְּשָׂרוֹ מִזּוֹבוֹ טֻמְאָתוֹ הִוא:
runs: Heb. רָר, an expression related to רִיר, saliva, which flows from his flesh.   רר: לשון ריר שזב את בשרו:
with his discharge: like saliva, which comes out clear.   את זובו: כמו ריר שיוצא צלול:
or [his flesh is] plugged up: that the discharge comes out thick, and thus seals up (חוֹתָם) the orifice of the member, so that his flesh is plugged up on account of a drop of his discharge. This is its simple meaning. The midrashic explanation, however, [is as follows]: The first verse (verse 2) counts two perceptions [of a discharge] and calls him unclean, as it says, “a discharge from his flesh, his discharge is unclean.” Then, the second verse (verse 3) counts out three perceptions [of a discharge] and calls him unclean, as it says, “And this shall be [the nature of] his uncleanness due to his discharge: [if] his flesh runs with his discharge, or [if] his flesh is plugged up by his discharge, that is his uncleanness.” Now, how is this so? Two are for uncleanness, and the third requires him to [bring] a sacrifice. — [Meg. 8a; Niddah 43b]   או החתים: שיוצא עב וסותם את פי האמה ונסתם בשרו מטפת זובו, זהו פשוטו. ומדרשו מנה הכתוב הראשון ראיות שתים וקראו טמא, שנאמר זב מבשרו זובו טמא הוא, ומנה הכתוב השני ראיות שלש וקראו טמא, שנאמר טומאתו בזובו רר בשרו את זובו או החתים בשרו מזובו טומאתו היא. הא כיצד, שתים לטומאה והשלישית מזקיקתו לקרבן:
4. Any bedding upon which the man with the discharge will lie, shall become unclean, and any object upon which he will sit, shall become unclean.   ד. כָּל הַמִּשְׁכָּב אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁכַּב עָלָיו הַזָּב יִטְמָא וְכָל הַכְּלִי אֲשֶׁר יֵשֵׁב עָלָיו יִטְמָא:
Any bedding: Heb. כָּלהַמִּשְׁכָּב, anything fit for bedding. One might think [that this would include] even if it is designated for another purpose. Scripture, therefore, says, “upon which [the man…] will lie”; it does not say, “upon which [the man…] lay” [in the past tense,] but rather, [in the future tense,] “will lie,” which is always designated for this. It excludes this [object], about which they say to him, “Get up and let us do our work [for which purpose it was designated]!” - [Torath Kohanim 15:128]   כל המשכב: הראוי למשכב, יכול אפילו מיוחד למלאכה אחרת, תלמוד לומר אשר ישכב, אשר שכב לא נאמר, אלא אשר ישכב, המיוחד תמיד לכך, יצא זה שאומרים לו עמוד ונעשה מלאכתנו:
[And any object upon which] he will sit: [Just like the case above of the bedding,] It does not say “[upon which] he sat,” but, “upon which he will sit,” [thus referring to an article] that is always designated for this. — [Torath Kohanim 15:128; Shab. 59a]   אשר ישב: ישב לא נאמר אלא אשר ישב עליו הזב, במיוחד תמיד לכך:
5. And a man who touches his bedding, shall immerse his garments and immerse himself in water and he remain unclean until evening.   ה. וְאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יִגַּע בְּמִשְׁכָּבוֹ יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד הָעָרֶב:
And a man who touches his bedding: This teaches us that the [uncleanness of] bedding is more stringent than [the uncleanness caused by] touching [an object], insofar as this [a bedding or a seat] becomes an אַב הַטֻּמְאָה [a major source of uncleanness], which can defile a person to render his garments unclean, whereas, touching an object which is not bedding, this [object] becomes only a וְלַד הַטֻּמְאָה [a secondary source of uncleanness, i.e., a degree less than אַב הַטֻּמְאָה], and it can defile only food and drink [but not people or objects].   ואיש אשר יגע במשכבו: לימד על המשכב שחמור מן המגע, שזה נעשה אב הטומאה לטמא אדם לטמא בגדים, והמגע שאינו משכב אינו אלא ולד הטומאה, ואינו מטמא אלא אוכלין ומשקין:
6. And anyone who sits on an object, upon which the man with the discharge will sit, shall immerse his garments and immerse himself in water, and he shall remain unclean until evening.   ו. וְהַיּשֵׁב עַל הַכְּלִי אֲשֶׁר יֵשֵׁב עָלָיו הַזָּב יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד הָעָרֶב:
And anyone who sits on an object: Even if he did not touch it, even if there were ten objects one on top of the other [and the man with the discharge had sat on the top one]-they all [even the bottom seat] become defiled because of מוֹשָׁב [the law of uncleanness concerning seats. Thus, just as the man with the discharge defiles the bottom seat of the pile without touching it, so too, a clean man can become defiled by that bottom seat without touching it]. And the same [applies] to מִשְׁכָּב [defilement of beds]. — [Torath Kohanim 15:134]   והישב על הכלי: אפילו לא נגע, אפילו עשרה כלים זה על זה, כולן מטמאין משום מושב וכן במשכב:
7. And anyone who touches the flesh of the man with a discharge, shall immerse his garments and immerse himself in water, and he shall remain unclean until evening.   ז. וְהַנֹּגֵעַ בִּבְשַׂר הַזָּב יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד הָעָרֶב:
8. And if the man with the discharge spits upon a clean person, [that person] shall immerse his garments and immerse himself in water, and he shall remain unclean until evening.   ח. וְכִי יָרֹק הַזָּב בַּטָּהוֹר וְכִבֶּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד הָעָרֶב:
And if the man with the discharge spits upon a clean person: And he touches it or lifts it up [without touching it, for saliva defiles if lifted up [even without direct contact]. — [Niddah 55b]   וכי ירק הזב בטהור: ונגע בו או נשאו, שהרוק מטמא במשא:
9. Any riding gear upon which the man with the discharge will ride, becomes unclean.   ט. וְכָל הַמֶּרְכַּב אֲשֶׁר יִרְכַּב עָלָיו הַזָּב יִטְמָא:
Any riding gear: Although he did not sit on it, for example, the saddlebow, called arcon [in French. It] becomes unclean because of מֶרְכָּב [riding gear]. [However], the saddle itself, called alves [in Old French], a board connecting the two uprights of a saddle,(according to Gukovitzki, or) saddle-girth, belly-band, (according to Greenberg,) becomes unclean because of מוֹשָׁב [a seat]. — [Eruvin 27a]   וכל המרכב: אף על פי שלא ישב עליו, כגון התפוס של סרגא שקורין ארצו"ן [שלד האוכף] טמא משום מרכב. והאוכף, שקורין אלוו"ש [אוכף] טמא טומאת מושב:
10. And whoever touches anything what will be under him, becomes unclean until evening. And whoever lifts them up shall immerse his garments and immerse himself in water, and he shall remain unclean until evening.   י. וְכָל הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה תַחְתָּיו יִטְמָא עַד הָעָרֶב וְהַנּוֹשֵׂא אוֹתָם יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד הָעָרֶב:
And whoever touches anything that will be under him: [i.e.,] [under] the man with the discharge (Torath Kohanim 15:139). [This verse] comes to teach us about riding gear, that anyone touching it becomes unclean; he is [however,] not required to immerse his garments. This is a feature of the stringency of מִשְׁכָּב as opposed to מֶרְכָּב.   וכל הנגע בכל אשר יהיה תחתיו: של זב. בא ולימד על המרכב, שיהא הנוגע בו טמא ואין טעון כבוס בגדים, והוא חומר במשכב מבמרכב:
And whoever lifts them up: [I.e.,] any of the items mentioned above in this passage discussing [the laws of] a man with a discharge, [namely:] his discharge, his saliva, his semen, his urine, the bedding, riding gear, [or seat (Reggio ed.)] [defiled by the man with the discharge]-if any of these items is lifted, it defiles the person [who lifted it, together] with his garments. — [Torath Kohanim 15: 140]   והנושא אותם: את כל האמור בענין הזב, זובו ורוקו ושכבת זרעו ומימי רגליו והמשכב והמרכב והמושב, שיהא משאן מטמא אדם לטמא בגדים:
11. And whomever the man with the discharge touches, without [the latter] having rinsed his hands, shall immerse his garments and immerse himself in he waters, and he shall remain unclean until evening.   יא. וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר יִגַּע בּוֹ הַזָּב וְיָדָיו לֹא שָׁטַף בַּמָּיִם וְכִבֶּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד הָעָרֶב:
[And whomever the man with the discharge touches,] without [the latter] having rinsed his hands: While [the man with the discharge] has not yet immersed himself from his uncleanness. And even if the discharge has ceased, and the man counts seven [days], as long as he has not yet immersed himself [in a mikvah,] he defiles with all [the aspects] of his uncleanness. And the reason Scripture expresses the immersion of a man with a discharge as “rinsing hands,” is to teach you that the hidden parts of the body [e. g., the mouth,] are not required to be immersed, only the uncovered parts of the body, like the hands. — [Torath Kohanim 15:142]   וידיו לא שטף במים: בעוד שלא טבל מטומאתו, ואפילו פסק מזובו וספר שבעה ומחוסר טבילה, מטמא בכל טומאותיו. וזה שהוציא הכתוב טבילת גופו של זב בלשון שטיפת ידים, ללמדך שאין בית הסתרים טעון ביאת מים, אלא אבר הגלוי, כמו הידים:
12. And an earthenware vessel which the man with the discharge will touch, shall be broken. And any wooden vessel shall be rinsed in water.   יב. וּכְלִי חֶרֶשׂ אֲשֶׁר יִגַּע בּוֹ הַזָּב יִשָּׁבֵר וְכָל כְּלִי עֵץ יִשָּׁטֵף בַּמָּיִם:
And an earthenware vessel which the man with the discharge will touch: One might think that even if he touches it from the outside [of the vessel, “it will also become unclean….” [However, the conclusion of the Midrash is that an earthenware vessel can become defiled only by the entry of an unclean object into its inner space], as is taught in Torath Kohanim (15:143), [where the passage there continues: “So if the verse indeed is referring to entry into the inner space of an earthenware vessel, why does it use the expression of touching?” And this passage] concludes: “Well, what touching is referred to here? When he touches the whole vessel. [And what does this mean?] When he moves it.” [I.e., in addition to the case of entry into the inner space, if a man with a discharge moves a vessel, it becomes unclean].   וכלי חרש אשר יגע בו הזב: יכול אפילו נגע בו מאחוריו וכו', כדאיתא בתורת כהנים, עד איזהו מגעו שהוא בכולו הוי אומר זה הסיטו:
13. When the man with the discharge is cleansed of his discharge, he shall count seven days for himself for his purification, and then immerse his garments and immerse his flesh in spring water, and he shall be clean.   יג. וְכִי יִטְהַר הַזָּב מִזּוֹבוֹ וְסָפַר לוֹ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים לְטָהֳרָתוֹ וְכִבֶּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בְּשָׂרוֹ בְּמַיִם חַיִּים וְטָהֵר:
When…is cleansed: [I.e.,] when [the discharge] ceases. — [Torath Kohanim 15:146; Meg. 8a]   וכי יטהר: כשיפסוק:
seven days…for his purification: Seven clean days free of the uncleanness of a discharge, i.e., he must not see any discharge [during these seven days]. And all of them [must be] consecutive [i.e., without any interruption of a discharge during these seven days]. — [Torath Kohanim 15:150; Niddah 33b]   שבעת ימים לטהרתו: שבעת ימים טהורים מטומאת זיבה, שלא יראה זוב, וכולן רצופין:
14. And on the eighth day, he shall take for himself two turtle doves or two young doves, and come before the Lord, to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting, and give them to the kohen.   יד. וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי יִקַּח לוֹ שְׁתֵּי תֹרִים אוֹ שְׁנֵי בְּנֵי יוֹנָה וּבָא | לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה אֶל פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וּנְתָנָם אֶל הַכֹּהֵן:
15. And the kohen shall make them: one into a sin offering and one into a burnt offering, and the kohen shall effect atonement for him from his discharge, before the Lord.   טו. וְעָשָׂה אֹתָם הַכֹּהֵן אֶחָד חַטָּאת וְהָאֶחָד עֹלָה וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה מִזּוֹבוֹ:
16. A man from whom there is a discharge of semen, shall immerse all his flesh in water, and he shall remain unclean until evening.   טז. וְאִישׁ כִּי תֵצֵא מִמֶּנּוּ שִׁכְבַת זָרַע וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם אֶת כָּל בְּשָׂרוֹ וְטָמֵא עַד הָעָרֶב:
17. And any garment or any leather [object] which has semen on it, shall be immersed in water, and shall remain unclean until evening.   יז. וְכָל בֶּגֶד וְכָל עוֹר אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה עָלָיו שִׁכְבַת זָרַע וְכֻבַּס בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד הָעָרֶב:
18. A woman with whom a man cohabits, whereby there was [a discharge of] semen, they shall immerse in water, and they shall remain unclean until evening.   יח. וְאִשָּׁה אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁכַּב אִישׁ אֹתָהּ שִׁכְבַת זָרַע וְרָחֲצוּ בַמַּיִם וְטָמְאוּ עַד הָעָרֶב:
[Both of] these must immerse in water: It is the Divine King’s decree that the woman becomes defiled through cohabitation, and the reason is not that she came into contact with semen, for this constitutes contact with hidden parts of the body [which does not defile]. — [Niddah 41b]   ורחצו במים: גזירת מלך היא שתטמא האשה בביאה. ואין הטעם משום נוגע בשכבת זרע, שהרי מגע בית הסתרים הוא:
19. If a woman has a discharge, her flesh discharging blood, she shall remain in her state of menstrual separation for seven days, and whoever touches her shall become unclean until evening.   יט. וְאִשָּׁה כִּי תִהְיֶה זָבָה דָּם יִהְיֶה זֹבָהּ בִּבְשָׂרָהּ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים תִּהְיֶה בְנִדָּתָהּ וְכָל הַנֹּגֵעַ בָּהּ יִטְמָא עַד הָעָרֶב:
[If a woman] has a discharge: One might think that this means from any of her organs. Scripture, therefore, says “and she revealed the fountain of her blood” (Lev. 20:18). [Scripture here teaches us that] the only blood that defiles is what comes from her “fountain” [i.e., her womb]. — [Torath Kohanim 15:169]   כי תהיה זבה: יכול מאחד מכל איבריה, תלמוד לומר (ויקרא כ יח) והיא גלתה את מקור דמיה, אין דם מטמא אלא הבא מן המקור:
her flesh discharging blood: A woman’s discharge is not called a defiling discharge unless it is red. — [Niddah 19a]   דם יהיה זבה בבשרה: אין זובה קרוי זוב לטמא אלא אם כן הוא אדום:
in her state of menstrual separation: Heb. נִדָּתָהּ, like, “and chase him (יְנִדֻּהוּ) from the world” (Job 18:18), for she is separated (מְנֻדָּה) from contact with any man.   בנדתה: כמו (איוב יח יח) ומתבל ינידוהו, שהיא מנודה ממגע כל אדם:
she shall remain in her state of menstrual separation: Even if she saw only the first sighting. — [Torath Kohanim 15:171]   תהיה בנדתה: אפילו לא ראתה אלא ראיה ראשונה:
20. And whatever she lies on during her menstrual separation, shall become unclean, and whatever she sits on, shall become unclean.   כ. וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר תִּשְׁכַּב עָלָיו בְּנִדָּתָהּ יִטְמָא וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר תֵּשֵׁב עָלָיו יִטְמָא:
21. And anyone who touches her bedding, shall immerse his garments and immerse [himself] in water, and he shall remain unclean until evening.   כא. וְכָל הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּמִשְׁכָּבָהּ יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד הָעָרֶב:
22. And anyone who touches any object upon which she will sit, shall immerse his garments and immerse himself in water, and he shall remain unclean until evening.   כב. וְכָל הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּכָל כְּלִי אֲשֶׁר תֵּשֵׁב עָלָיו יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד הָעָרֶב:
23. And if he is on the bedding or on the object, upon which she is sitting, when he touches it, he becomes unclean until evening.   כג. וְאִם עַל הַמִּשְׁכָּב הוּא אוֹ עַל הַכְּלִי אֲשֶׁר הִוא ישֶׁבֶת עָלָיו בְּנָגְעוֹ בוֹ יִטְמָא עַד הָעָרֶב:
And if he is on the bedding: [I.e.,] someone who lies or sits upon her bedding or upon her seat, even if he does not touch it [if he sits on a seat that is on that seat - see Rashi on verse 6], this person is nevertheless also included in the law of uncleanness stated in the previous verse, and he requires immersion of his garments [in a mikvah]. — [Torath Kohanim 15:134]   ואם על המשכב הוא: השוכב או היושב על משכבה או על מושבה, אפילו לא נגע בה, אף הוא בדת טומאה האמורה במקרא העליון שטעון כבוס בגדים:
or on the object: [This comes] to include riding gear. — [Torath Kohanim 15:176]   על הכלי: לרבות את המרכב:
when he touches it, he becomes unclean: [This clause] refers exclusively to riding gear, which is included by [the words] “or object.”   בנגעו בו יטמא: אינו מדבר אלא על המרכב שנתרבה מעל הכלי:
when he touches it, he becomes unclean: But he does not require immersion of garments, for touching unclean riding gear does not defile people to defile their garments. — [Keilim 23:3]   בנגעו בו יטמא: ואינו טעון כבוס בגדים שהמרכב אין מגעו מטמא אדם לטמא בגדים:
24. If a man cohabits with her, [the uncleanness of] her menstruation shall be upon him, and he shall be unclean for seven days, and any bedding he lies upon, shall become unclean.   כד. וְאִם שָׁכֹב יִשְׁכַּב אִישׁ אֹתָהּ וּתְהִי נִדָּתָהּ עָלָיו וְטָמֵא שִׁבְעַת יָמִים וְכָל הַמִּשְׁכָּב אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁכַּב עָלָיו יִטְמָא:
[the uncleanness of] her menstruation shall be upon him: One might think that he follows in her footsteps, [i.e.,] if he had relations with her on the fifth day of her menstruation, he, too, will be unclean only for three days, like her. Scripture, therefore, continues, “and he shall be unclean for seven days.” So what does this clause here, “then [the uncleanness of] her menstruation shall be upon him,” come to teach us? [It means that the same laws of her uncleanness apply, insofar as] just as she defiles people and earthenware vessels, so does he defile people and earthenware vessels. — [Torath Kohanim 15:180; Niddah 33a]   ותהי נדתה עליו: יכול יעלה לרגלה, שאם בא עליה בחמישי לנדתה לא יטמא אלא שלשה ימים כמותה, תלמוד לומר וטמא שבעת ימים. ומה תלמוד לומר ותהי נדתה עליו, מה היא מטמאה אדם וכלי חרס, אף הוא מטמא אדם וכלי חרס:
25. And a woman whose flow of blood flows for many days, outside of the time of her menstrual separation, or she has a discharge after her menstrual separation, then all the days she has her unclean discharge, she shall be unclean just like the days of her menstrual separation.   כה. וְאִשָּׁה כִּי יָזוּב זוֹב דָּמָהּ יָמִים רַבִּים בְּלֹא עֶת נִדָּתָהּ אוֹ כִי תָזוּב עַל נִדָּתָהּ כָּל יְמֵי זוֹב טֻמְאָתָהּ כִּימֵי נִדָּתָהּ תִּהְיֶה טְמֵאָה הִוא:
many days: Three days. — [Torath Kohanim 15:186]   ימים רבים: שלשה ימים:
outside of the time of her menstrual separation: [I.e., after the seven days of her menstrual uncleanness had passed [not within the period of her menstrual uncleanness]. — [Torath Kohanim 8:187, Niddah 73a]   בלא עת נדתה: אחר שיצאו שבעת ימי נדתה:
or she has a discharge: [of] these three days.   או כי תזוב: את שלשת הימים הללו:
after her menstrual separation: i.e., separated from [the period of] her menstruation by one day, this is a zavah, whose law is decreed in this passage, unlike the laws of the menstruant, insofar as this one [the zavah gedolah A woman who discharges for three consecutive days,] requires a counting of seven [days] clean [of blood] and a sacrifice [for her purification], whereas the menstruant is not required [by Torah law] to count clean days. Rather, [the menstruant] need only remain in her state of menstrual separation for seven days (verse 19), whether she sees [an issue of blood] or not. And our Rabbis expounded this passage (Torath Kohanim 15:187; Niddah 73) as follows: Between the end of one period of menstruation to the beginning of the next, there is an eleven-day interval, so that if during these eleven days, she sees an issue of blood for three consecutive [days], she becomes a zavah [gedolah].   על נדתה: מופלג מנדתה יום אחד, זו היא זבה ומשפטה חרוץ בפרשה זו, ולא כדת הנדה, שזו טעונה ספירת שבעה נקיים וקרבן, והנדה אינה טעונה ספירת שבעה נקיים, אלא שבעת ימים תהיה בנדתה בין רואה בין שאינה רואה. ודרשו רבותינו בפרשה זו, אחד עשר יום יש בין סוף נדה לתחלת נדה, שכל שלשה רצופין שתראה באחד עשר יום הללו, תהא זבה:
26. Any bedding upon which she lies during all the time of her discharge, will have the same [uncleanness] for her, as the bedding of her menstruation. And any object upon which she will sit, shall become unclean. like her menstrual uncleanness.   כו. כָּל הַמִּשְׁכָּב אֲשֶׁר תִּשְׁכַּב עָלָיו כָּל יְמֵי זוֹבָהּ כְּמִשְׁכַּב נִדָּתָהּ יִהְיֶה לָּהּ וְכָל הַכְּלִי אֲשֶׁר תֵּשֵׁב עָלָיו טָמֵא יִהְיֶה כְּטֻמְאַת נִדָּתָהּ:
27. And anyone who touches them shall become unclean; he shall immerse his garments and immerse [himself] in water, and he shall remain unclean until evening.   כז. וְכָל הַנּוֹגֵעַ בָּם יִטְמָא וְכִבֶּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד הָעָרֶב:
28. And if she becomes clean of her discharge, she shall count for herself seven days, and after this, she may be cleansed.   כח. וְאִם טָהֲרָה מִזּוֹבָהּ וְסָפְרָה לָּהּ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים וְאַחַר תִּטְהָר:
29. And on the eighth day, she shall take for herself two turtle doves or two young doves, and bring them to the kohen, to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting.   כט. וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי תִּקַּח לָהּ שְׁתֵּי תֹרִים אוֹ שְׁנֵי בְּנֵי יוֹנָה וְהֵבִיאָה אוֹתָם אֶל הַכֹּהֵן אֶל פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד:
30. And the kohen shall make one into a sin offering and one into a burnt offering, and the kohen shall effect atonement for her, before the Lord, from the uncleanness of her discharge.   ל. וְעָשָׂה הַכֹּהֵן אֶת הָאֶחָד חַטָּאת וְאֶת הָאֶחָד עֹלָה וְכִפֶּר עָלֶיהָ הַכֹּהֵן לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה מִזּוֹב טֻמְאָתָהּ:
31. And you shall separate the children of Israel from their uncleanness, so that they will not die on account of their uncleanness, if they defile My Sanctuary which is in their midst.   לא. וְהִזַּרְתֶּם אֶת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל מִטֻּמְאָתָם וְלֹא יָמֻתוּ בְּטֻמְאָתָם בְּטַמְּאָם אֶת מִשְׁכָּנִי אֲשֶׁר בְּתוֹכָם:
And you shall separate: Heb. וְהִזַּרְתֶּם. The term נְזִירָה always denotes separation (Torath Kohanim 15:196); similarly, “they drew (נָזרוּ) backwards” (Isa. 1:4); and similarly, “the one separated (נְזִיר) from his brothers” (Gen. 49:26).   והזרתם: אין נזירה אלא פרישה, וכן (ישעיה א ד) נזורו אחור, וכן (בראשית מט כו) נזיר אחיו:
so that they will not die on account of their uncleanness: [The punishment כָּרֵת the death of the perpetrator and his offspring-is attached to an unclean person who enters the sanctuary, thus defiling it. See Num. 19:13.] We see [from here] that this כָּרֵת incurred by someone [unclean] who defiles the sanctuary is also referred to as מִיתָה [meaning “the death penalty from Heaven,” although in other contexts, מִיתָה refers to the death of the perpetrator but not his offspring.]. — [Sifrei Bamidbar 19:45]   ולא ימתו בטמאתם: הרי הכרת של מטמא מקדש קרוי מיתה:
32. This is the law for one who has a discharge, and one from whom semen issues, through which he becomes unclean,   לב. זֹאת תּוֹרַת הַזָּב וַאֲשֶׁר תֵּצֵא מִמֶּנּוּ שִׁכְבַת זֶרַע לְטָמְאָה בָהּ:
This is the law for one who has a discharge: [I.e.,] a person who sees one discharge. And what is the law governing him? [As the Torah continues:]   זאת תורת הזב: בעל ראיה אחת, ומהו תורתו ואשר תצא ממנו שכבת זרע - הרי הוא כבעל קרי טמא טומאת ערב:
and one from whom semen issues: He is like one who has experienced a seminal emission, that he becomes unclean until evening. — [Torath Kohanim 15:194]  
33. And for a woman who has her menstrual flow, and for one who has a discharge, whether male or female, and a man who cohabits with an unclean woman.   לג. וְהַדָּוָה בְּנִדָּתָהּ וְהַזָּב אֶת זוֹבוֹ לַזָּכָר וְלַנְּקֵבָה וּלְאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁכַּב עִם טְמֵאָה:
and for one who has a discharge: [This expression refers to] someone who has seen two discharges and someone who has seen three discharges, whose law is specified above [in this whole passage, beginning with verse 3]. — [Torath Kohanim 15:194]   והזב את זובו: בעל שתי ראיות ובעל שלש ראיות, שתורתן מפורשת למעלה:
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