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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary

Vayikra - Leviticus - Chapter 10

Vayikra - Leviticus - Chapter 10

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Chapter 10

1And Aaron's sons, Nadab and Abihu, each took his pan, put fire in them, and placed incense upon it, and they brought before the Lord foreign fire, which He had not commanded them.   אוַיִּקְחוּ בְנֵי אַהֲרֹן נָדָב וַאֲבִיהוּא אִישׁ מַחְתָּתוֹ וַיִּתְּנוּ בָהֵן אֵשׁ וַיָּשִׂימוּ עָלֶיהָ קְטֹרֶת וַיַּקְרִיבוּ לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה אֵשׁ זָרָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא צִוָּה אֹתָם:
2And fire went forth from before the Lord and consumed them, and they died before the Lord.   בוַתֵּצֵא אֵשׁ מִלִּפְנֵי יְהֹוָה וַתֹּאכַל אוֹתָם וַיָּמֻתוּ לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה:
And fire went forth: Rabbi Eliezer says: Aaron’s sons died only because they rendered halachic decisions in the presence of Moses, their teacher. Rabbi Ishmael says: [They died because] they had entered the sanctuary after having drunk wine. The proof is that after their death, [Scripture] admonished the survivors that they may not enter the sanctuary after having drunk wine. This is analogous to a king who had a faithful attendant. [When he found him standing at tavern entrances, he severed his head in silence and appointed another attendant in his place. We would not know why he put the first to death, but for his enjoining the second thus, “You must not enter the doorway of taverns,” from which we know that for such a reason he had put the first one to death. Thus [it is said], “And fire went forth from before the Lord and consumed them, and they died before the Lord.” But we would not know why they [Nadab and Abihu] died, but for His commanding Aaron, “Do not drink wine that will lead to intoxication.” We know from this that they died precisely on account of the wine. For this reason Scripture showed love to Aaron by directing the divine utterance to him alone, thus, “Do not drink wine that will lead to intoxication,”] as recounted in Vayikra Rabbah (12:1).   ותצא אש: רבי אליעזר אומר לא מתו בני אהרן אלא על ידי שהורו הלכה בפני משה רבן. רבי ישמעאל אומר שתויי יין נכנסו למקדש, תדע שאחר מיתתן הזהיר הנותרים שלא יכנסו שתויי יין למקדש. משל למלך, שהיה לו בן בית וכו', כדאיתא בויקרא רבה:
3Then Moses said to Aaron, "This is what the Lord spoke, [when He said], 'I will be sanctified through those near to Me, and before all the people I will be glorified.' " And Aaron was silent.   גוַיֹּאמֶר משֶׁה אֶל אַהֲרֹן הוּא אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהֹוָה | לֵאמֹר בִּקְרֹבַי אֶקָּדֵשׁ וְעַל פְּנֵי כָל הָעָם אֶכָּבֵד וַיִּדֹּם אַהֲרֹן:
This is what the Lord spoke: But when did He speak? [It was when He said], “And I will meet with the children of Israel, and it will be sanctified through My glory (בִּכְבוֹדִי) ” (Exod. 29:43). Do not read בִּכְבוֹדִי, “through My glory,” but בִּמְכֻבָּדַי, “through My honorable ones.” Moses said to Aaron, “Aaron, my brother! I knew that this House was to be sanctified through the beloved ones of the Omnipresent, but I thought it would be either through me or through you. Now I see that they [Nadab and Abihu] were greater than I or you!”- [Vayikra Rabbah 12:2]   הוא אשר דבר וגו': היכן דבר ונועדתי שמה לבני ישראל ונקדש בכבודי (שמות כט מג). אל תקרי בכבודי אלא במכובדי. אמר לו משה לאהרן אהרן אחי יודע הייתי שיתקדש הבית במיודעיו של מקום והייתי סבור או בי או בך, עכשיו רואה אני שהם גדולים ממני וממך:
And Aaron was silent: [and did not complain. Consequently,] he was rewarded for his silence. And what reward did he receive? That God addressed him exclusively in the [ensuing] passage regarding those who drink wine [as verse 8 says, “And the Lord spoke to Aaron, saying…”]. — [Vayikra Rabbah 12:2]   וידם אהרן: קבל שכר על שתיקתו. ומה שכר קבל, שנתייחד עמו הדיבור, שנאמרה לו לבדו פרשת שתויי יין:
with those near to Me: [I.e.,] My chosen ones.   בקרבי: בבחירי:
and before all the people I will be glorified: When the Holy One, blessed is He, exacts judgment upon the righteous, He becomes feared, exalted, and praised. Now, if this is so concerning the righteous, how much more is it so concerning the wicked! Similarly, the verse says “You are awesome, O God, from Your sanctuaries (מִמִּקְדָּשֶׁי) ” (Ps. 68:36). Do not read מִמִּקְדָּשֶׁי “from Your sanctuaries,” but מִמְּקֻדָּשֶׁי, “because of Your sanctified ones.” - [Zev. 115b]   ועל פני כל העם אכבד: כשהקב"ה עושה דין בצדיקים מתיירא ומתעלה ומתקלס, אם כן באלו, כל שכן ברשעים, וכן הוא אומר (תהלים סח לו) נורא א-להים ממקדשיך, אל תקרא ממקדשיך אלא ממקודשיך:
4And Moses summoned Mishael and Elzaphan, the sons of Aaron's uncle Uzziel, and said to them, "Draw near; carry your kinsmen from within the Sanctuary, to the outside of the camp.   דוַיִּקְרָא משֶׁה אֶל מִישָׁאֵל וְאֶל אֶלְצָפָן בְּנֵי עֻזִּיאֵל דֹּד אַהֲרֹן וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם קִרְבוּ שְׂאוּ אֶת אֲחֵיכֶם מֵאֵת פְּנֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ אֶל מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה:
Aaron’s uncle: Uzziel was Amram’s brother, as it says, “And the sons of Kohath were [Amram…and Uzziel], etc.” (Exod. 6:18).   דד אהרן: עזיאל אחי עמרם היה, שנאמר (שמות ו יח) ובני קהת וגו':
carry your kinsmen [from within the Sanctuary], etc.: As a person would say to his fellow [when someone had died at a wedding feast], “Remove the deceased from before the bride so as not to disturb the joyous occasion.” [Here, too, Mishael and Elzaphan were to remove the dead “from inside the sanctuary,” so as not to disturb the serenity of the investitures of the Sanctuary.]   שאו את אחיכם וגו': כאדם האומר לחבירו העבר את המת מלפני הכלה, שלא לערבב את השמחה:
5So they approached and carried them with their tunics to the outside of the camp, as Moses had spoken.   הוַיִּקְרְבוּ וַיִּשָּׂאֻם בְּכֻתֳּנֹתָם אֶל מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר משֶׁה:
with their tunics: [i.e., with the tunics] of the dead ones [the tunics of Nadab and Abihu, not Mishael and Elzaphan, for the latter were Levites and did not wear the tunics of the kohanim]. This teaches us that their garments had not been burnt, but [only] their souls. Two thread-like [sparks] of fire entered their nostrils [thereby destroying their souls along with all their internal organs, but leaving their external body structures intact. See Be’er Basadeh]. — [Torath Kohanim 10:25]   בכתנתם: של מתים מלמד שלא נשרפו בגדיהם אלא נשמתם כמין שני חוטין של אש נכנסו לתוך חוטמיהם:
6And Moses said to Aaron and to Eleazar and to Ithamar, his sons, "Do not leave your heads unshorn, and do not rend your garments, so that you shall not die, and lest He be angry with the entire community, but your brothers, the entire house of Israel, shall bewail the conflagration that the Lord has burned.   ווַיֹּאמֶר משֶׁה אֶל אַהֲרֹן וּלְאֶלְעָזָר וּלְאִיתָמָר | בָּנָיו רָאשֵׁיכֶם אַל תִּפְרָעוּ | וּבִגְדֵיכֶם לֹא תִפְרֹמוּ וְלֹא תָמֻתוּ וְעַל כָּל הָעֵדָה יִקְצֹף וַאֲחֵיכֶם כָּל בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל יִבְכּוּ אֶת הַשְּׂרֵפָה אֲשֶׁר שָׂרַף יְהֹוָה:
Do not leave [your heads] unshorn: [I.e.,] do not let your hair grow long. — [Torath Kohanim 10:25] [Had Moses not commanded them, they would have let their hair grow long as a sign of mourning. We learn] from here that a mourner is forbidden to cut his hair (Moed Katan 14b). “But you shall not disturb the happiness of the Omnipresent [at the investitures of the Mishkan].”   אל תפרעו: אל תגדלו שער. מכאן שאבל אסור בתספורת, אבל אתם אל תערבבו שמחתו של מקום:
so that you shall not die: But if you do so [and leave your heads unshorn and rend your garments], you will die. — [Torath Kohanim 10:31]   ולא תמתו: הא אם תעשו כן תמותו:
But your brothers, the entire house of Israel, [shall bewail]: From here [we learn] that when [Torah] scholars are afflicted, all of Israel is obligated to mourn for them.   ואחיכם כל בית ישראל: מכאן שצרתן של תלמידי חכמים מוטלת על הכל להתאבל בה:
7And do not go out of the entrance of the Tent of Meeting, lest you die, because the Lord's anointing oil is upon you." And they did according to Moses' order.   זוּמִפֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד לֹא תֵצְאוּ פֶּן תָּמֻתוּ כִּי שֶׁמֶן מִשְׁחַת יְהֹוָה עֲלֵיכֶם וַיַּעֲשׂוּ כִּדְבַר משֶׁה:
8And the Lord spoke to Aaron, saying,   חוַיְדַבֵּר יְהֹוָה אֶל אַהֲרֹן לֵאמֹר:
9Do not drink wine that will lead to intoxication, neither you nor your sons with you, when you go into the Tent of Meeting, so that you shall not die. [This is] an eternal statute for your generations,   טיַיִן וְשֵׁכָר אַל תֵּשְׁתְּ | אַתָּה | וּבָנֶיךָ אִתָּךְ בְּבֹאֲכֶם אֶל אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְלֹא תָמֻתוּ חֻקַּת עוֹלָם לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם:
wine that will lead to intoxication: Heb. יַיִן וְשֵׁכָר. [שֵׁכָר does not mean other strong drink,] but wine in a manner that leads to intoxication" [namely, sufficient wine to cause intoxication, undiluted, and drunk without interruption]. — [Torath Kohanim 10:35]   יין ושכר: יין דרך שכרותו:
when you go into the Tent of Meeting: We know only [that a kohen is forbidden] to enter the Heichal [after drinking wine]. How do we know that [this prohibition applies also to] approaching the altar [which is outside the Heichal]? [The answer is:] Here [in our verse] it speaks of “entering the Tent of Meeting.” Regarding washing the hands and feet [at the washstand-see Exod. 30:1721], “entering the Tent of Meeting” is [also] mentioned (verse 20). [Now, concerning washing, approaching the altar is regarded as similar to entering the Tent of Meeting insofar as both require washing the hands and feet, as it says, “When they enter the Tent of Meeting, they shall wash with water… or when they approach the altar to serve” (Exod. 30:20). Hence,] just as there [in the case of washing], Scripture made approaching the altar the same as entering the Tent of Meeting, here too, it made approaching the altar the same as entering the Tent of Meeting [insofar as both are equally prohibited when the kohen has drunk wine]. — [Torath Kohanim 10:37]   בבאכם אל אהל מועד: אין לי אלא בבואם להיכל, בגשתם למזבח מנין, נאמר כאן ביאת אהל מועד, ונאמר בקידוש ידים ורגלים ביאת אהל מועד, מה להלן עשה גישת מזבח כביאת אהל מועד, אף כאן עשה גישת מזבח כביאת אהל מועד:
10to distinguish between holy and profane and between unclean and clean,   יוּלֲהַבְדִּיל בֵּין הַקֹּדֶשׁ וּבֵין הַחֹל וּבֵין הַטָּמֵא וּבֵין הַטָּהוֹר:
to distinguish: [I.e.,] so that you can distinguish between a holy service and one that has been profaned. Thus you have learned that if one performed a particular service [after having drunk wine], it is invalid. — [Torath Kohanim 10:39]   ולהבדיל: כדי שתבדילו בין עבודה קדושה למחוללת, הא למדת שאם עבד, עבודתו פסולה:
11and to instruct the children of Israel regarding all the statutes which the Lord has spoken to them through Moses.   יאוּלְהוֹרֹת אֶת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֵת כָּל הַחֻקִּים אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהֹוָה אֲלֵיהֶם בְּיַד משֶׁה:
and to instruct: [This] teaches that an intoxicated person is prohibited to render halachic decisions. One might think that he incurs the death penalty [like the intoxicated kohen who performs the sacrificial service (see verse 9)]. Scripture [therefore] says, “[neither] you nor your sons with you…so that you shall not die” (verse 9). [This implies that only intoxicated] kohanim in their service incur the death penalty, whereas [intoxicated] sages who render halachic decisions do not incur the death penalty. — [Torath Kohanim 10:38]   ולהורת: למד שאסור שיכור בהוראה. יכול יהא חייב מיתה, תלמוד לומר אתה ובניך אתך ולא תמותו (פסוק ט), כהנים בעבודתם במיתה, ואין חכמים בהוראתם במיתה:
12And Moses spoke to Aaron and his surviving sons, Eleazar and Ithamar, "Take the meal offering that is left over from the Lord's fire offerings, and eat it as unleavened loaves beside the altar, for it is a holy of holies;   יבוַיְדַבֵּר משֶׁה אֶל אַהֲרֹן וְאֶל אֶלְעָזָר וְאֶל אִיתָמָר | בָּנָיו הַנּוֹתָרִים קְחוּ אֶת הַמִּנְחָה הַנּוֹתֶרֶת מֵאִשֵּׁי יְהֹוָה וְאִכְלוּהָ מַצּוֹת אֵצֶל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ כִּי קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים הִוא:
surviving: [i.e., Aaron’s sons who survived] death. [Here, since the verse alludes to the fact that Eleazar and Ithamar survived death, it must mean a death which penalty they themselves had incurred.] This teaches [us] that because of the sin of the [golden] calf, the death penalty had been imposed upon them too. This is the meaning of “And with Aaron, the Lord was very furious, to destroy him (לְהַשְׁמִידוֹ) ” (Deut. 9:20). The term הַשְׁמָדָה, “destruction,” [in Scripture] always denotes the destruction of children, as it is said, “But I destroyed (וְאַשְׁמִיד) his fruit above,” (Amos 2:9), [referring to his children]. Moses’ prayer, however, effected the nullification of half [of this decree, resulting in the survival of Eleazar and Ithamar], as it is said: “and I prayed also for Aaron at that time” (Deut. 9:20), [where the word “also” includes Aaron’s four sons]. - [Vayikra Rabbah 10:5]   הנותרים: מן המיתה. מלמד שאף עליהם נקנסה מיתה על עון העגל, הוא שנאמר (דברים ט כ) ובאהרן התאנף ה' מאד להשמידו, ואין השמדה אלא כלוי בנים, שנאמר (עמוס ב ט) ואשמיד פריו ממעל, ותפלתו של משה בטלה מחצה, שנאמר (דברים ט כ) ואתפלל גם בעד אהרן בעת ההיא:
Take the meal-offering: Although you are אוֹנְנִים [mourners for a close relative on the day of that relative’s demise], and holy [sacrifices] are forbidden to an אוֹנֵן. [Zev. 101b]   קחו את המנחה: אף על פי שאתם אוננין וקדשים אסורים לאונן:
the meal-offering: This is the meal-offering of the eighth [day of the investitures], and the meal-offering of Nahshon [Ben Aminadab, the leader of the tribe of Judah, the first tribe to offer sacrifices for the dedication of the Mishkan (Num. 7:12). See Torath Kohanim 10:42].   את המנחה: זו מנחת שמיני ומנחת נחשון:
and eat it as unleavened loaves: [But we already know that meal-offerings must be eaten unleavened (see Lev. 2:11). So] what does Scripture come to teach us? Since this was a communal meal-offering, and it was a [special] meal-offering [brought exclusively] at that time, and there is nothing like it in [future] generations, Scripture found it necessary to specify the law of other meal-offerings in its context [to teach us that those laws applied to this meal-offering as well]. — [Torath Kohanim 10:46]   ואכלוה מצות: מה תלמוד לומר, לפי שהיא מנחת צבור ומנחת שעה ואין כיוצא בה לדורות, הוצרך לפרש בה דין שאר מנחות:
13You shall eat it in a holy place because it is your portion and your sons' portion from the Lord's fire offerings, for so I have been commanded.   יגוַאֲכַלְתֶּם אֹתָהּ בְּמָקוֹם קָדוֹשׁ כִּי חָקְךָ וְחָק בָּנֶיךָ הִוא מֵאִשֵּׁי יְהֹוָה כִּי כֵן צֻוֵּיתִי:
and your sons’ portion: [But] the daughters [of kohanim] do not have a portion in holy [sacrifices]. — [Torath Kohanim 10:46]   וחק בניך: אין לבנות חק בקדשים:
for so I have been commanded: that they eat it when they are אוֹנְנִים [mourners for a close relative on the day of that relative’s demise and burial]. — [Torath Kohanim 10:48]   כי כן צויתי: באנינות יאכלוה:
14The breast of the waving and the thigh of the raising up you shall eat in a clean place, you and your sons and your daughters with you, for [as] your portion and your sons' portion they have been given, from the peace offerings of the children of Israel.   ידוְאֵת חֲזֵה הַתְּנוּפָה וְאֵת | שׁוֹק הַתְּרוּמָה תֹּאכְלוּ בְּמָקוֹם טָהוֹר אַתָּה וּבָנֶיךָ וּבְנֹתֶיךָ אִתָּךְ כִּי חָקְךָ וְחָק בָּנֶיךָ נִתְּנוּ מִזִּבְחֵי שַׁלְמֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל:
The breast of the waving: from the communal peace offerings.   ואת חזה התנופה: של שלמי צבור:
you shall eat in a clean place: Now did they eat the previous sacrifices in an unclean place? Rather, the previous sacrifices were holy of holies (קָדְשֵׁי קֳדָשִׁים), and as such, they were required to be eaten in a holy place. These, however, were not required [to be eaten] within the hangings [of the courtyard]. Notwithstanding, they were still to be eaten within the camp of Israel, which is “clean” insofar as those who were afflicted with tzara’ath could not enter therein. From here, then, we learn the law that sacrifices with a lesser degree of holiness (קָדָשִׁים קַלִּים) may be eaten anywhere in the city [of Jerusalem, and these specific communal peace offerings had the status of קָדָשִׁים קַלִּים, even though communal peace offerings are usually קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים]. — [Zev. 55a]   תאכלו במקום טהור: וכי את הראשונים אכלו במקום טמא, אלא הראשונים שהם קדשי קדשים הוזקקה אכילתם במקום קדוש, אבל אלו אין צריכים תוך הקלעים, אבל צריכים הם להאכל תוך מחנה ישראל, שהוא טהור מליכנס שם מצורעים. מכאן שקדשים קלים נאכלין בכל העיר:
you and your sons and your daughters: You and your sons have a portion. Your daughters, however, do not have a portion. Yet if you give them [sacrificial flesh as] gifts, they are permitted to eat from the breasts and the thighs. [How do we know this?] Perhaps the verse means that the daughters also receive a portion? Scripture therefore states [in the continuation of this verse], “for [as] your portion and your sons’ portion they have been given,” - [i.e., it is given as] a portion to the sons, but not as a portion to the daughters. - [Torath Kohanim 10:50]   אתה ובניך ובנתיך: אתה ובניך בחלק, אבל בנותיך לא בחלק, אלא אם תתנו להן מתנות, רשאות הן לאכול בחזה ושוק. או אינו אלא אף הבנות בחלק, תלמוד לומר כי חקך וחק בניך נתנו, חק לבנים ואין חק לבנות:
15They shall bring the thigh of the raising up and the breast of the waving upon the fats for fire offerings, to wave as a waving before the Lord. And it shall belong to you and to your sons with you as an eternal due, as the Lord has commanded.   טושׁוֹק הַתְּרוּמָה וַחֲזֵה הַתְּנוּפָה עַל אִשֵּׁי הַחֲלָבִים יָבִיאוּ לְהָנִיף תְּנוּפָה לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה וְהָיָה לְךָ וּלְבָנֶיךָ אִתְּךָ לְחָק עוֹלָם כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהֹוָה:
The thigh of the raising-up and the breast of the waving: Heb. שׁוֹק הַתְּרוּמָה וַחֲזֵה הַתְּנוּפָה. These words are related to the expressions: “which was waved (הוּנַף) and which was lifted up (הוּרָם) ” (Exod. 29:27). תְּנוּפָה, waving, is performed by a forward and backward motion, whereas תְּרוּמָה, lifting up, is performed by an upward and downward motion. Why Scripture separates them, using “lifting up” in reference to the thigh and “waving” in reference to the breast, we do not know, since both of them were lifted up and waved.   שוק התרומה וחזה התנופה: לשון אשר הונף ואשר הורם. תנופה מוליך ומביא, תרומה מעלה ומוריד. ולמה חלקן הכתוב, תרומה בשוק ותנופה בחזה, לא ידענו, ששניהם בהרמה והנפה:
upon the fats for fire offerings: Heb. הַחִלָבִים עַל אִשֵּי. [This phrase is to be read as equivalent to: עַל חֶלְבֵי הָאִשִּים, meaning “upon the fats for fire-offerings.”] From here we learn that the fats were placed underneath [the breast and thigh portions] at the time of the waving (Torath Kohanim 10:51). [Now, earlier verses (Lev. 7:30 and 9:20) both state that the sacrificial fats were placed on top of the breast and thigh portions, thus seemingly contradicting our verse here, which says, “They should bring the thigh…and the breast…upon the fats.”] However, I have already explained the resolution of all these three verses, so that they do not contradict each other, in the section “Command Aaron” (see Rashi on Lev. 7:30).   על אשי החלבים: מכאן שהחלבים למטה בשעת תנופה, וישוב המקראות שלא יכחישו זה את זה, כבר פירשתי שלשתן בצו את אהרן (ז ל):
16And Moses thoroughly investigated concerning the sin offering he goat, and behold, it had been burnt! So he was angry with Eleazar and Ithamar, Aaron's surviving sons, saying,   טזוְאֵת | שְׂעִיר הַחַטָּאת דָּרשׁ דָּרַשׁ משֶׁה וְהִנֵּה שׂרָף וַיִּקְצֹף עַל אֶלְעָזָר וְעַל אִיתָמָר בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן הַנּוֹתָרִם לֵאמֹר:
the sin-offering he-goat: The he-goat of the רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ מוּסְפֵי, the additional offerings of Rosh Chodesh . On that day [Rosh Chodesh Nissan], three sin-offering goats were sacrificed: a) “[Take] a he-goat [as a sin-offering]” (Lev. 9:3); b) the he-goat of Nahshon [the son of Aminadab, leader of the tribe of Judah] (Num. 7:16); and c) the he-goat [of the additional offering] of Rosh Chodesh. Now, of all of these, the only one burnt was this one [i.e., this additional offering of Rosh Chodesh. And why did they burn it?] The Sages of Israel are divided on the matter (Torath Kohanim 10:52; Zev. 101a). Some said that it was burnt on account of uncleanness that had come into contact with it, [while] others said that it was burnt because [Aaron’s sons were] אוֹנְנִים, because this [sacrifice came under the category of] holy [sacrifices] that would also be sacrificed in [future] generations. [Thus they deemed it fit for burning, as the law would require for future generations.] However, when it came to holy [sacrifices] that were [brought] only at that time [like the other two goat offerings], they relied on Moses, who had said to them regarding the meal-offering, “eat it as unleavened loaves” (verse 12) [even though they were אוֹנְנִים, assuming that since that meal-offering was brought only at that time (see Rashi on verse 12), so must Moses’ command apply to all holy sacrifices brought at that time only].   שעיר החטאת: שעיר מוספי ראש חודש. ושלשה שעירי חטאות קרבו בו ביום שעיר עזים, ושעיר נחשון ושעיר ראש חודש, ומכולן לא נשרף אלא זה. ונחלקו בדבר חכמי ישראל יש אומרים, מפני הטומאה שנגעה בו נשרף. ויש אומרים, מפני אנינות נשרף, לפי שהוא קדשי דורות, אבל בקדשי שעה סמכו על משה שאמר להם במנחה (פסוק יב) ואכלוה מצות:
thoroughly investigated: Heb. דָרשׁ דָרַשׁ. [This double expression signifies] two investigations. [Moses asked:] a) “Why has this sacrifice been burnt?” and b) “Why have the other sacrifices been eaten?” Thus it is taught in Torath Kohanim (10:52).   דרש דרש: שתי דרישות הללו מפני מה נשרף זה, ומפני מה לא נאכלו אלו, כך הוא בתורת כהנים:
[he was angry] with Eleazar and Ithamar: Out of respect for Aaron, Moses turned towards his sons and was angry [with them, even though he was angry with Aaron as well, regarding what had happened]. — [Torath Kohanim 10:53]   על אלעזר ועל איתמר: בשביל כבודו של אהרן הפך פניו כנגד הבנים וכעס:
saying: He said to them, “Answer my questions!” - [Torath Kohanim 10:53]   לאמר: אמר להם, השיבוני על דברי:
17"Why did you not eat the sin offering in the holy place? For it is holy of holies, and He has given it to you to gain forgiveness for the sin of the community, to effect their atonement before the Lord!   יזמַדּוּעַ לֹא אֲכַלְתֶּם אֶת הַחַטָּאת בִּמְקוֹם הַקֹּדֶשׁ כִּי קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים הִוא וְאֹתָהּ | נָתַן לָכֶם לָשֵׂאת אֶת עֲוֹן הָעֵדָה לְכַפֵּר עֲלֵיהֶם לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה:
Why did you not eat the sin-offering in the holy place?: But had they eaten it outside the holy place? Had they not burnt it? What then [did Moses mean] when he said, “in the holy place?” But, [by phrasing the question in this way,] Moses was asking [Aaron’s sons]: "Perhaps that sacrifice went out of the hangings [of the courtyard], thereby becoming invalid [and that was why you burned it]?   מדוע לא אכלתם את החטאת במקום הקדש: וכי חוץ לקדש אכלוה, והלא שרפוה, ומה הוא אומר במקום הקדש, אלא אמר להם שמא חוץ לקלעים יצאה ונפסלה:
For it is a holy of holies: which becomes invalid by going out [of the hangings].“ They answered him, ”No.“ [So Moses] said to them: ”Well, since it remained within the holy place, why did you not eat it?" - [Torath Kohanim 10:54]   כי קדש קדשים הוא: ונפסלת ביוצא, והם אמרו לו לאו. אמר להם הואיל ובמקום הקדש היתה, מדוע לא אכלתם אותה:
and He has given it to you to gain forgiveness [for the sin of the community]: For the kohanim eat [the sacrifice], and [thereby] its owners are granted atonement. — [Torath Kohanim 10:54]   ואתה נתן לכם לשאת וגו': שהכהנים אוכלים ובעלים מתכפרים:
to gain forgiveness for the sin of the community: From here, we learn that it [the he-goat that was burned] was the he-goat of Rosh Chodesh, which atones for the sin of uncleanness concerning the sanctuary and its holy [sacrificial] food, for the sin-offering of the eighth day [of the investitures] and the sin-offering of Nahshon [Ben Aminadab] were not brought to effect atonement. — [Torath Kohanim 10:52]   לשאת את עון העדה: מכאן למדנו ששעיר ראש חודש היה, שהוא מכפר על עון טומאת מקדש וקדשיו, שחטאת שמיני וחטאת נחשון לא לכפרה באו:
18Behold, its blood was not brought into the Sanctuary within, so you should have surely eaten it within holy [precincts], as I commanded!"   יחהֵן לֹא הוּבָא אֶת דָּמָהּ אֶל הַקֹּדֶשׁ פְּנִימָה אָכוֹל תֹּאכְלוּ אֹתָהּ בַּקֹּדֶשׁ כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוֵּיתִי:
Behold, [its blood] was not brought: For if [its blood] had been brought [into the Holy], then indeed you would have been required to burn it, as it is said, “But any sin-offering some of whose blood [was brought into the Tent of Meeting to make atonement in the Holy, shall not be eaten; it shall be burned in fire]” (Lev. 6:23). - [Torath Kohanim 10:55]   הן לא הובא וגו': שאילו הובא היה לכם לשרפה, כמו שנאמר (ויקרא ו כג) וכל חטאת אשר יובא מדמה וגו':
so you should have surely eaten it: [I.e.,] “You should have surely eaten it,” even though you are אוֹנְנִים.   אכל תאכלו אתה: היה לכם לאכלה אף על פי שאתם אוננים:
as I commanded: you, regarding the meal-offering.   כאשר צויתי: לכם במנחה:
19And Aaron spoke to Moses, "But today, did they offer up their sin offering and their burnt offering before the Lord? But [if tragic events] like these had befallen me, and if I had eaten a sin offering today, would it have pleased the Lord?"   יטוַיְדַבֵּר אַהֲרֹן אֶל משֶׁה הֵן הַיּוֹם הִקְרִיבוּ אֶת חַטָּאתָם וְאֶת עֹלָתָם לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה וַתִּקְרֶאנָה אֹתִי כָּאֵלֶּה וְאָכַלְתִּי חַטָּאת הַיּוֹם הַיִּיטַב בְּעֵינֵי יְהֹוָה:
And Aaron spoke: The expression דִּבּוּר [in Scripture, unless followed by the expression לֵאמֹר] always denotes boldness, as it is said, “And the people [thus] spoke (וַיְדַבֵּר) [against God and Moses, ‘Why did you bring us up from Egypt to die in the desert…?’” (Num. 21:5). Thus, in this verse, Aaron boldly responded to Moses’ investigation.] Is it possible that Moses addressed his anger to Eleazar and Ithamar, and Aaron answers? However, this [demonstrates to us that the behavior of Aaron’s sons] was only out of respect [for their father and their teacher]. They said, “It is inappropriate that while our father is sitting [in front of us], we should answer in his presence, and it is also inappropriate that a disciple should refute his master.” One might suggest that [the sons did not respond] because Eleazar was not capable [i.e., he did not have the courage] to answer. Scripture, [however,] says, “And Eleazar the kohen spoke to the men of the army…” (Num. 31:21). Thus, we see that when Eleazar wanted to, he spoke before Moses and before the princes [and hence, here, he was deliberately silent]. I found this [explanation] in the second version of the Sifrei. — [Sifrei Zuta on Numbers, ed. Horowitz, p. 329, Yalkut Bamidbar on Num. 31: 21]   וידבר אהרן: אין לשון דיבור אלא לשון עז, שנאמר (במדבר כא ה) וידבר העם וגו'. אפשר משה קצף על אלעזר ועל איתמר, ואהרן מדבר, הא ידעת שלא היתה אלא מדרך כבוד. אמרו אינו בדין שיהא אבינו יושב ואנו מדברים לפניו, ואינו בדין שיהא תלמיד משיב את רבו. יכול מפני שלא היה באלעזר להשיב, תלמוד לומר (במדבר לא כא) ויאמר אלעזר הכהן אל אנשי הצבא וגו', הרי כשרצה, דבר לפני משה ולפני הנשיאים, זו מצאתי בספרי של פנים שני:
But today, did they offer up: What is he saying? [He could have simply said, “Such tragic events like these have befallen me….”] Rather, Moses said to them, “Did you perhaps sprinkle its blood while you were אוֹנְנִים, and [as you probably know,] an אוֹנֵן who performs the service renders [that sacrifice] invalid?” So Aaron answered him,… הֵם הִקְרִיבוּ, i.e., “But did they who offer up [the sacrifices]?” They are ordinary kohanim [for whom the law of invalidation by an אוֹנֵן applies.] I offered [them] up! For I am a Kohen Gadol, and [a Kohen Gadol] is permitted to offer [a sacrifice] while he is an אוֹנֵן] [Zev. 101a]   הן היום הקריבו: מהו אומר, אלא אמר להם משה שמא זרקתם דמה אוננים, שהאונן שעבד חילל. אמר לו אהרן וכי הם הקריבו, שהם הדיוטות, אני הקרבתי, שאני כהן גדול ומקריב אונן:
But [if tragic events] like these had befallen me: [By these words, Aaron was effectively saying: “My point would be just as valid] even if those who died were not my sons, but other relatives for whom I am obligated to mourn as an אוֹנֵן like these,” such as all those enumerated in the parashah of the kohanim [i.e., Parashath אֱמוֹר, Lev. 21:13], for whom a kohen may become unclean. — [Torath Kohanim 10:59]   ותקראנה אותי כאלה: אפילו לא היו המתים בני אלא שאר קרובים שאני חייב להיות אונן עליהם כאלו, כגון כל האמורים בפרשת כהנים שהכהן מטמא להם:
and if I had eaten a sin-offering today: [Lit., “and I ate a sin-offering.” However, here the meaning is:] “But if I had eaten [the sin-offering],” would it have pleased [the Lord]?   ואכלתי חטאת: ואם אכלתי הייטב וגו':
[If I had eaten the sin-offering] today: [today it would not have been pleasing to the Lord; however, tonight I could have eaten it, because] an אוֹנֵן is permitted [to eat sacrifices] at night, for one is considered an אוֹנֵן only on the day of burial. — [Torath Kohanim 10:59; Zev. 101b]   היום: אבל אנינות לילה מותר, שאין אונן אלא יום קבורה:
would it have pleased the Lord?: If you heard this [special law that an אוֹנֵן may eat] holy sacrifices brought exclusively for a special occasion [like the people’s sin-offering goat and Nahshon’s goat, both offered just today], you have no right to be lenient [regarding this law] regarding holy sacrifices offered for [future] generations [like the sacrifice on Rosh Chodesh, about which you asked us, “Why did you not eat…?”]. — [Zev. 101a]   הייטב בעיני ה': אם שמעת בקדשי שעה אין לך להקל בקדשי דורות:
20Moses heard [this], and it pleased him.   כוַיִּשְׁמַע משֶׁה וַיִּיטַב בְּעֵינָיו:
and it pleased him: [Moses] admitted [that Aaron was correct,] and was not ashamed, [for he could have covered up by] saying, “I have not heard [of this law.” Rather, Moses frankly said to Aaron, “You are right! I did hear that an אוֹנֵן must not eat from sacrifices that will be offered in future generations, but I forgot!”]. — [Torath Kohanim 10:60; Zev. 101a]   וייטב בעיניו: הודה ולא בוש לומר לא שמעתי:
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