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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Vayikra - Leviticus - Chapter 9

Vayikra - Leviticus - Chapter 9

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 9

1. And it was on the eighth day, that Moses summoned Aaron and his sons and the elders of Israel.   א. וַיְהִי בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי קָרָא משֶׁה לְאַהֲרֹן וּלְבָנָיו וּלְזִקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל:
And it was on the eighth day: of the investitures. It was the first of the month of Nissan, the very day on which the Mishkan was erected. And [this day] took ten “crowns” [of distinction], which are enumerated in Seder Olam 7. — [Torath Kohanim 9:1]   ויהי ביום השמיני: שמיני למלואים, הוא ראש חודש ניסן, שהוקם המשכן בו ביום ונטל עשר עטרות השנויות בסדר עולם (פרק ז):
[called…] the elders of Israel: to inform them that it was by the express command of God that Aaron was entering into the Kehunah Gedolah , so that they should not say that he entered of his own accord.   ולזקני ישראל: להשמיעם שעל פי הדבור אהרן נכנס ומשמש בכהונה גדולה, ולא יאמרו מאליו נכנס:
2. And he said to Aaron, "Take for yourself a bull calf as a sin offering, and a ram as a burnt offering, [both] unblemished, and bring [them] near before the Lord.   ב. וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל אַהֲרֹן קַח לְךָ עֵגֶל בֶּן בָּקָר לְחַטָּאת וְאַיִל לְעֹלָה תְּמִימִם וְהַקְרֵב לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה:
Take for yourself a bull-calf: [This was] to inform [Aaron] that the Holy One, Blessed is He, had granted him atonement through this calf for the incident involving the [golden] calf, which he had made. — [see Tanchuma 10]   קח לך עגל: להודיע שמכפר לו הקב"ה ע"י עגל זה על מעשה העגל שעשה:
3. And to the children of Israel, you shall speak, saying, 'Take a he goat as a sin offering; and a calf and a lamb, [both] in their first year and [both] unblemished, as a burnt offering,   ג. וְאֶל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל תְּדַבֵּר לֵאמֹר קְחוּ שְׂעִיר עִזִּים לְחַטָּאת וְעֵגֶל וָכֶבֶשׂ בְּנֵי שָׁנָה תְּמִימִם לְעֹלָה:
4. and an ox and a ram as peace offerings, to slaughter before the Lord, and a meal offering mixed with oil, for today the Lord is appearing to you.' "   ד. וְשׁוֹר וָאַיִל לִשְׁלָמִים לִזְבֹּחַ לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה וּמִנְחָה בְּלוּלָה בַשָּׁמֶן כִּי הַיּוֹם יְהֹוָה נִרְאָה אֲלֵיכֶם:
for today the Lord is appearing to you: to make His Shechinah rest in the work of your hands [i.e., the work of the Mishkan], and for this reason, these sacrifices are obligatory for this day.   כי היום ה' נראה אליכם: להשרות שכינתו במעשה ידיכם לכך קרבנות הללו באין חובה ליום זה:
5. And they took what Moses had commanded, to the front of the Tent of Meeting, and the entire community approached and stood before the Lord.   ה. וַיִּקְחוּ אֵת אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה משֶׁה אֶל פְּנֵי אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וַיִּקְרְבוּ כָּל הָעֵדָה וַיַּעַמְדוּ לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה:
6. And Moses said, "This is the thing the Lord has commanded; do [it], and the glory of the Lord will appear to you."   ו. וַיֹּאמֶר משֶׁה זֶה הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהֹוָה תַּעֲשׂוּ וְיֵרָא אֲלֵיכֶם כְּבוֹד יְהֹוָה:
7. And Moses said to Aaron, "Approach the altar and perform your sin offering and your burnt offering, atoning for yourself and for the people, and perform the people's sacrifice, atoning for them, as the Lord has commanded.   ז. וַיֹּאמֶר משֶׁה אֶל אַהֲרֹן קְרַב אֶל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וַעֲשֵׂה אֶת חַטָּאתְךָ וְאֶת עֹלָתֶךָ וְכַפֵּר בַּעַדְךָ וּבְעַד הָעָם וַעֲשֵׂה אֶת קָרְבַּן הָעָם וְכַפֵּר בַּעֲדָם כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהֹוָה:
Approach the altar: [Moses had to order Aaron to do so,] because Aaron was bashful and afraid to approach [the altar]. So Moses said to him: “Why are you ashamed? For this [function] you have been chosen!” - [Torath Kohanim 9:7]   קרב אל המזבח: שהיה אהרן בוש וירא לגשת. אמר לו משה למה אתה בוש, לכך נבחרת:
your sin offering: The bull-calf.   את חטאתך: עגל בן בקר:
and your burnt offering: The ram.   ואת עלתך: איל:
the people’s offering: The he-goat, the calf, and the lamb. Wherever the [unqualified] term עֵגֶל (calf) is stated [in Scripture], it denotes one in the first year. This [rule] is derived from this passage. [The term פַּר denotes one in the third year, עֵגֶל בֶּןבָּקָר one in the second year, and עֵגֶל one in the first year.]- [Torath Kohanim 4:208]   קרבן העם: שעיר עזים ועגל וכבש. כל מקום שנאמר עגל, בן שנה הוא, ומכאן אתה למד:
8. So Aaron approached the altar and slaughtered his sin offering calf.   ח. וַיִּקְרַב אַהֲרֹן אֶל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וַיִּשְׁחַט אֶת עֵגֶל הַחַטָּאת אֲשֶׁר לוֹ:
9. And Aaron's sons brought forward the blood to him, and he dipped his finger into the blood, placing [some] on the horns of the altar, and he poured the blood at the base of the altar.   ט. וַיַּקְרִבוּ בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן אֶת הַדָּם אֵלָיו וַיִּטְבֹּל אֶצְבָּעוֹ בַּדָּם וַיִּתֵּן עַל קַרְנוֹת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְאֶת הַדָּם יָצַק אֶל יְסוֹד הַמִּזְבֵּחַ:
10. And the fat, the kidneys, and the diaphragm with the liver from the sin offering, he caused to [go up in] smoke on the altar, as the Lord had commanded Moses.   י. וְאֶת הַחֵלֶב וְאֶת הַכְּלָיֹת וְאֶת הַיֹּתֶרֶת מִן הַכָּבֵד מִן הַחַטָּאת הִקְטִיר הַמִּזְבֵּחָה כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהֹוָה אֶת משֶׁה:
11. And he burned the flesh and the hide in fire, outside the camp.   יא. וְאֶת הַבָּשָׂר וְאֶת הָעוֹר שָׂרַף בָּאֵשׁ מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה:
the flesh and the hide: We do not find [in Scripture] an outside sin-offering [i.e., one whose blood is sprinkled on the outside altar] to be burned, with the exceptions of this [instance] and [the sin-offerings] of the investitures. And all these [exceptions] were [burnt] at the express command [of God].   ואת הבשר ואת העור וגו': לא מצינו חטאת חיצונה נשרפת אלא זו ושל מלואים, וכולן על פי הדבור:
12. And he slaughtered the burnt offering. And Aaron's sons presented the blood to him, and he dashed it on the altar, around.   יב. וַיִּשְׁחַט אֶת הָעֹלָה וַיַּמְצִאוּ בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן אֵלָיו אֶת הַדָּם וַיִּזְרְקֵהוּ עַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ סָבִיב:
presented: Heb. וַיַּמְצִיאוּ. [This term] denotes “presentation” and “preparation.”   וימצאו: לשון הושטה והזמנה:
13. And they presented the burnt offering to him in its [prescribed] pieces, along with the head. And he caused [them] to [go up in] smoke on the altar.   יג. וְאֶת הָעֹלָה הִמְצִיאוּ אֵלָיו לִנְתָחֶיהָ וְאֶת הָרֹאשׁ וַיַּקְטֵר עַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ:
14. And he washed the innards and the legs, and he caused [them] to [go up in] smoke on the altar, along with the burnt offering.   יד. וַיִּרְחַץ אֶת הַקֶּרֶב וְאֶת הַכְּרָעָיִם וַיַּקְטֵר עַל הָעֹלָה הַמִּזְבֵּחָה:
15. And he brought forward the people's sacrifice; he took the people's sin offering goat, slaughtered it, and made it a sin offering, like the first one.   טו. וַיַּקְרֵב אֵת קָרְבַּן הָעָם וַיִּקַּח אֶת שְׂעִיר הַחַטָּאת אֲשֶׁר לָעָם וַיִּשְׁחָטֵהוּ וַיְחַטְּאֵהוּ כָּרִאשׁוֹן:
and made it a sin-offering: Heb. וַיְחַטְּאֵהוּ. He sacrificed it according to the law of the sin-offering (חַטָּאת).   ויחטאהו: עשהו כמשפט חטאת:
like the first one: like his own calf.   כראשון: כעגל שלו:
16. And he brought forward the burnt offering and prepared it according to the law.   טז. וַיַּקְרֵב אֶת הָעֹלָה וַיַּעֲשֶׂהָ כַּמִּשְׁפָּט:
and prepared it according to the law: which is specified regarding a voluntary burnt-offering in [Parashath] Vayikra (1: 117) - [Beitzah 20a]   ויעשה כמשפט: המפורש בעולת נדבה בויקרא (פרק א):
17. And he brought forward the meal offering, filled his palm with it, and caused it to [go up in] smoke on the altar, in addition to the morning burnt offering.   יז. וַיַּקְרֵב אֶת הַמִּנְחָה וַיְמַלֵּא כַפּוֹ מִמֶּנָּה וַיַּקְטֵר עַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ מִלְּבַד עֹלַת הַבֹּקֶר:
and he filled his palm: I.e., the קְמִיצָה [i.e., the “fistful,” namely, scooping out three fingers-full of the meal offering]. — [Torath Kohanim 9:11]   וימלא כפו: היא קמיצה:
in addition to the morning burnt offering: All these sacrifices [Aaron] offered up [only] after [he had offered up the morning] continual burnt offering.   מלבד עלת הבקר: כל אלה עשה אחר עולת התמיד:
18. And he slaughtered the ox and the ram, the people's peace offering, and Aaron's sons presented the blood to him, and he dashed it on the altar, around,   יח. וַיִּשְׁחַט אֶת הַשּׁוֹר וְאֶת הָאַיִל זֶבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים אֲשֶׁר לָעָם וַיַּמְצִאוּ בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן אֶת הַדָּם אֵלָיו וַיִּזְרְקֵהוּ עַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ סָבִיב:
19. and [they also presented] the fats from the ox and from the ram: the tail, the [fatty] covering, the kidneys and the diaphragm with the liver.   יט. וְאֶת הַחֲלָבִים מִן הַשּׁוֹר וּמִן הָאַיִל הָאַלְיָה וְהַמְכַסֶּה וְהַכְּלָיֹת וְיֹתֶרֶת הַכָּבֵד:
and the [fatty] covering: [I.e.,] the fat that covers the innards.   והמכסה: חלב המכסה את הקרב:
20. And they placed the fats on top of the breasts, and he caused the fats to [go up in] smoke on the altar.   כ. וַיָּשִׂימוּ אֶת הַחֲלָבִים עַל הֶחָזוֹת וַיַּקְטֵר הַחֲלָבִים הַמִּזְבֵּחָה:
And they placed the [sacrificial] fats on top of the breasts: After the waving, the kohen who performed the waving gives [the portions] to another kohen to make them go up in smoke. The result is that [the portions] that were on the top are now on the bottom [due to the kohen’s inverting the portions to place them into the receiving hands of the next kohen. See Rashi on Lev. 7:30 for further explanation]. — [Men. 62a]   וישימו את החלבים על החזות: לאחר התנופה נתנן כהן המניף לכהן אחר להקטירם, נמצאו העליונים למטה:
21. And Aaron had [already] waved the breasts and the right thigh as a wave offering before the Lord, as Moses had commanded.   כא. וְאֵת הֶחָזוֹת וְאֵת שׁוֹק הַיָּמִין הֵנִיף אַהֲרֹן תְּנוּפָה לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה משֶׁה:
22. And Aaron lifted up his hands towards the people and blessed them. He then descended from preparing the sin offering, the burnt offering, and the peace offering.   כב. וַיִּשָּׂא אַהֲרֹן אֶת יָדָיו אֶל הָעָם וַיְבָרֲכֵם וַיֵּרֶד מֵעֲשׂת הַחַטָּאת וְהָעֹלָה וְהַשְּׁלָמִים:
and blessed them: with the blessing of the kohanim [see Num. 6:2227]: יְבָרֶכְ -“May the Lord bless you”… יָאֵר -“May the Lord make His face shine”… יִשָָֹּא -“May the Lord lift His face….”- [Torath Kohanim 10:22]   ויברכם: ברכת כהנים יברכך, יאר, ישא:
He then descended: from the altar.   וירד: מעל המזבח:
23. And Moses and Aaron went into the Tent of Meeting. Then they came out and blessed the people, and the glory of the Lord appeared to all the people.   כג. וַיָּבֹא משֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן אֶל אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וַיֵּצְאוּ וַיְבָרֲכוּ אֶת הָעָם וַיֵּרָא כְבוֹד יְהֹוָה אֶל כָּל הָעָם:
And Moses and Aaron went into [the Tent of Meeting]: Why did they enter [the Tent of Meeting]? In the section of the investitures, I found a baraitha added to our version of Torath Kohanim [which states the following]: Why did Moses enter with Aaron? To teach him about the procedure of [burning] the incense. Or did he perhaps enter only for another purpose? I can make a deduction: Descending [from the altar (verse 22)] and entering [the Tent of Meeting (this verse) both] required blessing [the people]. Just as descending [from the altar] is related to the service, so is entering [the Tent of Meeting] related to the service. Hence, you learn from here why Moses entered with Aaron, [namely] to teach him about the procedure of [burning] the incense [which is related to the service]. Another explanation [of why Moses entered with Aaron is]: When Aaron saw that all the sacrifices had been offered and all the procedures had been performed, and yet the Shechinah had not descended for Israel, he was distressed. He said, “I know that the Holy One, blessed is He, is angry with me, and on my account the Shechinah has not descended for Israel.” So he said to Moses, “My brother Moses, is this what you have done to me, that I have entered and been put to shame?” At once, Moses entered [the Tent of Meeting] with him, and they prayed for mercy. Then the Shechinah came down for Israel. — [Torath Kohanim 9:16]   ויבא משה ואהרן וגו': למה נכנסו, מצאתי בפרשת מלואים בברייתא הנוספת על תורת כהנים שלנו למה נכנס משה עם אהרן, ללמדו על מעשה הקטרת. או לא נכנס אלא לדבר אחר, הריני דן ירידה וביאה טעונות ברכה, מה ירידה מעין עבודה, אף ביאה מעין עבודה, הא למדת למה נכנס משה עם אהרן, ללמדו על מעשה הקטרת. דבר אחר כיון שראה אהרן שקרבו כל הקרבנות ונעשו כל המעשים ולא ירדה שכינה לישראל, היה מצטער ואמר יודע אני שכעס הקב"ה עלי ובשבילי לא ירדה שכינה לישראל. אמר לו למשה משה אחי כך עשית לי, שנכנסתי ונתביישתי. מיד נכנס משה עמו ובקשו רחמים וירדה שכינה לישראל:
Then they came out and blessed the people: They said: “May the pleasantness of the Lord, our God, be upon us (Ps. 90:17); May it be God’s will that the Shechinah rest in the work of your hands.” [And why did they choose this particular blessing?] Because throughout all seven days of the investitures, when Moses erected the Mishkan, performed the service in it, and then dismantled it daily, the Shechinah did not rest in it. The Israelites were humiliated, and they said to Moses, “Moses, our teacher, all the efforts we have taken were so that the Shechinah should dwell among us, so that we would know that we have been forgiven for the sin of the [golden] calf!” Therefore, Moses answered them (verse 6), “This is the thing the Lord has commanded; do [it], and the glory of the Lord will appear to you. My brother Aaron is more worthy and important than I, insofar as through his offerings and his service the Shechinah will dwell among you, and you will know that the Omnipresent has chosen him.”   ויצאו ויברכו את העם: אמרו ויהי נועם ה' אלהינו עלינו (תהלים צ יז), יהי רצון שתשרה שכינה במעשה ידיכם. לפי שכל שבעת ימי המלואים, שהעמידו משה למשכן ושמש בו ופרקו בכל יום, לא שרתה בו שכינה, והיו ישראל נכלמים ואומרים למשה משה רבינו, כל הטורח שטרחנו, שתשרה שכינה בינינו ונדע שנתכפר לנו עון העגל. לכך אמר להם זה הדבר אשר צוה ה' תעשו וירא אליכם כבוד ה' (פסוק ו), אהרן אחי כדאי וחשוב ממני שע"י קרבנותיו ועבודתו תשרה שכינה בכם ותדעו שהמקום בחר בו:
24. And fire went forth from before the Lord and consumed the burnt offering and the fats upon the altar, and all the people saw, sang praises, and fell upon their faces.   כד. וַתֵּצֵא אֵשׁ מִלִּפְנֵי יְהֹוָה וַתֹּאכַל עַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ אֶת הָעֹלָה וְאֶת הַחֲלָבִים וַיַּרְא כָּל הָעָם וַיָּרֹנּוּ וַיִּפְּלוּ עַל פְּנֵיהֶם:
and sang praises: Heb. ויַָּרֹנּוּ, as Targum [Onkelos] renders it [namely, “and they praised” God].   וירנו: כתרגומו:
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