Contact Us
The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary

Vayikra - Leviticus - Chapter 3

Vayikra - Leviticus - Chapter 3

 Email
Rashi's Commentary:
Show content in:

Chapter 3

1If his sacrifice is a peace offering, if he brings it from cattle, whether male or female, unblemished he shall bring it before the Lord.   אוְאִם־זֶ֥בַח שְׁלָמִ֖ים קָרְבָּנ֑וֹ אִ֤ם מִן־הַבָּקָר֙ ה֣וּא מַקְרִ֔יב אִם־זָכָר֙ אִם־נְקֵבָ֔ה תָּמִ֥ים יַקְרִיבֶ֖נּוּ לִפְנֵ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
peace-offering: Heb. שְׁלָמִים. [So named] because they instill peace (שָׁלוֹם) in the world. Another explanation: [They are called שְׁלָמִים because they bring about harmony (שָׁלוֹם) , [since some portions of the sacrifice go] to the altar, to the Kohanim, and to the owner [of the sacrifice]. — [Torath Kohanim 3:156]   שלמים: שמטילים שלום בעולם. דבר אחר שלמים שיש בהם שלום למזבח ולכהנים ולבעלים:
2And he shall lean his hand [forcefully] upon the head of his sacrifice and slaughter it at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting. And Aaron's descendants, the kohanim, shall dash the blood upon the altar, around.   בוְסָמַ֤ךְ יָדוֹ֙ עַל־רֹ֣אשׁ קָרְבָּנ֔וֹ וּשְׁחָט֕וֹ פֶּ֖תַח אֹ֣הֶל מוֹעֵ֑ד וְזָֽרְק֡וּ בְּנֵי֩ אַֽהֲרֹ֨ן הַכֹּֽהֲנִ֧ים אֶת־הַדָּ֛ם עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֖חַ סָבִֽיב:
3And from the peace offering, he shall bring a fire offering to the Lord [comprised of]: the fat covering the innards and all the fat that is on the innards,   גוְהִקְרִיב֙ מִזֶּ֣בַח הַשְּׁלָמִ֔ים אִשֶּׁ֖ה לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה אֶת־הַחֵ֨לֶב֙ הַֽמְכַסֶּ֣ה אֶת־הַקֶּ֔רֶב וְאֵת֙ כָּל־הַחֵ֔לֶב אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־הַקֶּֽרֶב:
and all the fat: [This expression] comes to include the fat that is on the maw [the lowest stomach and all the more so, the fat upon the intestines]: These are the words of Rabbi Ishmael. Rabbi Akiva, however, says: [It comes to include only] the fat upon the intestines. — [Torath Kohanim 3:168, Chul. 49]   ואת כל החלב וגו': להביא חלב שעל הקבה, דברי רבי ישמעאל. רבי עקיבא אומר להביא חלב שעל הדקין:
4and the two kidneys [along] with the fat that is upon them which is over the flanks. And he shall remove the diaphragm with the liver, along with the kidneys.   דוְאֵת֙ שְׁתֵּ֣י הַכְּלָיֹ֔ת וְאֶת־הַחֵ֨לֶב֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עֲלֵהֶ֔ן אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־הַכְּסָלִ֑ים וְאֶת־הַיֹּתֶ֨רֶת֙ עַל־הַכָּבֵ֔ד עַל־הַכְּלָי֖וֹת יְסִירֶֽנָּה:
the flanks: Heb. הַכְּסָלִים, flancs in Old French. For, in the case of a live animal, the fat that is on the kidneys, is situated at the height of the flanks, and they [the flanks] are situated below. This is the fat beneath the loins, which is called lonbels in Old French, the white fat visible above, upon the height of the flanks, while on the lower part of the flanks, [this fat is not visible, because] the flesh covers it. — [Chul. 93a, and Rashi there]   הכסלים: פלנק"ש בלע"ז [חלק פנימי של הירך]. שהחלב שעל הכליות, כשהבהמה חיה, הוא בגובה הכסלים והם מלמטה, וזהו החלב שתחת המתנים, שקורין בלע"ז לונביל"ש [חלק הבטן שבאזור הכליות] לובן הנראה למעלה בגובה הכסלים, ובתחתיתו הבשר חופהו:
the diaphragm: This is the dividing wall [separating the thoracic cavity (breathing organs) from the abdominal cavity (organs of digestion)], which is called ebres in Old French. In the Aramaic language it is called דְּכַבְדָא חַצְרָא, the yard of the liver.   היתרת: הוא דופן המסך, שקורין איברי"ש [סרעפת] ובלשון ארמי חצרא דכבדא:
with the liver: Along with the diaphragm [which covers the liver], he must take a small amount of the liver. [The fact that some of the liver must be taken is illustrated] in another verse, where [regarding the same matter], Scripture says (Lev. 9:10), וְאֶת הַיֹּתֶרֶת מִן הַכָּבֵד, “and the diaphragm from the liver”. — [Torath Kohanim 3:172]   על הכבד: שיטול מן הכבד עמה מעט. ובמקום אחר הוא אומר (ויק' ט י) ואת היותרת מן הכבד:
the liver along with the kidneys: עַל הַכָּבֵד עַל הַכְּלָיוּת. In addition to the liver and in addition to the kidneys, he shall remove this.   על הכבד על הכליות: לבד מן הכבד ולבד מן הכליות יסירנה לזו:
5And Aaron's descendants shall cause it to [go up in] smoke on the altar, apart from the burnt offering, which is on top of the wood that is on the fire; [it is] a fire offering [with] a pleasing fragrance to the Lord.   הוְהִקְטִ֨ירוּ אֹת֤וֹ בְנֵי־אַֽהֲרֹן֙ הַמִּזְבֵּ֔חָה עַל־הָ֣עֹלָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר עַל־הָֽעֵצִ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר עַל־הָאֵ֑שׁ אִשֵּׁ֛ה רֵ֥יחַ נִיחֹ֖חַ לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
In addition to the burnt offering: Heb. עַל הָעֹלָה, in addition to the burnt-offering. [From here,] we learn that the daily burnt-offering precedes any other sacrifice upon the woodpile [of the altar].   על העלה: מלבד העולה. למדנו שתקדים עולת תמיד לכל קרבן על המערכה:
6And if his sacrifice for a peace offering to the Lord is from the flock, whether male or female, unblemished he shall bring it.   ווְאִם־מִן־הַצֹּ֧אן קָרְבָּנ֛וֹ לְזֶ֥בַח שְׁלָמִ֖ים לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה זָכָר֙ א֣וֹ נְקֵבָ֔ה תָּמִ֖ים יַקְרִיבֶֽנּוּ:
7If he brings a sheep as his sacrifice, then he shall bring it before the Lord.   זאִם־כֶּ֥שֶׂב הֽוּא־מַקְרִ֖יב אֶת־קָרְבָּנ֑וֹ וְהִקְרִ֥יב אֹת֖וֹ לִפְנֵ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
If [he brings] a sheep: Since among the sacrificial portions of the sheep there is something that is not among the sacrificial portions of the goat, namely that the tail of a sheep is offered up [on the altar], these two [namely sheep and goats] were divided into two sections. — [Torath Kohanim 3:185]   אם כשב: לפי שיש באימורי הכשב מה שאין באימורי העז, שהכשב אליתו קריבה, לכך נחלקו לשתי פרשיות:
8And he shall lean his hand [forcefully] upon the head of his sacrifice, and slaughter it before the Tent of Meeting. And Aaron's descendants shall dash its blood upon the altar, around.   חוְסָמַ֤ךְ אֶת־יָדוֹ֙ עַל־רֹ֣אשׁ קָרְבָּנ֔וֹ וְשָׁחַ֣ט אֹת֔וֹ לִפְנֵ֖י אֹ֣הֶל מוֹעֵ֑ד וְ֠זָֽרְק֠וּ בְּנֵ֨י אַֽהֲרֹ֧ן אֶת־דָּמ֛וֹ עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֖חַ סָבִֽיב:
And [Aaron’s descendants] shall dash [its blood]: Two applications [of blood were required], which were [counted as] four (see Rashi above, Lev. 1:5). The Kohen must dash [the blood] by means of a vessel. He does not apply [the blood] with his finger except [in the case of] a sin-offering. — [Zev. 53b]   וזרקו: שתי מתנות שהן ארבע, ועל ידי הכלי הוא זורק, ואינו נותן באצבע אלא חטאת:
9And from the peace offering, he shall bring a fire offering to the Lord [comprised of] its choicest part the complete tail, which he shall remove opposite the kidneys, and the fat covering the innards and all the fat which is on the innards,   טוְהִקְרִ֨יב מִזֶּ֣בַח הַשְּׁלָמִים֘ אִשֶּׁ֣ה לַֽיהֹוָה֒ חֶלְבּוֹ֙ הָֽאַלְיָ֣ה תְמִימָ֔ה לְעֻמַּ֥ת הֶֽעָצֶ֖ה יְסִירֶ֑נָּה וְאֶת־הַחֵ֨לֶב֙ הַֽמְכַסֶּ֣ה אֶת־הַקֶּ֔רֶב וְאֵת֙ כָּל־הַחֵ֔לֶב אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־הַקֶּֽרֶב:
the choicest part: Heb. חֶלְבּוֹ.[Usually, its fat. Here it means] its choicest part. And what is this? The complete tail.   חלבו: המובחר שבו. ומהו זה, האליה תמימה:
opposite the kidneys: Heb. הֶעָצֶה, above the kidneys, which give counsel (הַיּוֹעֲצוּת).   לעמת העצה: למעלה מן הכליות היועצות:
10and the two kidneys [along] with the fat that is upon them, which is over the flanks. And he shall remove the diaphragm with the liver, along with the kidneys.   יוְאֵת֙ שְׁתֵּ֣י הַכְּלָיֹ֔ת וְאֶת־הַחֵ֨לֶב֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עֲלֵהֶ֔ן אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־הַכְּסָלִ֑ים וְאֶת־הַיֹּתֶ֨רֶת֙ עַל־הַכָּבֵ֔ד עַל־הַכְּלָיֹ֖ת יְסִירֶֽנָּה:
11And the kohen shall cause it to [go up in] smoke on the altar, as food for the fire, to the Lord.   יאוְהִקְטִיר֥וֹ הַכֹּהֵ֖ן הַמִּזְבֵּ֑חָה לֶ֥חֶם אִשֶּׁ֖ה לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
as food for the fire, to the Lord: Food for the fire, in the Name of the most High [God].   לחם אשה לה': לחמו של אש לשם גבוה:
food: Heb. לֶחֶם, an expression meaning food [in general, not only bread]. Similarly, we find in the verse, “Let us destroy his food (בְּלַחְמוֹ) with wood” (Jer. 11:19); and, “made a great feast (לְחֵם)” (Dan. 5:1), and, “On joyous occasions, a feast (לֶחֶם) is made” (Eccl. 10:19).   לחם: לשון מאכל, וכן (ירמיהו יא יט) נשחיתה עץ בלחמו, עבד לחם רב (דניאל ה א), לשחוק עושים לחם (קהלת י יט):
12And if his sacrifice is a goat, he shall bring it before the Lord,   יבוְאִם־עֵ֖ז קָרְבָּנ֑וֹ וְהִקְרִיב֖וֹ לִפְנֵ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
13and he shall lean his hand [forcefully] upon its head and slaughter it before the Tent of Meeting, and Aaron's descendants shall dash its blood upon the altar, around.   יגוְסָמַ֤ךְ אֶת־יָדוֹ֙ עַל־רֹאשׁ֔וֹ וְשָׁחַ֣ט אֹת֔וֹ לִפְנֵ֖י אֹ֣הֶל מוֹעֵ֑ד וְ֠זָֽרְק֠וּ בְּנֵ֨י אַֽהֲרֹ֧ן אֶת־דָּמ֛וֹ עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֖חַ סָבִֽיב:
14And from it, he shall bring his offering a fire offering to the Lord [comprised of] the fat covering the innards, and all the fat which is on the innards,   ידוְהִקְרִ֤יב מִמֶּ֨נּוּ֙ קָרְבָּנ֔וֹ אִשֶּׁ֖ה לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה אֶת־הַחֵ֨לֶב֙ הַֽמְכַסֶּ֣ה אֶת־הַקֶּ֔רֶב וְאֵת֙ כָּל־הַחֵ֔לֶב אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־הַקֶּֽרֶב:
15and the two kidneys with the fat that is upon them, which is over the flanks. And he shall remove the diaphragm with the liver; along with the kidneys he shall remove it.   טווְאֵת֙ שְׁתֵּ֣י הַכְּלָיֹ֔ת וְאֶת־הַחֵ֨לֶב֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עֲלֵהֶ֔ן אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־הַכְּסָלִ֑ים וְאֶת־הַיֹּתֶ֨רֶת֙ עַל־הַכָּבֵ֔ד עַל־הַכְּלָיֹ֖ת יְסִירֶֽנָּה:
16And the kohen shall cause it to [go up in] smoke on the altar, consumed as a fire offering, [with] a pleasing fragrance. All [sacrificial] fat belongs to the Lord.   טזוְהִקְטִירָ֥ם הַכֹּהֵ֖ן הַמִּזְבֵּ֑חָה לֶ֤חֶם אִשֶּׁה֙ לְרֵ֣יחַ נִיחֹ֔חַ כָּל־חֵ֖לֶב לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
17[This is] an eternal statute for all your generations, in all your dwelling places: You shall not eat any fat or any blood.   יזחֻקַּ֤ת עוֹלָם֙ לְדֹרֹ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם בְּכֹ֖ל מֽוֹשְׁבֹֽתֵיכֶ֑ם כָּל־חֵ֥לֶב וְכָל־דָּ֖ם לֹ֥א תֹאכֵֽלוּ:
[This is] an eternal statute: This entire verse is explained very clearly in Torath Kohanim (3:189).   חקת עולם: יפה מפורש בתורת כהנים כל הפסוק הזה:
 Email
The text on this page contains sacred literature. Please do not deface or discard.