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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Vayikra - Leviticus - Chapter 2

Vayikra - Leviticus - Chapter 2

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 2

1. And if a person brings a meal offering to the Lord, his offering shall be of fine flour. He shall pour oil over it and place frankincense upon it.   א. וְנֶפֶשׁ כִּי תַקְרִיב קָרְבַּן מִנְחָה לַיהֹוָה סֹלֶת יִהְיֶה קָרְבָּנוֹ וְיָצַק עָלֶיהָ שֶׁמֶן וְנָתַן עָלֶיהָ לְבֹנָה:
And if a person brings: [literally, “And if a soul brings.”] Regarding all the sacrifices which were donated voluntarily, the only instance where Scripture states the word נֶפֶשׁ “soul” is in the case of the meal-offering. Now, who usually donates a meal-offering? A poor man [because flour is less expensive than birds or animals]. [Hence,] the Holy One Blessed is He, says: “I account if for him as if he has sacrificed his very soul!” - [Men. 104b]   ונפש כי תקריב: לא נאמר נפש בכל קרבנות נדבה אלא במנחה, מי דרכו להתנדב מנחה, עני, אמר הקב"ה מעלה אני עליו כאלו הקריב נפשו:
his offering shall be from fine flour: If a person says, “I hereby take upon myself to bring a meal-offering,” without specifying which type of meal-offering, then he shall bring מִנְחַת סֹלֶת, a meal-offering of fine flour, which is the first of the meal-offerings [mentioned in this chapter] (Men. 104b), and קֹמֶץ [fistful of the offering] is scooped out while it is [still in the form of] flour, as is explained in this passage. Since five kinds of meal-offerings are enumerated here, all of which had to be brought ready-baked before the קְמִיצָה [scooping took place], with the exception of this one, it is, therefore, called מִנְחַת סֹלֶת, “a meal-offering of fine flour.”   סלת יהיה קרבנו: האומר הרי עלי מנחה סתם, מביא מנחת סלת, שהיא הראשונה שבמנחות ונקמצת כשהיא סלת, כמו שמפורש בענין. לפי שנאמרו כאן חמשה מיני מנחות, וכולן באות אפויות קודם קמיצה חוץ מזו, לכך קרויה מנחת סלת:
fine flour: סֹלֶת. [The term] סֹלֶת always denotes [fine flour of] wheat, as the verse says, “fine flour (סֹלֶת) of wheat” (Exod. 29:2). - [Torath Kohanim 2:96] No meal-offering consists of less than one עִשָּׂרוֹן [“one tenth” of an ephah of flour], as it is said, “one tenth measure for a meal-offering (עִשָּׂרוֹן)” (Lev.14:21), [implying that] one tenth measure [shall be used] for each meal-offering. — [see Men. 89a]   סלת: אין סלת אלא מן החטין, שנאמר (שמות כט ב) סלת חטים, ואין מנחה פחותה מעשרון, שנאמר (ויק' יד כא) ועשרון סלת למנחה, עשרון לכל מנחה:
He shall pour oil over it: Over all of it. [However,]   ויצק עליה שמן: על כולה:
and place frankincense upon it: Upon part of it; the kohen places a fistful of frankincense upon it at one side [of the offering]. Now what makes you say this? Because an inclusion after an inclusion in the Torah means only to exclude. [Now, here, the expression עָלֶיהָ, upon it or over it, is inclusive in nature, for its assumed meaning is “upon all of it,” i.e., the kohen shall pour the oil over all of the offering. In the continuation of the verse, “and place frankincense upon it (עָלֶיה),” however, the second mention of the word עָלֶיה represents a רִבָּוי after a רִבָּוי, and so, the second עָלֶיה becomes preclusive, meaning that the frankincense is to be placed only upon part of the offering.] Another explanation: Oil [is poured] over all of it, because it [the oil] has to be mixed with it and scooped with it, as it is said, “[scoop out a fistful] from its fine flour and its oil.” However, the frankincense because it is neither mixed nor scooped with it, as it is said, “in addition to] all its frankincense” (verse 2), for, after he has completed the קְמִיצָה procedure, he collects all the frankincense from the meal-offering and makes it go up in smoke. — [Torath Kohanim 2:98]   ונתן עליה לבנה: על מקצתה, מניח קומץ לבונה עליה לצד אחד. ומה ראית לומר כן, שאין ריבוי אחר ריבוי בתורה אלא למעט. דבר אחר שמן על כולה, מפני שהוא נבלל עמה ונקמץ עמה, כמו שנאמר (פסוק ב) מסלתה ומשמנה, ולבונה על מקצתה, שאינה נבללת עמה ולא נקמצת עמה, שנאמר (פסוק ב) על כל לבונתה, שלאחר שקמץ מלקט את הלבונה כולה מעליה ומקטירה:
He shall pour [oil]…and place [frankincense] …and he shall bring [it to…the kohanim]: [Because Scripture mentions the “pouring” of the oil before the individual “brings” it to the kohanim ,] this teaches [us] that pouring and mixing may be performed [even] by a non- kohen. [And how do we know this concerning the mixing? Because in verses 5-6 below, Scripture states of a meal-offering, “mixed with oil,” before the pouring procedure is to take place, thus, if pouring may be performed by a non- kohen, then mixing, which precedes pouring, may surely be performed by a non- kohen]. — [Torath Kohanim 2:100] [However,]   ויצק, ונתן, והביאה: מלמד שיציקה ובלילה כשרים בזר:
2. And he shall bring it to Aaron's descendants, the kohanim, and from there, he [the kohen] shall scoop out his fistful of its fine flour and its oil, in addition to all its frankincense. Then, the kohen shall cause its reminder to [go up in] smoke on the altar; [it is] a fire offering [with] a pleasing fragrance to the Lord.   ב. וֶהֱבִיאָהּ אֶל בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֲנִים וְקָמַץ מִשָּׁם מְלֹא קֻמְצוֹ מִסָּלְתָּהּ וּמִשַּׁמְנָהּ עַל כָּל לְבֹנָתָהּ וְהִקְטִיר הַכֹּהֵן אֶת אַזְכָּרָתָהּ הַמִּזְבֵּחָה אִשֵּׁה רֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהֹוָה:
[And he shall bring it to…] the kohanim, and he [the kohen] shall scoop out: From the קְמִיצָה scooping procedure and onwards, it is exclusively the priesthood who is commanded [to perfo rm these remaining procedures]. — [Torath Kohanim 2:100]   הכהנים וקמץ: מקמיצה ואילך מצות כהונה:
And from there, he [the kohen] shall scoop out: [From where?] From the place where the feet of the non- kohen were standing. — [Torath Kohanim 2:104] This teaches us that scooping may be performed any place within the courtyard of the Holy Temple, even within the eleven cubits [span of courtyard grounds] in which ordinary Israelites [i.e., non- kohanim were permitted] to walk. — [Yoma 16b]   וקמץ משם: ממקום שרגלי הזר עומדות, ללמדך שהקמיצה כשרה בכל מקום בעזרה, אף בי"א אמה של מקום דריסת רגלי ישראל:
his fistful: One might think [that the fistful may be] full to overflowing, bursting through his fist and coming out on every side! Scripture, therefore, states in another passage, “And from it, he shall lift up in his fist” (Lev. 6:8), [i.e., only what is contained within his fist is valid to be burnt]. But since [we now know that the amount shall be only] what is contained within his fist, one might suggest that it means less than a fistful. Scripture, therefore, states here, מְלֹא, “full” [i.e., it shall be a full fist]. How then [does the kohen scoop out exactly a fistful, not more and not less]? He covers the palm of his hand with his three fingers, [and then, with the remaining thumb from above and little finger from below, he levels off any overflowing mixture, so that exactly a full measure of “three fingers” is attained]. — [Torath Kohanim 2:105; Men. 11a] This is the definition of קֹמֶץ, a “fistful” in the Hebrew language [while in other languages, a “fistful” of something might mean four fingers full of something].   מלא קמצו: יכול מבורץ, מבצבץ ויוצא לכל צד, תלמוד לומר במקום אחר (ויק' ו ח) והרים ממנו בקמצו, אין לך כשר אלא מה שבתוך הקומץ. אי בקמצו יכול חסר, תלמוד לומר מלא. הא כיצד, חופה שלש אצבעותיו על פס ידו, וזהו קומץ במשמע לשון העברית:
in addition to all its frankincense: In addition to all the frankincense, the fist shall be full.   על כל לבונתה: לבד כל הלבונה יהא הקומץ מלא:
its frankincense. Then, [the kohen] shall cause…to [go up in] smoke: The frankincense is also to be burnt. — [Torath Kohanim 2:107]   לבונתה והקטיר: אף הלבונה בהקטרה:
his fistful of its fine flour and its oil: but if he scooped, and a grain of salt or a particle of frankincense went up into his hand, it is unfit. - [Torath Kohanim 2:107]   מלא קמצו מסלתה ומשמנה: הא אם קמץ ועלה בידו גרגיר מלח או קורט לבונה פסולה:
its reminder: The fistful offered up to the Most High [God], is the “reminder” of the meal-offering, because through it, its owner [who brought that sacrifice] is remembered for the good, [causing God] contentment.   אזכרתה: הקומץ העולה לגבוה הוא זכרון המנחה, שבו נזכר בעליה לטובה ולנחת רוח:
3. And what remains of the meal offering shall belong to Aaron and to his descendants; [it is] holy of holies from the fire offerings of the Lord.   ג. וְהַנּוֹתֶרֶת מִן הַמִּנְחָה לְאַהֲרֹן וּלְבָנָיו קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים מֵאִשֵּׁי יְהֹוָה:
to Aaron and his descendants: The Kohen Gadol [signified by “Aaron” here,] takes a portion [of what remains of the meal-offering] first, without having to take part in the equal division of the meal offering, while [after this,] the ordinary kohen [signified by “and his descendants” here,] takes his share in the equal division of the meal-offering. — [Torath Kohanim 2:112]   לאהרן ולבניו: כהן גדול נוטל חלק בראש שלא במחלוקת, וההדיוט במחלוקת:
[it is] holy of holies: for the Kohanim.   קדש קדשים: היא להם:
from the fire-offerings of the Lord: They may take their share in it only after the offerings to the fire [i.e., only after the fistful has been scooped out and burnt, thereby becoming a fire-offering to God. Before this, however, they may not partake of the meal-offering]. — [Torath Kohanim 2: 113]   מאשי ה': אין להם חלק בה אלא לאחר מתנות האישים:
4. And if one brings a meal offering baked in an oven, it shall consist of [either] unleavened loaves [made] of fine flour mixed with oil, or unleavened wafers anointed with oil.   ד. וְכִי תַקְרִב קָרְבַּן מִנְחָה מַאֲפֵה תַנּוּר סֹלֶת חַלּוֹת מַצֹּת בְּלוּלֹת בַּשֶּׁמֶן וּרְקִיקֵי מַצּוֹת מְשֻׁחִים בַּשָּׁמֶן:
And if you bring [a meal-offering which was baked in an oven]: [Namely: If a person] said, “I hereby take upon myself to bring a meal-offering baked in an oven.” Scripture teaches [us] that he may bring either loaves or wafers. — [Torath Kohanim 2:115] The loaves are to be mixed up (בְּלוּלֹת) [with olive oil], while the wafers are to be anointed (מְשֻׁחִים) [with olive oil]. — [Torath Kohanim 2:117; Men. 74b] Now, our Rabbis (Men. 75a) differ regarding the anointing procedure (מְשִׁיחָה) [for the wafers]: Some say that one must anoint them and again anoint them until all the oil in the log [a volume of liquid] has been used up, for all meal-offerings require one log of oil [each]. Others say that [some of] the oil was smeared [on the wafer] in the form of a Greek “chi” [shaped like the Hebrew נ, see Rashi Exod. 29:2], while the remaining oil was eaten separately by the kohanim. [Now, the verse here says, “mixed with oil…anointed with oil.”] What does the repetition of the word “oil” come to teach us? [It teaches us that for meal-offerings, oil used need not be only from the initial extract from the olives, but] may also be from the second and third extract out of the olives. The only case where the initial extract of oil is required, is the menorah, because regarding it, Scripture says (Exod. 27:20), שֶׁמֶן זַיִת זָ‏, “clear olive oil.” - [Torath Kohanim 2:118] And we learned in Men. (76a): All meal-offerings baked before the קְמִיצָה [scooping out] procedure, and consequently whose קְמִיצָה is performed by breaking the offering into pieces (see verse 6), all shall be offered in [parcels of] ten loaves [regarding those about which Scripture says חַוֹת, “loaves,” and parcels of] ten wafers, for those offerings about which Scripture says רְקִיקִין, “wafers.”   וכי תקרב וגו': שאמר הרי עלי מנחת מאפה תנור, ולימד הכתוב שיביא או חלות או רקיקין, החלות בלולות, והרקיקין משוחין. ונחלקו רבותינו במשיחתן יש אומרים, מושחן וחוזר ומושחן עד שיכלה כל השמן שבלוג, שכל המנחות טעונות לוג שמן. ויש אומרים מושחן כמין כי יונית ושאר השמן נאכל בפני עצמו לכהנים. מה תלמוד לומר בשמן בשמן שתי פעמים, להכשיר שמן שני ושלישי היוצא מן הזיתים, ואין צריך שמן ראשון אלא למנורה, שנאמר בו (שמות כז כ) זך. ושנינו במנחות (עו א) כל המנחות האפויות לפני קמיצתן ונקמצות ע"י פתיתה, כולן באות עשר עשר חלות, והאמור בה רקיקין, באה עשרה רקיקין:
5. And if a meal offering on a pan is your sacrifice, it shall be [made] of fine flour, mixed with oil; it shall be unleavened.   ה. וְאִם מִנְחָה עַל הַמַּחֲבַת קָרְבָּנֶךָ סֹלֶת בְּלוּלָה בַשֶּׁמֶן מַצָּה תִהְיֶה:
And if a meal-offering on a pan [is your sacrifice]: מִנְחָה עַל הַמַּחֲבַת Namely: If one said, “I hereby take upon myself to bring מִנְחַת הַמַּחֲבַת, a pan-fried meal offering.” [מַחִבַת] was a vessel in the Holy Temple, in which [certain] meal-offerings were baked in oil upon the fire. This vessel is not deep, but shallow. And therefore, meal-offerings made in it were hard, for since the pan was shallow, [the oil spread thin and consequently,] the fire consumed the oil [causing the product to become hard]. — [Men. 63a] And all [meal-offerings] require three applications of oil: יְצִיקָה [pouring], בְּלִילָה [mixing] and placing oil in the vessel before their preparation. — [Torath Kohanim 2: 121, Men. 75a]   ואם מנחה על המחבת: שאמר הרי עלי מנחת מחבת. וכלי הוא שהיה במקדש, שאופין בו מנחה על האור בשמן, והכלי אינו עמוק אלא צף, ומעשה המנחה שבתוכו קשין, שמתוך שהיא צפה, האור שורף את השמן. וכולן טעונות שלש מתנות שמן יציקה, ובלילה, ומתן שמן בכלי קודם עשייתן:
fine flour, mixed with oil: [This] teaches [us] that he must mix them while they are [still] fine flour [and not mixing the oil with the already-fried cakes]. — [Torath Kohanim 2:122]   סלת בלולה בשמן: מלמד שבוללן בעודן סלת:
6. Break it into pieces, and you shall [then] pour oil over it. It is a meal offering.   ו. פָּתוֹת אֹתָהּ פִּתִּים וְיָצַקְתָּ עָלֶיהָ שָׁמֶן מִנְחָה הִוא:
Break it into pieces, […It is a meal-offering]: [The clause at the end of this verse, “It is a meal-offering,” appears superfluous. However, it] comes to include all meal-offerings baked before the קְמִיצָה procedure, to [have their קְמִיצָה performed by] פְּתִיתָה, breaking them into pieces. — [Men. 75a]   פתות אתה פתים: לרבות כל המנחות, הנאפות קודם קמיצה, לפתיתה:
and you shall [then] pour oil over it. It is a meal-offering: This includes all meal-offerings for יְצִיקָה, “pouring of the oil.” One might think that this applies also to a meal-offering baked in an oven. Scripture, therefore, says, “[You shall then pour oil] עָלֶיהָ, over it, ” [but not over that baked in an oven.] Perhaps we should exclude חַות, loaves [of oven-baked meal-offerings only], while not excluding the רְקִיקִין wafers [of oven baked meal-offerings]? Scripture, therefore, says, הִיא [i.e., “It,” to have both cases of loaves and wafers of an oven-baked meal-offering excluded from יְצִיקָה]. — [Men. 75a]   ויצקת עליה שמן מנחה הוא: לרבות כל המנחות ליציקה. יכול אף מנחת מאפה תנור כן, תלמוד לומר עליה, אוציא את החלות ולא אוציא את הרקיקין, תלמוד לומר הוא:
7. And if your sacrifice is a meal offering [made] in a deep pot, it shall be made of fine flour with oil.   ז. וְאִם מִנְחַת מַרְחֶשֶׁת קָרְבָּנֶךָ סֹלֶת בַּשֶּׁמֶן תֵּעָשֶׂה:
[made] in a deep pot: מַרְחֶשֶׁת. This was a deep vessel in the Temple. And since it was deep, its oil gathered together, and the fire did not burn it. Consequently, meal-offerings made in it, vibrate (רוֹחִַשִׁין) (Torath Kohanim 2:127), [as] anything which has become softened through a liquid, [like in the case of deep-frying מִנְחַת מַרְחֶשֶׁת appears to vibrate (רוֹחֵשׁ) and wiggle.   מרחשת: כלי הוא שהיה במקדש עמוק, ומתוך שהיא עמוקה שמנה צבור ואין האור שורפו, לפיכך מעשה מנחה העשויין לתוכה רוחשין. כל דבר רך על ידי משקה נראה כרוחש ומנענע:
8. Thus you shall bring the meal offering which shall be made from these [types], to the Lord. And he shall bring it to the kohen, and he shall bring it close to the altar.   ח. וְהֵבֵאתָ אֶת הַמִּנְחָה אֲשֶׁר יֵעָשֶׂה מֵאֵלֶּה לַיהֹוָה וְהִקְרִיבָהּ אֶל הַכֹּהֵן וְהִגִּישָׁהּ אֶל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ:
which shall be made from these [types]: [literally, “which shall be made from these,” meaning a meal-offering] which shall be made from one of these types [of meal-offerings mentioned, namely, fine flour baked in an oven, pan-fried or that made in a deep pot].   אשר יעשה מאלה: מאחד מן המינים הללו:
And he shall bring it: i.e., its owner [shall bring it] to the kohen.   והקריבה: בעליה אל הכהן:
and he shall bring it close: [I.e.,] the kohen [shall bring it close].   והגישה: הכהן:
to the altar: He shall bring it close to the south-western corner of the altar. — [Zev. 63b]   אל המזבח: מגישה לקרן דרומית מערבית של מזבח:
9. And the kohen shall lift out, from the meal offering, its reminder and cause it to [go up in] smoke on the altar; [it is] a fire offering [with] a pleasing fragrance to the Lord.   ט. וְהֵרִים הַכֹּהֵן מִן הַמִּנְחָה אֶת אַזְכָּרָתָהּ וְהִקְטִיר הַמִּזְבֵּחָה אִשֵּׁה רֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהֹוָה:
its reminder: This is קֹמֶץ, [the fistful scooped out of the meal-offering].   את אזכרתה: היא הקומץ:
10. And what remains of the meal offering shall belong to Aaron and his descendants; [it is] holy of holies from the fire offerings of the Lord.   י. וְהַנּוֹתֶרֶת מִן הַמִּנְחָה לְאַהֲרֹן וּלְבָנָיו קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים מֵאִשֵּׁי יְהֹוָה:
11. No meal offering that you sacrifice to the Lord shall be made [out of anything] leavened. For you shall not cause to [go up in] smoke any leavening or any honey, [as] a fire offering to the Lord;   יא. כָּל הַמִּנְחָה אֲשֶׁר תַּקְרִיבוּ לַיהֹוָה לֹא תֵעָשֶׂה חָמֵץ כִּי כָל שְׂאֹר וְכָל דְּבַשׁ לֹא תַקְטִירוּ מִמֶּנּוּ אִשֶּׁה לַיהֹוָה:
or any honey: Any sweet fruit extract is called honey.   וכל דבש: כל מתיקת פרי קרויה דבש:
12. [However,] you shall bring them as a first [fruit] offering to the Lord; nevertheless, they shall not go up on the altar as a pleasing fragrance to the Lord.   יב. קָרְבַּן רֵאשִׁית תַּקְרִיבוּ אֹתָם לַיהֹוָה וְאֶל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לֹא יַעֲלוּ לְרֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ:
[However,] you shall bring them as a first [fruit] offering: What can you bring from leaven and honey? A first [fruit] offering, namely, a) the שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם, the two loaves [of bread] brought on Shavuoth, which come from leaven, as it is said: “they shall be baked leavened” (Lev. 23:17), and b) The בִּכּוּרִים, “first fruits” which [contain] דְּבַשׁ, honey, e.g., the first fruits of figs and dates. — [Men. 58a]   קרבן ראשית תקריבו: מה יש לך להביא מן השאור ומן הדבש קרבן ראשית שתי הלחם של עצרת הבאים מן השאור, שנאמר (ויק' כג יז) חמץ תאפינה, ובכורים מן הדבש, כמו בכורי תאנים ותמרים:
13. And you shall salt every one of your meal offering sacrifices with salt, and you shall not omit the salt of your God's covenant from [being placed] upon your meal offerings. You shall offer salt on all your sacrifices.   יג. וְכָל קָרְבַּן מִנְחָתְךָ בַּמֶּלַח תִּמְלָח וְלֹא תַשְׁבִּית מֶלַח בְּרִית אֱלֹהֶיךָ מֵעַל מִנְחָתֶךָ עַל כָּל קָרְבָּנְךָ תַּקְרִיב מֶלַח:
the salt of [your God’s] covenant: for there was a covenant made with salt since the six days of Creation, in that the lower waters were promised that they would be offered on the altar. [And how were they offered? In the form of] salt [which comes from water,] and in the water libations on the Festival [of Succoth].   מלח ברית: שהברית כרותה למלח מששת ימי בראשית, שהובטחו המים התחתונים ליקרב במזבח במלח, וניסוך המים בחג:
[You shall offer salt] on all your sacrifices: [including] burnt-offerings from animals and birds, and the אֵימוּרִים, the portions of the sacrifices offered up on the altar, from all holy sacrifices. — [Men. 20a]   על כל קרבנך: על עולת בהמה ועוף ואימורי כל הקדשים כולן:
14. When you bring a meal offering of the first grains to the Lord, you shall bring your first grain meal offering [from barley], as soon as it ripens, parched over the fire, kernels full in their husks, [ground into] coarse meal.   יד. וְאִם תַּקְרִיב מִנְחַת בִּכּוּרִים לַיהֹוָה אָבִיב קָלוּי בָּאֵשׁ גֶּרֶשׂ כַּרְמֶל תַּקְרִיב אֵת מִנְחַת בִּכּוּרֶיךָ:
When you bring: Heb. וְאִם תַּקְרִיב Now, the word אִם [here] has the meaning of כִּי, “when,” because this is not optional, for Scripture is referring to the מִנְחַת הָעֹמֶר [the omer meal-offering, a community sacrifice brought on the sixteenth of Nissan,] which is obligatory. [Thus, the verse reads: “When you bring…”]. — [Torath Kohanim 2:148] Likewise, “And when (וְאִם) the Jubilee…will be” (Num. 36:4), [and not “if the Jubilee…will be”].   ואם תקריב: הרי אם משמש בלשון כי, שהרי אין זה רשות, שהרי במנחת העומר הכתוב מדבר, שהיא חובה, וכן (במדבר לו ד) ואם יהיה היובל וגו':
a meal offering of the first grains: Scripture is referring here to the מִנְחַת הָעֹמֶר, the “omer meal-offering,” which is to be offered אָבִיב, meaning, as soon as the grain has ripened, and it comes from barley. [And how do we know that it comes from barley?] For here in our verse, it says, אָבִיב, and in an earlier verse, it says (Exod. 9:31), כִּי הַשְּׂעֹרָה אָבִיב, “for the barley was ripened (אָבִיב)”. — [Torath Kohanim 2:149; Men. 68b]   מנחת בכורים: במנחת העומר הכתוב מדבר, שהיא באה אביב בשעת בישול התבואה, ומן השעורים היא באה. נאמר כאן אביב, ונאמר להלן (שמות ט לא) כי השעורה אביב:
parched over the fire: For they dry the grain over a fire, in a roasting pipe [Rashi explains in Tractate Men., אָבִיב refers to a vessel used by those selling roasted seeds]. — [Torath Kohanim 2:150] [And they had to do this to the grain,] for otherwise, it could not be ground up, because it is moist.   קלוי באש: שמיבשין אותה על האור באבוב של קלאים, שאלולי כן אינה נטחנת בריחים, לפי שהיא לחה:
kernels full in their husks, [ground into] coarse meal: Heb. גֶּרֶשׂ כַּרְמֶל “Broken up while still moist (כַּרְמֶל).”   גרש כרמל: גרוסה בעודה לחה:
coarse meal: Heb. גֶּרֶשׂ, an expression denoting breaking up or grinding with grit millstones, and likewise, “Indeed, He has made [my teeth] grind (וַיַּגְְרֵס) on gravel” (Lam. 3:16), and similarly in the verse, “My soul is crushed (גָּרְסָה)” (Ps. 119:20).   גרש: לשון שבירה וטחינה, גורסה בריחים של גרוסות, כמו (איכה ג טז) ויגרס בחצץ, וכן גרסה נפשי (תהלים קיט כ):
full in their husks: Heb. כַּרְמֶל, [an acronym of כַּר, husk, and מָלֵא, full. Thus, it means: The grain is ground up] while the husk (כַּר) is still full (מָלֵא) (Men. 66b), i.e., when the produce is still fresh and full in its stalks; hence, fresh ears of grain are called כַּרְמֶל, and similarly, “and sheaves of fresh grain (כַּרְמֶל) in their shells” (II Kings 4:42).   כרמל: בעוד הכר מלא, שהתבואה לחה ומלאה בקשין שלה, ועל כן נקראים המלילות כרמל, וכן (מלכים ב' ד מב) וכרמל בצקלונו:
15. And you shall put oil on it, and place frankincense upon it. It is a meal offering.   טו. וְנָתַתָּ עָלֶיהָ שֶׁמֶן וְשַׂמְתָּ עָלֶיהָ לְבֹנָה מִנְחָה הִוא:
16. Then, the kohen shall cause its reminder to [go up in] smoke, [taken] from its coarse meal and from its oil, with all its frankincense; [it is] a fire offering to the Lord.   טז. וְהִקְטִיר הַכֹּהֵן אֶת אַזְכָּרָתָהּ מִגִּרְשָׂהּ וּמִשַּׁמְנָהּ עַל כָּל לְבֹנָתָהּ אִשֶּׁה לַיהֹוָה:
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