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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Bereishit - Genesis - Chapter 42

Bereishit - Genesis - Chapter 42

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 42

1. Jacob saw that there was grain being sold in Egypt; so Jacob said to his sons, "Why do you appear satiated?"   א. וַיַּרְא יַעֲקֹב כִּי יֶשׁ שֶׁבֶר בְּמִצְרָיִם וַיֹּאמֶר יַעֲקֹב לְבָנָיו לָמָּה תִּתְרָאוּ:
Jacob saw that there was grain being sold in Egypt: From where did he see it? Is it not true that he did not see it, only that he heard of it, as it is said: “Behold, I have heard, etc.” (verse 2) ? What then is the meaning of “saw” ? He saw with the divine “mirror” that he still had hope (שֶׂבֶר) in Egypt, but it was not a real prophecy to explicitly inform him that this was Joseph. — [from Gen. Rabbah 91:6]   וירא יעקב כי יש שבר במצרים: ומהיכן ראה, והלא לא ראה אלא שמע, שנאמר (להלן מב ב) הנה שמעתי וגו', ומהו וירא, ראה באספקלריא של קדש שעדיין יש לו שבר במצרים. ולא היתה נבואה ממש להודיעו בפירוש שזה יוסף:
Why do you appear satiated?“: Heb. לָמָה תִּתְרָאוּ. Why do you show yourselves before the sons of Ishmael and the sons of Esau as if you are satiated? For at that time they still had grain (Ta’anith 10b). (And it appears to me that it should be explained according to its simple meaning: לָמָה תִּתְרָאוּ -Why should everyone stare at you and wonder at you that you are not seeking food for yourselves before what you have in your hands is depleted.) From others I heard that it (תִּתְרָאוּ) is an expression of emaciation. [Thus:] Why should you become emaciated because of the famine? Similar to this is”And he who emaciates [others] (וּמַרְוֶה) -he too will become emaciated (יוֹרֶא)" (Prov. 11:25)   למה תתראו: למה תראו עצמכם בפני בני ישמעאל ובני עשו כאלו אתם שבעים, שבאותה שעה עדיין היה להם תבואה. [ולי נראה פשוטו למה תתראו, למה יהיו הכל מסתכלין בכם ומתמיהים בכם שאין אתם מבקשים לכם אוכל בטרם שיכלה מה שבידכם]. ומפי אחרים שמעתי שהוא לשון כחישה, למה תהיו כחושים ברעב. ודומה לו (משלי יא כה) ומרוה גם הוא יורה:
2. And he said, "Behold, I have heard that there is grain being sold in Egypt. Go down there and buy us [some] from there, so that we will live and not die."   ב. וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה שָׁמַעְתִּי כִּי יֶשׁ שֶׁבֶר בְּמִצְרָיִם רְדוּ שָׁמָּה וְשִׁבְרוּ לָנוּ מִשָּׁם וְנִחְיֶה וְלֹא נָמוּת:
Go down there: Heb. רְדוּ. But he did not say,“Go (לְכוּ).” He alluded to the 210 years that they were enslaved in Egypt, according to the numerical value of רְדוּ. — [from Gen Rabbah 91:2, Tan. Mikeitz 8]   רדו שמה: ולא אמר לכו, רמז למאתים ועשר שנים שנשתעבדו למצרים, כמנין רד"ו:
3. So Joseph's ten brothers went down to buy grain from Egypt.   ג. וַיֵּרְדוּ אֲחֵי יוֹסֵף עֲשָׂרָה לִשְׁבֹּר בָּר מִמִּצְרָיִם:
So Joseph’s…brothers went down: But Scripture did not write “the sons of Jacob.” This teaches that they regretted selling him and decided to behave toward him in a brotherly manner and to ransom him for whatever amount of money would be demanded of them. — [from Gen. Rabbah 91:6, Tan. Mikeitz 8]   וירדו אחי יוסף: ולא כתב בני יעקב, מלמד שהיו מתחרטים במכירתו ונתנו לבם להתנהג עמו באחוה ולפדותו בכל ממון שיפסקו עליהם:
ten: Why is this written? Is it not written, (verse 4)“But Joseph’s brother, Benjamin, Jacob did not send” ? [It is therefore obvious that they were only ten.] But [this is what it means:] concerning brotherhood, they were divided into ten, for neither the love they all had for him (Joseph) nor the hate they all had for him was equal, [hence, in the attitude of brotherhood, they were divided into ten.] As concerning buying grain, they all were of one accord (lit., one heart). - [from Gen. Rabbah 91:2]   עשרה: מה תלמוד לומר, והלא כתיב (פסוק ד) ואת בנימין אחי יוסף לא שלח, אלא לענין האחוה היו חלוקין לעשרה, שלא היתה אהבת כולם ושנאת כולם שוה לו, אבל לענין לשבור בר כולם לב אחד להם:
4. But Joseph's brother, Benjamin, Jacob did not send with his brothers, because, he said, "Lest misfortune befall him."   ד. וְאֶת בִּנְיָמִין אֲחִי יוֹסֵף לֹא שָׁלַח יַעֲקֹב אֶת אֶחָיו כִּי אָמַר פֶּן יִקְרָאֶנּוּ אָסוֹן:
“Lest misfortune befall him.”: And at home, could not misfortune befall him? Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov said: From here [we learn] that Satan accuses [a person] at the time of danger. — [from Gen. Rabbah 91:9]   פן יקראנו אסון: ובבית לא יקראנו אסון, אמר רבי אליעזר בן יעקב מכאן שהשטן מקטרג בשעת הסכנה:
5. So the sons of Israel came to purchase among those who came, for the famine was in the land of Canaan.   ה. וַיָּבֹאוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לִשְׁבֹּר בְּתוֹךְ הַבָּאִים כִּי הָיָה הָרָעָב בְּאֶרֶץ כְּנָעַן:
among those who came: They hid themselves [in the crowd] so that they would not be recognized, because their father had commanded them not to all appear at one entrance, but for each to enter through his own entrance, so that the evil eye would have no power over them, for they were all handsome and strong [and thus would be envied]. — [from Tan. Mikeitz 8, Gen. Rabbah 91:6]   בתוך הבאים: מטמינין עצמן שלא יכירום, לפי שצוה להם אביהם שלא יתראו כולם בפתח אחד אלא שיכנס כל אחד בפתחו, כדי שלא תשלוט בהם עין הרע שכולם נאים וכולם גבורים:
6. Now Joseph was the ruler over the land; it was he who sold grain to the entire populace of the land, and Joseph's brothers came and prostrated themselves to him, with their faces to the ground.   ו. וְיוֹסֵף הוּא הַשַּׁלִּיט עַל הָאָרֶץ הוּא הַמַּשְׁבִּיר לְכָל עַם הָאָרֶץ וַיָּבֹאוּ אֲחֵי יוֹסֵף וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲווּ לוֹ אַפַּיִם אָרְצָה:
and prostrated themselves to him, with their faces to the ground: Heb. וַיִשְׁתַּחִווּ. They prostrated themselves to him on their faces, and so every [expression of] הִשְׁתַּחִוָאָה means spreading out hands and feet. — [from Shev. 16b]   וישתחוו לו אפים: נשתטחו לו על פניהם, וכן כל השתחואה פשוט ידים ורגלים הוא:
7. And Joseph saw his brothers, and he recognized them, but he made himself a stranger to them, and he spoke to them harshly, and he said to them, "Where do you come from?" And they said, "From the land of Canaan to purchase food."   ז. וַיַּרְא יוֹסֵף אֶת אֶחָיו וַיַּכִּרֵם וַיִּתְנַכֵּר אֲלֵיהֶם וַיְדַבֵּר אִתָּם קָשׁוֹת וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם מֵאַיִן בָּאתֶם וַיֹּאמְרוּ מֵאֶרֶץ כְּנַעַן לִשְׁבָּר אֹכֶל:
but he made himself a stranger: He behaved toward them like a stranger verbally, by speaking harshly. — [from Gen. Rabbah 91:6, Tan. Mikeitz 8]   ויתנכר אליהם: נעשה להם כנכרי בדברים, לדבר קשות:
8. Now Joseph recognized his brothers, but they did not recognize him.   ח. וַיַּכֵּר יוֹסֵף אֶת אֶחָיו וְהֵם לֹא הִכִּרֻהוּ:
Now Joseph recognized, etc.: Because he had left them [when they were already] full-bearded. — [from Yeb. 88a, Keth. 27b, B.M. 39b, Gen. Rabbah 91:7, Targum Jonathan]   ויכר יוסף וגו': לפי שהניחם חתומי זקן:
but they did not recognize him: Because when he left them, he was not full-bearded, and now they found him full-bearded. The Aggadic Midrash states:“And Joseph recognized his brothers” -when they were delivered into his hands, he recognized that they were his brothers, and he had compassion on them. But they did not recognize him when he fell into their hands, to behave toward him with brotherhood. — [from Yeb. 88a, Keth. 27b, B.M. 39b, Gen. Rabbah 91:7, Targum Jonathan]   והם לא הכרהו: שיצא מאצלם בלא חתימת זקן, ועכשיו בא בחתימת זקן. ומדרש אגדה ויכר יוסף את אחיו כשנמסרו בידו הכיר שהם אחיו ורחם עליהם, והם לא הכירוהו כשנפל בידם לנהוג בו אחוה:
9. And Joseph remembered the dreams that he had dreamed about them, and he said to them, "You are spies; you have come to see the nakedness of the land."   ט. וַיִּזְכֹּר יוֹסֵף אֵת הַחֲלֹמוֹת אֲשֶׁר חָלַם לָהֶם וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם מְרַגְּלִים אַתֶּם לִרְאוֹת אֶת עֶרְוַת הָאָרֶץ בָּאתֶם:
that he had dreamed about them: Heb. לָהֶם, lit., to them, [but here it means] about them (Targum Jonathan). He knew that they (his dreams) had been fulfilled, for they (his brothers) had prostrated themselves to him. — [from Zohar, vol. 1, p. 199b]   אשר חלם להם: עליהם, וידע שנתקיימו, שהרי השתחוו לו:
the nakedness of the land: Heb. עֶרְוַת הָאָרֶץ, the exposure of the land, from where it can be easily conquered, similar to“he exposed (הֶעֱרָה) her fountain” (Lev. 20:18), and like“naked and bare (וְעֶרְיָה)” (Ezek. 16:7), and likewise, every [expression of] עֶרְוָה in the Scriptures is an expression of exposure. Onkelos, [however,] rendered: בִּדְקָא דְּאַרְעָא, as equivalent to הַבָּיִת בֶּדֶק (II Kings 12:6),“ the weakness of the house,” but he was not precise in explaining it according to the language of the verse.   ערות הארץ: גלוי הארץ, מהיכן היא נוחה ליכבש, כמו (ויקרא כ יח) את מקורה הערה, וכמו (יחזקאל טז ז) ערום ועריה. וכן כל ערוה שבמקרא לשון גילוי. ותרגום אונקלוס בדקא דארעא, כמו (מלכים ב' יב ו) בדק הבית, רעוע הבית, אבל לא דקדק לפרשו אחר לשון המקרא:
10. And they said to him, "No, my master, your servants have come to buy food.   י. וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֵלָיו לֹא אֲדֹנִי וַעֲבָדֶיךָ בָּאוּ לִשְׁבָּר אֹכֶל:
No, my master: Do not say that, but your servants have come to buy food.   לא א-דני: לא תאמר כן, שהרי עבדיך באו לשבר אוכל:
11. We are all sons of one man. We are honest. Your servants were never spies."   יא. כֻּלָּנוּ בְּנֵי אִישׁ אֶחָד נָחְנוּ כֵּנִים אֲנַחְנוּ לֹא הָיוּ עֲבָדֶיךָ מְרַגְּלִים:
We are all sons of one man: The Holy Spirit flickered within them, and they included him with them, for he too was the son of their father. — [from Gen. Rabbah 91:7]   כלנו בני איש אחד נחנו: נצנצה בהם רוח הקדש וכללוהו עמהם שאף הוא בן אביהם:
honest: Heb. כֵּנִים, truthful, like“You have spoken truthfully (כֵּן)” (Exod. 10: 29);“the daughters of Zelophehad speak truthfully (כֵּן)” (Num. 27:7);“[their haughtiness] and their conception are improper (לֹא כֵן) , [as are] their branches” (Isa. 16:6). - [from Targum Onkelos]   כנים: אמתיים, כמו (שמות י כט) כן דברת, (במדבר כז ז) כן בנות צלפחד דוברות, (ישעיה טז ו) ועברתו לא כן בדיו:
12. But he said to them, "No! But you have come to see the nakedness of the land."   יב. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם לֹא כִּי עֶרְוַת הָאָרֶץ בָּאתֶם לִרְאוֹת:
But you have come to see the nakedness of the land: For you have entered by way of the ten gates of the city. Why did you not enter [together] through one gate?- [from Gen. Rabbah 91:7; Tan. Buber, Mikeitz 17]   כי ערות הארץ באתם לראות: שהרי נכנסתם בעשרה שערי העיר, למה לא נכנסתם בשער אחד:
13. And they said, "We, your servants, are twelve brothers, the sons of one man in the land of Canaan, and behold, the youngest is with our father today, and one is gone."   יג. וַיֹּאמְרוּ שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר עֲבָדֶיךָ אַחִים | אֲנַחְנוּ בְּנֵי אִישׁ אֶחָד בְּאֶרֶץ כְּנָעַן וְהִנֵּה הַקָּטֹן אֶת אָבִינוּ הַיּוֹם וְהָאֶחָד אֵינֶנּוּ:
And they said, “We, your servants…”: And for that one who is gone, we scattered in the city to seek him. — [from Tan. Buber, Mikeitz 17]   ויאמרו שנים עשר עבדיך וגו': ובשביל אותו אחד שאיננו נתפזרנו בעיר לבקשו:
14. And Joseph said to them, "This is just what I have spoken to you, saying, 'You are spies.'   יד. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם יוֹסֵף הוּא אֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְתִּי אֲלֵכֶם לֵאמֹר מְרַגְּלִים אַתֶּם:
This is just what I have spoken: The thing that I have spoken, namely, that you are spies, is true and correct. This is according to its simple interpretation. Its midrashic interpretation is, however: He said to them, “And if you find him (Joseph), and they (his owners) demand a large ransom from you, will you ransom him?” “Yes,” they replied. He said to them, “And if they say that they will not return him for any money, what will you do?” They said, “For this we have come, to kill or be killed.” He said to them,“That is [exactly] what I said to you; you have come to slay the people of the city. I divine with my cup that two of you destroyed the large city of Shechem.” - [from Gen. Rabbah 91:7, Tan. Mikeitz 8]   הוא אשר דברתי: הדבר אשר דברתי שאתם מרגלים הוא האמת והנכון, זהו לפי פשוטו. ומדרשו אמר להם ואלו מצאתם אותו ויפסקו עליכם ממון הרבה תפדוהו. אמרו לו הן. אמר להם ואם יאמרו לכם שלא יחזירוהו בשום ממון מה תעשו. אמרו לו לכך באנו, להרוג או ליהרג, אמר להם הוא אשר דברתי אליכם להרוג בני העיר באתם, מנחש אני בגביע שלי ששנים מכם החריבו כרך גדול של שכם:
15. With this you shall be tested: By Pharaoh's life, you shall not leave this place unless your youngest brother comes here.   טו. בְּזֹאת תִּבָּחֵנוּ חֵי פַרְעֹה אִם תֵּצְאוּ מִזֶּה כִּי אִם בְּבוֹא אֲחִיכֶם הַקָּטֹן הֵנָּה:
By Pharaoh’s life: If Pharaoh will live. When he swore falsely, he swore by Pharaoh’s life. — [from Gen. Rabbah 91:7, Tan. Buber, Mikeitz 17]   חי פרעה: אם יחיה פרעה. שהיה נשבע לשקר, היה נשבע בחיי פרעה:
you shall not leave this place: Heb. מִזֶה, lit., from this, from this place. — [from Targum Onkelos]   אם תצאו מזה: מן המקום הזה:
16. Send one of you and let him fetch your brother, and you will be imprisoned so that your words will be tested whether truth is with you, and if not, as Pharaoh lives, you are spies!"   טז. שִׁלְחוּ מִכֶּם אֶחָד וְיִקַּח אֶת אֲחִיכֶם וְאַתֶּם הֵאָסְרוּ וְיִבָּחֲנוּ דִּבְרֵיכֶם הַאֱמֶת אִתְּכֶם וְאִם לֹא חֵי פַרְעֹה כִּי מְרַגְּלִים אַתֶּם:
whether truth is with you: Heb. הַאמֶת, if the truth is with you. The “hey” is vowelized with a“pattach,” which is equivalent to an expression of wonderment. — [from Targum Onkelos]. And if you do not bring him, [I swear] by Pharaoh’s life, that you are spies.   האמת אתכם: אם אמת אתכם. לפיכך ה"א נקוד פתח שהוא כמו בלשון תימה. ואם לא תביאוהו, חי פרעה כי מרגלים אתם:
17. And he put them in prison for three days.   יז. וַיֶּאֱסֹף אֹתָם אֶל מִשְׁמָר שְׁלשֶׁת יָמִים:
prison: Heb. מִשְׁמָר, lit., watch, [meaning] the prison. — [from Targum Onkelos]   משמר: בית האסורים:
18. On the third day, Joseph said to them: "Do this and live I fear God.   יח. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם יוֹסֵף בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי זֹאת עֲשׂוּ וִחְיוּ אֶת הָאֱלֹהִים אֲנִי יָרֵא:
19. If you are honest, your one brother will be confined in your prison, and you, go bring the grain for the hunger of your households.   יט. אִם כֵּנִים אַתֶּם אֲחִיכֶם אֶחָד יֵאָסֵר בְּבֵית מִשְׁמַרְכֶם וְאַתֶּם לְכוּ הָבִיאוּ שֶׁבֶר רַעֲבוֹן בָּתֵּיכֶם:
in your prison: In which you are now imprisoned.   בבית משמרכם: שאתם אסורים בו עכשיו:
and you, go bring: to your father’s house.   ואתם לכו הביאו: לבית אביכם:
the grain for the hunger of your households: What you have purchased for the hunger of the members of your households. — [from Targum Jonathan ben Uzziel].   שבר רעבון בתיכם: מה שקניתם לרעבון אנשי בתיכם:
20. And bring your youngest brother to me, so that your words may be verified, and you will not die." And they did so.   כ. וְאֶת אֲחִיכֶם הַקָּטֹן תָּבִיאוּ אֵלַי וְיֵאָמְנוּ דִבְרֵיכֶם וְלֹא תָמוּתוּ וַיַּעֲשׂוּ כֵן:
so that your words may be verified: Heb. וְיֵאָמְנוּ, let them be confirmed and fulfilled, like“Amen, amen (אָמֵן)” (Num. 5:22), and like“may Your word now be verified (יֵאָמֵן)” (I Kings 8:26).   ויאמנו דבריכם: יתאמתו ויתקיימו, כמו (במדבר ה כב) אמן אמן, וכמו (מ"א ח כו) יאמן נא דבריך:
21. And they said to one another, "Indeed, we are guilty for our brother, that we witnessed the distress of his soul when he begged us, and we did not listen. That is why this trouble has come upon us."   כא. וַיֹּאמְרוּ אִישׁ אֶל אָחִיו אֲבָל אֲשֵׁמִים | אֲנַחְנוּ עַל אָחִינוּ אֲשֶׁר רָאִינוּ צָרַת נַפְשׁוֹ בְּהִתְחַנְנוֹ אֵלֵינוּ וְלֹא שָׁמָעְנוּ עַל כֵּן בָּאָה אֵלֵינוּ הַצָּרָה הַזֹּאת:
Indeed: Heb. אִבָל, as the Targum renders: בָּקוּשְׁטָא, in truth. I [also] saw in Genesis Rabbah (91:8): It is the language of the Southerners; אִבָל means בְּרַם, in truth.   אבל: כתרגומו בקושטא. וראיתי בבראשית רבה (צא ח) לישנא דרומאה הוא אבל, ברם:
has come upon us: Heb. בָּאָה. Its accent is on the“beth,” because it is in the past tense, [meaning] that it has already come, and the Targum is אָתַת לָנָא [which is the past tense in Aramaic].   באה אלינו: טעמו בבי"ת, לפי שהוא בלשון עבר שכבר באה, ותרגומו אתת לנא:
22. And Reuben answered them, saying, "Didn't I tell you, saying, 'Do not sin against the lad,' but you did not listen? Behold, his blood, too, is being demanded!"   כב. וַיַּעַן רְאוּבֵן אֹתָם לֵאמֹר הֲלוֹא אָמַרְתִּי אֲלֵיכֶם | לֵאמֹר אַל תֶּחֶטְאוּ בַיֶּלֶד וְלֹא שְׁמַעְתֶּם וְגַם דָּמוֹ הִנֵּה נִדְרָשׁ:
his blood, too, is being demanded: The use of the word אֶת or the word גַם denotes inclusion. In this case it means“his blood and also the blood of his aged father.” - [from Gen. Rabbah 91:8]   וגם דמו: אתין וגמין רבויין, דמו וגם דם הזקן:
23. They did not know that Joseph understood, for the interpreter was between them.   כג. וְהֵם לֹא יָדְעוּ כִּי שֹׁמֵעַ יוֹסֵף כִּי הַמֵּלִיץ בֵּינֹתָם:
They did not know that Joseph understood: Heb. שֹׁמֵעַ, understood their language, and they were speaking in this manner in his presence. — [from Tanchuma Buber Vayigash 7]   והם לא ידעו כי שומע יוסף: מבין לשונם ובפניו היו מדברים כן:
for the interpreter was between them: For whenever they spoke with him, the interpreter, who knew both Hebrew and Egyptian, was between them, and he would interpret their words for Joseph and Joseph’s words for them. Therefore, they thought that Joseph did not understand Hebrew. — [from Targum Onkelos]   כי המליץ בינותם: כי כשהיו מדברים עמו היה המליץ ביניהם, היודע לשון עברי ולשון מצרי, והיה מליץ דבריהם ליוסף ודברי יוסף להם, לכך היו סבורים שאין יוסף מכיר בלשון עברי:
the interpreter: This was his son Manasseh. — [from Gen. Rabbah 91:8, Targum Jonathan, Targum Yerushalmi]   המליץ: זה מנשה:
24. And he turned away from them and wept, then returned to them and spoke to them; and he took Simeon from among them and imprisoned him before their eyes.   כד. וַיִּסֹּב מֵעֲלֵיהֶם וַיֵּבְךְּ וַיָּשָׁב אֲלֵהֶם וַיְדַבֵּר אֲלֵהֶם וַיִּקַּח מֵאִתָּם אֶת שִׁמְעוֹן וַיֶּאֱסֹר אֹתוֹ לְעֵינֵיהֶם:
And he turned away from them: Heb. וַיִסֹב. He distanced himself from them so that they would not see him weeping.   ויסב מעליהם: נתרחק מעליהם שלא יראוהו בוכה:
and wept: Because he heard that they were remorseful. — [from Bereishith Rabbathi , p. 204]   ויבך: לפי ששמע שהיו מתחרטין:
Simeon: He [was the one who] had cast him into the pit. It was he who said to Levi,“Behold, that dreamer is coming” (Gen. 37:19). Another explanation: Joseph intended to separate him from Levi, lest the two of them take counsel to assassinate him.   את שמעון: הוא השליכו לבור, הוא שאמר ללוי (לעיל לז יט) הנה בעל החלומות הלזה בא. דבר אחר נתכוין יוסף להפרידו מלוי שמא יתיעצו שניהם להרוג אותו:
and imprisoned him before their eyes: He imprisoned him only before their eyes, but as soon as they left, he released him and gave him food and drink. — [from Gen. Rabbah 91:8]   ויאסור אותו לעיניהם: לא אסרו אלא לעיניהם, וכיון שיצאו הוציאו והאכילו והשקהו:  
25. And Joseph commanded, and they filled their vessels with grain, and [he commanded] to return their money into each one's sack, and to give them provisions for the journey, and he did so for them.   כה. וַיְצַו יוֹסֵף וַיְמַלְאוּ אֶת כְּלֵיהֶם בָּר וּלְהָשִׁיב כַּסְפֵּיהֶם אִישׁ אֶל שַׂקּוֹ וְלָתֵת לָהֶם צֵדָה לַדָּרֶךְ וַיַּעַשׂ לָהֶם כֵּן:
26. And they loaded their grain upon their donkeys, and they went away from there.   כו. וַיִּשְׂאוּ אֶת שִׁבְרָם עַל חֲמֹרֵיהֶם וַיֵּלְכוּ מִשָּׁם:
27. The one opened his sack to give fodder to his donkey at the lodging place, and he saw his money there it was, in the mouth of his sack.   כז. וַיִּפְתַּח הָאֶחָד אֶת שַׂקּוֹ לָתֵת מִסְפּוֹא לַחֲמֹרוֹ בַּמָּלוֹן וַיַּרְא אֶת כַּסְפּוֹ וְהִנֵּה הוּא בְּפִי אַמְתַּחְתּוֹ:
The one opened: That was Levi, who was left alone, without Simeon, his companion. — [from Gen. Rabbah]   ויפתח האחד: הוא לוי שנשאר יחיד משמעון בן זוגו:
at the lodging place: Heb.בַּמָלוֹן. In the place where they lodged at night.   במלון: במקום שלנו בלילה:
his sack: Heb. אַמְתַּחְתּוֹ. That is a sack.   אמתחתו: הוא שק:
28. And he said to his brothers, "My money has been returned, and indeed, here it is in my sack! " Their hearts sank, and trembling, they turned to one another, saying, "What is this that God has done to us?"   כח. וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל אֶחָיו הוּשַׁב כַּסְפִּי וְגַם הִנֵּה בְאַמְתַּחְתִּי וַיֵּצֵא לִבָּם וַיֶּחֶרְדוּ אִישׁ אֶל אָחִיו לֵאמֹר מַה זֹּאת עָשָׂה אֱלֹהִים לָנוּ:
and indeed, here it is in my sack: The money is in it with the grain.   וגם הנה באמתחתי: גם הכסף בו עם התבואה:
What is this that God has done to us: to bring us to this accusation, for it (the money) was not returned except to accuse us falsely.   מה זאת עשה א-להים לנו: להביאנו לידי עלילה זו שלא הושב אלא להתעולל עלינו:  
29. And they came to Jacob their father, to the land of Canaan, and they told him all that had befallen them, saying,   כט. וַיָּבֹאוּ אֶל יַעֲקֹב אֲבִיהֶם אַרְצָה כְּנָעַן וַיַּגִּידוּ לוֹ אֵת כָּל הַקֹּרֹת אֹתָם לֵאמֹר:
30. "The man, the lord of the land, spoke to us harshly, and he accused us of spying on the land.   ל. דִּבֶּר הָאִישׁ אֲדֹנֵי הָאָרֶץ אִתָּנוּ קָשׁוֹת וַיִּתֵּן אֹתָנוּ כִּמְרַגְּלִים אֶת הָאָרֶץ:
31. And we said to him, 'We are honest; we were never spies.   לא. וַנֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו כֵּנִים אֲנָחְנוּ לֹא הָיִינוּ מְרַגְּלִים:
32. We are twelve brothers, the sons of our father; one is gone, and today the youngest is with our father in the land of Canaan.'   לב. שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר אֲנַחְנוּ אַחִים בְּנֵי אָבִינוּ הָאֶחָד אֵינֶנּוּ וְהַקָּטֹן הַיּוֹם אֶת אָבִינוּ בְּאֶרֶץ כְּנָעַן:
33. And the man, the lord of the land, said to us, 'With this I will know that you are honest; leave one of your brothers with me, and [what is needed for] the hunger of your households, take and go.   לג. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלֵינוּ הָאִישׁ אֲדֹנֵי הָאָרֶץ בְּזֹאת אֵדַע כִּי כֵנִים אַתֶּם אֲחִיכֶם הָאֶחָד הַנִּיחוּ אִתִּי וְאֶת רַעֲבוֹן בָּתֵּיכֶם קְחוּ וָלֵכוּ:
34. And bring your youngest brother to me, so that I will know that you are not spies, that you are honest; [then] I will give you your brother, and you may travel around in the land.' "   לד. וְהָבִיאוּ אֶת אֲחִיכֶם הַקָּטֹן אֵלַי וְאֵדְעָה כִּי לֹא מְרַגְּלִים אַתֶּם כִּי כֵנִים אַתֶּם אֶת אֲחִיכֶם אֶתֵּן לָכֶם וְאֶת הָאָרֶץ תִּסְחָרוּ:
and you may travel around in the land: Heb. תִּסְחָרוּ, you may go around. Likewise, every expression of merchants (סוֹחִרִים) and commerce (סְחוֹרָה) is based on the fact that they (the merchants) travel around and look for merchandise.   ואת הארץ תסחרו: תסובבו. וכל לשון סוחרים וסחורה על שם שמחזרים וסובבים אחר פרקמטיא:
35. And it came to pass that they were emptying their sacks and behold! Each one's bundle of money was in his sack; they saw the bundles of their money, they and their father, and they became frightened.   לה. וַיְהִי הֵם מְרִיקִים שַׂקֵּיהֶם וְהִנֵּה אִישׁ צְרוֹר כַּסְפּוֹ בְּשַׂקּוֹ וַיִּרְאוּ אֶת צְרֹרוֹת כַּסְפֵּיהֶם הֵמָּה וַאֲבִיהֶם וַיִּירָאוּ:
bundle of money: Heb. צְרוֹר כַּסְפּוֹ, his bundle of money. — [from Targum Jonathan ben Uzziel]   צרור כספו: קשר כספו:
36. And their father Jacob said to them, "You have bereaved me-Joseph is gone, and Simeon is gone, and you want to take Benjamin! All these troubles have come upon me."   לו. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם יַעֲקֹב אֲבִיהֶם אֹתִי שִׁכַּלְתֶּם יוֹסֵף אֵינֶנּוּ וְשִׁמְעוֹן אֵינֶנּוּ וְאֶת בִּנְיָמִן תִּקָּחוּ עָלַי הָיוּ כֻלָּנָה:
You have bereaved me: [This] teaches [us] that he suspected them-perhaps they had killed him (Simeon) or sold him like Joseph. [Gen. Rabbah 91:9]   אתי שכלתם: מלמד שחשדן שמא הרגוהו או מכרוהו כיוסף:
You have bereaved: Heb. שִׁכַּלְתֶּם Anyone who has lost his children is called שַׁכּוּל.   שכלתם: כל מי שבניו אבודים קרוי שכול:
37. And Reuben spoke to his father, saying, "You may put my two sons to death if I don't bring him (Benjamin) to you. Put him into my hand[s] and I will return him to you."   לז. וַיֹּאמֶר רְאוּבֵן אֶל אָבִיו לֵאמֹר אֶת שְׁנֵי בָנַי תָּמִית אִם לֹא אֲבִיאֶנּוּ אֵלֶיךָ תְּנָה אֹתוֹ עַל יָדִי וַאֲנִי אֲשִׁיבֶנּוּ אֵלֶיךָ:
38. But he (Jacob) said, "My son shall not go down with you, because his brother is dead, and he alone is left, and if misfortune befalls him on the way you are going, you will bring down my gray head in sorrow to the grave."   לח. וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא יֵרֵד בְּנִי עִמָּכֶם כִּי אָחִיו מֵת וְהוּא לְבַדּוֹ נִשְׁאָר וּקְרָאָהוּ אָסוֹן בַּדֶּרֶךְ אֲשֶׁר תֵּלְכוּ בָהּ וְהוֹרַדְתֶּם אֶת שֵׂיבָתִי בְּיָגוֹן שְׁאוֹלָה:
My son shall not go down with you: He did not accept Reuben’s offer. He said,“This firstborn is a fool. He offers to kill his sons. Are they his sons and not my sons?” - [from Gen. Rabbah 91:9]   לא ירד בני עמכם: לא קבל דבריו של ראובן. אמר בכור שוטה הוא זה, הוא אומר להמית בניו, וכי בניו הם ולא בני:
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