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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary

Bereishit - Genesis - Chapter 38

Bereishit - Genesis - Chapter 38

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Chapter 38

1Now it came about at that time that Judah was demoted by his brothers, and he turned away until [he came] to an Adullamite man, named Hirah.   אוַיְהִי בָּעֵת הַהִוא וַיֵּרֶד יְהוּדָה מֵאֵת אֶחָיו וַיֵּט עַד אִישׁ עֲדֻלָּמִי וּשְׁמוֹ חִירָה:
Now it came about at that time: Why was this section placed here, where it interrupts the section dealing with Joseph? To teach us that his (Judah’s) brothers demoted him from his high position when they saw their father’s distress. They said, “You told [us] to sell him. Had you told [us] to return him, we would have obeyed you.” [from Tanchuma Buber, Vayeshev 8]   ויהי בעת ההוא: למה נסמכה פרשה זו לכאן, והפסיק בפרשתו של יוסף, ללמד שהורידוהו אחיו מגדולתו כשראו בצרת אביהם, אמרו אתה אמרת למכרו, אלו אמרת להשיבו היינו שומעים לך:
and he turned away: from his brothers.   ויט: מאת אחיו:
to an Adullamite man: He entered into a partnership with him.   עד איש עדלמי: נשתתף עמו:
2And there Judah saw the daughter of a merchant named Shua, and he took her and came to her.   בוַיַּרְא שָׁם יְהוּדָה בַּת אִישׁ כְּנַעֲנִי וּשְׁמוֹ שׁוּעַ וַיִּקָּחֶהָ וַיָּבֹא אֵלֶיהָ:
merchant: Heb. כְּנַעִנִי [Onkelos renders] תַּגְרָא, a merchant.   כנעני: תגרא:  
3And she conceived and bore a son, and he named him Er.   גוַתַּהַר וַתֵּלֶד בֵּן וַיִּקְרָא אֶת שְׁמוֹ עֵר:
4And she conceived again and bore a son, and she named him Onan.   דוַתַּהַר עוֹד וַתֵּלֶד בֵּן וַתִּקְרָא אֶת שְׁמוֹ אוֹנָן:
5Once again she bore a son, and she named him Shelah, and he (Judah) was in Chezib when she gave birth to him.   הוַתֹּסֶף עוֹד וַתֵּלֶד בֵּן וַתִּקְרָא אֶת שְׁמוֹ שֵׁלָה וְהָיָה בִכְזִיב בְּלִדְתָּהּ אֹתוֹ:
and he (Judah) was in Chezib: The name of the place. I say, however, that it was called Chezib because she stopped giving birth; [this is] an expression similar to“You are to me as a failing spring (אַכְזָב)” (Jer. 15:18);“whose water does not fail (יְכַזְבוּ)” (Isa. 58:11). Otherwise, what does Scripture intend to tell us? Moreover, in Genesis Rabbah (85:4) I saw: And she named him Shelah… She stopped [bearing].   והיה בכזיב: שם המקום. ואומר אני על שם שפסקה מלדת נקרא כזיב, לשון (ירמיה טו יח) היו תהיה לי כמו אכזב, (ישעיה נח יא) אשר לא יכזבו מימיו, דאם לא כן מה בא להודיענו. ובבראשית רבה (פה ד) ראיתי ותקרא שמו שלה, פסקת:
6And Judah took a wife for Er, his firstborn, named Tamar.   ווַיִּקַּח יְהוּדָה אִשָּׁה לְעֵר בְּכוֹרוֹ וּשְׁמָהּ תָּמָר:
7Now Er, Judah's firstborn, was evil in the eyes of the Lord, and the Lord put him to death.   זוַיְהִי עֵר בְּכוֹר יְהוּדָה רַע בְּעֵינֵי יְהֹוָה וַיְמִתֵהוּ יְהֹוָה:
was evil in the eyes of the Lord: [His evil was] like the evil of Onan, viz. that he wasted his semen, as it is written in connection with Onan: “and He put him to death also,” meaning that, as Er’s death, so was Onan’s death. Now, why should Er waste his semen? So that she (Tamar) would not become pregnant and her beauty be impaired. [From Yev. 34b]   רע בעיני ה': כרעתו של אונן משחית זרעו, שנאמר באונן (פסוק י) וימת גם אותו, כמיתתו של ער מיתתו של אונן, ולמה היה ער משחית זרעו, כדי שלא תתעבר ויכחיש יפיה:
8So Judah said to Onan, "Come to your brother's wife and perform the rite of the levirate, and raise up progeny for your brother."   חוַיֹּאמֶר יְהוּדָה לְאוֹנָן בֹּא אֶל אֵשֶׁת אָחִיךָ וְיַבֵּם אֹתָהּ וְהָקֵם זֶרַע לְאָחִיךָ:
and raise up progeny: The son shall be called by the name of the deceased. [From Targum Jonathan ben Uzziel]   והקם זרע: הבן יקרא על שם המת:
9Now Onan knew that the progeny would not be his, and it came about, when he came to his brother's wife, he wasted [his semen] on the ground, in order not to give seed to his brother.   טוַיֵּדַע אוֹנָן כִּי לֹּא לוֹ יִהְיֶה הַזָּרַע וְהָיָה אִם בָּא אֶל אֵשֶׁת אָחִיו וְשִׁחֵת אַרְצָה לְבִלְתִּי נְתָן זֶרַע לְאָחִיו:
he wasted [his semen] on the ground: He practiced coitus interruptus. [From Gen. Rabbah 85:5]   ושחת ארצה: דש מבפנים וזורה מבחוץ:
10Now what he did was evil in the eyes of the Lord, and He put him to death also.   יוַיֵּרַע בְּעֵינֵי יְהֹוָה אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה וַיָּמֶת גַּם אֹתוֹ:
11Then Judah said to his daughter in law Tamar, "Remain as a widow in your father's house until my son Shelah grows up," for he said, "Lest he too die, like his brothers." So Tamar went, and she remained in her father's house.   יאוַיֹּאמֶר יְהוּדָה לְתָמָר כַּלָּתוֹ שְׁבִי אַלְמָנָה בֵית אָבִיךְ עַד יִגְדַּל שֵׁלָה בְנִי כִּי אָמַר פֶּן יָמוּת גַּם הוּא כְּאֶחָיו וַתֵּלֶךְ תָּמָר וַתֵּשֶׁב בֵּית אָבִיהָ:
for he said, etc.: Meaning that he dismissed her with a straw (with a lame excuse), for he did not intend to marry her to him (Shelah).   כי אמר וגו': כלומר דוחה היה אותה בקש, שלא היה בדעתו להשיאה לו:
for he said, “Lest he too die…”: This is a woman whose husbands presumably die young. [From Yev. 64b]   כי אמר פן ימות: מוחזקת היא זו שימותו אנשיה:
12Many days passed, and Shua's daughter, Judah's wife, died; and Judah was consoled, and he went up [to watch] over his sheepshearers he and Hirah, his Adullamite friend to Timnah.   יבוַיִּרְבּוּ הַיָּמִים וַתָּמָת בַּת שׁוּעַ אֵשֶׁת יְהוּדָה וַיִּנָּחֶם יְהוּדָה וַיַּעַל עַל גֹּזְזֵי צֹאנוֹ הוּא וְחִירָה רֵעֵהוּ הָעֲדֻלָּמִי תִּמְנָתָה:
and he went up [to watch] over his sheepshearers: He went up to Timnah to stand over his sheepshearers [i.e. to oversee them].   ויעל על גוזזי צאנו: ויעל תמנתה לעמוד על גוזזי צאנו:
13And it was told to Tamar, saying, "Behold, your father in law is going up to Timnah to shear his sheep."   יגוַיֻּגַּד לְתָמָר לֵאמֹר הִנֵּה חָמִיךְ עֹלֶה תִמְנָתָה לָגֹז צֹאנוֹ:
is going up to Timnah: In connection with Samson, however, Scripture says (Jud. 14:1):“And Samson went down to Timnah.” It was situated on a mountain slope, so that they would go up to it from here and go down to it from there. [From Sotah 10a]   עולה תמנתה: ובשמשון הוא אומר (שופטים יד א) וירד שמשון תמנתה, בשפוע ההר היתה יושבת, עולין לה מכאן ויורדין לה מכאן:
14So she took off her widow's garb, covered [her head] with a veil and covered her face, and she sat down at the crossroads that were on the way to Timnah, for she saw that Shelah had grown up, but as for her she was not given to him for a wife.   ידוַתָּסַר בִּגְדֵי אַלְמְנוּתָהּ מֵעָלֶיהָ וַתְּכַס בַּצָּעִיף וַתִּתְעַלָּף וַתֵּשֶׁב בְּפֶתַח עֵינַיִם אֲשֶׁר עַל דֶּרֶךְ תִּמְנָתָה כִּי רָאֲתָה כִּי גָדַל שֵׁלָה וְהִוא לֹא נִתְּנָה לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה:
and covered her face: Heb. וַתִּתְעַלָף. She covered her face so that he would not recognize her.   ותתעלף: כסתה פניה שלא יכיר בה:
at the crossroads: Heb. בְּפֶתַח עֵינַיִם, lit., at the opening of the eyes. At the crossroads, on the road to Timnah. Our Sages, however, explained it midrashically to mean, at the entrance (פֶתַח) [to the residence] of our father Abraham, which all eyes (עֵינַיִם) looked forward to see. [From Sotah 10a]   ותשב בפתח עינים: בפתיחת עינים, בפרשת דרכים שעל דרך תמנתה. ורבותינו דרשו בפתחו של אברהם אבינו שכל עינים מצפות לראותו:
for she saw that Shelah had grown up, etc.: Therefore, she made herself available to Judah, for she longed to bear sons from him.   כי ראתה כי גדל שלה וגו': לפיכך הפקירה עצמה אצל יהודה, שהיתה מתאוה להעמיד ממנו בנים:
15When Judah saw her, he thought she was a harlot, because she covered her face.   טווַיִּרְאֶהָ יְהוּדָה וַיַּחְשְׁבֶהָ לְזוֹנָה כִּי כִסְּתָה פָּנֶיהָ:
he thought she was a harlot: because she was sitting at the crossroads.   ויחשבה לזונה: לפי שיושבת בפרשת דרכים:
because she covered her face: and he could not see her and recognize her. Our Sages midrashic interpretation is: because she had covered her face when she had stayed in her father-in-law’s house and she was modest. Therefore, he did not suspect her. [From Sotah 10b]   כי כסתה פניה: ולא יכול לראותה ולהכירה. ומדרש רבותינו כי כסתה פניה כשהיתה בבית חמיה היתה צנועה, לפיכך לא חשדה:
16So he turned aside toward her to the road, and he said, "Get ready now, I will come to you," for he did not know that she was his daughter in law, and she said, "What will you give me that you should come to me?"   טזוַיֵּט אֵלֶיהָ אֶל הַדֶּרֶךְ וַיֹּאמֶר הָבָה נָּא אָבוֹא אֵלַיִךְ כִּי לֹא יָדַע כִּי כַלָּתוֹ הִוא וַתֹּאמֶר מַה תִּתֶּן לִי כִּי תָבוֹא אֵלָי:
So he turned aside toward her to the road: From the road he was following, he turned aside to the road where she was. In Old French, destorner, to turn aside.   ויט אליה אל הדרך: מדרך שהיה בה נטה אל הדרך אשר היא בה, ובלשון לע"ז דשטולי"ר [לסטות]:
“Get ready now…”: Prepare yourself and your mind for this. Every expression of הָבָה signifies preparation, except where it can be translated as an expression of giving, and even those instances [of הָבָה] meaning preparation are close to an expression of giving.   הבה נא: הכיני עצמך ודעתך לכך. כל לשון הבה לשון הזמנה הוא, חוץ ממקום שיש לתרגמו בלשון נתינה, ואף אותן של הזמנה קרובים ללשון נתינה הם:
17And he said, "I will send a kid from the herd," and she said, "[Only] if you give me a pledge until you send [it]."   יזוַיֹּאמֶר אָנֹכִי אֲשַׁלַּח גְּדִי עִזִּים מִן הַצֹּאן וַתֹּאמֶר אִם תִּתֵּן עֵרָבוֹן עַד שָׁלְחֶךָ:
a pledge: Heb. עֵרָבוֹן, security. [From Targum Onkelos]   ערבון: משכון:
18So he said, "What is the pledge that I should give you?" And she said, "Your signet, your cloak, and the staff that is in your hand." So he gave them to her, and he came to her, and she conceived his likeness.   יחוַיֹּאמֶר מָה הָעֵרָבוֹן אֲשֶׁר אֶתֶּן לָךְ וַתֹּאמֶר חֹתָמְךָ וּפְתִילֶךָ וּמַטְּךָ אֲשֶׁר בְּיָדֶךָ וַיִּתֶּן לָהּ וַיָּבֹא אֵלֶיהָ וַתַּהַר לוֹ:
Your signet, your cloak: Heb. וּפְתִיל‏ ֶחֹתָמ‏ְ [Onkelos renders:] עִזְקָת‏ ָוְשׁוֹשִׁיפ‏ָ. Your ring, with which you seal, and your cloak, with which you cover yourself.   חתמך ופתילך: עזקתך ושושיפך, טבעת שאתה חותם בה, ושמלתך שאתה מתכסה בה:
and she conceived his likeness: lit.,“and she conceived to him.” Mighty men like him, righteous men like him. [From Gen. Rabbah 85:9]   ותהר לו: גבורים כיוצא בו, צדיקים כיוצא בו:  
19Then she arose and went away, and she took off her veil, and she donned her widow's garb.   יטוַתָּקָם וַתֵּלֶךְ וַתָּסַר צְעִיפָהּ מֵעָלֶיהָ וַתִּלְבַּשׁ בִּגְדֵי אַלְמְנוּתָהּ:
20And Judah sent the kid by the hand of his Adullamite friend to take the pledge from the woman's hand, but he did not find her.   כוַיִּשְׁלַח יְהוּדָה אֶת גְּדִי הָעִזִּים בְּיַד רֵעֵהוּ הָעֲדֻלָּמִי לָקַחַת הָעֵרָבוֹן מִיַּד הָאִשָּׁה וְלֹא מְצָאָהּ:
21So he asked the people of the place, saying, "Where is the harlot who was at the crossroads on the way?" and they said, "No harlot was here."   כאוַיִּשְׁאַל אֶת אַנְשֵׁי מְקֹמָהּ לֵאמֹר אַיֵּה הַקְּדֵשָׁה הִוא בָעֵינַיִם עַל הַדָּרֶךְ וַיֹּאמְרוּ לֹא הָיְתָה בָזֶה קְדֵשָׁה:
the harlot: Heb. הַקְדֵשָׁה, prepared (מְקֻדֶשֶׁת) and ready for harlotry.   הקדשה: מקודשת ומזומנת לזנות:
22So he returned to Judah, and he said, "I have not found her, and the people of the place also said, 'No harlot was here.' "   כבוַיָּשָׁב אֶל יְהוּדָה וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא מְצָאתִיהָ וְגַם אַנְשֵׁי הַמָּקוֹם אָמְרוּ לֹא הָיְתָה בָזֶה קְדֵשָׁה:
23So Judah said, "Let her take [them] for herself, lest we become a laughingstock. Behold, I sent this kid, but you did not find her."   כגוַיֹּאמֶר יְהוּדָה תִּקַּח לָהּ פֶּן נִהְיֶה לָבוּז הִנֵּה שָׁלַחְתִּי הַגְּדִי הַזֶּה וְאַתָּה לֹא מְצָאתָהּ:
Let her take [them] for herself: Let her keep what she has.   תקח לה: יהיה שלה מה שבידה:
lest we become a laughingstock: If you seek her further, the matter will become known, and it will be a disgrace, for what more am I required to do to keep my word?   פן נהיה לבוז: אם תבקשנה עוד יתפרסם הדבר ויהיה גנאי, כי מה עלי לעשות עוד לאמת דברי:
Behold, I sent this kid: Since Judah had deceived his father with the kid in whose blood he immersed Joseph’s coat, he too was deceived with a kid. [From Gen. Rabbah 85:9]   הנה שלחתי הגדי הזה: לפי שרימה יהודה את אביו בגדי עזים, שהטביל כתנת יוסף בדמו, רמוהו גם אותו בגדי עזים:
24Now it came about after nearly three months, that it was told to Judah, saying, "Your daughter in law Tamar has played the harlot, and behold, she is pregnant from harlotry." So Judah said, "Bring her out, and let her be burned."   כדוַיְהִי | כְּמִשְׁלשׁ חֳדָשִׁים וַיֻּגַּד לִיהוּדָה לֵאמֹר זָנְתָה תָּמָר כַּלָּתֶךָ וְגַם הִנֵּה הָרָה לִזְנוּנִים וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוּדָה הוֹצִיאוּהָ וְתִשָּׂרֵף:
Now it came about after nearly three months: Heb. כְּמִשְׁלשׁ חֳדָשִׁים. The greater part of the first, the greater part of the third, and the complete middle one. The expression כְּמִשְׁלשׁ חֳדָשִׁים means, “upon the tripling of the months,” like“sending portions (מִשְׁלוֹח ַמָנוֹת)” (Esther 9:19)"[and] shall they stretch forth their hand (מִשְׁלוֹח ַיָדָם) (Isa. 11: 14) (lit., the stretching forth of their hand). And so did Onkelos render: כְּתַלְתוּת יַרְחַיָא, at the tripling of the months. [From Gen. Rabbah 85:10]   כמשלש חדשים: רובו של ראשון ורובו של אחרון ואמצעי שלם, ולשון כמשלש חדשים, כהשתלש החדשים, כמו (אסתר ט כב) ומשלוח מנות, (ישעיה יא יד) משלוח ידם, וכן תרגם אונקלוס כתלתות ירחיא:
she is pregnant from harlotry: Heb. הָרָה. This is an adjective, “pregnant,” like“a pregnant (הָרָה) woman” (Exod. 21:22), and like“clear (בָּרָה) as the sun” (Song 6:10).   הרה לזנונים: שם דבר, מעוברת כמו (שמות כא כב) אשה הרה, וכמו (שה"ש ו י) ברה כחמה:
and let her be burned: Ephraim Miksha’ah said in the name of Rabbi Meir: She was the daughter of Shem, who was a priest. Therefore, they sentenced her to be burned. [From Gen. Rabbah 85:10]   ותשרף: אמר אפרים מקשאה משום רבי מאיר בתו של שם היתה, שהוא כהן, לפיכך דנוה בשרפה:
25She was taken out, and she sent to her father in law, saying, "From the man to whom these belong I am pregnant," and she said, "Please recognize whose signet ring, cloak, and staff are these?"   כההִוא מוּצֵאת וְהִיא שָׁלְחָה אֶל חָמִיהָ לֵאמֹר לְאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר אֵלֶּה לּוֹ אָנֹכִי הָרָה וַתֹּאמֶר הַכֶּר נָא לְמִי הַחֹתֶמֶת וְהַפְּתִילִים וְהַמַּטֶּה הָאֵלֶּה:
She was taken out: to be burned [from targumim]   הוא מוצאת: לישרף:
and she sent to her father-in-law: She did not want to embarrass him and say, “From you I am pregnant,” but, “From the man to whom these belong.” She said, “If he confesses by himself, let him confess, and if not, let them burn me, but I will not embarrass him.” From this they (our Rabbis) said,“It is better for a person to be cast into a fiery furnace than to embarrass his fellow in public.” [from Sotah 10b]   והיא שלחה אל חמיה: לא רצתה להלבין פניו ולומר ממך אני מעוברת, אלא לאיש אשר אלה לו, אמרה אם יודה מעצמו, יודה, ואם לאו ישרפוני, ואל אלבין פניו. מכאן אמרו נוח לו לאדם שיפילוהו לכבשן האש ואל ילבין פני חבירו ברבים:
Please recognize: Heb. הַכֶּר-נָא. נָא is only an expression of supplication. “Please recognize your Creator and do not destroy three souls.” [from Sotah 10b, Gen. Rabbah 85:11]   הכר נא: אין נא אלא לשון בקשה, הכר נא בוראך ואל תאבד שלש נפשות:
26Then Judah recognized [them], and he said, "She is right, [it is] from me, because I did not give her to my son Shelah." But he no longer continued to be intimate with her.   כווַיַּכֵּר יְהוּדָה וַיֹּאמֶר צָדְקָה מִמֶּנִּי כִּי עַל כֵּן לֹא נְתַתִּיהָ לְשֵׁלָה בְנִי וְלֹא יָסַף עוֹד לְדַעְתָּהּ:
She is right: in what she said.   צדקה: בדבריה:
from me: she is pregnant (Targum Onkelos). Our Sages, however, explained this midrashically to mean that a “bath-kol” came forth and declared,“From Me and from within Me these matters have emerged. Since she was modest in her father-in-law’s house, I decreed that kings should be descended from her, and from the tribe of Judah I [already] decreed to raise up kings in Israel.” [from Sotah 10b]   ממני: היא מעוברת. ורבותינו ז"ל דרשו שיצאה בת קול ואמרה ממני ומאתי יצאו הדברים, לפי שהיתה צנועה בבית חמיה גזרתי שיצאו ממנה מלכים, ומשבט יהודה גזרתי להעמיד מלכים בישראל:
because I did not give her to my son Shelah: For she did this justifiably, because I did not give her to my son Shelah. [From Bereishith Rabbathi]   כי על כן לא נתתיה: כי בדין עשתה, על אשר לא נתתיה לשלה בני:
But he no longer continued: Heb. וְלֹא-יָסַף. Some say: he did not continue [to know her] (Targum Onkelos), and others say: he did not cease (Sotah 10b). (A similar instance is found in connection with Eldad and Medad (Num. 11:25), [where the verse reads:] וְלֹא יָסָפוּ, they did not continue, which the Targum renders: וְלֹא פָסְקוּ, they did not cease).   ולא יסף עוד: יש אומרים לא הוסיף. ויש אומרים לא פסק [וחבירו גבי אלדד ומידד (במדבר יא כה) ולא יספו, ומתרגמינן ולא פסקו]:
27And it came about at the time she was giving birth, that behold, there were twins in her womb.   כזוַיְהִי בְּעֵת לִדְתָּהּ וְהִנֵּה תְאוֹמִים בְּבִטְנָהּ:
at the time she was giving birth: But concerning Rebecca, Scripture states:“And her days to give birth were completed” (Gen. 25:24). In the latter instance, the months were complete, but here they were short of full term. [From Gen. Rabbah 85:13]   בעת לדתה: וברבקה הוא אומר (כב כד) וימלאו ימיה ללדת, להלן למלאים וכאן לחסרים:
behold, there were twins: This is written with the full spelling (תאוֹמִים); in the other instance, [with Rebecca,] it is written defectively (תוֹמִם), because one [child, Esau,] was wicked, but these [twins] were both righteous. [From Gen. Rabbah 85:13]   והנה תאומים: מלא, ולהלן (כה כד) תומים, חסר, לפי שהאחד רשע, אבל אלו שניהם צדיקים:
28And it came about when she gave birth, that he (the infant) stretched out his hand. So the midwife took and bound a crimson thread on his hand, saying, "This one came out first."   כחוַיְהִי בְלִדְתָּהּ וַיִּתֶּן יָד וַתִּקַּח הַמְיַלֶּדֶת וַתִּקְשֹׁר עַל יָדוֹ שָׁנִי לֵאמֹר זֶה יָצָא רִאשֹׁנָה:
that he (the infant) stretched out his hand: One of them stretched his hand to the outside, and after she (the midwife) bound the crimson thread on it, he drew it back.   ויתן יד: הוציא האחד ידו לחוץ, ולאחר שקשרה על ידו השני החזירה:
29And it came about, as he was drawing back his hand, behold, his brother emerged, and she said, "With what strength you have strengthened yourself!" And he (Judah) named him Perez.   כטוַיְהִי | כְּמֵשִׁיב יָדוֹ וְהִנֵּה יָצָא אָחִיו וַתֹּאמֶר מַה פָּרַצְתָּ עָלֶיךָ פָּרֶץ וַיִּקְרָא שְׁמוֹ פָּרֶץ:
you have strengthened yourself: Heb. פָּרַצְתָּ with what strength you have strengthened yourself! [from Targum Onkelos]   פרצת: חזקת עליך חוזק:
30Afterwards, his brother emerged, the one upon whose hand was the crimson thread, and he named him Zerah.   לוְאַחַר יָצָא אָחִיו אֲשֶׁר עַל יָדוֹ הַשָּׁנִי וַיִּקְרָא שְׁמוֹ זָרַח:
the one upon whose hand was the crimson thread: Four hands are written here, corresponding to the four devoted things (charamim) by which Achan, who was descended from him (Zerah), committed a trespass. Some say [that they] correspond to the four things that he took: a Babylonish garment, two pieces of silver weighing two hundred shekels, and a wedge of gold (Jos. 7:21) (Gen. Rabbah 85:14).   אשר על ידו השני: ארבע ידות כתובות כאן כנגד ארבעה חרמים שמעל עכן שיצא ממנו. ויש אומרים כנגד ארבעה דברים שלקח, (יהושע ז כא) אדרת שנער, ושני חתיכות כסף של מאתים שקלים, ולשון זהב אחד:
and he named him Zerah: because of the shining appearance (זְרִיחַת) of the crimson.   ויקרא שמו זרח: על שם זריחת מראית השני:
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