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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Bereishit - Genesis - Chapter 34

Bereishit - Genesis - Chapter 34

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 34

1. Dinah, the daughter of Leah, whom she had borne to Jacob, went out to look about among the daughters of the land.   א. וַתֵּצֵא דִינָה בַּת לֵאָה אֲשֶׁר יָלְדָה לְיַעֲקֹב לִרְאוֹת בִּבְנוֹת הָאָרֶץ:
the daughter of Leah: And not the daughter of Jacob? However, because of her going out she was called the daughter of Leah, since she (Leah) too was in the habit of going out, as it is said: “and Leah came forth toward him” (above 30:16). [from Tanchuma Vayishlach 7] (And concerning her, they devise the proverb: Like mother like daughter.) - [Gen. Rabbah 80:1]   בת לאה: ולא בת יעקב, אלא על שם יציאתה נקראת בת לאה, שאף היא יצאנית היתה, שנאמר (ל טז) ותצא לאה לקראתו (ועליה משלו המשל (יחזקאל טז מד) כאמה כבתה):
2. And Shechem the son of Hamor, the Hivvite, the prince of the land, saw her, and he took her, lay with her, and violated her.   ב. וַיַּרְא אֹתָהּ שְׁכֶם בֶּן חֲמוֹר הַחִוִּי נְשִׂיא הָאָרֶץ וַיִּקַּח אֹתָהּ וַיִּשְׁכַּב אֹתָהּ וַיְעַנֶּהָ:
lay with her: in a natural way. — [from Gen. Rabbah 80:5]   וישכב אתה: כדרכה:
and violated her: Heb. וַיְעַנֶהָ, lit., and afflicted her. [I.e. he was intimate with her] in an unnatural way. — [from Gen. Rabbah 80: 5]   ויענה: שלא כדרכה:
3. And his soul cleaved to Dinah the daughter of Jacob; he loved the girl and spoke to the girl's heart.   ג. וַתִּדְבַּק נַפְשׁוֹ בְּדִינָה בַּת יַעֲקֹב וַיֶּאֱהַב אֶת הַנַּעֲרָה וַיְדַבֵּר עַל לֵב הַנַּעֲרָה:
and spoke to the girl’s heart: [I.e. he spoke] seductive words,“Look how much money your father squandered for a small parcel of land. I will marry you, and you will acquire the city and all its fields.” - [from Gen. Rabbah 80:7]   על לב הנערה: דברים המתיישבין על הלב, ראי אביך בחלקת שדה קטנה כמה ממון בזבז, אני אשיאך ותקנה העיר וכל שדותיה: 
4. And Shechem spoke to his father Hamor saying, "Take this girl for me as a wife."   ד. וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁכֶם אֶל חֲמוֹר אָבִיו לֵאמֹר קַח לִי אֶת הַיַּלְדָּה הַזֹּאת לְאִשָּׁה:
5. Jacob had heard that he had defiled his daughter Dinah, but his sons were with his livestock in the field, and Jacob kept silent until they came [home].   ה. וְיַעֲקֹב שָׁמַע כִּי טִמֵּא אֶת דִּינָה בִתּוֹ וּבָנָיו הָיוּ אֶת מִקְנֵהוּ בַּשָּׂדֶה וְהֶחֱרִשׁ יַעֲקֹב עַד בֹּאָם:
6. And Hamor, the father of Shechem, went out to Jacob to speak with him.   ו. וַיֵּצֵא חֲמוֹר אֲבִי שְׁכֶם אֶל יַעֲקֹב לְדַבֵּר אִתּוֹ:
7. And Jacob's sons had come from the field when they heard, and the men were grieved, and they burned fiercely, because he had committed a scandalous act in Israel, to lie with a daughter of Jacob, and such ought not to be done.   ז. וּבְנֵי יַעֲקֹב בָּאוּ מִן הַשָּׂדֶה כְּשָׁמְעָם וַיִּתְעַצְּבוּ הָאֲנָשִׁים וַיִּחַר לָהֶם מְאֹד כִּי נְבָלָה עָשָׂה בְיִשְׂרָאֵל לִשְׁכַּב אֶת בַּת יַעֲקֹב וְכֵן לֹא יֵעָשֶׂה:
and such ought not to be done-: to violate virgins, for the nations (the general population) had refrained from illicit relationships because of the Flood. — [from Gen. Rabbah 80:7]   וכן לא יעשה: לענות את הבתולות, שהאומות גדרו עצמן מן העריות על ידי המבול:
8. And Hamor spoke with them, saying, "My son Shechem his soul has a liking for your daughter. Please give her to him for a wife.   ח. וַיְדַבֵּר חֲמוֹר אִתָּם לֵאמֹר שְׁכֶם בְּנִי חָשְׁקָה נַפְשׁוֹ בְּבִתְּכֶם תְּנוּ נָא אֹתָהּ לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה:
has a liking: He desires.   חשקה: חפצה: 
9. And intermarry with us; you shall give us your daughters, and you shall take our daughters for yourselves.   ט. וְהִתְחַתְּנוּ אֹתָנוּ בְּנֹתֵיכֶם תִּתְּנוּ לָנוּ וְאֶת בְּנֹתֵינוּ תִּקְחוּ לָכֶם:
10. And you shall dwell with us, and the land shall be before you; remain, do business there and settle there."   י. וְאִתָּנוּ תֵּשֵׁבוּ וְהָאָרֶץ תִּהְיֶה לִפְנֵיכֶם שְׁבוּ וּסְחָרוּהָ וְהֵאָחֲזוּ בָּהּ:
11. And Shechem said to her father and to her brothers, "May I find favor in your eyes. Whatever you tell me I will give.   יא. וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁכֶם אֶל אָבִיהָ וְאֶל אַחֶיהָ אֶמְצָא חֵן בְּעֵינֵיכֶם וַאֲשֶׁר תֹּאמְרוּ אֵלַי אֶתֵּן:
12. Impose upon me a large marriage settlement and gifts, and I will give as [much as] you ask of me, but give me the girl for a wife."   יב. הַרְבּוּ עָלַי מְאֹד מֹהַר וּמַתָּן וְאֶתְּנָה כַּאֲשֶׁר תֹּאמְרוּ אֵלָי וּתְנוּ לִי אֶת הַנַּעֲרָ לְאִשָּׁה:
marriage settlement: Kethubah- [from Mechilta Mishpatim, Nezikin 17]   מהר: כתובה:
13. Thereupon, Jacob's sons answered Shechem and his father Hamor with cunning, and they spoke, because [after all] he had defiled their sister Dinah.   יג. וַיַּעֲנוּ בְנֵי יַעֲקֹב אֶת שְׁכֶם וְאֶת חֲמוֹר אָבִיו בְּמִרְמָה וַיְדַבֵּרוּ אֲשֶׁר טִמֵּא אֵת דִּינָה אֲחֹתָם:
with cunning: Heb. בְּמִרְמָה, with cunning. — [from Targum Onkelos]   במרמה: בחכמה:
because [after all] he had defiled: Scripture states that this was not trickery because [after all] he had defiled their sister Dinah. — [from Gen. Rabbah 80:8]   אשר טמא: הכתוב אומר שלא היתה רמיה, שהרי טמא את דינה אחותם:
14. And they said to them, "We cannot do this thing, to give our sister to a man who has a foreskin, for that is a disgrace to us.   יד. וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֲלֵיהֶם לֹא נוּכַל לַעֲשׂוֹת הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה לָתֵת אֶת אֲחֹתֵנוּ לְאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר לוֹ עָרְלָה כִּי חֶרְפָּה הִוא לָנוּ:
for that is a disgrace to us: To us, it is a defect. If someone wishes to insult another person, he says, “You are uncircumcised,” or“[You are] the son of an uncircumcised person.” Wherever חֶרְפָּה is mentioned, it is an [expression of] insult.   חרפה הוא: שמץ פסול הוא אצלנו, הבא לחרף חבירו הוא אומר לו ערל אתה, או בן ערל. חרפה בכל מקום גדוף:
15. But with this, however, we will consent to you, if you will be like us, that every male will be circumcised.   טו. אַךְ בְּזֹאת נֵאוֹת לָכֶם אִם תִּהְיוּ כָמֹנוּ לְהִמֹּל לָכֶם כָּל זָכָר:
we will consent to you: Heb. נֵאוֹת. We will consent to you, an expression like (וַיֵאֹתוּ הַכֹּהִנִים) ,“And (the priests) consented,” (in connection with Jehoiada) (II Kings 12:9).   נאות לכם: נתרצה לכם, לשון (מ"ב יב ט) ויאותו:
will be circumcised: Heb. לְהִמֹל, lit., to be circumcised. This is not in the active voice but in the passive.   להמול: להיות נמול, אינו לשון לפעול אלא לשון להפעל:
16. Then we will give you our daughters, and we will take your daughters for ourselves, and we will dwell with you and become one people.   טז. וְנָתַנּוּ אֶת בְּנֹתֵינוּ לָכֶם וְאֶת בְּנֹתֵיכֶם נִקַּח לָנוּ וְיָשַׁבְנוּ אִתְּכֶם וְהָיִינוּ לְעַם אֶחָד:
Then we will give: Heb. וְנָתַנוּ. The second “nun” is punctuated with a “dagesh,” because it serves instead of two“nuns,” [like] וְנָתַנְנוּ.   ונתנו: נו"ן שניה מודגשת, לפי שהיא משמשת במקום שתי נוני"ן ונתננו:
and we will take your daughters for ourselves: You find in the stipulation that Hamor suggested to Jacob, and in the reply of Jacob’s sons to Hamor, that they [Hamor and Shechem] attached importance to Jacob’s sons, [allowing them] to take whomever of the daughters of Shechem they would choose for themselves, and their daughters they would give to them [the people of Shechem], as they (the sons of Jacob) wished, for it is written: “Then we will give you our daughters,” as we wish, “and we will take your daughters for ourselves,” however we wish. But, when Hamor and his son Shechem spoke to their townsmen, they reversed the matter, [and said (verse 21),]“We will take their daughters for ourselves as wives, and our daughters we will give them,” in order to appease them (the townsmen), that they would consent to be circumcised.   ואת בנותיכם נקח לנו: אתה מוצא בתנאי שאמר חמור ליעקב ובתשובת בני יעקב לחמור שתלו החשיבות בבני יעקב, ליקח בנות שכם את שיבחרו להם ובנותיהם יתנו להם לפי דעתם, דכתיב ונתנו את בנותינו, לפי דעתינו, ואת בנותיכם נקח לנו, ככל אשר נחפוץ. וכשדברו חמור ושכם בנו אל יושבי עירם הפכו הדברים (פסוק כא) את בנותם נקח לנו לנשים ואת בנותינו נתן להם, כדי לרצותם שיאותו להמול:   
17. But if you do not listen to us to be circumcised, we will take our daughter and go."   יז. וְאִם לֹא תִשְׁמְעוּ אֵלֵינוּ לְהִמּוֹל וְלָקַחְנוּ אֶת בִּתֵּנוּ וְהָלָכְנוּ:
18. Their words pleased Hamor and Shechem, the son of Hamor.   יח. וַיִּיטְבוּ דִבְרֵיהֶם בְּעֵינֵי חֲמוֹר וּבְעֵינֵי שְׁכֶם בֶּן חֲמוֹר:
19. And the young man did not delay to do the thing because he desired Jacob's daughter, and he was the most honored in all his father's household.   יט. וְלֹא אֵחַר הַנַּעַר לַעֲשׂוֹת הַדָּבָר כִּי חָפֵץ בְּבַת יַעֲקֹב וְהוּא נִכְבָּד מִכֹּל בֵּית אָבִיו:
20. And Hamor and his son Shechem came to the gate of their city, and they spoke to the people of their city, saying,   כ. וַיָּבֹא חֲמוֹר וּשְׁכֶם בְּנוֹ אֶל שַׁעַר עִירָם וַיְדַבְּרוּ אֶל אַנְשֵׁי עִירָם לֵאמֹר:
21. "These men are peaceful with us, and they will dwell in the land and do business there, and the land behold it is spacious enough for them. We will take their daughters for ourselves as wives, and we will give them our daughters.   כא. הָאֲנָשִׁים הָאֵלֶּה שְׁלֵמִים הֵם אִתָּנוּ וְיֵשְׁבוּ בָאָרֶץ וְיִסְחֲרוּ אֹתָהּ וְהָאָרֶץ הִנֵּה רַחֲבַת יָדַיִם לִפְנֵיהֶם אֶת בְּנֹתָם נִקַּח לָנוּ לְנָשִׁים וְאֶת בְּנֹתֵינוּ נִתֵּן לָהֶם:
These men are peaceful with us: Heb. שְׁלֵמִים. With peace and sincerity.   שלמים: בשלום ובלב שלם:
and the land-behold it is spacious enough: [The metaphor is that of] a person whose hand is wide and generous. That is to say: You will not lose anything [if they trade here]. Plenty of merchandise comes here, and there is no one to purchase it.   והארץ הנה רחבת ידים: כאדם שידו רחבה וותרנית, כלומר לא תפסידו כלום, פרקמטיא הרבה באה לכאן ואין לה קונים:
22. However, [only] with this [condition] will the men consent to dwell with us, to become one people, by every male among us being circumcised, just as they are circumcised.   כב. אַךְ בְּזֹאת יֵאֹתוּ לָנוּ הָאֲנָשִׁים לָשֶׁבֶת אִתָּנוּ לִהְיוֹת לְעַם אֶחָד בְּהִמּוֹל לָנוּ כָּל זָכָר כַּאֲשֶׁר הֵם נִמֹּלִים:
by…being circumcised: Heb. בְּהִמוֹל, by being circumcised.   בהמול: בהיות נמול:
23. Then shall not their cattle, their property, and all their beasts be ours? But let us consent to them, and they will dwell with us."   כג. מִקְנֵהֶם וְקִנְיָנָם וְכָל בְּהֶמְתָּם הֲלוֹא לָנוּ הֵם אַךְ נֵאוֹתָה לָהֶם וְיֵשְׁבוּ אִתָּנוּ:
But let us consent to them: regarding this matter, and thereby, they will dwell with us.   אך נאותה להם: לדבר זה, ועל ידי כן ישבו אתנו:
24. And all those coming out of the gate of his city listened to Hamor and his son Shechem, and every male, all who went out of the gate of his city, became circumcised.   כד. וַיִּשְׁמְעוּ אֶל חֲמוֹר וְאֶל שְׁכֶם בְּנוֹ כָּל יֹצְאֵי שַׁעַר עִירוֹ וַיִּמֹּלוּ כָּל זָכָר כָּל יֹצְאֵי שַׁעַר עִירוֹ:
25. Now it came to pass on the third day, when they were in pain, that Jacob's two sons, Simeon and Levi, Dinah's brothers, each took his sword, and they came upon the city with confidence, and they slew every male.   כה. וַיְהִי בַיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי בִּהְיוֹתָם כֹּאֲבִים וַיִּקְחוּ שְׁנֵי בְנֵי יַעֲקֹב שִׁמְעוֹן וְלֵוִי אֲחֵי דִינָה אִישׁ חַרְבּוֹ וַיָּבֹאוּ עַל הָעִיר בֶּטַח וַיַּהַרְגוּ כָּל זָכָר:
Jacob’s two sons: They were his sons, but nevertheless, Simeon and Levi conducted themselves like other people, who were not his sons, for they did not take counsel with him. — [from Gen. Rabbah 80:10]   שני בני יעקב: בניו היו, ואף על פי כן נהגו עצמן שמעון ולוי, כשאר אנשים שאינם בניו, שלא נטלו עצה הימנו:
Dinah’s brothers: Since they risked their lives for her, they were called her brothers. — [from Gen. Rabbah 80:10]   אחי דינה: לפי שמסרו עצמן עליה נקראו אחיה:
with confidence: Because they (the townsmen) were in pain. The Aggadah (Gen. Rabbah 80:10) says: They were confident in the strength of the elder (Jacob).   בטח: שהיו כואבים. ומדרש אגדה בטוחים היו על כחו של זקן:
26. And Hamor and his son Shechem they slew with the edge of the sword, and they took Dinah out of Shechem's house and left.   כו. וְאֶת חֲמוֹר וְאֶת שְׁכֶם בְּנוֹ הָרְגוּ לְפִי חָרֶב וַיִּקְחוּ אֶת דִּינָה מִבֵּית שְׁכֶם וַיֵּצֵאוּ:
27. Jacob's sons came upon the slain and plundered the city that had defiled their sister.   כז. בְּנֵי יַעֲקֹב בָּאוּ עַל הַחֲלָלִים וַיָּבֹזּוּ הָעִיר אֲשֶׁר טִמְּאוּ אֲחוֹתָם:
upon the slain: to strip the slain. [from Targum Onkelos]   על החללים: לפשט את החללים:
28. Their flocks and their cattle and their donkeys, and whatever was in the city and whatever was in the field they took.   כח. אֶת צֹאנָם וְאֶת בְּקָרָם וְאֶת חֲמֹרֵיהֶם וְאֵת אֲשֶׁר בָּעִיר וְאֶת אֲשֶׁר בַּשָּׂדֶה לָקָחוּ:
29. And all their wealth and all their infants and their wives they captured and plundered, and all that was in the house.   כט. וְאֶת כָּל חֵילָם וְאֶת כָּל טַפָּם וְאֶת נְשֵׁיהֶם שָׁבוּ וַיָּבֹזּוּ וְאֵת כָּל אֲשֶׁר בַּבָּיִת:
And all their wealth: Heb. חֵילָם, their money, and similarly;“amassed this wealth (הַחַיִל) for me” (Deut. 8:17);“and Israel amasses wealth (חָיִל)” (Num. 24: 18);“and leave over their possessions (חֵילָם) to others” (Ps. 49:11).   חילם: ממונם וכן (דברים ח יז) עשה לי את החיל הזה, (במדבר כד יח) וישראל עושה חיל, (תהלים מט יא) ועזבו לאחרים חילם:
they captured: Heb. שָׁבוּ, a term denoting captivity. Therefore, the accent is on the latter syllable. — [from Targum Onkelos]   שבו: לשון שביה [לפיכך טעמו מלרע]:
30. Thereupon, Jacob said to Simeon and to Levi, "You have troubled me, to discredit me among the inhabitants of the land, among the Canaanites and among the Perizzites, and I am few in number, and they will gather against me, and I and my household will be destroyed."   ל. וַיֹּאמֶר יַעֲקֹב אֶל שִׁמְעוֹן וְאֶל לֵוִי עֲכַרְתֶּם אֹתִי לְהַבְאִישֵׁנִי בְּישֵׁב הָאָרֶץ בַּכְּנַעֲנִי וּבַפְּרִזִּי וַאֲנִי מְתֵי מִסְפָּר וְנֶאֶסְפוּ עָלַי וְהִכּוּנִי וְנִשְׁמַדְתִּי אֲנִי וּבֵיתִי:
You have troubled me: Heb. עִכַרְתֶּם, an expression denoting murky water [meaning that] now my mind is not clear [without worry]. The Aggadah (Gen. Rabbah 80: 12) [explains]: The barrel was clear, but you have made it murky. (I.e., I saw our way clear to co-exist with the Canaanites, but now you have spoiled the possibility to do so.) The Canaanites had a tradition that they would fall into the hands of Jacob’s sons, but they said [that this would only happen],“Until you are fruitful and inherit the land” (Exod. 23:30). Therefore, they have been silent.   עכרתם: לשון מים עכורים, אין דעתי צלולה עכשיו. ואגדה צלולה היתה החבית ועכרתם אותה, מסורת היתה ביד כנענים שיפלו ביד בני יעקב, אלא שהיו אומרים (שמות כג ל) עד אשר תפרה ונחלת את הארץ, לפיכך היו שותקין:
few in number: few men.   מתי מספר: אנשים מועטים:
31. And they said, "Shall he make our sister like a harlot?"   לא. וַיֹּאמְרוּ הַכְזוֹנָה יַעֲשֶׂה אֶת אֲחוֹתֵנוּ:
like a harlot: Abandoned- [from Gen. Rabbah 80:12]   הכזונה: הפקר:
our sister: [Onkelos renders] יָת לַאֲחָתָנָא, our sister.   את אחותנו: ית אחתנא:
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