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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Bereishit - Genesis - Chapter 27

Bereishit - Genesis - Chapter 27

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 27

1. It came to pass when Isaac was old, and his eyes were too dim to see, that he called Esau his elder son, and he said to him, "My son," and he said to him, "Here I am."   א. וַיְהִי כִּי זָקֵן יִצְחָק וַתִּכְהֶיןָ עֵינָיו מֵרְאֹת וַיִּקְרָא אֶת עֵשָׂו | בְּנוֹ הַגָּדֹל וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו בְּנִי וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו הִנֵּנִי:
were too dim: Because of the smoke of these [wives of Esau] (who would burn [incense] to the idols) (Tanchuma, Toledoth 8; Pesiktha Rabbathi 12). Another explanation: When Isaac was bound on the altar, and his father was about to slaughter him, the heavens opened, and the ministering angels saw and wept, and their tears fell upon Isaac’s eyes. As a result, his eyes became dim (Gen. Rabbah 65:6). A third explanation: to enable Jacob to take the blessings (Gen. Rabbah 65:8).   ותכהין: בעשנן של אלו. דבר אחר כשנעקד על גבי המזבח והיה אביו רוצה לשחטו, באותה שעה נפתחו השמים וראו מלאכי השרת והיו בוכים וירדו דמעותיהם ונפלו על עיניו, לפיכך כהו עיניו. דבר אחר כדי שיטול יעקב את הברכות:
2. And he said, "Behold now, I have grown old; I do not know the day of my death.   ב. וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה נָא זָקַנְתִּי לֹא יָדַעְתִּי יוֹם מוֹתִי:
I do not know the day of my death: Rabbi Joshua ben Korchah said: If a person reaches the age of [the death of] his parents, he should worry five years beforehand and five years afterwards, and Isaac was one hundred and twenty-three years old. He said, “Perhaps I will reach the age of [the death of] my mother, and she died at one hundred and twenty-seven, and I am thus within five years of her age; therefore, ”I do not know the day of my death," -perhaps [I will die] at my mother’s age and perhaps at my father’s age. [From Gen. Rabbah 65:121]   לא ידעתי יום מותי: אמר רבי יהושע בן קרחה אם מגיע אדם לפרק אבותיו ידאג חמש שנים לפניהם וחמש לאחר כן, ויצחק היה בן מאה עשרים ושלש, אמר שמא לפרק אמי אני מגיע, והיא מתה בת מאה עשרים ושבע והריני בן חמש שנים סמוך לפרקה, לפיכך לא ידעתי יום מותי, שמא לפרק אמי, שמא לפרק אבא:
3. So, now, sharpen your implements, your sword [and take] your bow, and go forth to the field, and hunt game for me.   ג. וְעַתָּה שָׂא נָא כֵלֶיךָ תֶּלְיְךָ וְקַשְׁתֶּךָ וְצֵא הַשָּׂדֶה וְצוּדָה לִּי צָיִד:
your sword: Heb. תֶּלְי‏ְ, your sword, which is usually hung לִתְלוֹתָה.   תליך: חרבך שדרך לתלותה:
So, now, sharpen: שָׂא נָא an expression of sharpening, as we learned in the Mishnah (Beizah 28a):“We may not sharpen a knife [on a whet-stone] but we may sharpen it (מַשִּׂיאָה) against another one [on Yom-Tov].” [Isaac said]: “Sharpen your knife and slaughter properly, lest you feed me neveila ” [an animal not slaughtered according to ritual law] (Gen. Rabbah 65: 13).   שא נא: לשון השחזה כאותה ששנינו (ביצה כח א) אין משחיזין את הסכין אבל משיאה על גבי חברתה, חדד סכינך ושחוט יפה, שלא תאכילני נבלה:
and hunt for me: from ownerless [game], and not from stolen [animals]. [Gen. Rabbah 65:13]   וצודה לי: מן ההפקר ולא מן הגזל:
4. And make for me tasty foods as I like, and bring them to me, and I will eat, in order that my soul will bless you before I die."   ד. וַעֲשֵׂה לִי מַטְעַמִּים כַּאֲשֶׁר אָהַבְתִּי וְהָבִיאָה לִּי וְאֹכֵלָה בַּעֲבוּר תְּבָרֶכְךָ נַפְשִׁי בְּטֶרֶם אָמוּת:
5. But Rebecca overheard when Isaac spoke to Esau his son, and Esau went to the field to hunt game, to bring [it].   ה. וְרִבְקָה שֹׁמַעַת בְּדַבֵּר יִצְחָק אֶל עֵשָׂו בְּנוֹ וַיֵּלֶךְ עֵשָׂו הַשָּׂדֶה לָצוּד צַיִד לְהָבִיא:
to hunt game, to bring: What is the meaning of“to bring” ? If he would not find game, he intended to bring [meat] from stolen [animals]. - [from Gen. Rabbah 65:13]   לצוד ציד להביא: מהו להביא, אם לא ימצא ציד יביא מן הגזל:
6. And Rebecca said to Jacob her son, saying, "Behold I have heard your father speaking to Esau your brother, saying,   ו. וְרִבְקָה אָמְרָה אֶל יַעֲקֹב בְּנָהּ לֵאמֹר הִנֵּה שָׁמַעְתִּי אֶת אָבִיךָ מְדַבֵּר אֶל עֵשָׂו אָחִיךָ לֵאמֹר:
7. 'Bring me game and make me tasty foods, and I will eat, and I will bless you before the Lord before my death.'   ז. הָבִיאָה לִּי צַיִד וַעֲשֵׂה לִי מַטְעַמִּים וְאֹכֵלָה וַאֲבָרֶכְכָה לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה לִפְנֵי מוֹתִי:
before the Lord: with His consent, that He will approve of what I do.   לפני ה': ברשותו שיסכים על ידי:
8. And now my son, hearken to my voice, to what I am commanding you.   ח. וְעַתָּה בְנִי שְׁמַע בְּקֹלִי לַאֲשֶׁר אֲנִי מְצַוָּה אֹתָךְ:
9. Go now to the flock, and take for me from there two choice kids, and I will make them tasty foods for your father, as he likes.   ט. לֶךְ נָא אֶל הַצֹּאן וְקַח לִי מִשָּׁם שְׁנֵי גְּדָיֵי עִזִּים טֹבִים וְאֶעֱשֶׂה אֹתָם מַטְעַמִּים לְאָבִיךָ כַּאֲשֶׁר אָהֵב:
and take for me: [“לִי” indicates that] they are mine, and they are not stolen, because so had Isaac written for her in her marriage contract, that she might take two kids every day (Gen. Rabbah 65:14).   וקח לי: משלי הם ואינם גזל, שכך כתב לה יצחק בכתובתה ליטול שני גדיי עזים בכל יום:
two choice kids: Now did Isaac’s menu consist of two kids? But [the explanation is that] he sacrificed one as a Paschal offering, and one he made into tasty foods. [This is found] in Pirkei d’Rabbi Eliezer (ch. 32).   שני גדיי עזים: וכי שני גדיי עזים היה מאכלו של יצחק, אלא האחד הקריב לפסחו והאחד עשה מטעמים. בפרקי דרבי אליעזר (פרק לב):
as he likes: for the taste of a kid is like the taste of a deer.   כאשר אהב: כי טעם הגדי כטעם הצבי:
10. And you shall bring [them] to your father that he may eat, in order that he bless you before his death."   י. וְהֵבֵאתָ לְאָבִיךָ וְאָכָל בַּעֲבֻר אֲשֶׁר יְבָרֶכְךָ לִפְנֵי מוֹתוֹ:
11. And Jacob said to Rebecca his mother, "Behold, my brother Esau is a hairy man, whereas I am a smooth man.   יא. וַיֹּאמֶר יַעֲקֹב אֶל רִבְקָה אִמּוֹ הֵן עֵשָׂו אָחִי אִישׁ שָׂעִר וְאָנֹכִי אִישׁ חָלָק:
a hairy man: Heb. אִישׁ שָׂעִר, one possessing hair.   איש שער: בעל שער:
12. Perhaps my father will touch me, and I will appear to him as a deceiver, and I will bring upon myself a curse and not a blessing."   יב. אוּלַי יְמֻשֵּׁנִי אָבִי וְהָיִיתִי בְעֵינָיו כִּמְתַעְתֵּעַ וְהֵבֵאתִי עָלַי קְלָלָה וְלֹא בְרָכָה:
will touch me: Heb. יְמֻשֵּׁנִי, similar to (Deut. 28:29):“feeling (מְמַשֵּׁשׁ) at noon.”   ימשני: כמו (דברים כח כט) ממשש בצהרים:  
13. And his mother said to him, "On me is your curse, my son. Only hearken to my voice and go, take [them] for me."   יג. וַתֹּאמֶר לוֹ אִמּוֹ עָלַי קִלְלָתְךָ בְּנִי אַךְ שְׁמַע בְּקֹלִי וְלֵךְ קַח לִי:
14. So he went, and he took, and he brought [them] to his mother, and his mother made tasty foods, as his father liked.   יד. וַיֵּלֶךְ וַיִּקַּח וַיָּבֵא לְאִמּוֹ וַתַּעַשׂ אִמּוֹ מַטְעַמִּים כַּאֲשֶׁר אָהֵב אָבִיו:
15. And Rebecca took the costly garments of Esau, her elder son, which were with her in the house, and she dressed Jacob, her younger son.   טו. וַתִּקַּח רִבְקָה אֶת בִּגְדֵי עֵשָׂו בְּנָהּ הַגָּדֹל הַחֲמֻדֹת אֲשֶׁר אִתָּהּ בַּבָּיִת וַתַּלְבֵּשׁ אֶת יַעֲקֹב בְּנָהּ הַקָּטָן:
the costly: הַחַמוּדֹת [means] the clean ones, as the Targum renders: דַּכְיָתָא [clean ones]. Another explanation: The ones [garments] that he had coveted [שֶׁחָמַד] from Nimrod. [From Gen. Rabbah 65:16]   החמודות: הנקיות, כתרגומו דכייתא. דבר אחר שחמד אותן מן נמרוד:
which were with her in the house: But He [Esau] had many wives, [with whom to entrust his garments] and yet he entrusted them [his garments] with his mother?! He was well aware of their deeds, and he was suspicious of them. [From Gen. Rabbah 65:16]   אשר אתה בבית: והלא כמה נשים היו לו והוא מפקיד אצל אמו, אלא שהיה בקי במעשיהן וחושדן: 
16. And the hides of the kids she put on his hands and on the smoothness of his neck.   טז. וְאֵת עֹרֹת גְּדָיֵי הָעִזִּים הִלְבִּישָׁה עַל יָדָיו וְעַל חֶלְקַת צַוָּארָיו:
17. And she gave the tasty foods and the bread that she had made, into the hand of Jacob her son.   יז. וַתִּתֵּן אֶת הַמַּטְעַמִּים וְאֶת הַלֶּחֶם אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂתָה בְּיַד יַעֲקֹב בְּנָהּ:
18. And he came to his father and said, "My father!" And he said, "Here I am. Who are you, my son?"   יח. וַיָּבֹא אֶל אָבִיו וַיֹּאמֶר אָבִי וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֶּנִּי מִי אַתָּה בְּנִי:
19. And Jacob said to his father, "I am Esau your firstborn. I have done as you have spoken to me. Please rise, sit down and eat of my game, so that your soul will bless me."   יט. וַיֹּאמֶר יַעֲקֹב אֶל אָבִיו אָנֹכִי עֵשָׂו בְּכֹרֶךָ עָשִׂיתִי כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְתָּ אֵלָי קוּם נָא שְׁבָה וְאָכְלָה מִצֵּידִי בַּעֲבוּר תְּבָרֲכַנִּי נַפְשֶׁךָ:
I am…Esau…your firstborn: [He meant]: I am the one who is bringing you [food] and Esau is your firstborn. [From Tanchuma Buber]   אנכי עשו בכורך: אנכי המביא לך, ועשו הוא בכורך:
I have done: many things, as you have spoken to me.   עשיתי: כמה דברים כאשר דברת אלי:
sit down: Heb. שְׁבָה, an expression of sitting around the table [at a meal]. Therefore, it is rendered [by Onkelos] אִסְתְּחַר.   שבה: לשון מיסב על השלחן, לכך מתורגם אסתחר:
20. And Isaac said to his son, "How is it that you have found [it] so quickly, my son?" And he said, "Because the Lord your God prepared it before me."   כ. וַיֹּאמֶר יִצְחָק אֶל בְּנוֹ מַה זֶּה מִהַרְתָּ לִמְצֹא בְּנִי וַיֹּאמֶר כִּי הִקְרָה יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְפָנָי:
21. And Isaac said to Jacob, "Please come closer, so that I may feel you, my son, whether you are really my son Esau or not."   כא. וַיֹּאמֶר יִצְחָק אֶל יַעֲקֹב גְּשָׁה נָּא וַאֲמֻשְׁךָ בְּנִי הַאַתָּה זֶה בְּנִי עֵשָׂו אִם לֹא:
Please come closer, so that I may feel you: Isaac said to himself, “Esau does not usually mention the name of Heaven with frequency, but this one said: ‘Because the Lord your God prepared it….’” [from Gen. Rabbah 65:19]   גשה נא ואמשך: אמר יצחק בלבו אין דרך עשו להיות שם שמים שגור בפיו, וזה אמר (פסוק כ) כי הקרה ה' אלהיך:
22. So Jacob drew near to Isaac his father, and he felt him, and he said, "The voice is the voice of Jacob, but the hands are the hands of Esau."   כב. וַיִּגַּשׁ יַעֲקֹב אֶל יִצְחָק אָבִיו וַיְמֻשֵּׁהוּ וַיֹּאמֶר הַקֹּל קוֹל יַעֲקֹב וְהַיָּדַיִם יְדֵי עֵשָׂו:
the voice of Jacob: who speaks entreatingly: “Please rise,” but Esau spoke harshly, “Let my father arise!” [From Tanchuma Buber, Toledoth 15]   קול יעקב: שמדבר בלשון תחנונים (פסוק יט) קום נא, אבל עשו בלשון קנטוריא דבר (פסוק לא) יקום אבי:
23. And he did not recognize him because his hands were hairy like the hands of his brother Esau, and he blessed him.   כג. וְלֹא הִכִּירוֹ כִּי הָיוּ יָדָיו כִּידֵי עֵשָׂו אָחִיו שְׂעִרֹת וַיְבָרֲכֵהוּ:
24. And he said, "Are you [indeed] my son Esau?" And he said, "I am."   כד. וַיֹּאמֶר אַתָּה זֶה בְּנִי עֵשָׂו וַיֹּאמֶר אָנִי:
And he said, “I am.”: He did not say, “I am Esau,” but “I am.” [From Num. Rabbah 10:6]   ויאמר אני: לא אמר אני עשו אלא אני:  
25. And he said, "Serve [it] to me that I may eat of the game of my son, so that my soul will bless you." And he served him, and he ate, and he brought him wine, and he drank.   כה. וַיֹּאמֶר הַגִּשָׁה לִּי וְאֹכְלָה מִצֵּיד בְּנִי לְמַעַן תְּבָרֶכְךָ נַפְשִׁי וַיַּגֶּשׁ לוֹ וַיֹּאכַל וַיָּבֵא לוֹ יַיִן וַיֵּשְׁתְּ:
26. And his father Isaac said to him, "Please come closer and kiss me, my son."   כו. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו יִצְחָק אָבִיו גְּשָׁה נָּא וּשֲׁקָה לִּי בְּנִי:
27. And he came closer, and he kissed him, and he smelled the fragrance of his garments, and he blessed him, and he said, "Behold, the fragrance of my son is like the fragrance of a field, which the Lord has blessed!   כז. וַיִּגַּשׁ וַיִּשַּׁק לוֹ וַיָּרַח אֶת רֵיחַ בְּגָדָיו וַיְבָרֲכֵהוּ וַיֹּאמֶר רְאֵה רֵיחַ בְּנִי כְּרֵיחַ שָׂדֶה אֲשֶׁר בֵּרֲכוֹ יְהֹוָה:
and he smelled, etc.: Is it not so that there is no odor more offensive than that of washed goat skins? But this teaches us that the fragrance of the Garden of Eden entered with him. [From Tanchuma Buber 16]   וירח וגו': והלא אין ריח רע יותר משטף העזים, אלא מלמד שנכנסה עמו ריח גן עדן:
is like the fragrance of a field, which the Lord has blessed: for He gave it a pleasant fragrance, and this is a field of apples. So did our Sages explain it. [From Ta’anith 29b]   כריח שדה אשר ברכו ה': שנתן בו ריח טוב, וזה שדה תפוחים, כן דרשו רבותינו ז"ל:
28. And may the Lord give you of the dew of the heavens and [of] the fatness of the earth and an abundance of grain and wine.   כח. וְיִתֶּן לְךָ הָאֱלֹהִים מִטַּל הַשָּׁמַיִם וּמִשְׁמַנֵּי הָאָרֶץ וְרֹב דָּגָן וְתִירשׁ:
And may the Lord give you: May He give and repeatedly give (444 Gen. Rabbah 66:3). According to its simple meaning, it refers back to the previous topic: “Look, the fragrance of my son” which God has given him, “is like the fragrance of a field, etc.,” and furthermore,“May He give you of the dew of the heavens, etc.”   ויתן לך: יתן ויחזור ויתן. ולפי פשוטו מוסב לענין הראשון ראה ריח בני, שנתן לו הקב"ה, כריח שדה וגו' ועוד יתן לך מטל השמים וגו':
of the dew of the heavens: [It is to be interpreted] according to its simple meaning, and there are Midrashic interpretations of many kinds. (Another explanation: What is the meaning of הָאֱלֹהִים [I.e., why is the Divine Name which signifies God’s attribute of Justice used here? To teach that He will treat you] with justice. If you deserve it, He will give to you, and if not, He will not give to you. But to Esau he said, “The fat places of the earth shall be your dwelling place.” Whether righteous or wicked, He will give to you. And from him [Isaac], Solomon learned; when he built the Temple, he arranged his prayer, [saying that] an Israelite, who has faith and justifies the Divine decree upon himself, will not complain about You; therefore (I Kings 8:39): “and give to every man [Israelite] according to his ways,” for You know what is in his heart. But a gentile lacks faith; therefore [Solomon] said (ibid. verse 43): “You shall hear in heaven, etc., and do according to all that the stranger calls upon You for,” i.e., whether he is deserving or undeserving, give to him, so that he should not complain about You. [This is found] in an old and correct edition of Rashi .) [From Tanchuma Buber, Toledoth 14]   מטל השמים: כמשמעו, ומדרש אגדה יש להרבה פנים:
29. Nations shall serve you and kingdoms shall bow down to you; you shall be a master over your brothers, and your mother's sons shall bow down to you. Those who curse you shall be cursed, and those who bless you shall be blessed."   כט. יַעַבְדוּךָ עַמִּים וְיִשְׁתַּחֲווּ לְךָ לְאֻמִּים הֱוֵה גְבִיר לְאַחֶיךָ וְיִשְׁתַּחֲווּ לְךָ בְּנֵי אִמֶּךָ אֹרֲרֶיךָ אָרוּר וּמְבָרֲכֶיךָ בָּרוּךְ:
your mother’s sons: But Jacob said to Judah, “your father’s sons” because he [Jacob] had sons from many mothers, but here, since he [Isaac] had married only one wife, he said, “your mother’s sons” (Gen. Rabbah 66:4).   בני אמך: ויעקב אמר ליהודה (להלן מט ח) בני אביך, לפי שהיו לו בנים מכמה אמהות, וכאן שלא נשא אלא אשה אחת אמר בני אמך:
Those who curse you shall be cursed, and those who bless you shall be blessed: But concerning Balaam, Scripture says (Num. 24:9):“Those who bless you shall be blessed, and those who curse you shall be cursed” (Gen. Rabbah ibid.). [The reason for this is that, for] the righteous-their beginning is suffering and their end is tranquillity; and thus, those who curse them and cause them pain precede those who bless them. Isaac therefore mentioned the curse of those who curse before the blessing of those who bless. As for the wicked, however, their beginning is tranquillity, and their end is suffering; Balaam, therefore, mentioned the blessing before the curse. [From Gen. Rabbah 66:4]   ארריך ארור ומברכיך ברוך: ובבלעם הוא אומר (במדבר כד ט) מברכיך ברוך ואורריך ארור. הצדיקים תחלתם יסורים וסופן שלוה, ואורריהם ומצעריהם קודמים למברכיהם, לפיכך יצחק הקדים קללת אוררים לברכת מברכים. והרשעים תחלתן שלוה וסופן יסורין, לפיכך בלעם הקדים ברכה לקללה:
30. And it came to pass, when Isaac had finished blessing Jacob, and it came to pass Jacob had just left his father Isaac's presence, that his brother Esau came from his hunt.   ל. וַיְהִי כַּאֲשֶׁר כִּלָּה יִצְחָק לְבָרֵךְ אֶת יַעֲקֹב וַיְהִי אַךְ יָצֹא יָצָא יַעֲקֹב מֵאֵת פְּנֵי יִצְחָק אָבִיו וְעֵשָׂו אָחִיו בָּא מִצֵּידוֹ:
had just left: Heb. יָצֹא יָצָא, [lit., going out, had gone out.] This one was leaving, and that one was coming in. [From Gen. Rabbah 66:5]   יצא יצא: זה יוצא וזה בא:  
31. And he too had made tasty foods, and he brought [them] to his father, and he said to his father, "Let my father arise and eat of the game of his son, so that your soul will bless me. "   לא. וַיַּעַשׂ גַּם הוּא מַטְעַמִּים וַיָּבֵא לְאָבִיו וַיֹּאמֶר לְאָבִיו יָקֻם אָבִי וְיֹאכַל מִצֵּיד בְּנוֹ בַּעֲבֻר תְּבָרֲכַנִּי נַפְשֶׁךָ:
32. And his father Isaac said to him, "Who are you?" And he said, "I am your son, your firstborn, Esau."   לב. וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ יִצְחָק אָבִיו מִי אָתָּה וַיֹּאמֶר אֲנִי בִּנְךָ בְכֹרְךָ עֵשָׂו:
33. And Isaac shuddered a great shudder, and he said, "Who then is the one who hunted game and brought it to me, and I ate of everything while you had not yet come, and I blessed him? He, too, shall be blessed."   לג. וַיֶּחֱרַד יִצְחָק חֲרָדָה גְּדֹלָה עַד מְאֹד וַיֹּאמֶר מִי אֵפוֹא הוּא הַצָּד צַיִד וַיָּבֵא לִי וָאֹכַל מִכֹּל בְּטֶרֶם תָּבוֹא וָאֲבָרֲכֵהוּ גַּם בָּרוּךְ יִהְיֶה:
And Isaac shuddered: [וַיֶּחרָד is to be explained] as the Targum, וּתְוָה, an expression of bewilderment. According to the Midrash, however, he [actually shuddered because] he saw Gehinnom open beneath him. [From Tanchuma, Vezoth Haberachah 1]   ויחרד: כתרגומו ותוה לשון תימה. ומדרשו ראה גיהנם פתוחה מתחתיו:
Who then: [the word] אֵפוֹא is an expression by itself, which has many usages. Another explanation: אֵפוֹא is a combination of אַיּה [where] and פֹּה [here], [so that מִי אֵפוֹא means]: Who is he and where is he, who hunted game?   מי אפוא: לשון לעצמו, משמש עם כמה דברים. איפוא, איה פה, מי הוא ואיפוא הוא הצד ציד:
and I ate of everything: Any flavors I wished to taste, I tasted in it (Gen. Rabbah 67:2).   ואכל מכל: מכל טעמים שבקשתי לטעום טעמתי בו:
He, too, shall be blessed: That you should not say that had Jacob not deceived his father, he would not have received the blessings. Therefore, he concurred and blessed him intentionally (Gen. Rabbah 67:2).   גם ברוך יהיה: שלא תאמר אילולי שרימה יעקב לאביו לא נטל את הברכות, לכך הסכים וברכו מדעתו:
34. When Esau heard his father's words, he cried out a great and bitter cry, and he said to his father, "Bless me too, O my father!"   לד. כִּשְׁמֹעַ עֵשָׂו אֶת דִּבְרֵי אָבִיו וַיִּצְעַק צְעָקָה גְּדֹלָה וּמָרָה עַד מְאֹד וַיֹּאמֶר לְאָבִיו בָּרֲכֵנִי גַם אָנִי אָבִי:
35. And he said, "Your brother came with cunning and took your blessing."   לה. וַיֹּאמֶר בָּא אָחִיךָ בְּמִרְמָה וַיִּקַּח בִּרְכָתֶךָ:
with cunning: with cleverness. [From Targumim]   במרמה: בחכמה:
36. And he said, "Is it for this reason that he was named Jacob? For he has deceived me twice; he took my birthright, and behold, now he has taken my blessing." And he said, "Have you not reserved a blessing for me?"   לו. וַיֹּאמֶר הֲכִי קָרָא שְׁמוֹ יַעֲקֹב וַיַּעְקְבֵנִי זֶה פַעֲמַיִם אֶת בְּכֹרָתִי לָקָח וְהִנֵּה עַתָּה לָקַח בִּרְכָתִי וַיֹּאמַר הֲלֹא אָצַלְתָּ לִּי בְּרָכָה:
And he said,“Is it for this reason that he was named Jacob: הִכִי is an expression denoting the interrogative, as in (below 29:15):”Is it because (הִכִי) you are my kinsman…?“ Was he named Jacob (יַעִקֹב) because of the future, because he was destined to deceive me (לְעָקְבֵנִי) ? Midrash Tanchuma (Buber, Toledoth 23) [asks]: Why did Isaac shudder? He said, ”Perhaps I am guilty of an iniquity, for I have blessed the younger son before the older one, and thus altered the order of the relationship.“ [Thereupon], Esau started crying, ”He has already deceived me twice!“ His father said to him, ”What did he do to you?“ He replied, ”He took my birthright.“ He [Isaac] said,”That is why I was troubled and shuddered, for [I was afraid that] perhaps I [had] transgressed the line of strict justice, [but] now [that I know that] I actually blessed the firstborn, ‘he too shall be blessed’."   הכי קרא שמו: לשון תימה הוא, כמו (לקמן כט טו) הכי אחי אתה, שמא לכך נקרא שמו יעקב על שם סופו שהוא עתיד לעקבני. תנחומא (תנחומא ישן כג) למה חרד יצחק, אמר שמא עון יש בי שברכתי הקטן לפני הגדול, ושניתי סדר היחס. התחיל עשו מצעק ויעקבני זה פעמים, אמר לו אביו מה עשה לך, אמר לו את בכורתי לקח, אמר בכך הייתי מצר וחרד שמא עברתי על שורת הדין, עכשיו לבכור ברכתי, גם ברוך יהיה:
for he has deceived me: Heb. וַיַעְקְבֵנִי. [To be explained] according to the Targum וּכַמַנִי [meaning]: and he lay in wait for me. [The word] וְאָרַב [(Deut. 19:11):“and he lies in wait,”] is translated by the Targum as וּכְמַן Others read in the Targum [not וּכַמַנִי, but] וְחַכְּמַנִי [meaning]: he outwitted me.   ויעקבני: כתרגומו וכמני, ארבני. וארב, וכמן. ויש מתרגמין וחכמני נתחכם לי:
reserved: [אָצַלְתּ] an expression of separation, as in וַיָּאצֶל (“and he separated”) (Num. 11:25). (Other editions read: וַיַּצֵּל (below 31:9). [From Targum Onkelos]   אצלת: לשון הפרשה, כמו (במדבר יא כה) ויאצל:
37. And Isaac answered and said to Esau, "Behold, I made him a master over you, and I gave him all his brothers as servants, and I have sustained him with corn and wine; so for you then, what shall I do, my son?"   לז. וַיַּעַן יִצְחָק וַיֹּאמֶר לְעֵשָׂו הֵן גְּבִיר שַׂמְתִּיו לָךְ וְאֶת כָּל אֶחָיו נָתַתִּי לוֹ לַעֲבָדִים וְדָגָן וְתִירשׁ סְמַכְתִּיו וּלְכָה אֵפוֹא מָה אֶעֱשֶׂה בְּנִי:
Behold…a master: This is the seventh blessing [given to Jacob] and yet he puts it first? Rather, he said to him, “What use will a blessing be to you? If you acquire property, it will be his, for I have made him a master over you, and whatever a slave acquires, belongs to his master.” [From Gen. 67:5]   הן גביר: ברכה זו שביעית היא והוא עושה אותה ראשונה, אלא אמר לו מה תועלת לך בברכה, אם תקנה נכסים שלו הם, שהרי גביר שמתיו לך ומה שקנה עבד קנה רבו:
so for you then, what shall I do: Where will I seek for something to do for you?   ולכה אפוא מה אעשה: איה פה אבקש מה לעשות לך:
38. And Esau said to his father, "Have you [but] one blessing, my father? Bless me too, my father." And Esau raised his voice and wept.   לח. וַיֹּאמֶר עֵשָׂו אֶל אָבִיו הַבֲרָכָה אַחַת הִוא לְךָ אָבִי בָּרֲכֵנִי גַם אָנִי אָבִי וַיִּשָּׂא עֵשָׂו קֹלוֹ וַיֵּבְךְּ:
Have you [but] one blessing: The“hey” [in הַבִרָכָה] indicates an interrogative expression, as in (Num. 13:19):“are they in open cities (הַבְּמַחֲנַיִם) ?” ;“is it fat (הַשְּׁמֵנָה) ?” ; (II Sam. 3:33):“[Should Abner die] like the death of (הַכְּמוֹת) a wicked man?”   הברכה אחת: ה"א זו משמשת לשון תמיה, כמו (במדבר יג יט) הבמחנים, (במדבר יג כ) השמנה היא, (ש"ב ג לג) הכמות נבל:
39. And his father Isaac answered and said to him, "Behold, your dwelling place shall be the fat places of the earth and of the dew of the heaven from above.   לט. וַיַּעַן יִצְחָק אָבִיו וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו הִנֵּה מִשְׁמַנֵּי הָאָרֶץ יִהְיֶה מוֹשָׁבֶךָ וּמִטַּל הַשָּׁמַיִם מֵעָל:
Behold…the fat places of the earth: This is the part of Italy belonging to Greece (from Gen. Rabbah 67:6).   משמני הארץ וגו': זו איטליאה של יון:
40. And you shall live by your sword, and you shall serve your brother, and it will be, when you grieve, that you will break his yoke off your neck."   מ. וְעַל חַרְבְּךָ תִחְיֶה וְאֶת אָחִיךָ תַּעֲבֹד וְהָיָה כַּאֲשֶׁר תָּרִיד וּפָרַקְתָּ עֻלּוֹ מֵעַל צַוָּארֶךָ:
And…by your sword: וְעַל חַרְבּ‏ְ is the same as בְּחַרְבּ‏ְ [by your sword]. Sometimes עַל takes the place of the letter “beth,” as in (Ezek. 33:26);“You stood by your sword (עַל חַרְבְּכֶם),” [which is the same as] בְּחַרְבְּכֶם (Exod. 6:26);“by their hosts (עַל צִבְאוֹתָם)” [is the same as] בְּצִבְאוֹתָם.   ועל חרבך: כמו בחרבך, יש על שהוא במקום אות ב', כמו (יחזקאל לג כו) עמדתם על חרבכם בחרבכם, (שמות ו כו) על צבאותם בצבאותם:
and it will be, when you grieve: [תָּרִיד] is an expression of pain, as in (Ps. 55:3):“I will lament (אָרִיד) in my speech” ; i.e., when the Israelites will transgress the Torah, and you will have cause to grieve about the blessings that he took, “you will break his yoke,” etc. [From Targum Onkelos]   והיה כאשר תריד: לשון צער, כמו (תהלים נה ג) אריד בשיחי, כלומר כשיעברו ישראל את התורה, ויהיה לך פתחון פה להצטער על הברכות שנטל, ופרקת עלו וגו':
41. And Esau hated Jacob because of the blessing that his father had blessed him, and Esau said to himself, "Let the days of mourning for my father draw near, I will then kill my brother Jacob. "   מא. וַיִּשְׂטֹם עֵשָׂו אֶת יַעֲקֹב עַל הַבְּרָכָה אֲשֶׁר בֵּרֲכוֹ אָבִיו וַיֹּאמֶר עֵשָׂו בְּלִבּוֹ יִקְרְבוּ יְמֵי אֵבֶל אָבִי וְאַהַרְגָה אֶת יַעֲקֹב אָחִי:
Let the days of mourning for my father draw near: As its apparent meaning,“that I should not grieve my father,” and there are various Midrashic explanations.   יקרבו ימי אבל אבי: כמשמעו, שלא אצער את אבא. ומדרש אגדה לכמה פנים יש:
42. And Rebecca was told of the words of Esau, her elder son, and she sent and called Jacob, her younger son, and she said to him, "Behold, your brother Esau regrets [his relationship] to you [and wishes] to kill you.   מב. וַיֻּגַּד לְרִבְקָה אֶת דִּבְרֵי עֵשָׂו בְּנָהּ הַגָּדֹל וַתִּשְׁלַח וַתִּקְרָא לְיַעֲקֹב בְּנָהּ הַקָּטָן וַתֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו הִנֵּה עֵשָׂו אָחִיךָ מִתְנַחֵם לְךָ לְהָרְגֶךָ:
And Rebecca was told of: She was told by Divine Inspiration what Esau was thinking in his heart. [From Gen. Rabbah 67:9]   ויגד לרבקה: ברוח הקודש הוגד לה מה שעשו מהרהר בלבו:
regrets [his relationship] to you: Heb. מִתְנַחֵם. He regrets the brotherly relationship, to consider other [than brotherly] thoughts, to behave towards you as a stranger and to kill you. The Midrash Aggadah (Gen. Rabbah 67:9), however, explains [it as an expression of consolation]: In his eyes, you are already dead, and he has drunk a cup of consolation [a cup of wine customarily drunk in the house of mourning] over you. But according to its simple meaning, it is an expression of consolation. By killing you he consoles himself about [losing] the blessings (Tanchuam Buber, Vayetzei 1).   מתנחם לך: נחם על האחוה לחשוב מחשבה אחרת להתנכר לך ולהרגך. ומדרש אגדה כבר אתה מת בעיניו ושתה עליך כוס של תנחומים. ולפי פשוטו לשון תנחומים, מתנחם הוא על הברכות בהריגתך:
43. And now, my son, hearken to my voice, and arise, flee to my brother Laban, to Haran.   מג. וְעַתָּה בְנִי שְׁמַע בְּקֹלִי וְקוּם בְּרַח לְךָ אֶל לָבָן אָחִי חָרָנָה:
44. And you shall dwell with him for a few days until your brother's wrath has subsided.   מד. וְיָשַׁבְתָּ עִמּוֹ יָמִים אֲחָדִים עַד אֲשֶׁר תָּשׁוּב חֲמַת אָחִיךָ:
a few days: Heb. אִחָדִים, few.   אחדים: מועטים:
45. Until your brother's rage subsides from you, and he forgets what you did to him, and I will send and bring you from there. Why should I be bereft of both of you on one day?"   מה. עַד שׁוּב אַף אָחִיךָ מִמְּךָ וְשָׁכַח אֵת אֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתָ לּוֹ וְשָׁלַחְתִּי וּלְקַחְתִּיךָ מִשָּׁם לָמָה אֶשְׁכַּל גַּם שְׁנֵיכֶם יוֹם אֶחָד:
Why should I be bereft: Heb. אֶשְׁכַּל. I will be bereft of both of you. [This teaches that] one who buries his children is called שָׁכוּל, bereft. And so, concerning Jacob, it is said (below 43:14):“As I am bereft (שָׁכֹלְתִּי), I shall be bereft (שָׁכָלְתּי).”   למה אשכל: אהיה שכולה משניכם. הקובר את בניו קרוי שכול. וכן ביעקב אמר (להלן מג יד) כאשר שכלתי שכלתי:
of both of you: If he rises up against you and you kill him, his sons will rise up and kill you. And the Divine Spirit poured itself upon her and she prophesied that they would die on the same day, as is delineated in the chapter entitled הַמְּקַנֵּא לְאִשְׁתּוֹ (Sotah 13a).   גם שניכם: אם יקום עליך ואתה תהרגנו יעמדו בניו ויהרגוך, ורוח הקדש נזרקה בה ונתנבאה שביום אחד ימותו, כמו שמפורש בפרק המקנא לאשתו (סוטה יג א):
46. And Rebecca said to Isaac, "I am disgusted with my life because of the daughters of Heth. If Jacob takes a wife of the daughters of Heth like these, from the daughters of the land, of what use is life to me?"   מו. וַתֹּאמֶר רִבְקָה אֶל יִצְחָק קַצְתִּי בְחַיַּי מִפְּנֵי בְּנוֹת חֵת אִם לֹקֵחַ יַעֲקֹב אִשָּׁה מִבְּנוֹת חֵת כָּאֵלֶּה מִבְּנוֹת הָאָרֶץ לָמָּה לִּי חַיִּים:
I am disgusted with my life: Heb. קַצְתִּי, I am disgusted with my life.   קצתי בחיי: מאסתי בחיי:
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