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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Bereishit - Genesis - Chapter 13

Bereishit - Genesis - Chapter 13

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 13

1. And Abram came up from Egypt, he and his wife and all that was his, and Lot with him, to the south.   א. וַיַּעַל אַבְרָם מִמִּצְרַיִם הוּא וְאִשְׁתּוֹ וְכָל אֲשֶׁר לוֹ וְלוֹט עִמּוֹ הַנֶּגְבָּה:
And Abram came up, etc., to the south: To come to the south of the Land of Israel, as Scripture stated above (12:9): continually traveling southward to Mount Moriah. And in every case when one goes from Egypt to the land of Canaan, he goes from south to north, for the land of Egypt is south of the Land of Israel, as is evidenced by the travels [of the Jews in the desert] and by the boundaries of the Land.   ויעל אברם וגו' הנגבה: לבא לדרומה של ארץ ישראל כמו שאמור למעלה (פסוק ט) הלוך ונסוע הנגבה, להר המוריה, ומכל מקום כשהוא הולך ממצרים לארץ כנען מדרום לצפון הוא מהלך, שארץ מצרים בדרומה של ארץ ישראל, כמו שמוכיח במסעות ובגבולי הארץ:
2. And Abram was very heavy with cattle, with silver, and with gold.   ב. וְאַבְרָם כָּבֵד מְאֹד בַּמִּקְנֶה בַּכֶּסֶף וּבַזָּהָב:
very heavy: laden with burdens.   כבד מאד: טעון משאות:
3. And he went on his journeys, from the south and until Beth el, until the place where his tent had been previously, between Beth el and between Ai.   ג. וַיֵּלֶךְ לְמַסָּעָיו מִנֶּגֶב וְעַד בֵּית אֵל עַד הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר הָיָה שָׁם אָהֳלֹה בַּתְּחִלָּה בֵּין בֵּית אֵל וּבֵין הָעָי:
And he went on his journeys: When he returned from Egypt to the land of Canaan, he went and lodged in the inns where he had lodged on his way to Egypt. This teaches you etiquette, that a person should not change his lodgings (Arachin 16b). Another explanation (Gen. Rabbah 41: 3): On his return, he paid his debts.   וילך למסעיו: כשחזר ממצרים לארץ כנען היה הולך ולן באכסניות שלן בהם בהליכתו למצרים. למדך דרך ארץ שלא ישנה אדם מאכסניא שלו. דבר אחר בחזרתו פרע הקפותיו:
from the south: The land of Egypt is south of the land of Canaan.   מנגב: ארץ מצרים בדרומה של ארץ כנען:
4. To the place of the altar that he had made at first, and Abram called there in the name of the Lord.   ד. אֶל מְקוֹם הַמִּזְבֵּחַ אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה שָׁם בָּרִאשֹׁנָה וַיִּקְרָא שָׁם אַבְרָם בְּשֵׁם יְהֹוָה:
that he had made at first, and Abram called there: And where Abram had called in the name of the Lord. We may also say that it means: and now he called there in the name of the Lord.   אשר עשה שם בראשנה ויקרא שם: ואשר קרא שם אברם בשם ה'. וגם יש לומר ויקרא שם עכשיו בשם ה':
5. And also Lot, who went with Abram, had flocks and cattle and tents.   ה. וְגַם לְלוֹט הַהֹלֵךְ אֶת אַבְרָם הָיָה צֹאן וּבָקָר וְאֹהָלִים:
who went with Abram: What brought about that he had this [wealth]? His going with Abram. [from B.K. 93a]   ההולך את אברם: מי גרם שהיתה לו זאת, הליכתו עם אברם:
6. And the land did not bear them to dwell together, for their possessions were many, and they could not dwell together.   ו. וְלֹא נָשָׂא אֹתָם הָאָרֶץ לָשֶׁבֶת יַחְדָּו כִּי הָיָה רְכוּשָׁם רָב וְלֹא יָכְלוּ לָשֶׁבֶת יַחְדָּו:
And…did not bear: It was unable to supply enough pasture for their cattle, and this is an abbreviated expression, and an additional word is needed. [It is to be explained] as: “And the pasture of the land could not bear them.” Therefore, וְלֹא נָשָׂא is written in the masculine gender.   ולא נשא אותם: לא היתה יכולה להספיק מרעה למקניהם, ולשון קצר הוא, וצריך להוסיף עליו, כמו ולא נשא אותם מרעה הארץ, לפיכך כתוב ולא נשא בלשון זכר:
7. And there was a quarrel between the herdsmen of Abram's cattle and between the herdsmen of Lot's cattle, and the Canaanites and the Perizzites were then dwelling in the land.   ז. וַיְהִי רִיב בֵּין רֹעֵי מִקְנֵה אַבְרָם וּבֵין רֹעֵי מִקְנֵה לוֹט וְהַכְּנַעֲנִי וְהַפְּרִזִּי אָז ישֵׁב בָּאָרֶץ:
And there was a quarrel: Since Lot’s herdsmen were wicked, and they pastured their animals in fields belonging to others, Abram’s herdsmen rebuked them for committing robbery, but they responded, “The land was given to Abram, who has no heir; so Lot will inherit him, and therefore this is not robbery.” But Scripture states: “And the Canaanites and the Perizzites were then dwelling in the land,” and Abram had not yet been awarded its possession. [from Gen. Rabbah 41:5]   ויהי ריב: לפי שהיו רועים של לוט רשעים ומרעים בהמתם בשדות אחרים, ורועי אברם מוכיחים אותם על הגזל, והם אומרים נתנה הארץ לאברם, ולו אין יורש, ולוט יורשו, ואין זה גזל, והכתוב אומר והכנעני והפרזי אז יושב בארץ ולא זכה בה אברם עדיין:
8. And Abram said to Lot, "Please let there be no quarrel between me and between you and between my herdsmen and between your herdsmen, for we are kinsmen.   ח. וַיֹּאמֶר אַבְרָם אֶל לוֹט אַל נָא תְהִי מְרִיבָה בֵּינִי וּבֵינֶךָ וּבֵין רֹעַי וּבֵין רֹעֶיךָ כִּי אֲנָשִׁים אַחִים אֲנָחְנוּ:
kinsmen: meaning relatives, and according to the Midrash Aggadah (Gen. Rabbah 41:6), they resembled each other in their facial features.   אנשים אחים: קרובים. ומדרש אגדה דומין בקלסתר פנים:
9. Is not all the land before you? Please part from me; if [you go] left, I will go right, and if [you go] right, I will go left."   ט. הֲלֹא כָל הָאָרֶץ לְפָנֶיךָ הִפָּרֶד נָא מֵעָלָי אִם הַשְּׂמֹאל וְאֵימִנָה וְאִם הַיָּמִין וְאַשְׂמְאִילָה:
if [you go] left, I will go right: Wherever you dwell, I will not distance myself from you, and I will stand by you as a protector and a helper. And he ultimately needed him, as it is said (below 14:14): “And Abram heard that his kinsman had been captured, etc.”   אם השמאל ואימנה: בכל אשר תשב, לא אתרחק ממך ואעמוד לך למגן ולעזר. וסוף דבר הוצרך לו שנאמר (יד יד) וישמע אברם כי נשבה אחיו וגו':
I will go right: [Grammatically, this means] “I will go towards the right,” like וְאַשְׂמְאִילָה, “and I will go towards the left.” Now if you say that it should have been vowelized וְאַיְמִינָה, we find the same in another place (viz., II Sam. 14:19): “if anyone can turn to the right (לַהֵמִין),” and it is not vowelized לְהַיְמִין.   ואימנה: אימין את עצמי, כמו ואשמאילה אשמאיל את עצמי. ואם תאמר היה לו לינקד ואימינה, כך מצינו במקום אחר (ש"ב יד יט) אם יש להימין ואין נקוד להימין:
10. And Lot raised his eyes, and he saw the entire plain of the Jordan, that it was entirely watered; before the Lord destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah, like the garden of the Lord, like the land of Egypt, as you come to Zoar.   י. וַיִּשָּׂא לוֹט אֶת עֵינָיו וַיַּרְא אֶת כָּל כִּכַּר הַיַּרְדֵּן כִּי כֻלָּהּ מַשְׁקֶה לִפְנֵי | שַׁחֵת יְהֹוָה אֶת סְדֹם וְאֶת עֲמֹרָה כְּגַן יְהֹוָה כְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם בֹּאֲכָה צֹעַר:
that it was entirely watered: A land with streams of water.   כי כלה משקה: ארץ נחלי מים:
before the Lord destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah: that plain was:   לפני שחת ה' את סדום ואת עמורה: היה אותו מישור:
like the garden of the Lord: for [growing] trees.   כגן ה': לאילנות:
like the land of Egypt: for [growing] seeds (Gen. Rabbah 41:7).   כארץ מצרים: לזרעים:
as you come to Zoar: Until Zoar. And the Midrash Aggadah interprets it unfavorably: it was because they were lascivious that Lot chose their region for himself (Tractate Horioth 10b).   באכה צער: עד צער. ומדרש אגדה דורשה לגנאי, על שהיו שטופי זמה בחר לו לוט בשכונתם במסכת הוריות (י ב):
11. And Lot chose for himself the entire plain of the Jordan, and Lot traveled from the east, and they parted from one another.   יא. וַיִּבְחַר לוֹ לוֹט אֵת כָּל כִּכַּר הַיַּרְדֵּן וַיִּסַּע לוֹט מִקֶּדֶם וַיִּפָּרְדוּ אִישׁ מֵעַל אָחִיו:
plain: Heb. כִּכָּר, the plain, as the Targum renders it. Note that according to Rashi, כִּכָּר is not the generic term for a plain, but the proper name of the Plain of the Jordan. See below (14:5).   ככר: מישור, כתרגומו:
from the east: He traveled from beside Abram and went away to the west of Abram; hence, he travelled from east to west (Targum Jonathan). According to the Midrash Aggadah (Gen. Rabbah 41:7), he distanced himself from the Ancient One (מִקַּדְמוֹנוֹ) of the world. He said, “I care neither for Abram nor for his God.”   מקדם: נסע מאצל אברם והלך לו למערבו של אברם, נמצא נוסע ממזרח למערב. ומדרש אגדה הסיע עצמו מקדמונו של עולם אמר אי אפשי לא באברם ולא באלהיו:
12. Abram dwelt in the land of Canaan, and Lot dwelt in the cities of the plain, and he pitched his tents until Sodom.   יב. אַבְרָם יָשַׁב בְּאֶרֶץ כְּנָעַן וְלוֹט יָשַׁב בְּעָרֵי הַכִּכָּר וַיֶּאֱהַל עַד סְדֹם:
and he pitched his tents: He pitched tents for his herdsmen and his cattle until Sodom.   ויאהל: נטה אהלים לרועיו ולמקנהו עד סדום:
13. And the people of Sodom were very evil and sinful against the Lord.   יג. וְאַנְשֵׁי סְדֹם רָעִים וְחַטָּאִים לַיהֹוָה מְאֹד:
And the people of Sodom were…evil: Nevertheless, Lot did not hesitate to sojourn with them. And our Rabbis (Yoma 38b) learned from here that (Prov. 10:7) “the name of the wicked shall rot.” [Having mentioned them, the Torah speaks of their evil.]   ואנשי סדום רעים: ואף על פי כן לא נמנע לוט מלשכון עמהם. ורבותינו למדו מכאן (משלי י ז) שם רשעים ירקב:
evil: with their bodies.   רעים: בגופם:
and sinful: with their money. [from Sanh. 109a]   וחטאים: בממונם:
very… against the Lord: They recognized their Master and intended to rebel against Him. [from Sifra, Bechukkothai 2]   לה' מאוד: יודעים רבונם ומתכוונים למרוד בו:
14. And the Lord said to Abram after Lot had parted from him, "Please raise your eyes and see, from the place where you are, northward and southward and eastward and westward.   יד. וַיהֹוָה אָמַר אֶל אַבְרָם אַחֲרֵי הִפָּרֶד לוֹט מֵעִמּוֹ שָׂא נָא עֵינֶיךָ וּרְאֵה מִן הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה שָׁם צָפֹנָה וָנֶגְבָּה וָקֵדְמָה וָיָמָּה:
after Lot had parted: As long as the wicked man was with him, the Divine speech withdrew from him (and above, when Lot was with him, and it is written (12: 7):“And the Lord appeared to Abram,” [we must assume that] at that time, he was righteous, and this is easy to understand). [from Tan. Vayeze 10]   אחרי הפרד לוט: כל זמן שהרשע עמו היה הדבור פורש ממנו:
15. For all the land that you see I will give to you and to your seed to eternity.   טו. כִּי אֶת כָּל הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה רֹאֶה לְךָ אֶתְּנֶנָּה וּלְזַרְעֲךָ עַד עוֹלָם:
16. And I will make your seed like the dust of the earth, so that if a man will be able to count the dust of the earth, so will your seed be counted.   טז. וְשַׂמְתִּי אֶת זַרְעֲךָ כַּעֲפַר הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר | אִם יוּכַל אִישׁ לִמְנוֹת אֶת עֲפַר הָאָרֶץ גַּם זַרְעֲךָ יִמָּנֶה:
that if a man will be able: Just as it is impossible for the dust to be counted, so will your seed not be counted. [from Targum Onkelos]   אשר אם יוכל איש: כשם שאי אפשר לעפר להמנות, כך זרעך לא ימנה:
17. Rise, walk in the land, to its length and to its breadth, for I will give it to you."   יז. קוּם הִתְהַלֵּךְ בָּאָרֶץ לְאָרְכָּהּ וּלְרָחְבָּהּ כִּי לְךָ אֶתְּנֶנָּה:
18. And Abram pitched his tents, and he came, and he dwelt in the plain of Mamre, which is in Hebron, and there he built an altar to the Lord.   יח. וַיֶּאֱהַל אַבְרָם וַיָּבֹא וַיֵּשֶׁב בְּאֵלֹנֵי מַמְרֵא אֲשֶׁר בְּחֶבְרוֹן וַיִּבֶן שָׁם מִזְבֵּחַ לַיהֹוָה:
Mamre: the name of a man. [from Gen. Rabbah 42:8]   ממרא: שם אדם:
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