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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Bereishit - Genesis - Chapter 10

Bereishit - Genesis - Chapter 10

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 10

1. And these are the generations of the sons of Noah: Shem, Ham, and Japheth, and sons were born to them after the Flood.   א. וְאֵלֶּה תּוֹלְדֹת בְּנֵי נֹחַ שֵׁם חָם וָיָפֶת וַיִּוָּלְדוּ לָהֶם בָּנִים אַחַר הַמַּבּוּל:
2. The sons of Japheth were Gomer and Magog and Madai and Javan and Tubal, and Meshech and Tiras.   ב. בְּנֵי יֶפֶת גֹּמֶר וּמָגוֹג וּמָדַי וְיָוָן וְתֻבָל וּמֶשֶׁךְ וְתִירָס:
Tiras: This is Persia. — [from Gen. Rabbah ad loc., Yoma 10a]   ותירס: זו פרס:  
3. And the sons of Gomer were Ashkenaz and Riphath and Togarmah.   ג. וּבְנֵי גֹּמֶר אַשְׁכְּנַז וְרִיפַת וְתֹגַרְמָה:
4. And the sons of Javan were Elishah and Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim.   ד. וּבְנֵי יָוָן אֱלִישָׁה וְתַרְשִׁישׁ כִּתִּים וְדֹדָנִים:
5. From these, the islands of the nations separated in their lands, each one to his language, according to their families, in their nations.   ה. מֵאֵלֶּה נִפְרְדוּ אִיֵּי הַגּוֹיִם בְּאַרְצֹתָם אִישׁ לִלְשֹׁנוֹ לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָם בְּגוֹיֵהֶם:
6. And the sons of Ham were Cush and Mizraim and Put and Canaan.   ו. וּבְנֵי חָם כּוּשׁ וּמִצְרַיִם וּפוּט וּכְנָעַן:
7. And the sons of Cush were Seba and Havilah and Sabta and Raamah and Sabtecha, and the sons of Raamah were Sheba and Dedan.   ז. וּבְנֵי כוּשׁ סְבָא וַחֲוִילָה וְסַבְתָּה וְרַעְמָה וְסַבְתְּכָא וּבְנֵי רַעְמָה שְׁבָא וּדְדָן:
8. And Cush begot Nimrod; he began to be a mighty man in the land.   ח. וְכוּשׁ יָלַד אֶת נִמְרֹד הוּא הֵחֵל לִהְיוֹת גִּבֹּר בָּאָרֶץ:
he began to be a mighty man: to cause the entire world to rebel against the Holy One, blessed be He, with the plan of the Generation of the Dispersion. — [from Eruv. 53a, Chul. 89a]   להיות גבור: להמריד כל העולם על הקב"ה בעצת דור הפלגה:
9. He was a mighty hunter before the Lord; therefore it is said, "Like Nimrod, a mighty hunter before the Lord."   ט. הוּא הָיָה גִּבֹּר צַיִד לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה עַל כֵּן יֵאָמַר כְּנִמְרֹד גִּבּוֹר צַיִד לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה:
a mighty hunter: He ensnared people’s minds with his speech and misled them to rebel against the Omnipresent. — [from Gen. Rabbah 37:2]   גבור ציד: צד דעתן של בריות בפיו ומטען למרוד במקום:
before the Lord: He intended to provoke Him to His face. — [from Sifra Bechukkothai 2:2]   לפני ה': מתכוין להקניטו על פניו:
therefore it is said: About any man who is brazenly wicked, who recognizes his Master and intends to rebel [לִמְרֹד] against Him, it is said,“This one is like Nimrod [נִמְרֹד], a mighty hunter.”   על כן יאמר כנמרד: על כל אדם מרשיע בעזות פנים, יודע רבונו ומתכוין למרוד בו, יאמר זה כנמרוד גבור ציד:
10. And the beginning of his kingdom was Babylon and Erech and Accad and Calneh, in the land of Shinar.   י. וַתְּהִי רֵאשִׁית מַמְלַכְתּוֹ בָּבֶל וְאֶרֶךְ וְאַכַּד וְכַלְנֵה בְּאֶרֶץ שִׁנְעָר:
11. From that land emerged Asshur, and he built Nineveh and Rehoboth ir and Calah.   יא. מִן הָאָרֶץ הַהִוא יָצָא אַשּׁוּר וַיִּבֶן אֶת נִינְוֵה וְאֶת רְחֹבֹת עִיר וְאֶת כָּלַח:
From that land: Since Asshur saw his sons obeying Nimrod and rebelling against the Omnipresent by building the tower, he departed from their midst. — [from Gen. Rabbah 37:4]   מן הארץ וגו': כיון שראה אשור את בניו שומעין לנמרוד ומורדין במקום לבנות המגדל, יצא מתוכם:
12. And Resen, between Nineveh and between Calah; that is the great city.   יב. וְאֶת רֶסֶן בֵּין נִינְוֵה וּבֵין כָּלַח הִוא הָעִיר הַגְּדֹלָה:
the great city: This is Nineveh, as it is said (Jonah 3: 3):“Now Nineveh was an exceedingly great city to God.” - [from Gen. Rabbah 37:4, Yoma 10a] [i.e., Scripture is referring to Nineveh, not to Resen or Calah.]   העיר הגדולה: היא נינוה שנאמר (יונה ג ג) ונינוה היתה עיר גדולה לא-להים:
13. And Mizraim begot the Ludim and the Anamim and the Lehabim and the Naphtuhim,   יג. וּמִצְרַיִם יָלַד אֶת לוּדִים וְאֶת עֲנָמִים וְאֶת לְהָבִים וְאֶת נַפְתֻּחִים:
Lehabim: Heb. לְהָבִים [people] whose faces were like flames (לַהַב).   להבים: שפניהם דומים ללהב:
14. And the Pathrusim and the Casluhim, from whom the Philistines emerged, and the Caphtorim.   יד. וְאֶת פַּתְרֻסִים וְאֶת כַּסְלֻחִים אֲשֶׁר יָצְאוּ מִשָּׁם פְּלִשְׁתִּים וְאֶת כַּפְתֹּרִים:
And the Pathrusim and the Casluhim, from whom the Philistines emerged: They [the Philistines] descended from them both, for the Pathrusim and the Casluhim exchanged the intimacy of their wives with each other, and the Philistines descended from them. — [from Gen. Rabbah 37:5]   ואת פתרוסים ואת כסלוחים אשר יצאו משם פלשתים: משניהם יצאו, שהיו פתרוסים וכסלוחים מחליפין משכב נשותיהם אלו לאלו, ויצאו מהם פלשתים: 
15. And Canaan begot Zidon his firstborn and Heth.   טו. וּכְנַעַן יָלַד אֶת צִידֹן בְּכֹרוֹ וְאֶת חֵת:
16. And the Jebusites and the Amorites and the Girgashites.   טז. וְאֶת הַיְבוּסִי וְאֶת הָאֱמֹרִי וְאֵת הַגִּרְגָּשִׁי:
17. And the Hivvites and the Arkites and the Sinites.   יז. וְאֶת הַחִוִּי וְאֶת הָעַרְקִי וְאֶת הַסִּינִי:
18. and the Arvadites and the Zemarites and the Hamathites, and afterwards the families of the Canaanites were scattered.   יח. וְאֶת הָאַרְוָדִי וְאֶת הַצְּמָרִי וְאֶת הַחֲמָתִי וְאַחַר נָפֹצוּ מִשְׁפְּחוֹת הַכְּנַעֲנִי:
and afterwards…were scattered: From these were scattered many families.   ואחר נפצו: מאלו נפוצו משפחות הרבה:
19. And the border of the Canaanites was from Sidon as you come to Gerar, until Gaza, as you come to Sodom and Gomorrah, and Admah and Zeboiim, until Lesha.   יט. וַיְהִי גְּבוּל הַכְּנַעֲנִי מִצִּידֹן בֹּאֲכָה גְרָרָה עַד עַזָּה בֹּאֲכָה סְדֹמָה וַעֲמֹרָה וְאַדְמָה וּצְבוֹיִם עַד לָשַׁע:
the border of the Canaanites: Heb. גְּבוּל, the end of his land. Every mention of גְּבוּל denotes an end and an edge.   גבול הכנעני: סוף ארצו. כל גבול שבמקרא לשון סוף וקצה:
as you come: Heb. בֹּאֲכָה is a noun [i.e., the approach to]. And it appears to me that [it is an expression] as when a person says to his friend, “This border extends until you come to such and such a border.”   באכה: שם דבר. ולי נראה כאדם האומר לחבירו גבול זה מגיע עד אשר תבא לגבול פלוני:
20. These are the sons of Ham according to their families, and their tongues, in their lands, in their nations.   כ. אֵלֶּה בְנֵי חָם לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָם לִלְשֹׁנֹתָם בְּאַרְצֹתָם בְּגוֹיֵהֶם:
according to…their tongues, in their lands: Although they were divided into tongues and lands, they are all the sons of Ham.   ללשונותם בארצותם: אף על פי שנחלקו ללשונות וארצות, כולם בני חם הם:
21. And to Shem were also born [children; he was] the father of all the people of the other side [of the river], the brother of Japheth the elder.   כא. וּלְשֵׁם יֻלַּד גַּם הוּא אֲבִי כָּל בְּנֵי עֵבֶר אֲחִי יֶפֶת הַגָּדוֹל:
the father of all the people of the other side: of the river was Shem. See below 14:13.   אבי כל בני עבר: הנהר היה שם:
the brother of Japheth, the elder: I do not know [from the wording of the verse] whether Japheth is the elder or Shem. [The verse may be rendered: the elder brother of Japheth.] When Scripture says (11:10): “Shem was a hundred years old, etc.” two years after the Flood, you must say that Japheth was the elder, because Noah was five hundred years old when he first had children, and the Flood came to pass in the six hundredth year. Consequently, the eldest of his sons was a hundred years old [at the time of the Flood], and Shem did not reach [the age of] a hundred until two years after the Flood. — [from Gen. Rabbah 37:7]   אחי יפת הגדול: איני יודע אם יפת הגדול אם שם, כשהוא אומר (להלן יא י) שם בן מאת שנה וגו' שנתים אחר המבול, הוי אומר יפת הגדול, שהרי בן חמש מאות שנה היה נח כשהתחיל להוליד, והמבול היה בשנת שש מאות שנה לנח, נמצא שהגדול בבניו היה בן מאה שנה, ושם לא הגיע למאה שנה עד שנתים אחר המבול:
the brother of Japheth: But not the brother of Ham, for these two honored their father, and that one [Ham] disgraced him. [See Targum Jonathan, which renders: the brother of Japheth, who was great in the fear of the Lord. Perhaps this was Rashi’s source, but it is unlikely.]   אחי יפת: ולא אחי חם, שאלו שניהם כבדו את אביהם, וזה בזהו: 
22. The sons of Shem were Elam and Asshur and Arpachshad and Lud and Aram.   כב. בְּנֵי שֵׁם עֵילָם וְאַשּׁוּר וְאַרְפַּכְשַׁד וְלוּד וַאֲרָם:
23. And the sons of Aram were Uz and Hul and Gether and Mash.   כג. וּבְנֵי אֲרָם עוּץ וְחוּל וְגֶתֶר וָמַשׁ:
24. And Arpachshad begot Shelah, and Shelah begot Eber.   כד. וְאַרְפַּכְשַׁד יָלַד אֶת שָׁלַח וְשֶׁלַח יָלַד אֶת עֵבֶר:
25. And to Eber were born two sons: one was named Peleg, because in his days the earth was divided, and the name of his brother was Joktan.   כה. וּלְעֵבֶר יֻלַּד שְׁנֵי בָנִים שֵׁם הָאֶחָד פֶּלֶג כִּי בְיָמָיו נִפְלְגָה הָאָרֶץ וְשֵׁם אָחִיו יָקְטָן:
was divided: The tongues became confused, and they were scattered from the valley and were dispersed throughout the entire world. We learn that Eber was a prophet, since he named his son for a future event [i.e. פֶּלֶג resembles the word נִפְלְגָה meaning “dispersed”]. And we learned in Seder Olam (ch. 1) that at the end of his [Peleg’s] days, they were dispersed. For if you say that [they were dispersed] at the beginning of his days, behold his brother Joktan was his junior, and he begot many families before that, as it is said (verse 26): “And Joktan begot, etc.,” and [only] afterwards [is it written] (11:1): “And the whole earth was one language.” Now if you say [that they were dispersed] in the middle of his [Peleg’s] days, [this is not so, because] Scripture does not come to make things obscure but to explain. Hence, you learn that in the year of Peleg’s death, they were dispersed.   נפלגה: נתבלבלו הלשונות, ונפוצו מן הבקעה, ונתפלגו בכל העולם. למדנו שהיה עבר נביא שקרא שם בנו על שם העתיד. ושנינו בסדר עולם (פרק א) שבסוף ימיו נתפלגו, שאם תאמר בתחלת ימיו, הרי יקטן אחיו צעיר ממנו והוליד כמה משפחות קודם לכן, שנאמר (פסוק כו) ויקטן ילד וגו' ואחר כך ויהי כל הארץ וגו'. ואם תאמר באמצע ימיו, לא בא הכתוב לסתום אלא לפרש, הא למדת שבשנת מות פלג נתפלגו:
Joktan: Because he was humble and considered himself small (קָטָן). Therefore, he merited to raise all these families. — [from Gen. Rabbah 37:7]   ויקטן: שהיה עניו ומקטין עצמו, לכך זכה להעמיד כל המשפחות הללו:
26. And Joktan begot Almodad and Sheleph and Hazarmaveth and Jerah.   כו. וְיָקְטָן יָלַד אֶת אַלְמוֹדָד וְאֶת שָׁלֶף וְאֶת חֲצַרְמָוֶת וְאֶת יָרַח:
Hazarmaveth: lit. yard of death, graveyard. He was so called because of his place. [These are] the words of the Aggadah (Gen. Rabbah 37:7).   חצרמות: על שם מקומו, דברי אגדה:    
27. And Hadoram and Uzal and Diklah.   כז. וְאֶת הֲדוֹרָם וְאֶת אוּזָל וְאֶת דִּקְלָה:
28. And Obal and Abimael and Sheba.   כח. וְאֶת עוֹבָל וְאֶת אֲבִימָאֵל וְאֶת שְׁבָא:
29. And Ophir and Havilah and Jobab; all these were the sons of Joktan.   כט. וְאֶת אוֹפִר וְאֶת חֲוִילָה וְאֶת יוֹבָב כָּל אֵלֶּה בְּנֵי יָקְטָן:
30. And their settlement was from Mesha, as you come to Sephar, the mountain of the east.   ל. וַיְהִי מוֹשָׁבָם מִמֵּשָׁא בֹּאֲכָה סְפָרָה הַר הַקֶּדֶם:
31. These are the sons of Shem according to their families, according to their tongues, in their lands, according to their nations.   לא. אֵלֶּה בְנֵי שֵׁם לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָם לִלְשֹׁנֹתָם בְּאַרְצֹתָם לְגוֹיֵהֶם:
32. These are the families of the sons of Noah according to their generations, in their nations, and from these, the nations were separated on the earth after the Flood.   לב. אֵלֶּה מִשְׁפְּחֹת בְּנֵי נֹחַ לְתוֹלְדֹתָם בְּגוֹיֵהֶם וּמֵאֵלֶּה נִפְרְדוּ הַגּוֹיִם בָּאָרֶץ אַחַר הַמַּבּוּל:
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