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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Divrei Hayamim I - I Chronicles - Chapter 27

Divrei Hayamim I - I Chronicles - Chapter 27

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 27

1. And the Children of Israel to their number: the chiefs of the fathers' [houses], and the princes of the thousands and the hundreds, and their officers who serve the king in every matter of the divisions, the one coming and the one leaving, month by month, for all the months of the year; one division was twenty-four thousand.   א. וּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל| לְמִסְפָּרָם רָאשֵׁי הָאָבוֹת וְשָׂרֵי הָאֲלָפִים| וְהַמֵּאוֹת וְשֹׁטְרֵיהֶם הַמְשָׁרְתִים אֶת הַמֶּלֶךְ לְכֹל| דְּבַר הַמַּחְלְקוֹת הַבָּאָה וְהַיֹּצֵאת חֹדֶשׁ בְּחֹדֶשׁ לְכֹל חָדְשֵׁי הַשָּׁנָה הַמַּחֲלֹקֶת הָאַחַת עֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבָּעָה אָלֶף:
in every matter of the divisions: All this was from the beginning of his reign and onwards, and since the number of the Levites is stated, he proceeds to relate who the leaders of David’s division were.  
the one coming and the one leaving, month by month, for all the months of the year: for all the Israelites were divided into twelve parts, and each segment served the king for a month, and the king would provide them with their expenses, as it is written in the Book of Kings (I 4:7): “And Solomon had twelve officers over all Israel, who provided victuals for the king and his household.” They were ready to fight his war and to [perform] all his service in that month. All this was [instituted] at the beginning of his reign.  
twenty-four thousand: Although Israel was more than twelve times twenty-four thousand, David chose only the mighty warriors and the rich people, who could leave their affairs and engage in the king’s affairs; David did not take the poor people, who had to support themselves.  
2. Over the first division for the first month was Jashabeam the son of Zabdiel, and on his division were twenty-four thousand.   ב. עַל הַמַּחֲלֹקֶת הָרִאשׁוֹנָה לַחֹדֶשׁ הָרִאשׁוֹן יָשָׁבְעָם בֶּן זַבְדִּיאֵל וְעַל מַחֲלֻקְתּוֹ עֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבָּעָה אָלֶף:
3. Of the sons of Perez, the chief of all the leaders of the hosts, for the first month.   ג. מִן בְּנֵי פֶרֶץ הָרֹאשׁ לְכָל שָׂרֵי הַצְּבָאוֹת לַחֹדֶשׁ הָרִאשׁוֹן:
the chief of all the leaders of the hosts: Jashabeam was [one] of the sons of Perez, and he was the chief of all the twelve leaders, and because he was [one] of the sons of Perez, David appointed him chief.  
4. And over the division of the second month was Dodai the Ahohite and his division, Umikloth was the leader, and on his division were twenty-four thousand.   ד. וְעַל מַחֲלֹקֶת| הַחֹדֶשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי דּוֹדַי הָאֲחוֹחִי וּמַחֲלֻקְתּוֹ וּמִקְלוֹת הַנָּגִיד וְעַל מַחֲלֻקְתּוֹ עֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבָּעָה אָלֶף:
Umikloth was the leader: His fellow division member, who assisted him, was Umikloth.  
5. The leader of the third host for the third month was Benaiah the son of Jehoiada the priest, the chief, and on his division were twenty-four thousand.   ה. שַׂר הַצָּבָא הַשְּׁלִישִׁי לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁלִישִׁי בְּנָיָהוּ בֶן יְהוֹיָדָע הַכֹּהֵן רֹאשׁ וְעַל מַחֲלֻקְתּוֹ עֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבָּעָה אָלֶף:
The leader of the third host: Heb. שַׂר הַצָּבָא הַשְּׁלִישִי. Because of the honor of Benaiah, he calls him the leader of the host more than the others, with the exception of Jashabeam, who was of the sons of Perez, who is likewise called (verse 3): “the chief of all the leaders of the hosts,” because of David’s honor, who was, like him, [one] of the sons of Perez.  
the priest, the chief: who was the chief, and some say that he was the high priest, but it is not so, because Zadok and Ebiathar were high priests.  
6. He was Benaiah the mightiest of the thirty, and over the thirty and [over] his division was Ammizabad his son.   ו. הוּא בְנָיָהוּ גִּבּוֹר הַשְּׁלֹשִׁים וְעַל הַשְּׁלֹשִׁים וּמַחֲלֻקְתּוֹ עַמִּיזָבָד בְּנוֹ:
the mightiest of the thirty: as above (11:25): “Of the thirty, he was the most honored, etc.”  
7. The fourth, for the fourth month, was Asahel the brother of Joab, and Zebadiah his son after him, and on his division were twenty-four thousand.   ז. הָרְבִיעִי לַחֹדֶשׁ הָרְבִיעִי עֲשָׂהאֵל אֲחִי יוֹאָב וּזְבַדְיָה בְנוֹ אַחֲרָיו וְעַל מַחֲלֻקְתּוֹ עֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבָּעָה אָלֶף:
The fourth, etc., was Asahel, the brother of Joab, and Zebadiah his son after him: for Asahel was assassinated at the beginning of his reign, for Abner assassinated him, (II Sam. 2:23) and he [David] appointed Zebadiah his son in his stead over his division.  
8. The fifth, for the fifth month, the leader was Shamhuth the Zerahite, and on his division were twenty-four thousand.   ח. הַחֲמִישִׁי לַחֹדֶשׁ הַחֲמִישִׁי הַשַּׂר שַׁמְהוּת הַיִּזְרָח וְעַל מַחֲלֻקְתּוֹ עֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבָּעָה אָלֶף:
the leader was Shamhuth the Zerahite: Heb. הַיִּזְרָח  
9. The sixth, for the sixth month, was Ira the son of Ikkesh the Tekoite, and on his division were twenty-four thousand.   ט. הַשִּׁשִּׁי לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשִּׁשִּׁי עִירָא בֶן עִקֵּשׁ הַתְּקוֹעִי וְעַל מַחֲלֻקְתּוֹ עֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבָּעָה אָלֶף:
10. The seventh for the seventh month was Helez the Pelonite, of the sons of Ephraim, and on his division were twenty-four thousand.   י. הַשְּׁבִיעִי לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי חֵלֶץ הַפְּלוֹנִי מִן בְּנֵי אֶפְרָיִם וְעַל מַחֲלֻקְתּוֹ עֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבָּעָה אָלֶף:
11. The eighth, for the eighth month, was Sibbecai the Hushathite, of the Zerahites, and on his division were twenty-four thousand.   יא. הַשְּׁמִינִי לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁמִינִי סִבְּכַי הַחֻשָׁתִי לַזַּרְחִי וְעַל מַחֲלֻקְתּוֹ עֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבָּעָה אָלֶף:
12. The ninth, for the ninth month, was Abiezer the Anathothite, of the Benjamites, and on his division were twenty-four thousand.   יב. הַתְּשִׁיעִי לַחֹדֶשׁ הַתְּשִׁיעִי אֲבִיעֶזֶר הָעַנְּתֹתִי לַבֵּן יְמִינִי וְעַל מַחֲלֻקְתּוֹ עֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבָּעָה אָלֶף:
13. The tenth, for the tenth month, was Mahari the Netophathite, of the Zerahites, and on his division were twenty-four thousand.   יג. הָעֲשִׂירִי לַחֹדֶשׁ הָעֲשִׂירִי מַהֲרַי הַנְּטוֹפָתִי לַזַּרְחִי וְעַל מַחֲלֻקְתּוֹ עֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבָּעָה אָלֶף:
14. The eleventh, for the eleventh month, was Benaiah the Pirathonite, of the sons of Ephraim, and on his division were twenty-four thousand.   יד. עַשְׁתֵּי עָשָׂר לְעַשְׁתֵּי עָשָׂר הַחֹדֶשׁ בְּנָיָה הַפִּרְעָתֹנִי מִן בְּנֵי אֶפְרָיִם וְעַל מַחֲלֻקְתּוֹ עֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבָּעָה אָלֶף:
15. The twelfth, for the twelfth month, was Heldai the Netophathite, of Othniel, and on his division were twenty-four thousand.   טו. הַשְּׁנֵים עָשָׂר לִשְׁנֵים עָשָׂר הַחֹדֶשׁ חֶלְדַּי הַנְּטוֹפָתִי לְעָתְנִיאֵל וְעַל מַחֲלֻקְתּוֹ עֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבָּעָה אָלֶף:
16. And over the tribes of Israel: the leader of the Reubenites was Eliezer the son of Zichri, of the Simeonites was Shephatiah the son of Maacah.   טז. וְעַל שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לָראוּבֵנִי נָגִיד אֱלִיעֶזֶר בֶּן זִכְרִי לַשִּׁמְעוֹנִי שְׁפַטְיָהוּ בֶּן מַעֲכָה:
And over the tribes of Israel: We already stated the chiefs of David’s divisions, and now he tells who the leaders of the tribes of Israel were, the leader of each tribe.  
17. Of Levi was Hashabiah the son of Kemuel; of Aaron was Zadok.   יז. לְלֵוִי חֲשַׁבְיָה בֶן קְמוּאֵל לְאַהֲרֹן צָדוֹק:
18. Of Judah was Elihu, [one] of David's brothers; of Issachar was Omri the son of Michael.   יח. לִיהוּדָה אֱלִיהוּ מֵאֲחֵי דָוִיד לְיִשָּׂשׂכָר עָמְרִי בֶּן מִיכָאֵל:
19. Of Zebulun was Ishmaiah the son of Obadiah; of Naphtali was Jerimoth the son of Azriel.   יט. לִזְבוּלֻן יִשְׁמַעְיָהוּ בֶּן עֹבַדְיָהוּ לְנַפְתָּלִי יְרִימוֹת בֶּן עַזְרִיאֵל:
20. Of the sons of Ephraim was Hoshea the son of Azaziah; of half the tribe of Manasseh was Joel the son of Pedaiah.   כ. לִבְנֵי אֶפְרַיִם הוֹשֵׁעַ בֶּן עֲזַזְיָהוּ לַחֲצִי שֵׁבֶט מְנַשֶּׁה יוֹאֵל בֶּן פְּדָיָהוּ:
21. Of half the tribe of Manasseh in Gilead was Iddo the son of Zechariah; of Benjamin was Jaasiel the son of Abner.   כא. לַחֲצִי הַמְנַשֶּׁה גִּלְעָדָה יִדּוֹ בֶּן זְכַרְיָהוּ לְבִנְיָמִן יַעֲשִׂיאֵל בֶּן אַבְנֵר:
22. Of Dan was Azarel the son of Jeroham. These were the leaders of the tribes of Israel.   כב. לְדָן עֲזַרְאֵל בֶּן יְרֹחָם אֵלֶּה שָׂרֵי שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל:
23. Now David did not take their count from twenty years old and below because the Lord had promised to multiply Israel like the stars of the heavens.   כג. וְלֹא נָשָׂא דָוִיד מִסְפָּרָם לְמִבֶּן עֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה וּלְמָטָּה כִּי אָמַר יְהֹוָה לְהַרְבּוֹת אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל כְּכוֹכְבֵי הַשָּׁמָיִם:
Now David did not take their count from twenty years old and below: The meaning is: We already stated that he counted Israel and divided them into divisions, and he also counted the Levites and appointed them upon their service; and all these that he counted he did not count any of them less than twenty years old.  
like the stars of the heavens: Just as man cannot count the stars of the heavens, so he cannot count them.  
24. Joab the son of Zeruiah commenced to count, but did not finish, and there was wrath upon Israel because of this, and the number did not come up to the number of the chronicles of King David.   כד. יוֹאָב בֶּן צְרוּיָה הֵחֵל לִמְנוֹת וְלֹא כִלָּה וַיְהִי בָזֹאת קֶצֶף עַל יִשְׂרָאֵל וְלֹא עָלָה הַמִּסְפָּר בְּמִסְפַּר דִּבְרֵי הַיָּמִים לַמֶּלֶךְ דָּוִיד:
but did not finish: The meaning is: And moreover, I say to you: Did not Joab commence on another occasion to count the people above twenty and not finish?  
and there was wrath upon Israel because of this: Because of the small segment that he counted, there was wrath upon Israel, because it entered his mind to count all Israel and to transgress the verse (Gen. 13:16): “… so that if anyone can count the dust of the earth, etc.” and to transgress the verse (ibid. 15:5): “Look, please, toward heaven, etc.”  
and the number did not come up to: The meaning is: Although I say, “commenced to count but did not finish,” he counted only a small segment, for the number of the counted ones in the Book of Samuel did not come up to the number in Chronicles, (21:5) for that number that he counted he did not write in Samuel, but a little of the number, and here, because of David’s honor, even if the number were more, he would have stated it, because it implies that not for nought was there wrath on Israel because he already counted many of Israel, and moreover, because of his honor, that they were all his servants, like one man.  
25. And over the treasuries of the king was Azmaveth the son of Adiel, and over the storehouses in the fields, in the cities, in the villages, and in the towers was Jehonathan the son of Uzziah.   כה. וְעַל אֹצְרוֹת הַמֶּלֶךְ עַזְמָוֶת בֶּן עֲדִיאֵל וְעַל הָאֹצָרוֹת בַּשָּׂדֶה בֶּעָרִים וּבַכְּפָרִים וּבַמִּגְדָּלוֹת יְהוֹנָתָן בֶּן עֻזִּיָּהוּ:
And over the treasuries of the king: the treasuries of silver and gold. All this he proceeds to relate for David’s greatness, and even the one who was appointed over his she-donkeys.  
and over the storehouses in the field: and over what grew in the field: grains, wine, and oil, and all kinds of foods and drinks.  
in the cities: to supply the cities and to supply the cities of the king and his towers.  
26. And over those who do the work of the field for the work of the soil was Ezri the son of Chelub.   כו. וְעַל עֹשֵׂי מְלֶאכֶת הַשָּׁדֶה לַעֲבֹדַת הָאֲדָמָה עֶזְרִי בֶּן כְּלוּב:
And over those who do the work of the field for the work of the soil: to plow the soil.  
Ezri the son of Chelub: was appointed to command to plow the soil, and he would give them the cattle and all the implements of the plow.  
27. And over the vineyards was Shimei the Ramathite, and over what was in the vineyards to the storehouses of the wine was Zabdi the Shephamite.   כז. וְעַל הַכְּרָמִים שִׁמְעִי הָרָמָתִי וְעַל שֶׁבַּכְּרָמִים לְאֹצְרוֹת הַיַּיִן זַבְדִּי הַשִּׁפְמִי:
And over the vineyards: to hoe and prune the vineyards.  
and over what was in the vineyards: i.e., the storehouses of the wine.  
28. And over the olive trees and the sycamore trees that are in the lowland was Baal-Hanan the Gederite, and over the storehouses of the oil was Joash.   כח. וְעַל הַזֵּיתִים וְהַשִּׁקְמִים אֲשֶׁר בַּשְּׁפֵלָה בַּעַל חָנָן הַגְּדֵרִי וְעַל אֹצְרוֹת הַשֶּׁמֶן יוֹעָשׁ:
And over the olive trees: to plant them and gather the olives.  
29. And over the cattle that pasture in the Sharon was Shirtai the Sharonite, and over the cattle in the valleys was Shaphat the son of Adlai.   כט. וְעַל הַבָּקָר הָרֹעִים בַּשָּׁרוֹן שִׁרְטַי הַשָּׁרוֹנִי וְעַל הַבָּקָר בַּעֲמָקִים שָׁפָט בֶּן עַדְלָי:
And over the cattle that pasture in the Sharon was Shirtai the Sharonite: who was knowledgeable in matters concerning them.  
30. And over the camels was Obil the Ishmaelite, and over the she-donkeys was Jehdeiah the Meronothite.   ל. וְעַל הַגְּמַלִּים אוֹבִיל הַיִּשְׁמְעֵלִי וְעַל הָאֲתֹנוֹת יֶחְדְּיָהוּ הַמֵּרֹנֹתִי:
the Ishmaelite: who knew the character of the occupation of camels.  
31. And over the flocks was Jaziz the Hagarite. All these were the officers over King David's property.   לא. וְעַל הַצֹּאן יָזִיז הַהַגְרִי כָּל אֵלֶּה שָׂרֵי הָרְכוּשׁ אֲשֶׁר לַמֶּלֶךְ דָּוִיד:
And over the flocks was Jaziz the Hagarite: Since the Hagarites were tent dwellers in the field, he appointed him over his flocks.  
32. And Jehonathan, David's uncle, was a counselor, a man of understanding and a scribe; and Jehiel the son of Hachmoni was with the king's sons.   לב. וִיהוֹנָתָן דּוֹד דָּוִיד יוֹעֵץ אִישׁ מֵבִין וְסוֹפֵר הוּא וִיחִיאֵל בֶּן חַכְמוֹנִי עִם בְּנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ:
And Jehiel the son of Hachmoni was with the king’s sons: He was their nurturer and their nurse, who taught them culture.  
33. And Ahithophel was the king's counselor, and Hushai the Archite was the king's companion.   לג. וַאֲחִיתֹפֶל יוֹעֵץ לַמֶּלֶךְ וְחוּשַׁי הָאַרְכִּי רֵעַ הַמֶּלֶךְ:
And Hushai the Archite: Heb. קִרְיַתסֵפֶר (Jos. 15:15, Jud. 1:11) is translated by the Targum as קִרְיְתָא דְּאַרְכֵי. In Midrash Rabbah we find that when David sinned with Bathsheba, he asked Hushai the Archite whether, if he would repent, the Holy One, blessed be He, would accept his repentance to grant him an extension for his sin, and he said, “Yes.”  
the king’s companion: His best man (Jud. 14:20): “to his companion (לְמֵרֵעֵהוּ), who had accompanied (רֵעָה) him,” written regarding Samson; it is translated by the Targum : שׁוֹשְׁבִינֵיהּ his best man.  
34. And after Ahithophel were Jehoiada the son of Benaiah and Ebiathar, and the general of the king's army was Joab.   לד. וְאַחֲרֵי אֲחִיתֹפֶל יְהוֹיָדָע בֶּן בְּנָיָהוּ וְאֶבְיָתָר וְשַׂר צָבָא לַמֶּלֶךְ יוֹאָב:
And after Ahithophel: After he died, David took for himself Jehoiada and Ebiathar in his place.  
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