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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Divrei Hayamim I - I Chronicles - Chapter 5

Divrei Hayamim I - I Chronicles - Chapter 5

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 5

1. And the sons of Reuben, the firstborn of Israel, for he was the firstborn, but when he defiled his father's bed, his birthright was given to the sons of Joseph the son of Israel, but not to be reckoned in the genealogy as firstborn.   א. וּבְנֵי רְאוּבֵן בְּכוֹר יִשְׂרָאֵל כִּי הוּא הַבְּכוֹר וּבְחַלְּלוֹ יְצוּעֵי אָבִיו נִתְּנָה בְּכֹרָתוֹ לִבְנֵי יוֹסֵף בֶּן יִשְׂרָאֵל וְלֹא לְהִתְיַחֵשׂ לַבְּכֹרָה:
And the sons of Reuben the firstborn of Israel: Now if you ask: since he was the firstborn, why did the kingship not emanate from him? He was indeed the firstborn, but when he desecrated his father’s bed, his birthright was given to the sons of Joseph. Now if you ask, if so, why did the sons of Joseph not reign? He therefore says, “but not to be reckoned in the genealogy as the first born,” [i. e., the sons of Joseph were not meant] to take the share of the kingship, but only the birthright, because Judah was the most fit to reign even if Reuben had not defiled the birthright and it had not been taken from him.  
2. Because Judah prevailed over his brothers, and the one appointed as prince was to be from him, but the birthright belonged to Joseph.   ב. כִּי יְהוּדָה גָּבַר בְּאֶחָיו וּלְנָגִיד מִמֶּנּוּ וְהַבְּכֹרָה לְיוֹסֵף:
Because Judah prevailed over his brothers: as it says (Gen. 49:9): “Judah is a lion’s cub.”  
and the one appointed as prince was to be from him: the kingship emanated from him, and for this reason the king was called נָגִיד, since he is the one who leads [the people] out and brings them in [the Aramaic root נגד means to pull or lead.] And the birthright and the throne were taken from Reuben, and the throne was given to Judah, as it is written: “Because Judah prevailed over his brothers” ; but the share of the birthright was given to Joseph, to his two sons.  
3. The sons of Reuben, the firstborn of Israel: Hanoch, and Pallu, Hezron, and Carmi.   ג. בְּנֵי רְאוּבֵן בְּכוֹר יִשְׂרָאֵל חֲנוֹךְ וּפַלּוּא חֶצְרוֹן וְכַרְמִי:
The sons of Reuben the firstborn of Israel: He now commences as before.  
4. The sons of Joel: Shemaiah his son, Gog his son, Shimei his son.   ד. בְּנֵי יוֹאֵל שְׁמַעְיָה בְנוֹ גּוֹג בְּנוֹ שִׁמְעִי בְנוֹ:
The sons of Joel: He enumerates various generations.  
5. Micah his son, Reaiah his son, Baal his son.   ה. מִיכָה בְנוֹ רְאָיָה בְנוֹ בַּעַל בְּנוֹ:
6. Beerah his son, whom Tillegath-Pilneser, the king of Assyria, exiled-he was the prince of the Reubenites.   ו. בְּאֵרָה בְנוֹ אֲשֶׁר הֶגְלָה תִּלְּגַת פִּלְנְאֶסֶר מֶלֶךְ אַשֻּׁר הוּא נָשִׂיא לָראוּבֵנִי:
whom Tillegath Pilneser exiled: He preceded Sannecherib, and this was their sequence: Pul was [king] when Menahem the son of Gadi was crowned (II Kings 15:19f.), and (ibid. verse 29): “… in the days of Pekah the son of Remaliah, Tiglath Pileser the king of Assyria came,” and in the days of Hoshea the son of Elah, Shalmaneser the king of Assyria came (ibid. 17:3), and in the days of Hezekiah was Sannecherib (ibid. 18:13), but our Rabbis explained (Sanh. 94a) that Pul and all the rest of them are identical with Sannecherib.  
he was the prince of the Reubenites: at the time that Tiglath Pileser exiled him.  
7. And his companions, [each one] to his families, tracing their genealogy to their generations; the heads were Jeiel, and Zechariah.   ז. וְאֶחָיו לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָיו בְּהִתְיַחֵשׂ לְתֹלְדוֹתָם הָרֹאשׁ יְעִיאֵל וּזְכַרְיָהוּ:
tracing their genealogy to their generations; the heads were Jeiel and Zechariah: The meaning is: I traced only part of the genealogy of Reuben, but the main part of his genealogy is in the chronicles of the kings of Israel. Jeiel and Zechariah were the heads, through whom their genealogy was completed.  
8. And Bela the son of Azaz, the son of Shema, the son of Joel; he dwelled in Aroer and until Nebo and Baal-Meon.   ח. וּבֶלַע בֶּן עָזָז בֶּן שֶׁמַע בֶּן יוֹאֵל הוּא יוֹשֵׁב בַּעֲרֹעֵר וְעַד נְבוֹ וּבַעַל מְעוֹן:
and until Nebo and Baal Meon: For in the ancient days, before they came into Israel’s hands, they were called Nebo and Baal Meon after their pagan deities, (lit. their abominations), for it was the custom of the heathens to call their pagan deities after their cities until that day. But when they came into Israel’s hands, they changed their names, as it is written (Num. 32:38): “Nebo and Baal Meon their names being changed,” i.e., Israel changed their names, but Sibmah, since it was not named for their pagan deities, they did not change its name. In Megillah (unknown) it is explained that Nebo and Baal Meon are names of pagan deities.  
9. And eastward, he dwelled until the approach to the desert from the Euphrates River, for their cattle multiplied in the land of Gilead.   ט. וְלַמִּזְרָח יָשַׁב עַד לְבוֹא מִדְבָּרָה לְמִן הַנָּהָר פְּרָת כִּי מִקְנֵיהֶם רָבוּ בְּאֶרֶץ גִּלְעָד:
10. And in the days of Saul, they made war with the Hagarites, and they fell into their hands, and they dwelt in their tents over the entire face of the east of Gilead.   י. וּבִימֵי שָׁאוּל עָשׂוּ מִלְחָמָה עִם הַהַגְרִאִים וַיִּפְּלוּ בְּיָדָם וַיֵּשְׁבוּ בְּאָהֳלֵיהֶם עַל כָּל פְּנֵי מִזְרָח לַגִּלְעָד:
with the Hagarites: with the Ishmaelites, and by their mother’s name he calls them Hagarites, because they were the sons of Hagar.  
and they dwelt in their tents: for it is the custom of the Arabs to dwell in tents.  
11. And the sons of Gad dwelt opposite them in the land of Bashan until Salcah.   יא. וּבְנֵי גָד לְנֶגְדָּם יָשְׁבוּ בְּאֶרֶץ הַבָּשָׁן עַד סַלְכָה:
And the sons of Gad dwelt opposite them: alongside them, like (Gen. 33:12): “… and I will go alongside you (לְנֶגְדֶּ).”  
12. Joel was the head, and Shapham was the second in command, and Janai, and Shaphat in Bashan.   יב. יוֹאֵל הָרֹאשׁ וְשָׁפָם הַמִּשְׁנֶה וְיַעְנַי וְשָׁפָט בַּבָּשָׁן:
13. And their brothers to the house of their fathers: Michael, and Meshullam, and Sheba, and Jorai, and Jacan, and Zia, and Eber- seven.   יג. וַאֲחֵיהֶם לְבֵית אֲבוֹתֵיהֶם מִיכָאֵל וּמְשֻׁלָּם וְשֶׁבַע וְיוֹרַי וְיַעְכָּן וְזִיעַ וָעֵבֶר שִׁבְעָה:
And their brothers to the house of their fathers: in the place of their genealogy.  
Michael and Meshullam: These were the heads of their fathers of that genealogy, for they all traced their genealogy in the days of Jotham the king of Judah and in the days of Jeroboam the king of Israel.  
14. These are the sons of Abihail, the son of Huri, the son of Jaroah, the son of Gilead, the son of Michael, the son of Jeshishai, the son of Jahdo, the son of Buz.   יד. אֵלֶּה| בְּנֵי אֲבִיחַיִל בֶּן חוּרִי בֶּן יָרוֹחַ בֶּן גִּלְעָד בֶּן מִיכָאֵל בֶּן יְשִׁישַׁי בֶּן יַחְדּוֹ בֶּן בּוּז:
15. Ahi the son of Abdiel, the son of Guni was the head of the house of their fathers.   טו. אֲחִי בֶּן עַבְדִּיאֵל בֶּן גּוּנִי רֹאשׁ לְבֵית אֲבוֹתָם:
16. And they dwelt in Gilead, in Bashan, and in its villages, and in all the suburbs of Sharon until their limits.   טז. וַיֵּשְׁבוּ בַּגִּלְעָד בַּבָּשָׁן וּבִבְנֹתֶיהָ וּבְכָל מִגְרְשֵׁי שָׁרוֹן עַל תּוֹצְאוֹתָם:
17. They all traced their genealogy in the days of Jotham, king of Judah and in the days of Jeroboam, king of Israel.   יז. כֻּלָּם הִתְיַחְשׂוּ בִּימֵי יוֹתָם מֶלֶךְ יְהוּדָה וּבִימֵי יָרָבְעָם מֶלֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל:
18. The sons of Reuben, and the Gadites, and half the tribe of Manasseh-of men of valor, men who bear shields and swords and draw the bow, and who are trained for war, forty-four thousand, seven hundred and sixty, going out to war.   יח. בְּנֵי רְאוּבֵן וְגָדִי וַחֲצִי שֵׁבֶט מְנַשֶּׁה מִן בְּנֵי חַיִל אֲנָשִׁים נֹשְׂאֵי מָגֵן וְחֶרֶב וְדֹרְכֵי קֶשֶׁת וּלְמוּדֵי מִלְחָמָה אַרְבָּעִים וְאַרְבָּעָה אֶלֶף וּשְׁבַע מֵאוֹת וְשִׁשִּׁים יֹצְאֵי צָבָא:
The sons of Reuben, and the Gadites, and half the tribe of Manasseh, of men of valor, etc.: That is to say: they all gathered and made war with the Hagarites.  
19. And they made war with the Hagarites, and Jetur, and Naphish, and Nodab.   יט. וַיַּעֲשׂוּ מִלְחָמָה עִם הַהַגְרִיאִים וִיטוּר וְנָפִישׁ וְנוֹדָב:
and Jetur and Naphish: They were sons of Ishmael (Gen. 25:14).  
20. And they were assisted against them, and the Hagarites and all who were with them were delivered into their hands, for they cried out to God in the battle, and He accepted their prayers because they trusted in Him.   כ. וַיֵּעָזְרוּ עֲלֵיהֶם וַיִּנָּתְנוּ בְיָדָם הַהַגְרִיאִים וְכֹל שֶׁעִמָּהֶם כִּי לֵאלֹהִים זָעֲקוּ בַּמִּלְחָמָה וְנַעְתּוֹר לָהֶם כִּי בָטְחוּ בוֹ:
And they were assisted against them: for the Lord helped them.  
and the Hagarites and all who were with them: other nations [that came] to their aid.  
and He accepted their prayers: וְנַעְתּוֹר, similar to if וַיֵּעָתֵר לוֹ accepted his prayer (Gen. 25:21).  
21. And they captured their cattle, their camels fifty thousand, and flocks two hundred and fifty thousand, and donkeys two thousand, and human beings one hundred thousand.   כא. וַיִּשְׁבּוּ מִקְנֵיהֶם גְּמַלֵּיהֶם חֲמִשִּׁים אֶלֶף וְצֹאן מָאתַיִם וַחֲמִשִּׁים אֶלֶף וַחֲמוֹרִים אַלְפָּיִם וְנֶפֶשׁ אָדָם מֵאָה אָלֶף:
22. For many fell slain, for the battle was from God, and they dwelt in their place until the exile.   כב. כִּי חֲלָלִים רַבִּים נָפָלוּ כִּי מֵהָאֱלֹהִים הַמִּלְחָמָה וַיֵּשְׁבוּ תַחְתֵּיהֶם עַד הַגֹּלָה:
23. And the sons of half the tribe of Manasseh dwelt in the land; from Bashan until Baal-Hermon and Senir and Mount Hermon they multiplied.   כג. וּבְנֵי חֲצִי שֵׁבֶט מְנַשֶּׁה יָשְׁבוּ בָּאָרֶץ מִבָּשָׁן עַד בַּעַל חֶרְמוֹן וּשְׂנִיר וְהַר חֶרְמוֹן הֵמָּה רָבוּ:
24. And these are the heads of their fathers' house: Epher, and Ishei, and Eliel, and Azriel, and Jeremiah, and Hodaviah, and Jahdiel, mighty men of valor, famous men, heads of their fathers' house.   כד. וְאֵלֶּה רָאשֵׁי בֵית אֲבוֹתָם וְעֵפֶר וְיִשְׁעִי וֶאֱלִיאֵל וְעַזְרִיאֵל וְיִרְמְיָה וְהוֹדַוְיָה וְיַחְדִּיאֵל אֲנָשִׁים גִּבּוֹרֵי חַיִל אַנְשֵׁי שֵׁמוֹת רָאשִׁים לְבֵית אֲבוֹתָם:
25. And they betrayed the God of their fathers, and they strayed after the gods of the peoples of the land, whom God had destroyed before them.   כה. וַיִּמְעֲלוּ בֵּאלֹהֵי אֲבֹתֵיהֶם וַיִּזְנוּ אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהֵי עַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר הִשְׁמִיד אֱלֹהִים מִפְּנֵיהֶם:
and they strayed after the gods of the peoples of the land whom God had destroyed from before them: The meaning is, they went astray after the gods of the peoples of the land. And which people? [Those] whom God had destroyed from before them [Israel], whose god could not help them [the pagans]. And they [Israel] did not ponder the matter, [reasoning] that since He destroyed them [the pagans] from before them [Israel], and it [their god] could not help them, it would certainly not be able to help us.  
26. And the Lord inspired Pul the king of Assyria and Tillegath-Pilneser the king of Assyria, and they exiled the Reubenites, the Gadites, and half the tribe of Manasseh, and brought them to Halah, and Habor, and Hara, and the Gozan River until this day.   כו. וַיָּעַר אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת רוּחַ| פּוּל מֶלֶךְ אַשּׁוּר וְאֶת רוּחַ תִּלְּגַת פִּלְנֶסֶר מֶלֶךְ אַשּׁוּר וַיַּגְלֵם לָראוּבֵנִי וְלַגָּדִי וְלַחֲצִי שֵׁבֶט מְנַשֶּׁה וַיְבִיאֵם לַחְלַח וְחָבוֹר וְהָרָא וּנְהַר גּוֹזָן עַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה:
27. The sons of Levi: Gershon, Kehath, and Merari.   כז. בְּנֵי לֵוִי גֵּרְשׁוֹן קְהָת וּמְרָרִי:
28. And the sons of Kehath: Amram, Izhar, and Hebron, and Uzziel.   כח. וּבְנֵי קְהָת עַמְרָם יִצְהָר וְחֶבְרוֹן וְעֻזִּיאֵל:
29. And the children of Amram: Aaron, and Moses, and Miriam, and the sons of Aaron: Nadab, and Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar.   כט. וּבְנֵי עַמְרָם אַהֲרֹן וּמֹשֶׁה וּמִרְיָם וּבְנֵי אַהֲרֹן נָדָב וַאֲבִיהוּא אֶלְעָזָר וְאִיתָמָר:
30. Eleazar begot Phinehas: Phinehas begot Abishua.   ל. אֶלְעָזָר הוֹלִיד אֶת פִּינְחָס פִּינְחָס הֹלִיד אֶת אֲבִישׁוּעַ:
31. And Abishua begot Bukki, and Bukki begot Uzzi.   לא. וַאֲבִישׁוּעַ הוֹלִיד אֶת בֻּקִּי וּבֻקִּי הוֹלִיד אֶת עֻזִּי:
32. And Uzzi begot Zerahiah, and Zerahiah begot Meraioth.   לב. וְעֻזִּי הוֹלִיד אֶת זְרַחְיָה וּזְרַחְיָה הוֹלִיד אֶת מְרָיוֹת:
33. Meraioth begot Amariah, and Amariah begot Ahitub.   לג. מְרָיוֹת הוֹלִיד אֶת אֲמַרְיָה וַאֲמַרְיָה הוֹלִיד אֶת אֲחִיטוּב:
34. And Ahitub begot Zadok, and Zadok begot Ahimaaz.   לד. וַאֲחִיטוּב הוֹלִיד אֶת צָדוֹק וְצָדוֹק הוֹלִיד אֶת אֲחִימָעַץ:
35. And Ahimaaz begot Azariah, and Azariah begot Johanan.   לה. וַאֲחִימַעַץ הוֹלִיד אֶת עֲזַרְיָה וַעֲזַרְיָה הוֹלִיד אֶת יוֹחָנָן:
36. And Johanan begot Azariah; he is the one who served in the Temple that Solomon built in Jerusalem.   לו. וְיוֹחָנָן הוֹלִיד אֶת עֲזַרְיָה הוּא אֲשֶׁר כִּהֵן בַּבַּיִת אֲשֶׁר בָּנָה שְׁלֹמֹה בִּירוּשָׁלִָם:
he is the one who served in the Temple that Solomon built: Some explain that Azariah was the first Azariah, and from Azariah to Seraiah, who lived at the time of the destruction of the Temple, were eight priests. Accordingly, they emended in Yoma in the first chapter (9a), and in Leviticus Rabbah (21:9), and in Siphre , parashath Phineas (Num. 25:12), that eight high priests served in the First Temple. Some say that there were eighteen. But neither one is a viable theory because Zadok was the first who ministered in the time of Solomon. Moreover, which Amariah was in the days of Jehoshaphat, about whom it is written (II Chron 19:11): “… and behold, Amariah the head priest” ? Now he was Amariah the son of Azariah, who lived in the days of Uzziah and in the days of Hezekiah, who was after Jehoshaphat. If you say [that it was] Azariah the father of Seraiah, then where was Hilkiah the High Priest who lived in the days of Josiah? Rather we must count from Zadok, and there were twelve priests from Zadok until Seraiah, and so we find in an exact version of Leviticus Rabbah . Now that which the Scripture writes: “… he was the one who served in the Temple,” is explained in Sefer Yerushalmi (source unknown. Perhaps Sifre Zuta, Korah 18:7 is meant) as follows: Did he alone serve, and did he serve in the days of Solomon? Did not other priests serve as well? But because he risked his life for the sanctity of the Temple by not allowing Uzziah to burn incense, it is said: “he was the one who served in the Temple that Solomon built,” and he was the Azariah who lived in the days of Uzziah (ibid. 26:17, 20) and in the days of Hezekiah, and Azariah the son of Ahimaaz was Amariah the priest who served in the days of Jehoshaphat, just as Uzziah is called Azariah, as is written (II Ki. 15:1): “In the twenty-seventh year of Jeroboam etc, Azariah… became king.” And Azariah the son of Ahimaaz was called Zechariah, as it is written (II Chron. 26:5): “And he was wont to seek God in the days of Zechariah who understood the fear of God, etc.”  
37. And Azariah begot Amariah, and Amariah begot Ahitub.   לז. וַיּוֹלֶד עֲזַרְיָה אֶת אֲמַרְיָה וַאֲמַרְיָה הוֹלִיד אֶת אֲחִיטוּב:
38. And Ahitub begot Zadok, and Zadok begot Shallum.   לח. וַאֲחִיטוּב הוֹלִיד אֶת צָדוֹק וְצָדוֹק הוֹלִיד אֶת שַׁלּוּם:
39. And Shallum begot Hilkiah, and Hilkiah begot Azariah.   לט. וְשַׁלּוּם הוֹלִיד אֶת חִלְקִיָּה וְחִלְקִיָּה הוֹלִיד אֶת עֲזַרְיָה:
40. And Azariah begot Seriah, and Seriah begot Jehozadak.   מ. וַעֲזַרְיָה הוֹלִיד אֶת שְׂרָיָה וּשְׂרָיָה הוֹלִיד אֶת יְהוֹצָדָק:
41. And Jehozadak went when the Lord exiled Judah and Jerusalem by the hand of Nebuchadnezzar.   מא. וִיהוֹצָדָק הָלַךְ בְּהַגְלוֹת יְהֹוָה אֶת יְהוּדָה וִירוּשָׁלִָם בְּיַד נְבֻכַדְנֶאצַּר:
And Jehozadak went when the Lord exiled Judah and Jerusalem: And the verse in the Book of Haggai (1:1): “Joshua the son of Jehozadak, the [High] Priest,” does not [mean] that Jehozadak ever served in the high priesthood, for he was exiled to Babylon in the days of Jeconiah, as it is written: “And Jehozadak went when… exiled etc.,” but Joshua his son was the High Priest when they ascended from Babylon during the time of the Second Temple. Now why was Azariah the son of Seraiah the scholar not the High Priest, but [instead] his nephew Joshua the son of Jehozadak? This is the reason: because Joshua ascended with Zerubbabel many days and years before Ezra ascended.  
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