Chapter 5

1And the sons of Reuben, the firstborn of Israel, for he was the firstborn, but when he defiled his father's bed, his birthright was given to the sons of Joseph the son of Israel, but not to be reckoned in the genealogy as firstborn.   אוּבְנֵ֨י רְאוּבֵ֥ן בְּכֽוֹר־יִשְׂרָאֵל֘ כִּֽי־ה֣וּא הַבְּכוֹר֒ וּֽבְחַלְּלוֹ֙ יְצוּעֵ֣י אָבִ֔יו נִתְּנָה֙ בְּכֹ֣רָת֔וֹ לִבְנֵ֥י יוֹסֵ֖ף בֶּן־יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וְלֹ֥א לְהִתְיַחֵ֖שׂ לַבְּכֹרָֽה:
And the sons of Reuben the firstborn of Israel: Now if you ask: since he was the firstborn, why did the kingship not emanate from him? He was indeed the firstborn, but when he desecrated his father’s bed, his birthright was given to the sons of Joseph. Now if you ask, if so, why did the sons of Joseph not reign? He therefore says, “but not to be reckoned in the genealogy as the first born,” [i. e., the sons of Joseph were not meant] to take the share of the kingship, but only the birthright, because Judah was the most fit to reign even if Reuben had not defiled the birthright and it had not been taken from him.  
2Because Judah prevailed over his brothers, and the one appointed as prince was to be from him, but the birthright belonged to Joseph.   בכִּ֚י יְהוּדָה֙ גָּבַ֣ר בְּאֶחָ֔יו וּלְנָגִ֖יד מִמֶּ֑נּוּ וְהַבְּכֹרָ֖ה לְיוֹסֵֽף:
Because Judah prevailed over his brothers: as it says (Gen. 49:9): “Judah is a lion’s cub.”  
and the one appointed as prince was to be from him: the kingship emanated from him, and for this reason the king was called נָגִיד, since he is the one who leads [the people] out and brings them in [the Aramaic root נגד means to pull or lead.] And the birthright and the throne were taken from Reuben, and the throne was given to Judah, as it is written: “Because Judah prevailed over his brothers” ; but the share of the birthright was given to Joseph, to his two sons.  
3The sons of Reuben, the firstborn of Israel: Hanoch, and Pallu, Hezron, and Carmi.   גבְּנֵ֥י רְאוּבֵ֖ן בְּכ֣וֹר יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל חֲנ֥וֹךְ וּפַלּ֖וּא חֶצְר֥וֹן וְכַרְמִֽי:
The sons of Reuben the firstborn of Israel: He now commences as before.  
4The sons of Joel: Shemaiah his son, Gog his son, Shimei his son.   דבְּנֵ֖י יוֹאֵ֑ל שְׁמַעְיָ֥ה בְנ֛וֹ גּ֥וֹג בְּנ֖וֹ שִׁמְעִ֥י בְנֽוֹ:
The sons of Joel: He enumerates various generations.  
5Micah his son, Reaiah his son, Baal his son.   המִיכָ֥ה בְנ֛וֹ רְאָיָ֥ה בְנ֖וֹ בַּ֥עַל בְּנֽוֹ:
6Beerah his son, whom Tillegath-Pilneser, the king of Assyria, exiled-he was the prince of the Reubenites.   ובְּאֵרָ֣ה בְנ֔וֹ אֲשֶׁ֣ר הֶגְלָ֔ה תִּלְּגַ֥ת פִּלְנְאֶ֖סֶר מֶ֣לֶךְ אַשֻּׁ֑ר ה֥וּא נָשִׂ֖יא לָרֽאוּבֵנִֽי:
whom Tillegath Pilneser exiled: He preceded Sannecherib, and this was their sequence: Pul was [king] when Menahem the son of Gadi was crowned (II Kings 15:19f.), and (ibid. verse 29): “… in the days of Pekah the son of Remaliah, Tiglath Pileser the king of Assyria came,” and in the days of Hoshea the son of Elah, Shalmaneser the king of Assyria came (ibid. 17:3), and in the days of Hezekiah was Sannecherib (ibid. 18:13), but our Rabbis explained (Sanh. 94a) that Pul and all the rest of them are identical with Sannecherib.  
he was the prince of the Reubenites: at the time that Tiglath Pileser exiled him.  
7And his companions, [each one] to his families, tracing their genealogy to their generations; the heads were Jeiel, and Zechariah.   זוְאֶחָיו֙ לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָ֔יו בְּהִתְיַחֵ֖שׂ לְתֹֽלְדוֹתָ֑ם הָרֹ֥אשׁ יְעִיאֵ֖ל וּזְכַרְיָֽהוּ:
tracing their genealogy to their generations; the heads were Jeiel and Zechariah: The meaning is: I traced only part of the genealogy of Reuben, but the main part of his genealogy is in the chronicles of the kings of Israel. Jeiel and Zechariah were the heads, through whom their genealogy was completed.  
8And Bela the son of Azaz, the son of Shema, the son of Joel; he dwelled in Aroer and until Nebo and Baal-Meon.   חוּבֶ֙לַע֙ בֶּן־עָזָ֔ז בֶּן־שֶׁ֖מַע בֶּן־יוֹאֵ֑ל הוּא יוֹשֵׁ֣ב בַּֽעֲרֹעֵ֔ר וְעַד־נְב֖וֹ וּבַ֥עַל מְעֽוֹן:
and until Nebo and Baal Meon: For in the ancient days, before they came into Israel’s hands, they were called Nebo and Baal Meon after their pagan deities, (lit. their abominations), for it was the custom of the heathens to call their pagan deities after their cities until that day. But when they came into Israel’s hands, they changed their names, as it is written (Num. 32:38): “Nebo and Baal Meon their names being changed,” i.e., Israel changed their names, but Sibmah, since it was not named for their pagan deities, they did not change its name. In Megillah (unknown) it is explained that Nebo and Baal Meon are names of pagan deities.  
9And eastward, he dwelled until the approach to the desert from the Euphrates River, for their cattle multiplied in the land of Gilead.   טוְלַמִּזְרָ֗ח יָשַׁב֙ עַד־לְב֣וֹא מִדְבָּ֔רָה לְמִן־הַנָּהָ֖ר פְּרָ֑ת כִּ֧י מִקְנֵיהֶ֛ם רָב֖וּ בְּאֶ֥רֶץ גִּלְעָֽד:
10And in the days of Saul, they made war with the Hagarites, and they fell into their hands, and they dwelt in their tents over the entire face of the east of Gilead.   יוּבִימֵ֣י שָׁא֗וּל עָשׂ֚וּ מִלְחָמָה֙ עִם־הַֽהַגְרִאִ֔ים וַיִּפְּל֖וּ בְּיָדָ֑ם וַיֵּֽשְׁבוּ֙ בְּאָ֣הֳלֵיהֶ֔ם עַל־כָּל־פְּנֵ֖י מִזְרָ֥ח לַגִּלְעָֽד:
with the Hagarites: with the Ishmaelites, and by their mother’s name he calls them Hagarites, because they were the sons of Hagar.  
and they dwelt in their tents: for it is the custom of the Arabs to dwell in tents.  
11And the sons of Gad dwelt opposite them in the land of Bashan until Salcah.   יאוּבְנֵי־גָ֣ד לְנֶגְדָּ֗ם יָֽשְׁב֛וּ בְּאֶ֥רֶץ הַבָּשָׁ֖ן עַד־סַלְכָֽה:
And the sons of Gad dwelt opposite them: alongside them, like (Gen. 33:12): “… and I will go alongside you (לְנֶגְדֶּ).”  
12Joel was the head, and Shapham was the second in command, and Janai, and Shaphat in Bashan.   יביוֹאֵ֣ל הָרֹ֔אשׁ וְשָׁפָ֖ם הַמִּשְׁנֶ֑ה וְיַעְנַ֥י וְשָׁפָ֖ט בַּבָּשָֽׁן:
13And their brothers to the house of their fathers: Michael, and Meshullam, and Sheba, and Jorai, and Jacan, and Zia, and Eber- seven.   יגוַֽאֲחֵיהֶ֞ם לְבֵ֣ית אֲבֽוֹתֵיהֶ֗ם מִֽיכָאֵ֡ל וּמְשֻׁלָּ֡ם וְ֠שֶׁבַע וְיוֹרַ֧י וְיַעְכָּ֛ן וְזִ֥יעַ וָעֵ֖בֶר שִׁבְעָֽה:
And their brothers to the house of their fathers: in the place of their genealogy.  
Michael and Meshullam: These were the heads of their fathers of that genealogy, for they all traced their genealogy in the days of Jotham the king of Judah and in the days of Jeroboam the king of Israel.  
14These are the sons of Abihail, the son of Huri, the son of Jaroah, the son of Gilead, the son of Michael, the son of Jeshishai, the son of Jahdo, the son of Buz.   ידאֵ֣לֶּה| בְּנֵ֣י אֲבִיחַ֗יִל בֶּן־חוּרִ֡י בֶּן־יָ֠רוֹחַ בֶּן־גִּלְעָ֧ד בֶּן־מִֽיכָאֵ֛ל בֶּן־יְשִׁישַׁ֥י בֶּן־יַחְדּ֖וֹ בֶּן־בּֽוּז:
15Ahi the son of Abdiel, the son of Guni was the head of the house of their fathers.   טואֲחִי֙ בֶּן־עַבְדִּיאֵ֣ל בֶּן־גּוּנִ֔י רֹ֖אשׁ לְבֵ֥ית אֲבוֹתָֽם:
16And they dwelt in Gilead, in Bashan, and in its villages, and in all the suburbs of Sharon until their limits.   טזוַיֵּֽשְׁב֛וּ בַּגִּלְעָ֥ד בַּבָּשָׁ֖ן וּבִבְנֹתֶ֑יהָ וּבְכָל־מִגְרְשֵׁ֥י שָׁר֖וֹן עַל־תּֽוֹצְאוֹתָֽם:
17They all traced their genealogy in the days of Jotham, king of Judah and in the days of Jeroboam, king of Israel.   יזכֻּלָּם֙ הִתְיַחְשׂ֔וּ בִּימֵ֖י יוֹתָ֣ם מֶֽלֶךְ־יְהוּדָ֑ה וּבִימֵ֖י יָֽרָבְעָ֥ם מֶֽלֶךְ־יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
18The sons of Reuben, and the Gadites, and half the tribe of Manasseh-of men of valor, men who bear shields and swords and draw the bow, and who are trained for war, forty-four thousand, seven hundred and sixty, going out to war.   יחבְּנֵֽי־רְאוּבֵ֨ן וְגָדִ֜י וַֽחֲצִ֥י שֵֽׁבֶט־מְנַשֶּׁה֘ מִן־בְּנֵי־חַיִל֒ אֲ֠נָשִׁים נֹֽשְׂאֵ֨י מָגֵ֚ן וְחֶ֙רֶב֙ וְדֹ֣רְכֵי קֶ֔שֶׁת וּלְמוּדֵ֖י מִלְחָמָ֑ה אַרְבָּעִ֨ים וְאַרְבָּעָ֥ה אֶ֛לֶף וּשְׁבַע־מֵא֥וֹת וְשִׁשִּׁ֖ים יֹֽצְאֵ֥י צָבָֽא:
The sons of Reuben, and the Gadites, and half the tribe of Manasseh, of men of valor, etc.: That is to say: they all gathered and made war with the Hagarites.  
19And they made war with the Hagarites, and Jetur, and Naphish, and Nodab.   יטוַיַּֽעֲשׂ֥וּ מִלְחָמָ֖ה עִם־הַֽהַגְרִיאִ֑ים וִיט֥וּר וְנָפִ֖ישׁ וְנוֹדָֽב:
and Jetur and Naphish: They were sons of Ishmael (Gen. 25:14).  
20And they were assisted against them, and the Hagarites and all who were with them were delivered into their hands, for they cried out to God in the battle, and He accepted their prayers because they trusted in Him.   כוַיֵּעָֽזְר֣וּ עֲלֵיהֶ֔ם וַיִּנָּֽתְנ֚וּ בְיָדָם֙ הַֽהַגְרִיאִ֔ים וְכֹ֖ל שֶׁ֣עִמָּהֶ֑ם כִּ֠י לֵֽאלֹהִ֚ים זָֽעֲקוּ֙ בַּמִּלְחָמָ֔ה וְנַעְתּ֥וֹר לָהֶ֖ם כִּי־בָ֥טְחוּ בֽוֹ:
And they were assisted against them: for the Lord helped them.  
and the Hagarites and all who were with them: other nations [that came] to their aid.  
and He accepted their prayers: וְנַעְתּוֹר, similar to if וַיֵּעָתֵר לוֹ accepted his prayer (Gen. 25:21).  
21And they captured their cattle, their camels fifty thousand, and flocks two hundred and fifty thousand, and donkeys two thousand, and human beings one hundred thousand.   כאוַיִּשְׁבּ֣וּ מִ֠קְנֵיהֶם גְּֽמַלֵּיהֶ֞ם חֲמִשִּׁ֥ים אֶ֙לֶף֙ וְצֹ֗אן מָאתַ֚יִם וַֽחֲמִשִּׁים֙ אֶ֔לֶף וַֽחֲמוֹרִ֖ים אַלְפָּ֑יִם וְנֶ֥פֶשׁ אָדָ֖ם מֵ֥אָה אָֽלֶף:
22For many fell slain, for the battle was from God, and they dwelt in their place until the exile.   כבכִּֽי־חֲלָלִ֚ים רַבִּים֙ נָפָ֔לוּ כִּ֥י מֵהָֽאֱלֹהִ֖ים הַמִּלְחָמָ֑ה וַיֵּֽשְׁב֥וּ תַחְתֵּיהֶ֖ם עַד־הַגֹּלָֽה:
23And the sons of half the tribe of Manasseh dwelt in the land; from Bashan until Baal-Hermon and Senir and Mount Hermon they multiplied.   כגוּבְנֵ֗י חֲצִי֙ שֵׁ֣בֶט מְנַשֶּׁ֔ה יָֽשְׁב֖וּ בָּאָ֑רֶץ מִבָּשָׁ֞ן עַד־בַּ֧עַל חֶרְמ֛וֹן וּשְׂנִ֥יר וְהַר־חֶרְמ֖וֹן הֵ֥מָּה רָבֽוּ:
24And these are the heads of their fathers' house: Epher, and Ishei, and Eliel, and Azriel, and Jeremiah, and Hodaviah, and Jahdiel, mighty men of valor, famous men, heads of their fathers' house.   כדוְאֵ֖לֶּה רָאשֵׁ֣י בֵֽית־אֲבוֹתָ֑ם וְעֵ֡פֶר וְיִשְׁעִ֡י וֶֽאֱלִיאֵ֡ל וְ֠עַזְרִיאֵל וְיִרְמְיָ֨ה וְהֽוֹדַוְיָ֜ה וְיַחְדִּיאֵ֗ל אֲנָשִׁים֙ גִּבּ֣וֹרֵי חַ֔יִל אַנְשֵׁ֣י שֵׁמ֔וֹת רָאשִׁ֖ים לְבֵ֥ית אֲבוֹתָֽם:
25And they betrayed the God of their fathers, and they strayed after the gods of the peoples of the land, whom God had destroyed before them.   כהוַיִּ֨מְעֲל֔וּ בֵּֽאלֹהֵ֖י אֲבֹֽתֵיהֶ֑ם וַיִּזְנ֗וּ אַֽחֲרֵי֙ אֱלֹהֵ֣י עַמֵּֽי־הָאָ֔רֶץ אֲשֶׁר־הִשְׁמִ֥יד אֱלֹהִ֖ים מִפְּנֵיהֶֽם:
and they strayed after the gods of the peoples of the land whom God had destroyed from before them: The meaning is, they went astray after the gods of the peoples of the land. And which people? [Those] whom God had destroyed from before them [Israel], whose god could not help them [the pagans]. And they [Israel] did not ponder the matter, [reasoning] that since He destroyed them [the pagans] from before them [Israel], and it [their god] could not help them, it would certainly not be able to help us.  
26And the Lord inspired Pul the king of Assyria and Tillegath-Pilneser the king of Assyria, and they exiled the Reubenites, the Gadites, and half the tribe of Manasseh, and brought them to Halah, and Habor, and Hara, and the Gozan River until this day.   כווַיָּעַר֩ אֱלֹהֵ֨י יִשְׂרָאֵ֜ל אֶת־ר֣וּחַ| פּ֣וּל מֶֽלֶךְ־אַשּׁ֗וּר וְאֶת־ר֙וּחַ֙ תִּלְּגַ֚ת פִּלְנֶ֙סֶר֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ אַשּׁ֔וּר וַיַּגְלֵם֙ לָרֽאוּבֵנִ֣י וְלַגָּדִ֔י וְלַֽחֲצִ֖י שֵׁ֣בֶט מְנַשֶּׁ֑ה וַ֠יְבִיאֵם לַחְלַ֨ח וְחָב֚וֹר וְהָרָא֙ וּנְהַ֣ר גּוֹזָ֔ן עַ֖ד הַיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה:
27The sons of Levi: Gershon, Kehath, and Merari.   כזבְּנֵ֖י לֵוִ֑י גֵּֽרְשׁ֕וֹן קְהָ֖ת וּמְרָרִֽי:
28And the sons of Kehath: Amram, Izhar, and Hebron, and Uzziel.   כחוּבְנֵ֖י קְהָ֑ת עַמְרָ֣ם יִצְהָ֔ר וְחֶבְר֖וֹן וְעֻזִּיאֵֽל:
29And the children of Amram: Aaron, and Moses, and Miriam, and the sons of Aaron: Nadab, and Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar.   כטוּבְנֵ֣י עַמְרָ֔ם אַֽהֲרֹ֥ן וּמֹשֶׁ֖ה וּמִרְיָ֑ם וּבְנֵ֣י אַֽהֲרֹ֔ן נָדָב֙ וַֽאֲבִיה֔וּא אֶלְעָזָ֖ר וְאִֽיתָמָֽר:
30Eleazar begot Phinehas: Phinehas begot Abishua.   לאֶלְעָזָר֙ הוֹלִ֣יד אֶת־פִּֽינְחָ֔ס פִּֽינְחָ֖ס הֹלִ֥יד אֶת־אֲבִישֽׁוּעַ:
31And Abishua begot Bukki, and Bukki begot Uzzi.   לאוַֽאֲבִישׁ֙וּעַ֙ הוֹלִ֣יד אֶת־בֻּקִּ֔י וּבֻקִּ֖י הוֹלִ֥יד אֶת־עֻזִּֽי:
32And Uzzi begot Zerahiah, and Zerahiah begot Meraioth.   לבוְעֻזִּי֙ הוֹלִ֣יד אֶת־זְרַחְיָ֔ה וּזְרַחְיָ֖ה הוֹלִ֥יד אֶת־מְרָיֽוֹת:
33Meraioth begot Amariah, and Amariah begot Ahitub.   לגמְרָיוֹת֙ הוֹלִ֣יד אֶת־אֲמַרְיָ֔ה וַֽאֲמַרְיָ֖ה הוֹלִ֥יד אֶת־אֲחִיטֽוּב:
34And Ahitub begot Zadok, and Zadok begot Ahimaaz.   לדוַֽאֲחִיטוּב֙ הוֹלִ֣יד אֶת־צָד֔וֹק וְצָד֖וֹק הוֹלִ֥יד אֶת־אֲחִימָֽעַץ:
35And Ahimaaz begot Azariah, and Azariah begot Johanan.   להוַֽאֲחִימַ֙עַץ֙ הוֹלִ֣יד אֶת־עֲזַרְיָ֔ה וַֽעֲזַרְיָ֖ה הוֹלִ֥יד אֶת־יֽוֹחָנָֽן:
36And Johanan begot Azariah; he is the one who served in the Temple that Solomon built in Jerusalem.   לווְיֽוֹחָנָ֖ן הוֹלִ֣יד אֶת־עֲזַרְיָ֑ה הוּא אֲשֶׁ֣ר כִּהֵ֔ן בַּבַּ֕יִת אֲשֶׁר־בָּנָ֥ה שְׁלֹמֹ֖ה בִּירֽוּשָׁלִָֽם:
he is the one who served in the Temple that Solomon built: Some explain that Azariah was the first Azariah, and from Azariah to Seraiah, who lived at the time of the destruction of the Temple, were eight priests. Accordingly, they emended in Yoma in the first chapter (9a), and in Leviticus Rabbah (21:9), and in Siphre , parashath Phineas (Num. 25:12), that eight high priests served in the First Temple. Some say that there were eighteen. But neither one is a viable theory because Zadok was the first who ministered in the time of Solomon. Moreover, which Amariah was in the days of Jehoshaphat, about whom it is written (II Chron 19:11): “… and behold, Amariah the head priest” ? Now he was Amariah the son of Azariah, who lived in the days of Uzziah and in the days of Hezekiah, who was after Jehoshaphat. If you say [that it was] Azariah the father of Seraiah, then where was Hilkiah the High Priest who lived in the days of Josiah? Rather we must count from Zadok, and there were twelve priests from Zadok until Seraiah, and so we find in an exact version of Leviticus Rabbah . Now that which the Scripture writes: “… he was the one who served in the Temple,” is explained in Sefer Yerushalmi (source unknown. Perhaps Sifre Zuta, Korah 18:7 is meant) as follows: Did he alone serve, and did he serve in the days of Solomon? Did not other priests serve as well? But because he risked his life for the sanctity of the Temple by not allowing Uzziah to burn incense, it is said: “he was the one who served in the Temple that Solomon built,” and he was the Azariah who lived in the days of Uzziah (ibid. 26:17, 20) and in the days of Hezekiah, and Azariah the son of Ahimaaz was Amariah the priest who served in the days of Jehoshaphat, just as Uzziah is called Azariah, as is written (II Ki. 15:1): “In the twenty-seventh year of Jeroboam etc, Azariah… became king.” And Azariah the son of Ahimaaz was called Zechariah, as it is written (II Chron. 26:5): “And he was wont to seek God in the days of Zechariah who understood the fear of God, etc.”  
37And Azariah begot Amariah, and Amariah begot Ahitub.   לזוַיּ֥וֹלֶד עֲזַרְיָ֖ה אֶת־אֲמַרְיָ֑ה וַֽאֲמַרְיָ֖ה הוֹלִ֥יד אֶת־אֲחִיטֽוּב:
38And Ahitub begot Zadok, and Zadok begot Shallum.   לחוַֽאֲחִיטוּב֙ הוֹלִ֣יד אֶת־צָד֔וֹק וְצָד֖וֹק הוֹלִ֥יד אֶת־שַׁלּֽוּם:
39And Shallum begot Hilkiah, and Hilkiah begot Azariah.   לטוְשַׁלּוּם֙ הוֹלִ֣יד אֶת־חִלְקִיָּ֔ה וְחִלְקִיָּ֖ה הוֹלִ֥יד אֶת־עֲזַרְיָֽה:
40And Azariah begot Seriah, and Seriah begot Jehozadak.   מוַֽעֲזַרְיָה֙ הוֹלִ֣יד אֶת־שְׂרָיָ֔ה וּשְׂרָיָ֖ה הוֹלִ֥יד אֶת־יְהֽוֹצָדָֽק:
41And Jehozadak went when the Lord exiled Judah and Jerusalem by the hand of Nebuchadnezzar.   מאוִיהֽוֹצָדָ֣ק הָלַ֔ךְ בְּהַגְל֣וֹת יְהֹוָ֔ה אֶת־יְהוּדָ֖ה וִירֽוּשָׁלִָ֑ם בְּיַ֖ד נְבֻכַדְנֶאצַּֽר:
And Jehozadak went when the Lord exiled Judah and Jerusalem: And the verse in the Book of Haggai (1:1): “Joshua the son of Jehozadak, the [High] Priest,” does not [mean] that Jehozadak ever served in the high priesthood, for he was exiled to Babylon in the days of Jeconiah, as it is written: “And Jehozadak went when… exiled etc.,” but Joshua his son was the High Priest when they ascended from Babylon during the time of the Second Temple. Now why was Azariah the son of Seraiah the scholar not the High Priest, but [instead] his nephew Joshua the son of Jehozadak? This is the reason: because Joshua ascended with Zerubbabel many days and years before Ezra ascended.