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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Divrei Hayamim I - I Chronicles - Chapter 4

Divrei Hayamim I - I Chronicles - Chapter 4

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 4

1. The sons of Judah; Perez, Hezron, and Carmi, and Hur, and Shobal.   א. בְּנֵי יְהוּדָה פֶּרֶץ חֶצְרוֹן וְכַרְמִי וְחוּר וְשׁוֹבָל:
2. And Reaiah the son of Shobal begot Jahath, and Jahath begot Ahumai and Lahad; these are the families of the Zorathites.   ב. וּרְאָיָה בֶן שׁוֹבָל הֹלִיד אֶת יַחַת וְיַחַת הֹלִיד אֶת אֲחוּמַי וְאֶת לָהַד אֵלֶּה מִשְׁפְּחוֹת הַצָּרְעָתִי:
And Reaiah: This is the manner in which this genealogy [is written]; although Reaiah, [and his father] were not enumerated above, [he is mentioned here] because the Chronicler reckons [only] certain generations. Likewise, (vs. 7f.): “And the sons of Helah: Zereth, and Zohar, and Ethnan. And Koz begot… ” Although he did not yet mention Koz, he mentions his sons.  
3. And these are [the sons of Hur]; Abi-Etam, Jezreel, and Ishma, and Idbash, and the name of their sister was Hazzelelponi.   ג. וְאֵלֶּה אֲבִי עֵיטָם יִזְרְעֶאל וְיִשְׁמָא וְיִדְבָּשׁ וְשֵׁם אֲחוֹתָם הַצְּלֶלְפּוֹנִי:
4. And Penuel, the father of Gedor, and Ezer, the father of Hushah. These are the sons of Hur, the firstborn of Ephrathah, the father of Bethlehem.   ד. וּפְנוּאֵל אֲבִי גְדֹר וְעֵזֶר אֲבִי חוּשָׁה אֵלֶּה בְנֵי חוּר בְּכוֹר אֶפְרָתָה אֲבִי בֵּית לָחֶם:
5. And Ashhur, the father of Tekoa, had two wives: Helah and Naarah.   ה. וּלְאַשְׁחוּר אֲבִי תְקוֹעַ הָיוּ שְׁתֵּי נָשִׁים חֶלְאָה וְנַעֲרָה:
And Ashhur the father of Tekoa had two wives: This refers back [to 2:24]: “… and the wife of Hezron was Abijah, and she bore him Ashhur, the father of Tekoa,” for he did not trace his lineage until now.  
6. And Naarah bore him Ahuzzam, and Hepher, and Temeni, and Haahashtari. These are the sons of Naarah.   ו. וַתֵּלֶד לוֹ נַעֲרָה אֶת אֲחֻזָּם וְאֶת חֵפֶר וְאֶת תֵּימְנִי וְאֶת הָאֲחַשְׁתָּרִי אֵלֶּה בְּנֵי נַעֲרָה:
7. And the sons of Helah: Zereth, and Zohar, and Ethnan.   ז. וּבְנֵי חֶלְאָה צֶרֶת וְצֹחַר וְאֶתְנָן:
8. And Koz begot Anub and Hazzobebah, and the families of Aharhel the son of Harum.   ח. וְקוֹץ הוֹלִיד אֶת עָנוּב וְאֶת הַצֹּבֵבָה וּמִשְׁפְּחֹת אֲחַרְחֵל בֶּן הָרֻם:
9. Now Jabez was more esteemed than his brothers, and his mother named him Jabez, saying, "For I bore him in sadness."   ט. וַיְהִי יַעְבֵּץ נִכְבָּד מֵאֶחָיו וְאִמּוֹ קָרְאָה שְׁמוֹ יַעְבֵּץ לֵאמֹר כִּי יָלַדְתִּי בְּעֹצֶב:
and his mother named him Jabez, saying, “For I bore him in sadness”: and she nicknamed him Jabez. A similar instance is Ben Oni. [Other editions read (Gen. 35:18): “… but his father called him Benjamin.”]  
10. And Jabez called to the God of Israel, saying, "If You bless me and increase my border, and Your hand is with me that You save me from harm, so as not to grieve me..," and God fulfilled that which he had requested.   י. וַיִּקְרָא יַעְבֵּץ לֵאלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר אִם בָּרֵךְ תְּבָרְכֵנִי וְהִרְבִּיתָ אֶת גְּבוּלִי וְהָיְתָה יָדְךָ עִמִּי וְעָשִׂיתָ מֵרָעָה לְבִלְתִּי עָצְבִּי וַיָּבֵא אֱלֹהִים אֶת אֲשֶׁר שָׁאָל:
and increase my border: with territories.  
and Your hand is with me that You save me from harm: if You will be with me and save me from harm.  
so as not to grieve me: that no injury, pain, or sadness befall me, and he vowed whatever he vowed.  
and God fulfilled that which he had requested: and he paid his vow. From here proof is brought that when people subscribe to a charity (in public) for a certain cause, they should not vow but give without a vow. Its midrashic interpretation is well known.  
11. And Celub, the brother of Shuhah, begot Mehir; he is the father of Eshton.   יא. וּכְלוּב אֲחִי שׁוּחָה הוֹלִיד אֶת מְחִיר הוּא אֲבִי אֶשְׁתּוֹן:
And Celub, the brother of Shuhah: He briefly enumerates families, although he did not mention him above; similarly (v. 13): “and the sons of Kenaz,” although he did not mention him above; and similarly (verse 14): “And Meonothai,” was not mentioned, for so is the manner of this Book.  
12. And Eshton begot Beth-rapha, and Paseah, and Tehinnah, the leader of Ir-Nahash; these are the people of Rechah.   יב. וְאֶשְׁתּוֹן הוֹלִיד אֶת בֵּית רָפָא וְאֶת פָּסֵחַ וְאֶת תְּחִנָּה אֲבִי עִיר נָחָשׁ אֵלֶּה אַנְשֵׁי רֵכָה:
the leader of Ir Nahash: the name of a city, and Tehinnah (was) its leader.  
these are the people of Rechah: The sons of Eshton lived in that place Rechah. Another meaning:  
the people of Rechah: The family was called the people of Rechah.  
13. And the sons of Kenaz: Othniel and Seraiah, and the sons of Othniel: Hathath.   יג. וּבְנֵי קְנַז עָתְנִיאֵל וּשְׂרָיָה וּבְנֵי עָתְנִיאֵל חֲתַת:
14. And Meonothai begot Ophrah, and Seraiah begot Joab, the leader of Gei Harashim (the valley of craftsmen), for they were craftsmen.   יד. וּמְעוֹנֹתַי הוֹלִיד אֶת עָפְרָה וּשְׂרָיָה הוֹלִיד אֶת יוֹאָב אֲבִי גֵּיא חֲרָשִׁים כִּי חֲרָשִׁים הָיוּ:
And Seraiah begot Joab, the leader of Gei Harashim: Joab was the leader of a valley in which there were craftsmen. Now why do I call it the Valley of Craftsmen? Because they were craftsmen; i.e., those who dwelt in the Valley of the Craftsmen were craftsmen, and the valley was named after them.  
15. And the sons of Caleb the son of Jephunneh: Iru, Elah, and Naam, and the sons of Elah: Uknaz.   טו. וּבְנֵי כָּלֵב בֶּן יְפֻנֶּה עִירוּ אֵלָה וָנָעַם וּבְנֵי אֵלָה וּקְנַז:
And the sons of Caleb the son of Jephunneh: Our Sages said (Tem. 16a): “Caleb the son of Jephunneh is identical with Caleb the son of Hezron. Why was he called the son of Jephunneh? Because he turned away (שֶׁפָּנָה from the counsel of the spies.” Now do not wonder that the family of Caleb the son of Hezron, was already traced, for this is the manner [in which this book is written]: he traces part of the lineage, skips to another family, and then returns to the first family.  
and the sons of Elah: Uknaz: That was his name: Uknaz.  
16. And the sons of Jehallel: Ziph, and Ziphah, Tiriah, and Asarel.   טז. וּבְנֵי יְהַלֶּלְאֵל זִיף וְזִיפָה תִּירְיָא וַאֲשַׂרְאֵל:
17. And the son[s] of Ezrah: Jether, and Mered, and Epher, and Jalon, and she conceived Miriam, and Shammai, and Ishbah, the father of Eshtemoa.   יז. וּבֶן עֶזְרָה יֶתֶר וּמֶרֶד וְעֵפֶר וְיָלוֹן וַתַּהַר אֶת מִרְיָם וְאֶת שַׁמַּי וְאֶת יִשְׁבַּח אֲבִי אֶשְׁתְּמֹעַ:
18. And his wife the Judahitess bore Jered, the father of Gedor, and Heber the father of Soco, and Jekuthiel, the father of Zanoah. And these are the sons of Bithiah the daughter of Pharaoh, whom Mered married.   יח. וְאִשְׁתּוֹ הַיְהֻדִיָּה יָלְדָה אֶת יֶרֶד אֲבִי גְדֹר וְאֶת חֶבֶר אֲבִי שׂוֹכוֹ וְאֶת יְקוּתִיאֵל אֲבִי זָנוֹחַ וְאֵלֶּה בְּנֵי בִּתְיָה בַת פַּרְעֹה אֲשֶׁר לָקַח מָרֶד:
And his wife the Judahitess: Caleb’s wife, who was born of Judah.  
Jered, the father of Gedor, etc.: the leaders of the cities, as it is written in Josh. (15:56): “and Jokdeam and Zanoah…,” (v. 58): “Halhul, Beth Zur, and Gedor,” (v. 36): “Jarmuth and Adullam, Soco and Azekah.”  
And these are the sons of Bithiah the daughter of Pharaoh: The “vav” separates between the sons of the Judahitess and the sons of Bithiah.  
whom Mered married: Caleb is Mered, who rebelled (שֶׁמָרַד) against the counsel of the spies, and so is the manner of the genealogy, that even for one, he says, “the sons of,” like (verse 15): “and the sons of Elah: Uknaz.”  
19. And the sons of the wife of Hodiah, the sister of Naham: the father of Keilah the Garmite and Eshtemoa the Maacathite.   יט. וּבְנֵי אֵשֶׁת הוֹדִיָּה אֲחוֹת נַחַם אֲבִי קְעִילָה הַגַּרְמִי וְאֶשְׁתְּמֹעַ הַמַּעֲכָתִי:
20. And the sons of Shimon: Amnon, and Rinnah, Ben-Hanan, and Tilon, and the sons of Ishi: Zoheth and Ben-Zoheth.   כ. וּבְנֵי שִׁימוֹן אַמְנוֹן וְרִנָּה בֶּן חָנָן וְתִילוֹן וּבְנֵי יִשְׁעִי זוֹחֵת וּבֶן זוֹחֵת:
21. The sons of Shelah the son of Judah: Er, the father of Lechah, and Ladah, the father of Mareshah, and the families of Beth-Abodath Habbuz of the house of Ashbea.   כא. בְּנֵי שֵׁלָה בֶן יְהוּדָה עֵר אֲבִי לֵכָה וְלַעְדָּה אֲבִי מָרֵשָׁה וּמִשְׁפְּחוֹת בֵּית עֲבֹדַת הַבֻּץ לְבֵית אַשְׁבֵּעַ:
The sons of Shelah the son of Judah: Since he did not yet trace his geneology, he traces it now. Because of David’s honor, he first traced the genealogy of the sons of Tamar: Perez and Zerah, from whom he [David] was descended; now that he has traced the genealogy of the families of Perez and Zerah, he commences to trace the genealogy of all the families that were in that generation.  
and the families of Beth Abodath Habbuz: lit. the house of the linen work, for the curtains of the Sanctuary. They too were of the sons of Shelah.  
22. And Jokim and the people of Kozeba, and Joash, and Saraph, who married in Moab, and Jashubi-Lehem, and the matters are ancient.   כב. וְיוֹקִים וְאַנְשֵׁי כֹזֵבָא וְיוֹאָשׁ וְשָׂרָף אֲשֶׁר בָּעֲלוּ לְמוֹאָב וְיָשֻׁבִי לָחֶם וְהַדְּבָרִים עַתִּיקִים:
And Jokim and the people of Kozeba: until “and Jashubi Lehem.” All these were the sons of Shelah the son of Judah.  
and Joash and Saraph: Our Sages say that these were Mahlon and Chilion.  
who married in Moab: who married Moabite women.  
and the matters are ancient: The meaning is: Do not say that since I began to trace the lineage of the people of our generation that they all came afterwards. All the people mentioned in this verse (were ancient) were early, [i.e.], they lived in earlier days.  
23. They, the potters and the dwellers in plantations and hedges with the king in his work, dwelt there.   כג. הֵמָּה הַיּוֹצְרִים וְיֹשְׁבֵי נְטָעִים וּגְדֵרָה עִם הַמֶּלֶךְ בִּמְלַאכְתּוֹ יָשְׁבוּ שָׁם:
They, the potters: They, Jokim, the people of Kozeba and Jashubi Lehem, were manufacturers of clay for the king’s work, and also for pots for the king’s food, and also for the priests.  
and the dwellers in plantations: who were engaged in the king’s planting.  
and hedges: craftsmen who made stone fences for the king’s work.  
with the king: The meaning is that the king stationed them in those towns because they were doing his work. An example (in Mishpatim) concerning a borrower (Exod. 22:14): “But if its owner was with it, he shall not pay,” i.e., with it, in its work.  
24. The sons of Simeon: Nemuel, and Jamin, Jarib, Zerah, Saul.   כד. בְּנֵי שִׁמְעוֹן נְמוּאֵל וְיָמִין יָרִיב זֶרַח שָׁאוּל:
The sons of Simeon: Since Simeon dwelt in Judah’s territory, he traces his lineage first and mentions his towns before those of Reuben.  
25. Shallum his son, Mibsam his son, Mishma his son.   כה. שַׁלֻּם בְּנוֹ מִבְשָׂם בְּנוֹ מִשְׁמָע בְּנוֹ:
26. And the sons of Mishma: Hammuel his son, Zaccur his son, Shimi his son.   כו. וּבְנֵי מִשְׁמָע חַמּוּאֵל בְּנוֹ זַכּוּר בְּנוֹ שִׁמְעִי בְנוֹ:
27. And Shimi had sixteen sons and six daughters, but his brothers did not have many sons, and all their family did not multiply as much as the children of Judah.   כז. וּלְשִׁמְעִי בָּנִים שִׁשָּׁה עָשָׂר וּבָנוֹת שֵׁשׁ וּלְאֶחָיו אֵין בָּנִים רַבִּים וְכֹל מִשְׁפַּחְתָּם לֹא הִרְבּוּ עַד בְּנֵי יְהוּדָה:
but his brothers did not have many sons and all their family did not multiply as much as the children of Judah: They did not have as many children as the children of Judah. Since they were few, and Judah’s territory was too large for them, Judah accepted Simeon in its territory, because Simeon had no share in the land of Israel, as it says (Gen. 49:7): “I shall divide them in Jacob and scatter them in Israel,” and we learned in Genesis Rabbah (Shittah Hadashah): “I shall divide them among the Children of Israel to station scribes in Israel in the synagogues, etc.” Now how do we know that they agreed [to give them a share of their territory]? For it is written (Jos. 19:9): “Out of the lot of the children of Judah was the inheritance of the children of Simeon, for the portion of the children of Judah was too large for them; therefore the children of Simeon inherited in the midst of their inheritance,” lest the beasts of the field outnumber them. Now as regards the verse (ibid. v. 1): “And the second lot came out to Simeon,” this is what happened: They cast lots to choose which tribe would accept Simeon in its territory, and the lot fell upon the territory of Judah. And the meaning of the verse (Jud. 1:3): “And Judah said to Simeon his brother: Come up with me into my lot, and we will fight against the Canaanites, and I will also go with you into your lot,” refers to “the lot I have given you.”  
28. They dwelt in Beersheba, and Moladah, and Hazar Shual.   כח. וַיֵּשְׁבוּ בִּבְאֵר שֶׁבַע וּמוֹלָדָה וַחֲצַר שׁוּעָל:
They dwelt in Beersheba: The children of Simeon dwelt in those towns of Judah.  
29. And in Bilhah, and in Ezem, and in Tolad.   כט. וּבְבִלְהָה וּבְעֶצֶם וּבְתוֹלָד:
30. And in Bethuel, and in Hormah, and in Ziklag.   ל. וּבִבְתוּאֵל וּבְחָרְמָה וּבְצִקְלָג:
31. And in Beth Marcaboth, and in Hazar-Susim, and in Beth-Biri, and in Shaaraim; these were their cities until David reigned.   לא. וּבְבֵית מַרְכָּבוֹת וּבַחֲצַר סוּסִים וּבְבֵית בִּרְאִי וּבְשַׁעֲרָיִם אֵלֶּה עָרֵיהֶם עַד מְלֹךְ דָּוִיד:
these were their cities until David reigned: The meaning is that when [the population of] the children of Judah grew, they complained about the children of Simeon in the days of Saul and wanted to drive them out of their land, but they could not drive them out, especially since all his [Saul’s] days were occupied with trouble and wars; but when David reigned, his tribe came to request from the children of Simeon the land that they had lent them, and David went and drove them out, for Saul had not been concerned with this matter because of [his] hatred for David, who was from Judah. This is the meaning of what is written: “… these were their cities until David reigned,” but when he reigned, he drove them out. [I heard this] from Rabbi Eliezer the son of Meshullam of blessed memory, and so did Rabbi Solomon the son of Levi, the brother of Rabbi Moshe Hadarshan explain it.  
32. And their villages: Etam and Ain, Rimmon, and Tochen, and Ashan-five cities.   לב. וְחַצְרֵיהֶם עֵיטָם וָעַיִן רִמּוֹן וְתֹכֶן וְעָשָׁן עָרִים חָמֵשׁ:
And their villages: The villages which were they? Etam, and Ain, Rimmon, etc.  
33. And all their villages that were around these cities up to Baal; this was [the account] of their settlements, and they had their genealogical records.   לג. וְכָל חַצְרֵיהֶם אֲשֶׁר סְבִיבוֹת הֶעָרִים הָאֵלֶּה עַד בָּעַל זֹאת מוֹשְׁבֹתָם וְהִתְיַחְשָׂם לָהֶם:
this was [the account of] their settlements, and they had their genealogical record: The meaning is that although he traced part of their lineage here, do not say that there were only those, for there is another genealogical record in which the genealogy of every tribe appears. So it was, i.e. [this record] delineated the genealogy [of each tribe] by itself.  
34. And Meshobab, and Jamlech, and Joshah the son of Amaziah.   לד. וּמְשׁוֹבָב וְיַמְלֵךְ וְיוֹשָׁה בֶּן אֲמַצְיָה:
And Meshobab: and all those written.  
35. And Joel, and Jehu the son of Joshibiah, the son of Seraiah, the son of Asiel.   לה. וְיוֹאֵל וְיֵהוּא בֶּן יוֹשִׁבְיָה בֶּן שְׂרָיָה בֶּן עֲשִׂיאֵל:
36. And Eljoenai, and Jaakobah, and Jeshohaiah, and Asaiah, and Adiel, and Jesimiel, and Benaiah.   לו. וְאֶלְיוֹעֵינַי וְיַעֲקֹבָה וִישׁוֹחָיָה וַעֲשָׂיָה וַעֲדִיאֵל וִישִׂימִאֵל וּבְנָיָה:
37. And Ziza the son of Shiphi, and Allon the son of Jedaiah, the son of Shimri, the son of Shemaiah.   לז. וְזִיזָא בֶן שִׁפְעִי בֶן אַלּוֹן בֶּן יְדָיָה בֶן שִׁמְרִי בֶּן שְׁמַעְיָה:
38. These mentioned by name were princes in their families, and their fathers' house spread exceedingly.   לח. אֵלֶּה הַבָּאִים בְּשֵׁמוֹת נְשִׂיאִים בְּמִשְׁפְּחוֹתָם וּבֵית אֲבוֹתֵיהֶם פָּרְצוּ לָרוֹב:
These mentioned by name were princes in their families, and their fathers’ house spread exceedingly: and they had no place to dwell in.  
39. And they went to the entrance of Gedor until the east of the valley to seek pasture for their sheep.   לט. וַיֵּלְכוּ לִמְבוֹא גְדֹר עַד לְמִזְרַח הַגָּיְא לְבַקֵּשׁ מִרְעֶה לְצֹאנָם:
And they went: therefore to the approach to Gedor, etc. to seek pasture for their flocks.  
40. And they found fat and good pasture, and the land was spacious, and quiet, and tranquil, for the dwellers of yore were from Ham.   מ. וַיִּמְצְאוּ מִרְעֶה שָׁמֵן וָטוֹב וְהָאָרֶץ רַחֲבַת יָדַיִם וְשֹׁקֶטֶת וּשְׁלֵוָה כִּי מִן חָם הַיֹּשְׁבִים שָׁם לְפָנִים:
for the dwellers of yore were from Ham: They dwelt in peace and tranquility, and no one came to harm them; therefore, they did not beware when they came upon them to fight, and an example of this is found in Judges (18: 27): “… and they came to Laish, to a people tranquil and secure etc.,” (verse 7): “… and they had no bond with any man.” Because they were tranquil, they were not afraid, and they did not make a pact with anyone to help them; therefore, five hundred men defeated them. It is also written above (verse 7): “… after the manner of the Zidonians, tranquil and secure, etc.”  
41. And these recorded by names in the days of King Jehezekiah of Judah came, and they smote their tents and the dwellings that were found there, and they destroyed them to this very day and dwelt instead of them, because there was pasture for their sheep there.   מא. וַיָּבֹאוּ אֵלֶּה הַכְּתוּבִים בְּשֵׁמוֹת בִּימֵי| יְחִזְקִיָּהוּ מֶלֶךְ יְהוּדָה וַיַּכּוּ אֶת אָהֳלֵיהֶם וְאֶת הַמְּעוּנִים אֲשֶׁר נִמְצְאוּ שָׁמָּה וַיַּחֲרִימֻם עַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה וַיֵּשְׁבוּ תַּחְתֵּיהֶם כִּי מִרְעֶה לְצֹאנָם שָׁם:
42. And of them, five hundred men of the children of Simeon went to Mount Seir, and Pelatiah and Neariah, and Rephaiah, and Uzziel, the sons of Ishi at their head.   מב. וּמֵהֶם| מִן בְּנֵי שִׁמְעוֹן הָלְכוּ לְהַר שֵׂעִיר אֲנָשִׁים חֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת וּפְלַטְיָה וּנְעַרְיָה וּרְפָיָה וְעֻזִּיאֵל בְּנֵי יִשְׁעִי בְּרֹאשָׁם:
43. And they smote the remnant of the Amalekites that had escaped, and they dwelt there to this day.   מג. וַיַּכּוּ אֶת שְׁאֵרִית הַפְּלֵטָה לַעֲמָלֵק וַיֵשְׁבוּ שָׁם עַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה:
And they smote the remnant… that had escaped: from being annihilated by David, for David destroyed every male in Edom.  
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