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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Divrei Hayamim I - I Chronicles - Chapter 1

Divrei Hayamim I - I Chronicles - Chapter 1

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 1

1. Adam, Seth, Enosh.   א. אָדָם שֵׁת אֱנוֹשׁ:
Adam, Seth, Enosh: Ezra wrote this book of genealogy through Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi during the eighteen years from the name that Zerubbabel and Joshua the Priest came to Jerusalem in the days of Cyrus I until Cyrus the son of Esther came. All of this [book] is for the [purpose of tracing the] lineage of King David and the Levites for gate sentries, guards, and singers, how David stationed them in their positions, and the priests in their watches. Therefore, he traced their lineage from Adam to Abraham, and since he had to trace Abraham’s lineage, he mentioned also the rest of the nations, his sons and his grandsons, and because of his sons, he had to trace the lineage of the rest of the nations, the sons of Canaan, to let [us] know how Abraham inherited their land. And since he had to mention and trace the lineage of the generations of Canaan, he mentioned together with them (the generations of) the rest of the nations, but he mentions them only briefly and casts them away until he reaches the main ones, as is explained in Genesis Rabbah (39:10) (See also Tanhuma Veyesheb 1). This can be compared to a king who was traveling from place to place and dropped a pearl. The king stood and sifted the sand with a sieve until he found the pearl. So said the Holy One, blessed be He, “Why should I trace the lineage of Shem and Arpachshad and Terach except to find Abraham?” [As it is written] (Neh. 9:8): “… and You found his heart faithful [before You].” And because of the honor of Isaac, he traced the lineage of the sons of Esau and Ishmael and the sons of Keturah, and he cast them away little by little and left them. He mentions the sons of Seir because the sons of Esau inherited them [i.e., their territory]; he also traces the lineage of Timna, who became a concubine to the seed of Abraham, to let us know the praise of Abraham, for she was the daughter of princes and chiefs and wished to be a concubine to the seed of Abraham, as it is written (Gen. 36:22): “… and Lotan’s sister was Timna,” and it is written (ibid. 12): “And Timna was a concubine to Eliphaz the son of Esau,” because she said, “If I am not worthy to marry him, I shall be his concubine.” (Gen. Rabbah 84:14, Sanh. 99b) Moreover, for this reason, he traced the lineage of the sons of Seir because they were chiefs and princes, and Mount Seir belonged to Seir, but out of love for Isaac, the Holy One, blessed be He, gave it to Esau, as it is written (Deut. 2:12): “… and the children of Esau drove them out, etc., and settled in their place,” and to inform us of the fulfillment of the words of the Holy One, blessed be He, Who promised Isaac that He would multiply his seed and give him dominion over all, and because of the honor of Isaac he likewise wrote (verse. 31): “Now these are the kings who reigned in the land of Edom, etc.”  
Adam, Seth, Enosh: This is to be interpreted like: “The sons of Adam: Seth, and the sons of Seth: Enosh,” but since they were not the main part of the genealogy, he states them briefly, and he does not mention Cain and Abel because they did not beget generations, but from Seth emerged the generations of Noah and Abraham, and from Abraham to David.  
2. Kenan, Mahalalel, Jered.   ב. קֵינָן מַהֲלַלְאֵל יָרֶד:
3. Hanoch, Methuselah, Lemech.   ג. חֲנוֹךְ מְתוּשֶׁלַח לָמֶךְ:
4. Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth.   ד. נֹחַ שֵׁם חָם וָיָפֶת:
Noah, Shem, Ham: He should have counted the sons of Shem immediately to find the pearl, namely Abraham, etc., until David, but he mentions the unimportant one and treats his lineage briefly and takes hold of the main ones; and so is the method of all this genealogy of Chronicles, and so it is in the section immediately following (verses 28f.): “The sons of Abraham: Isaac and Ishmael. These are their generations: the firstborn of Ishmael was Nebaioth.” And so: (verses 34f.): “And Abraham begot Isaac; the sons of Isaac: Esau and Israel; the sons of Esau: Eliphaz,” where he mentions first the lineage of the unimportant ones and afterwards the main one.  
5. The sons of Japheth: Gomer, and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, and Tubal, and Meshech, and Tiras.   ה. בְּנֵי יֶפֶת גֹּמֶר וּמָגוֹג וּמָדַי וְיָוָן וְתֻבָל וּמֶשֶׁךְ וְתִירָס:
6. And the sons of Gomer: Ashkenaz, and Diphath, and Togarmah.   ו. וּבְנֵי גֹּמֶר אַשְׁכְּנַז וְדִיפַת וְתוֹגַרְמָה:
Ashkenaz and Diphath: (with a “daleth”), but in the Pentateuch it is written (Gen. 10:3): “… and Riphath,” because in the beginning they were weak (רָפִים), and they did not overpower Israel, but at the end they were filled with disgrace (דֹּפִי) and evil.  
7. And the sons of Javan: Elisha and Tarshishah, Kittim, and Rodanim.   ז. וּבְנֵי יָוָן אֱלִישָׁה וְתַרְשִׁישָׁה כִּתִּים וְרוֹדָנִים:
And the sons of Javan: Elisha: The reason he did not mention Magog and Madai is that he mentioned only the lineage of these, but he did not mention the sons of Magog or the sons of Madai or the rest because heads of nations did not emerge from them, but all their nations were called by the name of Kittim and Dodanim.  
and Rodanim: And further (Gen. 10:4) Scripture states: “and Dodanim.” When Israel sins, they come and rule over them (רוֹדִים) , but when Israel is in power, they say, “You are the sons of our uncles (דּוֹדֵינוּ).” At first they appeared as friends when it was for their own benefit, but later they subjugated them.  
8. The sons of Ham: Cush and Mizraim, Put and Canaan.   ח. בְּנֵי חָם כּוּשׁ וּמִצְרַיִם פּוּט וּכְנָעַן:
9. And the sons of Cush: Seba, and Havilah, and Sabta, and Raama, and Sabtecha; and the sons of Raama: Sheba and Dedan.   ט. וּבְנֵי כוּשׁ סְבָא וַחֲוִילָה וְסַבְתָּא וְרַעְמָא וְסַבְתְּכָא וּבְנֵי רַעְמָא שְׁבָא וּדְדָן:
10. And Cush begot Nimrod; he began to be a mighty man on the earth.   י. וְכוּשׁ יָלַד אֶת נִמְרוֹד הוּא הֵחֵל לִהְיוֹת גִּבּוֹר בָּאָרֶץ:
began to be a mighty man on the earth: He began to make wars and [perform] mighty deeds on the earth.  
11. And Mizraim begot Ludim, and Anamim, and Lehabim, and Naphtuhim.   יא. וּמִצְרַיִם יָלַד אֶת לוּדִים וְאֶת עֲנָמִים וְאֶת לְהָבִים וְאֶת נַפְתֻּחִים:
And Mitzraim begot Ludim: In Genesis Rabbah (37:5) “Said Rabbi Abba bar Kahana: The entire coinage of Mizraim is only in the sea. Said Rabbi Joshua ben Korhah: ‘Ludim’ is written ‘Ludiim’ in chronicles, with two ‘yuds,’ to tell you that ‘Ludiim’ means לוּדֵי יָם, Ludim of the sea; Anamim, Anamim of the sea; Lehabim, Lehabim of the sea; Naphtuhim, Naphtuhim of the sea.”  
12. And Pathrusim and Casluhim, from whom the Philistines and the Caphtorim were descended.   יב. וְאֶת פַּתְרֻסִים וְאֶת כַּסְלֻחִים אֲשֶׁר יָצְאוּ מִשָּׁם פְּלִשְׁתִּים וְאֶת כַּפְתֹּרִים:
Pathrusim: Pathrusim of the sea; Casluhim, Casluhim of the sea; Philistines, Philistines of the sea.  
from whom the Philistines and the Caphtorim were descended: The Pathrusim and the Casluhim would switch wives with each other, and from them were descended the Philistines (and the Caphtorim).  
13. And Canaan begot Sidon his firstborn and Heth.   יג. וּכְנַעַן יָלַד אֶת צִידוֹן בְּכֹרוֹ וְאֶת חֵת:
And Canaan begot, etc.: They are eleven, and with Canaan they are twelve. This is what is written: “He set up the boundaries of the peoples.” He set up the boundaries of the peoples corresponding to the tribes of Israel, for they too are twelve; corresponding to the tribes of Israel, He set up the boundaries of the peoples, on the pattern of (Gen. 21:29): “… that you set up (הִצַּבְתָּ) by themselves.”  
14. And the Jebusite[s], and the Amorite[s], and the Girgashite[s].   יד. וְאֶת הַיְבוּסִי וְאֶת הָאֱמֹרִי וְאֵת הַגִּרְגָּשִׁי:
15. And the Hivvite[s], and the Arkite[s], and the Sinite[s].   טו. וְאֶת הַחִוִּי וְאֶת הָעַרְקִי וְאֶת הַסִּינִי:
16. And the Arvadite[s], and the Zemarite[s], and the Hamathite[s].   טז. וְאֶת הָאַרְוָדִי וְאֶת הַצְּמָרִי וְאֶת הַחֲמָתִי:
17. The sons of Shem: Elam, and Ashur, and Arpachshad, and Lud, and Aram, and Uz, and Hul, and Gether, and Meshech.   יז. בְּנֵי שֵׁם עֵילָם וְאַשּׁוּר וְאַרְפַּכְשַׁד וְלוּד וַאֲרָם וְעוּץ וְחוּל וְגֶתֶר וָמֶשֶׁךְ:
18. And Arpachshad begot Shelah, and Shelah begot Eber.   יח. וְאַרְפַּכְשַׁד יָלַד אֶת שָׁלַח וְשֶׁלַח יָלַד אֶת עֵבֶר:
19. And to Eber were born two sons; one was named Peleg, because in his days the earth was parted and his brother's name was Joktan.   יט. וּלְעֵבֶר יֻלַּד שְׁנֵי בָנִים שֵׁם הָאֶחָד פֶּלֶג כִּי בְיָמָיו נִפְלְגָה הָאָרֶץ וְשֵׁם אָחִיו יָקְטָן:
the earth was parted: The days of the people were divided and diminished, for at first people lived nine hundred years or more, and in the days of Arpachshad and thereafter, [they were diminished] to four hundred years or more, and from Peleg and thereafter, they were divided in half, to two hundred years out of those four hundred years.  
20. And Joktan begot Almodad, and Shaleph, and Hazarmaveth, and Jorah.   כ. וְיָקְטָן יָלַד אֶת אַלְמוֹדָד וְאֶת שָׁלֶף וְאֶת חֲצַרְמָוֶת וְאֶת יָרַח:
21. And Hadoram, and Uzal, and Diklah.   כא. וְאֶת הֲדוֹרָם וְאֶת אוּזָל וְאֶת דִּקְלָה:
22. And Ebal, and Abimael, and Sheba.   כב. וְאֶת עֵיבָל וְאֶת אֲבִימָאֵל וְאֶת שְׁבָא:
23. And Ophir, and Havilah, and Jobab; all these were the sons of Joktan.   כג. וְאֶת אוֹפִיר וְאֶת חֲוִילָה וְאֶת יוֹבָב כָּל אֵלֶּה בְּנֵי יָקְטָן:
all these were the sons of Joktan: for he belittled his affairs. Eber was a great prophet (for he named his son for a future event), but the names of the others were not meant to be expounded upon, for they were not inspired by prophetic word.  
24. Shem, Arpachshad, Shelah.   כד. שֵׁם אַרְפַּכְשַׁד שָׁלַח:
Shem, Arpachshad, Shelah: He enumerated the sons of Shem above, and he now commences again in Abraham’s honor. This may be compared to a king who lost a pearl, as above.  
25. Eber, Peleg, Re'u.   כה. עֵבֶר פֶּלֶג רְעוּ:
26. Serug, Nahor, Terah.   כו. שְׂרוּג נָחוֹר תָּרַח:
27. Abram, he is Abraham.   כז. אַבְרָם הוּא אַבְרָהָם:
Abram; he is Abraham: Now he traced the lineage from Shem to Abraham, and who is this Abram? He is the one who was called Abraham.  
28. The sons of Abraham: Isaac and Ishmael.   כח. בְּנֵי אַבְרָהָם יִצְחָק וְיִשְׁמָעֵאל:
29. These are their generations: the firstborn of Ishmael was Nebaioth, and Kedar, and Adbeal, and Mibsam.   כט. אֵלֶּה תֹּלְדוֹתָם בְּכוֹר יִשְׁמָעֵאל נְבָיוֹת וְקֵדָר וְאַדְבְּאֵל וּמִבְשָׂם:
30. Mishma, and Dumah, Massa, Hadad, and Tema.   ל. מִשְׁמָע וְדוּמָה מַשָּׂא חֲדַד וְתֵימָא:
31. Jetur, Naphish, and Kedmah; all these were the sons of Ishmael.   לא. יְטוּר נָפִישׁ וָקֵדְמָה אֵלֶּה הֵם בְּנֵי יִשְׁמָעֵאל:
32. And the sons of Keturah, Abraham's concubine; she bore Zimran, and Jokshan, and Medan, and Midian, and Jishbak, and Shuah; and the sons of Jokshan: Sheba and Dedan.   לב. וּבְנֵי קְטוּרָה פִּילֶגֶשׁ אַבְרָהָם יָלְדָה אֶת זִמְרָן וְיָקְשָׁן וּמְדָן וּמִדְיָן וְיִשְׁבָּק וְשׁוּחַ וּבְנֵי יָקְשָׁן שְׁבָא וּדְדָן:
And the sons of Keturah, Abraham’s concubine: Anything disgraceful that he could tell about them he tells to enhance Isaac’s honor, i.e., they were all the children of a concubine, but he was the mainstay and the master of the household.  
33. And the sons of Midian: Ephah, and Epher, and Hanoch, and Abida, and Eldaah; all these were the sons of Keturah.   לג. וּבְנֵי מִדְיָן עֵיפָה וָעֵפֶר וַחֲנוֹךְ וַאֲבִידָע וְאֶלְדָּעָה כָּל אֵלֶּה בְּנֵי קְטוּרָה:
And the sons of Midian: Ephah and Epher, etc.: five heads of nations. Therefore, they appointed five kings, each one its king, as it is written (Num. 31:8): “Evi, and Rekem, and Zur, and Hur, etc., the five kings of Midian.”  
all these were the sons of Keturah: [These were mentioned] because of Abraham’s honor.  
34. And Abraham begot Isaac; the sons of Isaac: Esau and Israel.   לד. וַיּוֹלֶד אַבְרָהָם אֶת יִצְחָק בְּנֵי יִצְחָק עֵשָׂו וְיִשְׂרָאֵל:
Esau and Israel: Because of David’s honor, he says, “Israel,” not “Jacob.”  
35. The sons of Esau: Eliphaz, Reuel, and Jeush, and Jaalam, and Korah.   לה. בְּנֵי עֵשָׂו אֱלִיפָז רְעוּאֵל וִיעוּשׁ וְיַעְלָם וְקֹרַח:
The sons of Esau: Eliphaz: in order to deal with him briefly and to cast him away; he only mentioned him in honor of Isaac.  
36. The sons of Eliphaz: Teman, and Omar, Zephi, and Gaatam, Kenaz, and Timna, and Amalek.   לו. בְּנֵי אֱלִיפָז תֵּימָן וְאוֹמָר צְפִי וְגַעְתָּם קְנַז וְתִמְנַע וַעֲמָלֵק:
37. The sons of Reuel: Nahath, Zerah, Shammah, and Mizzah.   לז. בְּנֵי רְעוּאֵל נַחַת זֶרַח שַׁמָּה וּמִזָּה:
38. And the sons of Seir: Lotan, and Shobal, and Zibeon, and Anah, and Dishon, and Ezer, and Dishan.   לח. וּבְנֵי שֵׂעִיר לוֹטָן וְשׁוֹבָל וְצִבְעוֹן וַעֲנָה וְדִישֹׁן וְאֵצֶר וְדִישָׁן:
39. And the sons of Lotan: Hori and Homam, and Lotan's sister was Timna.   לט. וּבְנֵי לוֹטָן חֹרִי וְהוֹמָם וַאֲחוֹת לוֹטָן תִּמְנָע:
40. The sons of Shobal: Alian, and Manahath, and Ebal, Shephi, and Onam, and the sons of Zibeon: Aiah and Anah.   מ. בְּנֵי שׁוֹבָל עַלְיָן וּמָנַחַת וְעֵיבָל שְׁפִי וְאוֹנָם וּבְנֵי צִבְעוֹן אַיָּה וַעֲנָה:
41. The sons of Anah: Dishon, and the sons of Dishon: Hamran, and Eshban, and Jithran, and Cheran.   מא. בְּנֵי עֲנָה דִּישׁוֹן וּבְנֵי דִישׁוֹן חַמְרָן וְאֶשְׁבָּן וְיִתְרָן וּכְרָן:
Hamran and Eshban: But in the Pentateuch (Gen. 36:26) it is written, “Hemdan.” At first, they were precious and desirable (חֲמוּדִין וְנֶחֱמָדִין) as righteous men, but at the end they were as ugly as a donkey. So is the way of a donkey: at first it is pretty and at the end it becomes ugly, but a horse is at first ugly and later pretty.  
42. The sons of Ezer: Bilhan, and Zaavan, Jaakan; the sons of Dishon: Uz and Aran.   מב. בְּנֵי אֵצֶר בִּלְהָן וְזַעֲוָן יַעֲקָן בְּנֵי דִישׁוֹן עוּץ וַאֲרָן:
43. Now these are the kings who reigned in the land of Edom before any king reigned over the Children of Israel: Bela the son of Beor, and the name of his city was Dinhabah.   מג. וְאֵלֶּה הַמְּלָכִים אֲשֶׁר מָלְכוּ בְּאֶרֶץ אֱדוֹם לִפְנֵי מְלָךְ מֶלֶךְ לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בֶּלַע בֶּן בְּעוֹר וְשֵׁם עִירוֹ דִּנְהָבָה:
Now these are the kings: It is explained (Gen. Rab. 83:2): Rabbi Aibu said: This was before a king reigned in Israel, but since a king reigned in Israel, a governor reigned in Edom. Rabbi Jose the son of Hanina says: When this one [Edom] appoints kings, this one [Israel] appoints judges; when this one appoints chiefs, this one appoints princes. Said Rabbi Joshua the son of Levi: This one [Edom] appointed eight [kings] and this one: [Israel] appointed eight [kings], and I heard [people ask]: Did Edom have only these eight kings, and did Israel have only eight? Were there not more? Joram, Ahaziah, Joash, etc. Rather, the statement that this one appointed eight kings means that when they [Edom] appointed those eight kings of Edom, they [Israel] did not appoint the kings of Israel, because they were before David.  
44. And Bela died, and Jobab the son of Zerah from Bozrah reigned in his stead.   מד. וַיָּמָת בָּלַע וַיִּמְלֹךְ תַּחְתָּיו יוֹבָב בֶּן זֶרַח מִבָּצְרָה:
45. And Jobab died, and Husham from the land of the Temanite[s] reigned in his stead.   מה. וַיָּמָת יוֹבָב וַיִּמְלֹךְ תַּחְתָּיו חוּשָׁם מֵאֶרֶץ הַתֵּימָנִי:
46. And Husham died, and Hadad the son of Bedad, who smote Midian in the field of Moab, reigned in his stead, and the name of his city was Avith.   מו. וַיָּמָת חוּשָׁם וַיִּמְלֹךְ תַּחְתָּיו הֲדַד בֶּן בְּדַד הַמַּכֶּה אֶת מִדְיָן בִּשְׂדֵה מוֹאָב וְשֵׁם עִירוֹ עֲוִית:
47. And Hadad died and Samlah of Masrekah reigned in his stead.   מז. וַיָּמָת הֲדָד וַיִּמְלֹךְ תַּחְתָּיו שַׂמְלָה מִמַּשְׂרֵקָה:
48. And Samlah died, and Saul of Rehoboth by the river reigned in his stead.   מח. וַיָּמָת שַׂמְלָה וַיִּמְלֹךְ תַּחְתָּיו שָׁאוּל מֵרְחֹבוֹת הַנָּהָר:
49. And Saul died, and Baal Hanan the son of Achbor reigned in his stead.   מט. וַיָּמָת שָׁאוּל וַיִּמְלֹךְ תַּחְתָּיו בַּעַל חָנָן בֶּן עַכְבּוֹר:
50. And Baal Hanan died, and Hadad reigned in his stead. Now the name of his city was Pai, and his wife's name was Mehetabel the daughter of Matred, the daughter of Mezahab.   נ. וַיָּמָת בַּעַל חָנָן וַיִּמְלֹךְ תַּחְתָּיו הֲדַד וְשֵׁם עִירוֹ פָּעִי וְשֵׁם אִשְׁתּוֹ מְהֵיטַבְאֵל בַּת מַטְרֵד בַּת מֵי זָהָב:
51. And Hadad died, and the chiefs of Edom were: Chief Timna, Chief Alvah, Chief Jetheth.   נא. וַיָּמָת הֲדָד וַיִּהְיוּ אַלּוּפֵי אֱדוֹם אַלּוּף תִּמְנָע אַלּוּף עַלְוָה אַלּוּף יְתֵת:
the chiefs of: the heads of his fathers’ houses.  
52. Chief Oholibamah, Chief Elah, Chief Pinnon.   נב. אַלּוּף אָהֳלִיבָמָה אַלּוּף אֵלָה אַלּוּף פִּינֹן:
53. Chief Kenaz, Chief Teman, Chief Mibzar.   נג. אַלּוּף קְנַז אַלּוּף תֵּימָן אַלּוּף מִבְצָר:
54. Chief Magdiel, Chief Iram; these were the chiefs of Edom.   נד. אַלּוּף מַגְדִּיאֵל אַלּוּף עִירָם אֵלֶּה אַלּוּפֵי אֱדוֹם:
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