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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Daniel - Chapter 9

Daniel - Chapter 9

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 9

1. In the first year of Darius, the son of Ahasuerus of the seed of Media, who was crowned over the kingdom of the Chaldeans.   א. בִּשְׁנַת אַחַת לְדָרְיָוֶשׁ בֶּן אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ מִזֶּרַע מָדָי אֲשֶׁר הָמְלַךְ עַל מַלְכוּת כַּשְׂדִּים:
In the first year of Darius, the son of Ahasuerus: This is not the Ahasuerus of the days of Haman, for he was the king of Persia, whereas this one was Darius the Mede who was crowned over the kingdom of the Chaldeans when Belshazzar was slain, as is written above (6:1): “And Darius the Mede took (sic) the kingdom.”  
2. In the first year of his reign, I, Daniel, contemplated the calculations, the number of the years that the word of the Lord had come to Jeremiah the prophet, since the destruction of Jerusalem seventy years.   ב. בִּשְׁנַת אַחַת לְמָלְכוֹ אֲנִי דָּנִיֵּאל בִּינֹתִי בַּסְּפָרִים מִסְפַּר הַשָּׁנִים אֲשֶׁר הָיָה דְבַר יְהֹוָה אֶל יִרְמִיָה הַנָּבִיא לְמַלֹּאות לְחָרְבוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִַם שִׁבְעִים שָׁנָה:
Contemplated the calculations: Heb. בִּינֹתִי בַּסְפָרִים.  
the number of the years, etc.: I contemplated the calculation of the years, for I thought about what Jeremiah (29:10) prophesied: “For at the completion of seventy years of Babylon I will remember you,” and I thought that this remembrance is the building of the Temple, and that the seventy years end in the first year of Darius the Mede, since the kingdom of Babylon stretched forth a hand upon Israel, when Nebuchadnezzar vanquished Jehoiakim to be his slave. Now that was in the second year of Nebuchadnezzar’s reign, as the master said (Meg. 11b): “In the first year he conquered Nineveh; in the second year he went up and vanquished Jehoiakim.” Figure from that year until now, and you will find them [the 70 years]. This calculation is found also in the Mishnah of Seder Olam (ch. 28), and we learned there that in the year of Belshazzar’s death were 70 years from the day that Nebuchadnezzar ascended the throne: seventy minus one since the day that he conquered Jehoiakim, and yet one more year for Babylon, which Darius completed. And when I [Daniel] saw that the redemption was not hastening to come, I contemplated and put my heart to the calculation, and I knew that I should not have counted according to the conquest of Jehoiakim but [according] to the destruction of Jerusalem, when 70 years will be complete from the exile of Zedekiah, when Jerusalem was destroyed. And there are yet 18 years to come, for this exile was in the eighteenth year counting from the conquest of Jehoiakim, as we learned in Seder Olam: “They were exiled in the seventh year; they were exiled in the eighth year; they were exiled in the eighteenth year; they were exiled in the nineteenth year.” Our Sages in Tractate Megillah (11b) explained that they were exiled in the exile of Jeconiah in the seventh year, counting from the conquest of Jehoiakim, which is the eighth year of Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. They were exiled a second time in the eighteenth year, counting from the conquest of Jehoiakim, which is the nineteenth year of Nebuchadnezzar’s reign.  
3. And I turned my face to the Lord God to beg with prayer and supplications, with fasting and sackcloth and ashes.   ג. וָאֶתְּנָה אֶת פָּנַי אֶל אֲדֹנָי הָאֱלֹהִים לְבַקֵּשׁ תְּפִלָּה וְתַחֲנוּנִים בְּצוֹם וְשַׂק וָאֵפֶר:
4. And I prayed to the Lord my God, and I confessed, and I said, "Please, O Lord, O great and awesome God, Who keeps the covenant and the loving- kindness to those who love Him and keep His commandments.   ד. וָאֶתְפַּלְלָה לַיהֹוָה אֱלֹהַי וָאֶתְוַדֶּה וָאֹמְרָה אָנָּא אֲדֹנָי הָאֵל הַגָּדוֹל וְהַנּוֹרָא שֹׁמֵר הַבְּרִית וְהַחֶסֶד לְאֹהֲבָיו וּלְשֹׁמְרֵי מִצְו‍ֹתָיו:
and I confessed: the sins of my people.  
O great and awesome God: but he did not say, “mighty.” He said [to himself], “Heathens are enslaving His children, so where are His mighty deeds?”  
5. We have sinned and have dealt iniquitously; we have dealt wickedly and have rebelled, turning away from Your commandments and from Your ordinances.   ה. חָטָאנוּ וְעָוִינוּ הִרְשַׁעְנוּ וּמָרָדְנוּ וְסוֹר מִמִּצְו‍ֹתֶיךָ וּמִמִּשְׁפָּטֶיךָ:
turning away: We were constantly turning away from Your commandments, tolant in Old French, turning away.  
6. And we have not obeyed Your servants, the prophets, who spoke in Your name to our kings, our princes, and our forefathers, and to all the people of the land.   ו. וְלֹא שָׁמַעְנוּ אֶל עֲבָדֶיךָ הַנְּבִיאִים אֲשֶׁר דִּבְּרוּ בְּשִׁמְךָ אֶל מְלָכֵינוּ שָׂרֵינוּ וַאֲבֹתֵינוּ וְאֶל כָּל עַם הָאָרֶץ:
7. To You, O Lord, is the righteousness, and to us is the shamefacedness as of this day, to the people of Judah, to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and to all Israel both near and far, in all the lands to which you have driven them for the treachery that they have perpetrated toward You.   ז. לְךָ אֲדֹנָי הַצְּדָקָה וְלָנוּ בֹּשֶׁת הַפָּנִים כַּיּוֹם הַזֶּה לְאִישׁ יְהוּדָה וּלְיֹשְׁבֵי יְרוּשָׁלִַם וּלְכָל יִשְׂרָאֵל הַקְּרֹבִים וְהָרְחֹקִים בְּכָל הָאֲרָצוֹת אֲשֶׁר הִדַּחְתָּם שָׁם בְּמַעֲלָם אֲשֶׁר מָעֲלוּ בָךְ:
To you, O Lord, is the righteousness: i.e., Your judgments and retributions that You have brought upon us-justice and righteousness are with You.  
and to us is the shamefacedness: We should be ashamed for what has happened to us, for we caused it for ourselves.  
as of this day: as we see today.  
8. O Lord, to us is shamefacedness, to our kings, to our princes, and to our forefathers, who sinned against You.   ח. יְהֹוָה לָנוּ בֹּשֶׁת הַפָּנִים לִמְלָכֵינוּ לְשָׂרֵינוּ וְלַאֲבֹתֵינוּ אֲשֶׁר חָטָאנוּ לָךְ:
9. To the Lord our God are the mercies and the pardons, for we have rebelled against Him.   ט. לַאדֹנָי אֱלֹהֵינוּ הָרַחֲמִים וְהַסְּלִחוֹת כִּי מָרַדְנוּ בּוֹ:
To the Lord our God are the mercies: that we did not perish for our iniquities, for we rebelled against Him.  
10. And we have not hearkened to the voice of the Lord our God, to follow His teachings, which He placed before us by the hand of His servants, the prophets.   י. וְלֹא שָׁמַעְנוּ בְּקוֹל יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ לָלֶכֶת בְּתוֹרֹתָיו אֲשֶׁר נָתַן לְפָנֵינוּ בְּיַד עֲבָדָיו הַנְּבִיאִים:
11. And all Israel have transgressed Your teaching, turning away, not heeding Your voice, and the curse and the oath, which are written in the Law of Moses, the servant of God, have befallen us, for we have sinned against Him.   יא. וְכָל יִשְׂרָאֵל עָבְרוּ אֶת תּוֹרָתֶךָ וְסוֹר לְבִלְתִּי שְׁמוֹעַ בְּקֹלֶךָ וַתִּתַּךְ עָלֵינוּ הָאָלָה וְהַשְּׁבֻעָה אֲשֶׁר כְּתוּבָה בְּתוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה עֶבֶד הָאֱלֹהִים כִּי חָטָאנוּ לוֹ:
have befallen us: Heb. וַתִּתַּ, and You caused to reach us, like (Exod. 9:33): לֹא נִתַּ אָרְצָה, and Onkelos rendered: did not reach the earth.  
the curse and the oath: the curses of the Covenant with which You adjured us at Horeb (Lev 26: 14): “And if you do not listen etc.”; all the curses written there.  
12. And He has confirmed His word, which He spoke about us and about our judges who judged us, to bring upon us a great evil, which was not done under all the heavens, as was done in Jerusalem.   יב. וַיָּקֶם אֶת דְּבָרוֹ | אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר עָלֵינוּ וְעַל שֹׁפְטֵינוּ אֲשֶׁר שְׁפָטוּנוּ לְהָבִיא עָלֵינוּ רָעָה גְדֹלָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא נֶעֶשְׂתָה תַּחַת כָּל הַשָּׁמַיִם כַּאֲשֶׁר נֶעֶשְׂתָה בִּירוּשָׁלִָם:
as was done in Jerusalem: the sword, slaying, the burning of the city; and they humbled women and put captives into neck irons.  
13. As is written in the Law of Moses, all this evil has come upon us, and we did not entreat the countenance of the Lord our God to repent of our iniquities and to contemplate Your truth.   יג. כַּאֲשֶׁר כָּתוּב בְּתוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה אֵת כָּל הָרָעָה הַזֹּאת בָּאָה עָלֵינוּ וְלֹא חִלִּינוּ אֶת פְּנֵי | יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ לָשׁוּב מֵעֲו‍ֹנֵנוּ וּלְהַשְׂכִּיל בַּאֲמִתֶּךָ:
As is written in the Law of Moses: a hint that He warned us that if we transgress the oath, all this evil will befall us.  
14. And the Lord hastened with the evil and brought it upon us, for the Lord our God is righteous with all His deeds which He performs, and we did not hearken to His voice.   יד. וַיִּשְׁקֹד יְהֹוָה עַל הָרָעָה וַיְבִיאֶהָ עָלֵינוּ כִּי צַדִּיק יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ עַל כָּל מַעֲשָׂיו אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה וְלֹא שָׁמַעְנוּ בְּקֹלוֹ:
hastened: Heb. וַיִשְׁקֹד, and hastened.  
for… is righteous: for justice is with Him. Our Rabbis, however, explained that the Holy One, blessed be He, is charitable, and it is charity for us that He hastened and brought [the evil] two years before the numerical value of וַנוֹשַּׁנְתֶּם (Deut. 4:25): “and you will have grown old,” in order that [the curse of] “that you shall perish” should not be fulfilled with you. The numerical value of וַנוֹשַּׁנְתֶּם is 852, but they were exiled at the end of 850 [years] after their entry into the land.  
15. And now, O Lord our God, Who took Your people out of the land of Egypt with a strong hand, and You have made for Yourself a Name as of this day; we have sinned, we have dealt wickedly.   טו. וְעַתָּה | אֲדֹנָי אֱלֹהֵינוּ אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתָ אֶת עַמְּךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם בְּיָד חֲזָקָה וַתַּעַשׂ לְךָ שֵׁם כַּיּוֹם הַזֶּה חָטָאנוּ רָשָׁעְנוּ:
And now, O Lord, our God: We confess that we have sinned and have dealt wickedly.  
16. O Lord, according to all Your righteousness, may Your wrath and Your anger return now from Your city, Jerusalem, the mount of Your Sanctuary, for because of our sins and because of the iniquities of our forefathers, Jerusalem and Your people have become a mockery to all those surrounding us.   טז. אֲדֹנָי כְּכָל צִדְקֹתֶיךָ יָשָׁב נָא אַפְּךָ וַחֲמָתְךָ מֵעִירְךָ יְרוּשָׁלִַם הַר קָדְשֶׁךָ כִּי בַחֲטָאֵינוּ וּבַעֲו‍ֹנוֹת אֲבֹתֵינוּ יְרוּשָׁלִַם וְעַמְּךָ לְחֶרְפָּה לְכָל סְבִיבֹתֵינוּ:
a mockery: [as translated,] a mockery.  
to all those surrounding us: to all our neighbors; they all mock us.  
17. And now, hearken, O Lord our God, to Your servant's prayer and to his supplications, and cause Your face to shine upon Your desolate Sanctuary, for the sake of the Lord.   יז. וְעַתָּה | שְׁמַע אֱלֹהֵינוּ אֶל תְּפִלַּת עַבְדְּךָ וְאֶל תַּחֲנוּנָיו וְהָאֵר פָּנֶיךָ עַל מִקְדָּשְׁךָ הַשָּׁמֵם לְמַעַן אֲדֹנָי:
for the sake of the Lord: For the sake of the holy Name that is called upon the Temple, as it says (Exod. 15:17): “the Sanctuary, O Lord, (אֲדֹנָי) which Your hands have established.”  
18. O Lord, incline Your ear and hearken, open Your eyes and see our desolations and the city upon which Your name is called, because not for our righteousness do we cast our supplications before You, but for Your great mercies.   יח. הַטֵּה אֱלֹהַי | אָזְנְךָ וּשֲׁמָע פְּקַח עֵינֶיךָ וּרְאֵה שֹׁמְמֹתֵינוּ וְהָעִיר אֲשֶׁר נִקְרָא שִׁמְךָ עָלֶיהָ כִּי | לֹא עַל צִדְקֹתֵינוּ אֲנַחְנוּ מַפִּילִים תַּחֲנוּנֵינוּ לְפָנֶיךָ כִּי עַל רַחֲמֶיךָ הָרַבִּים:
and see our desolations: and the desolations of the city upon which Your name is called, because not upon the support of our righteousness do we cast our supplications to benefit us, but we have come upon Your mercies.  
19. O Lord, hear; O Lord, forgive; O Lord, hearken and do, do not delay; for Your sake, my God, for Your Name is called upon Your city and upon Your people."   יט. אֲדֹנָי | שְׁמָעָה אֲדֹנָי | סְלָחָה אֲדֹנָי הַקְשִׁיבָה וַעֲשֵׂה אַל תְּאַחַר לְמַעַנְךָ אֱלֹהַי כִּי שִׁמְךָ נִקְרָא עַל עִירְךָ וְעַל עַמֶּךָ:
O Lord, hear: our supplications.  
O Lord, forgive: our sins.  
O Lord, hearken: Your ear to our cry.  
and do: our request and do not delay.  
20. Now I was still speaking and praying and confessing my sin and the sin of my people Israel and casting my supplication before the Lord my God about the mount of the Sanctuary of my God.   כ. וְעוֹד אֲנִי מְדַבֵּר וּמִתְפַּלֵּל וּמִתְוַדֶּה חַטָּאתִי וְחַטַּאת עַמִּי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמַפִּיל תְּחִנָּתִי לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהַי עַל הַר קֹדֶשׁ אֱלֹהָי:
about the mount of the Sanctuary of my God: for the mount of the House of God, that it be built.  
21. While I was still speaking in prayer, the man Gabriel, whom I saw in the vision at first, approached me in swift flight about the time of the evening offering.   כא. וְעוֹד אֲנִי מְדַבֵּר בַּתְּפִלָּה וְהָאִישׁ גַּבְרִיאֵל אֲשֶׁר רָאִיתִי בֶחָזוֹן בַּתְּחִלָּה מֻעָף בִּיעָף נֹגֵעַ אֵלַי כְּעֵת מִנְחַת עָרֶב:
at first: in the days of Belshazzar, as is written above (8:15 26).  
in swift flight: [He was] caused to fly to me with flying and with gliding.  
22. And he enabled me to understand, and he spoke with me, and he said, "Daniel, now I have come forth to make you skillful in understanding.   כב. וַיָּבֶן וַיְדַבֵּר עִמִּי וַיֹּאמַר דָּנִיֵּאל עַתָּה יָצָאתִי לְהַשְׂכִּילְךָ בִינָה:
And he enabled me to understand: Heb. וַיָבֶן.  
23. In the beginning of your supplications, a word came forth, and I have come to tell it, for you have desirable qualities; now contemplate the word and understand the vision.   כג. בִּתְחִלַּת תַּחֲנוּנֶיךָ יָצָא דָבָר וַאֲנִי בָּאתִי לְהַגִּיד כִּי חֲמוּדוֹת אָתָּה וּבִין בַּדָּבָר וְהָבֵן בַּמַּרְאֶה:
In the beginning of your supplications, a word came forth: a true [word came] from the Holy One, blessed be He, to me to tell you.  
for you have desirable qualities: You have qualities that are desirable to the Holy One, blessed be He.  
now contemplate the word: Put your heart to understand the word.  
24. Seventy weeks [of years] have been decreed upon your people and upon the city of your Sanctuary to terminate the transgression and to end sin, and to expiate iniquity, and to bring eternal righteousness, and to seal up vision and prophet, and to anoint the Holy of Holies.   כד. שָׁבֻעִים שִׁבְעִים נֶחְתַּךְ עַל עַמְּךָ | וְעַל עִיר קָדְשֶׁךָ לְכַלֵּא הַפֶּשַׁע וּלְהָתֵם חַטָּאוֹת וּלְכַפֵּר עָו‍ֹן וּלְהָבִיא צֶדֶק עֹלָמִים וְלַחְתֹּם חָזוֹן וְנָבִיא וְלִמְשֹׁחַ קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים:
Seventy weeks [of years] have been decreed: on Jerusalem from the day of the first destruction in the days of Zedekiah until it will be [destroyed] the second time.  
to terminate the transgression and to end sin: so that Israel should receive their complete retribution in the exile of Titus and his subjugation, in order that their transgressions should terminate, their sins should end, and their iniquities should be expiated, in order to bring upon them eternal righteousness and to anoint upon them (sic) the Holy of Holies: the Ark, the altars, and the holy vessels, which they will bring to them through the king Messiah. The number of seven weeks is four hundred and ninety years. The Babylonian exile was seventy [years] and the Second Temple stood four hundred and twenty [years].  
25. And you shall know and understand that from the emergence of the word to restore and to rebuild Jerusalem until the anointed king [shall be] seven weeks, and [in] sixty-two weeks it will return and be built street and moat, but in troubled times.   כה. וְתֵדַע וְתַשְׂכֵּל מִן מֹצָא דָבָר לְהָשִׁיב וְלִבְנוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִַם עַד מָשִׁיחַ נָגִיד שָׁבֻעִים שִׁבְעָה וְשָׁבֻעִים שִׁשִּׁים וּשְׁנַיִם תָּשׁוּב וְנִבְנְתָה רְחוֹב וְחָרוּץ וּבְצוֹק הָעִתִּים:
And you shall know and understand from the emergence of the word: From the emergence of this word, which emerged at the beginning of your supplications to tell you, you shall know to understand [how] to restore and build Jerusalem.  
until the anointed king: Time will be given from the day of the destruction until the coming of Cyrus, king of Persia, about whom the Holy One, blessed be He, said that he would return and build His city, and He called him His anointed and His king, as it says (Isa. 45:1): “So said the Lord to His anointed one, to Cyrus etc.” (verse 13): “He shall build My city and free My exiles, etc.”  
seven weeks: Seven complete shemittah cycles they will be in exile before Cyrus comes, and there were yet three more years, but since they did not constitute a complete shemittah cycle, they were not counted. In the one year of Darius, in which Daniel was standing when this vision was said to him, seventy years from the conquest of Jehoiakim terminated. Deduct eighteen years from them, in which the conquest of Jehoiakim preceded the destruction of Jerusalem, leaving fifty-two years. This is what our Rabbis learned (Yoma 54a): “For fifty-two years no one passed through Judea.” They are the fifty-two years from the day of the destruction until they returned in the days of Cyrus. Hence, we have seven shemittah cycles and three years.  
and in sixty-two weeks it will return and be built: i.e., the city with its streets.  
and moat: Heb. וְחָרוּץ. They are the moats that they make around the wall to strengthen the city, which are called fosse in French, ditch or moat.  
but in troubled times: But in those times they will be troubled and distressed, for in the subjugation of the kings of Persia and the heathens, they will burden them with harsh bondage. Now although there are sixty-two weeks and four years more that remain from the eighth week, whose beginning, viz. the three years, was included in the fifty-two years of the duration of the exile, those four years were not counted here because here he counted only weeks, and you find that from the beginning he started to count seventy weeks, and at the end, when he delineated their times and their judgments, he counted only sixty-nine, proving that one week was divided, part of it here and part of it there; and he mentioned only whole weeks.  
but in troubled times: They will be troubled in those times.  
26. And after the sixty-two weeks, the anointed one will be cut off, and he will be no more, and the people of the coming monarch will destroy the city and the Sanctuary, and his end will come about by inundation, and until the end of the war, it will be cut off into desolation.   כו. וְאַחֲרֵי הַשָּׁבֻעִים שִׁשִּׁים וּשְׁנַיִם יִכָּרֵת מָשִׁיחַ וְאֵין לוֹ וְהָעִיר וְהַקֹּדֶשׁ יַשְׁחִית עַם נָגִיד הַבָּא וְקִצּוֹ בַשֶּׁטֶף וְעַד קֵץ מִלְחָמָה נֶחֱרֶצֶת שֹׁמֵמוֹת:
And after: those weeks.  
the anointed one will be cut off: Agrippa, the king of Judea, who was ruling at the time of the destruction, will be slain.  
and he will be no more: Heb. וְאֵין לוֹ, and he will not have. The meaning is that he will not be.  
the anointed one: Heb. מָשִׁיחַ. This is purely an expression of a prince and a dignitary.  
and the city and the Sanctuary: lit. and the city and the Holy.  
and the people of the coming monarch will destroy: [The monarch who will come] upon them. That is Titus and his armies.  
and his end will come about by inundation: And his end will be damnation and destruction, for He will inundate the power of his kingdom through the Messiah, and until the end of the wars of Gog the city will exist.  
cut off into desolation: a destruction of desolation.  
27. And he will strengthen a covenant for the princes for one week, and half the week he will abolish sacrifice and meal- offering, and on high, among abominations, will be the dumb one, and until destruction and extermination befall the dumb one.   כז. וְהִגְבִּיר בְּרִית לָרַבִּים שָׁבוּעַ אֶחָד וַחֲצִי הַשָּׁבוּעַ יַשְׁבִּית | זֶבַח וּמִנְחָה וְעַל כְּנַף שִׁקּוּצִים מְשֹׁמֵם וְעַד כָּלָה וְנֶחֱרָצָה תִּתַּךְ עַל שׁוֹמֵם:
And he will strengthen a covenant for the princes for one week: לָרַבִּים, for the princes, like “and all the officers of (רַבֵּי) the king,” in the Book of Jeremiah (39:13).  
will strengthen: Titus [will strengthen] a covenant with the princes of Israel.  
for one week: He will promise them the strengthening of a covenant and peace for seven years, but within the seven years, he will abrogate his covenant.  
he will abolish sacrifice and meal-offering: This is what he says in the first vision (8:26): “and in tranquility he will destroy many.” Through a covenant of tranquility, he will destroy them.  
and on high, among abominations will be the dumb one: This is a pejorative for pagan deities. i.e., on a high place, among abominations and disgusting things, he will place the dumb one, the pagan deity, which is dumb like a silent stone.  
high: Heb. כְּנַף, lit. wing, an expression of height, like the wing of a flying bird.  
and until destruction and extermination befall the dumb one: and the ruling of the abomination will endure until the day that the destruction and extermination decreed upon it [will] befall it, in the days of the king Messiah.  
befall the dumb one: Heb. תִּתַּ, reach; and total destruction will descend upon the image of the pagan deity and upon its worshippers.  
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