Contact Us
The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary

Daniel - Chapter 2

Daniel - Chapter 2

 Email
Rashi's Commentary:
Show content in:

Chapter 2

1Now in the second year of Nebuchadnezzar's reign, Nebuchadnezzar dreamed dreams, and his spirit was troubled, and his sleep was interrupted.   אוּבִשְׁנַ֣ת שְׁתַּ֗יִם לְמַלְכוּת֙ נְבֻֽכַדְנֶצַּ֔ר חָלַ֥ם נְבֻֽכַדְנֶצַּ֖ר חֲלֹמ֑וֹת וַתִּתְפָּ֣עֶם רוּח֔וֹ וּשְׁנָת֖וֹ נִֽהְיְתָ֥ה עָלָֽיו:
Now in the second year of Nebuchadnezzar’s reign: It is impossible to say this, except that [it happened] in the second year after the destruction of the Temple. So it is taught in Seder Olam (ch. 28), and Scripture called it “of Nebuchadnezzar’s reign,” because he demonstrated his insolence by entering the Inner Sanctum of the Sovereign of the Universe.  
and his spirit was troubled: Heb. וַתִּתְפָּעֶם רוּחוֹ. Concerning Pharaoh it says (Gen. 41: 8): וַתִּפָּעֶם רוּחוֹ, for only the interpretation of the dream was hidden from him, but here, since the dream too was hidden from him, the expression is doubled: וַתִּתְפָּעֶם, an expression of pulsating and beating.  
was interrupted: Heb. נִהְיְתָה, an expression of breaking like (Ezek. 7:25): “Breach upon breach (הוָה עַל הוָה).”  
2And the king commanded to summon the necromancers, the astrologers, the sorcerers, and the Chaldeans to tell the king his dreams, and they came and stood before the king.   בוַיֹּ֣אמֶר הַ֠מֶּלֶךְ לִקְרֹ֨א לַֽחַרְטֻמִּ֜ים וְלָֽאַשָּׁפִ֗ים וְלַֽמְכַשְּׁפִים֙ וְלַכַּשְׂדִּ֔ים לְהַגִּ֥יד לַמֶּ֖לֶךְ חֲלֹֽמֹתָ֑יו וַיָּבֹ֕אוּ וַיַּֽעַמְד֖וּ לִפְנֵ֥י הַמֶּֽלֶךְ:
3And the king said to them, "I dreamed a dream, and my spirit is troubled to know the dream."   גוַיֹּ֧אמֶר לָהֶ֛ם הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ חֲל֣וֹם חָלָ֑מְתִּי וַתִּפָּ֣עֶם רוּחִ֔י לָדַ֖עַת אֶת־הַֽחֲלֽוֹם:
4Then the Chaldeans spoke to the king in Aramaic, "May the king live forever! Tell your servants the dream, and we shall tell the interpretation."   דוַיְדַבְּר֧וּ הַכַּשְׂדִּ֛ים לַמֶּ֖לֶךְ אֲרָמִ֑ית מַלְכָּא֙ לְעָלְמִ֣ין חֱיִ֔י אֱמַ֥ר חֶלְמָ֛א לְעַבְדָ֖ךְ (כתיב לְעַבְדָ֖יךְ) וּפִשְׁרָ֥א נְחַוֵּֽא:
May the king live forever: Aram. מַלְכָּא לְעָלְמִין חֱיִי.  
Tell your servants the dream: [as translated,] Tell your servants the dream.  
5The king replied and said to the Chaldeans, "The matter has escaped me. If you do not let me know the dream and its meaning, you shall be torn limb from limb, and your houses shall be made into a dungheap.   העָנֵ֚ה מַלְכָּא֙ וְאָמַ֣ר לְכַשְׂדָּאֵ֔י (כתיב לְכַשְׂדָּי֔אֵ) מִלְּתָ֖ה מִנִּ֣י אַזְדָּ֑א הֵ֣ן לָ֚א תְהֽוֹדְעוּנַּ֙נִי֙ חֶלְמָ֣א וּפִשְׁרֵ֔הּ הַדָּמִין֙ תִּתְעַבְד֔וּן וּבָֽתֵּיכ֖וֹן נְוָלִ֥י יִתְּשָׂמֽוּן:
The matter has escaped me: The thing has left me.  
If you do not let me know the dream and its meaning: [as translated,] if you do not let me know the dream and its meaning.  
you shall be torn limb from limb: Aram. הַדָמִין תִּתְעַבְּדוּן. You shall be cut to pieces, and there are many such in the Gemara (Gittin 67b): “Arrange the cuts” הַדְמּוּה) (ָהַדוּמֵי.  
a dungheap: Aram. נְוָלִי, a dungheap.  
shall be made: Aram. יִתְּשָּׂמוּן an expression of וְיָשֵּׂם, and he will make. They shall be made into dungheaps.  
6But if you tell the dream and its meaning, you will receive gifts and lavish presents and great honor from me; but tell me the dream and its meaning."   ווְהֵ֨ן חֶלְמָ֚א וּפִשְׁרֵהּ֙ תְּֽהַֽחֲו‍ֹ֔ן מַתְּנָ֚ן וּנְבִזְבָּה֙ וִיקָ֣ר שַׂגִּ֔יא תְּקַבְּל֖וּן מִן־קֳדָמָ֑י לָהֵ֛ן חֶלְמָ֥א וּפִשְׁרֵ֖הּ הַֽחֲו‍ֹֽנִי:
But if: [as translated,] But if.  
and lavish presents: [as translated,] presents.  
but: [as translated,] but.  
tell me: [as translated,] tell me.  
7They replied a second time and said, "Let the king tell the dream to his servants, and we shall tell the meaning."   זעֲנ֥וֹ תִנְיָנ֖וּת וְאָמְרִ֑ין מַלְכָּ֕א חֶלְמָ֛א יֵאמַ֥ר לְעַבְד֖וֹהִי וּפִשְׁרָ֥ה נְהַֽחֲוֵֽה:
a second time: [as translated,] a second time.  
we shall tell: [as translated,] we shall tell.  
8The king replied and said, "In truth, I know that this time you are doomed because you see that the matter has escaped me.   חעָנֵ֚ה מַלְכָּא֙ וְאָמַ֔ר מִן־יַצִּיב֙ יָדַ֣ע אֲנָ֔ה דִּ֥י עִדָּנָ֖א אַנְתּ֣וּן זָֽבְנִ֑ין כָּל־קֳבֵל֙ דִּ֣י חֲזֵית֔וּן דִּ֥י אַזְדָּ֖א מִנִּ֥י מִלְּתָֽא:
in truth, I know: [as translated,] in truth, I know.  
truth: Aram. יַצִיב, a true and permanent thing.  
that this time you are doomed: Aram. אַנְתוּן זַבְנִין דִּי עִדָּנָא, that this time you are delivered to death.  
because you see: because you see that the matter escaped me, but you repeatedly ask me to tell you.  
9For if you do not tell me the dream, there is but one law for you, or if you have prepared yourselves to say before me a false and corrupt word, until the time changes . but tell me the dream, and I shall know that you will tell me its meaning."   טדִּ֣י הֵן־חֶלְמָא֩ לָ֨א תְהֽוֹדְעֻנַּ֜נִי חֲדָה־הִ֣יא דָתְכ֗וֹן וּמִלָּ֨ה כִדְבָ֚ה וּשְׁחִיתָה֙ הִזְדַּמִנְתּוּן֙ (כתיב הִזְַמִנְתּוּן֙) לְמֵאמַ֣ר קֳדָמַ֔י עַ֛ד דִּ֥י עִדָּנָ֖א יִשְׁתַּנֵּ֑א לָהֵ֗ן חֶלְמָא֙ אֱמַ֣רוּ לִ֔י וְאִנְדַּ֕ע דִּ֥י פִשְׁרֵ֖הּ תְּהַֽחֲוֻנַּֽנִי:
or if you have prepared yourselves… a false and corrupt word: Or if you have prepared yourselves to say before me a false and corrupt word.  
until the time changes: until the time changes, i.e., before the shadows of evening slant, when the time of morning changes. “Until the time changes” is an expression of rebuke and an exaggeration: so will he be punished, and the punishment was already delineated above. A similar instance is (Gen. 4:15): “Therefore, whoever kills Cain.”  
but: the dream; tell me what I dreamed, and I shall know that you will surely tell me the interpretation.  
10The Chaldeans replied before the king and said, "There is no man on the earth who can declare the king's word; because no great and powerful king has asked such a thing of any necromancer, astrologer, or Chaldean.   יעֲנ֨וֹ כַשְׂדָּאֵ֚י (כתיב כַשְׂדָּיאֵ֚) קֳדָם־מַלְכָּא֙ וְאָ֣מְרִ֔ין לָֽא־אִיתַ֚י אֱנַשׁ֙ עַל־יַבֶּשְׁתָּ֔א דִּי מִלַּ֣ת מַלְכָּ֔א יוּכַ֖ל לְהַֽחֲוָיָ֑ה כָּל־קֳבֵ֗ל דִּי כָּל־מֶ֙לֶךְ֙ רַ֣ב וְשַׁלִּ֔יט מִלָּ֚ה כִדְנָה֙ לָ֣א שְׁאֵ֔ל לְכָל־חַרְטֹ֥ם וְאַשָּׁ֖ף וְכַשְׂדָּֽי:
who… the king’s word: who will be able to tell the king’s word.  
because: Aram. כָּל קַבֵל, lit. all opposite; i.e., our reply is true, in view of the fact that there was never a king who asked anything like this.  
such a thing: Aram. מִלָה כִדְּנָה, a thing like this.  
astrologer: who presses the constellation.  
11And the matter that the king asks is difficult, and there is no other who can tell it before the king but the angels, whose dwelling is not with people."   יאוּמִלְּתָ֨א דִֽי־מַלְכָּ֚ה שָׁאֵל֙ יַקִּירָ֔ה וְאָֽחֳרָן֙ לָ֣א אִיתַ֔י דִּ֥י יְחַוִּנָּ֖הּ קֳדָ֣ם מַלְכָּ֑א לָהֵ֣ן אֱלָהִ֔ין דִּי מְדָ֣רְה֔וֹן עִם־בִּשְׂרָ֖א לָ֥א אִיתֽוֹהִי:
difficult: Aram. יַקִירָה, heavy, and its burden is heavy.  
and there is no other who can tell it: and there is no other who will tell it.  
but the angels: but the angels whose dwelling is not with flesh and blood.  
whose dwelling: Aram. מְדָרְהוֹן, their dwelling. The Midrash of Rabbi Tanhuma (ad loc.) [says]: וְאַחֲרָן לָא אִיתַי, and Aaron is not here. A priest who wears the Urim and Tummim is not here to tell you. He said to them, “That Temple was so powerful, and you advised me to destroy it?” Immediately, he became angry and commanded to slay them.  
12In view of this, the king was in great wrath and anger and ordered to destroy all the wise men of Babylon.   יבכָּל־קֳבֵ֣ל דְּנָ֔ה מַלְכָּ֕א בְּנַ֖ס וּקְצַ֣ף שַׂגִּ֑יא וַֽאֲמַר֙ לְה֣וֹבָדָ֔ה לְכֹ֖ל חַכִּימֵ֥י בָבֶֽל:
In view of this: in view of this reply.  
in great wrath and anger: Aram. מַלְכָּא בְּנַס וּקְצַף שַּׂגִיא. The king was in great wrath and anger. (בְּנַס) means in wrath. (Gen. 40:6): "And behold they were angry (זֹעַפִים), and Onkelos renders: נסִיסִין.  
and ordered to destroy: Aram. וַאֲמַר לְהוֹבָדָה. About this “vav” of וַאֲמַר, Menahem and Dunash disputed. Menahem (p. 46) forced himself to make the “beth” of בְּנַס, a radical and did not interpret בְּנַס וּקְצַף as nouns, but as an expression of a verb: was greatly wroth and angry and ordered to destroy. The “vav” in וַאֲמַר forced him to interpret it this way. Dunash (p. 9) says that it is impossible for the “beth” to be a radical, but it is a noun, and he interpreted it in this manner: with great wrath and anger he ordered to destroy, and the “vav” there is superfluous, like the “vav” of (Ps. 76:7): “chariot (וְרֶכֶב) and horse.” But I say that the “vav” is not forced to be superfluous, but so is its interpretation: מַלְכָּא בְּנַס וּקְצַף שַּׂגִּיא, the king was in great wrath and anger, and he ordered in his wrath to destroy them. Accordingly, this is an elliptical verse.  
13And a decree was issued, and the wise men were being slain, and Daniel and his colleagues were sought to be slain.   יגוְדָתָ֣א נֶפְקַ֔ת וְחַכִּֽימַיָּ֖א מִֽתְקַטְּלִ֑ין וּבְע֛וֹ דָּֽנִיֵּ֥אל וְחַבְר֖וֹהִי לְהִתְקְטָלָֽה:
And a decree was issued: The law of the king and his decree were issued in the province.  
and Daniel and his colleagues were sought to be slain: [as translated,] and Daniel and his colleagues were sought to be slain.  
14Then Daniel answered with counsel and good sense to Arioch, the king's chief executioner, who had gone out to slay the wise men of Babylon.   ידבֵּאדַ֣יִן דָּֽנִיֵּ֗אל הֲתִיב֙ עֵטָ֣א וּטְעֵ֔ם לְאַרְי֕וֹךְ רַב־טַבָּֽחַיָּ֖א דִּ֣י מַלְכָּ֑א דִּי נְפַ֣ק לְקַטָּלָ֔ה לְחַכִּימֵ֖י בָּבֶֽל:
Then: Aram. בֵּאדַיִן, the Targum for אָז.  
answered with counsel and good sense: He answered [with] counsel and good sense to Arioch, the name of the man.  
the… chief executioner: the officer over those who executed the ones condemned to death.  
15He replied and said to Arioch, the king's ruler, "Why was the decree issued so hastily from before the king?" Then Arioch made the matter known to Daniel.   טועָנֵ֣ה וְאָמַ֗ר לְאַרְיוֹךְ֙ שַׁלִּיטָ֣א דִֽי־מַלְכָּ֔א עַל־מָ֥ה דָתָ֛א מְהַחְצְפָ֖ה מִן־קֳדָ֣ם מַלְכָּ֑א אֱדַ֣יִן מִלְּתָ֔א הוֹדַ֥ע אַרְי֖וֹךְ לְדָֽנִיֵּֽאל:
Why was the decree issued so hastily: Why is the decree of the king [issued] in such a haste to kill?  
Then Arioch made the matter known to Daniel: that the king was angry because no one told him his dream.  
16Then Daniel entered and requested of the king that time be given him, and the interpretation would be told to the king.   טזוְדָ֣נִיֵּ֔אל עַ֖ל וּבְעָ֣א מִן־מַלְכָּ֑א דִּי זְמָ֣ן יִנְתִּן־לֵ֔הּ וּפִשְׁרָ֖א לְהַֽחֲוָיָ֥ה לְמַלְכָּֽא:
entered and requested: [as translated,] entered and requested.  
be given him: [as translated,] be given him.  
17Then Daniel went home and let his colleagues, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah, know of the matter.   יזאֱדַ֥יִן דָּֽנִיֵּ֖אל לְבַיְתֵ֣הּ אֲזַ֑ל וְ֠לַֽחֲנַנְיָה מִֽישָׁאֵ֧ל וַֽעֲזַרְיָ֛ה חַבְר֖וֹהִי מִלְּתָ֥א הוֹדַֽע:
18And to pray and beg of the God of heaven about this secret, that Daniel and his colleagues should not perish with the remaining wise men of Babylon.   יחוְרַֽחֲמִ֗ין לְמִבְעֵא֙ מִן־קֳדָם֙ אֱלָ֣הּ שְׁמַיָּ֔א עַל־רָזָ֖א דְּנָ֑ה דִּ֣י לָ֚א יְהֽוֹבְדוּן֙ דָּֽנִיֵּ֣אל וְחַבְר֔וֹהִי עִם־שְׁאָ֖ר חַכִּימֵ֥י בָבֶֽל:
19Then the secret was revealed to Daniel in the vision of the night; then Daniel blessed the God of heaven.   יטאֱדַ֗יִן לְדָֽנִיֵּ֛אל בְּחֶזְוָ֥א דִֽי־לֵֽילְיָ֖א רָזָ֣א גֲלִ֑י אֱדַ֙יִן֙ דָּֽנִיֵּ֔אל בָּרִ֖ךְ לֶֽאֱלָ֥הּ שְׁמַיָּֽא:
the secret was revealed: [as translated,] the secret was revealed.  
20Daniel spoke up and said, "May the Name of God be blessed from everlasting even to everlasting, to Whom are wisdom and might.   כעָנֵ֚ה דָֽנִיֵּאל֙ וְאָמַ֔ר לֶֽהֱוֵ֨א שְׁמֵ֚הּ דִּֽי־אֱלָהָא֙ מְבָרַ֔ךְ מִן־עָֽלְמָ֖א וְעַ֣ד־עָֽלְמָ֑א דִּ֧י חָכְמְתָ֛א וּגְבוּרְתָ֖א דִּֽי־לֵ֥הּ הִֽיא:
21And He changes the times and the seasons, He removes kings and sets up kings; He grants wisdom to the wise and knowledge to those who know understanding.   כאוְ֠הוּא מְהַשְׁנֵ֚א עִדָּֽנַיָּא֙ וְזִמְנַיָּ֔א מְהַעְדֵּ֥ה מַלְכִ֖ין וּמְהָקֵ֣ים מַלְכִ֑ין יָהֵ֚ב חָכְמְתָא֙ לְחַכִּימִ֔ין וּמַנְדְּעָ֖א לְיָֽדְעֵ֥י בִינָֽה:
changes: [as translated,] changes.  
removes: He removes kings, for he understood from the dream that Nebuchadnezzar’s kingdom would terminate, and another kingdom would rise.  
22He reveals the profound and secret things; He knows what is in the dark, and light dwells with Him.   כבה֛וּא גָּלֵ֥א עַמִּֽיקָתָ֖א וּמְסַתְּרָתָ֑א יָדַע֙ מָ֣ה בַֽחֲשׁוֹכָ֔א וּנְהוֹרָ֖א (כתיב וּנְהֹירָ֖א) עִמֵּ֥הּ שְׁרֵֽא:
He reveals the profound: [as translated,] He reveals the profound.  
and secret things: for He revealed this profound thing to me.  
23To You, O God of my forefathers, I give thanks and praise, for You have given me wisdom and might, and now You have let me know what I requested of You, for the matter of the king You have let me know."   כגלָ֣ךְ| אֱלָ֣הּ אֲבָֽהָתִ֗י מְהוֹדֵ֚א וּמְשַׁבַּח֙ אֲנָ֔ה דִּ֧י חָכְמְתָ֛א וּגְבוּרְתָ֖א יְהַ֣בְתְּ לִ֑י וּכְעַ֚ן הֽוֹדַעְתַּ֙נִי֙ דִּֽי־בְעֵ֣ינָא מִנָּ֔ךְ דִּֽי־מִלַּ֥ת מַלְכָּ֖א הֽוֹדַעְתֶּֽנָא:
You have let me know: [as translated,] You have let me know.  
24In view of this, Daniel came in to Arioch, whom the king had appointed to destroy the wise men of Babylon. He went, and so he said to him, "Do not destroy the wise men of Babylon! Bring me in before the king, and I shall tell the king the interpretation."   כדכָּל־קֳבֵ֣ל דְּנָ֗ה דָּֽנִיֵּאל֙ עַ֣ל עַל־אַרְי֔וֹךְ דִּי מַנִּ֣י מַלְכָּ֔א לְהֽוֹבָדָ֖ה לְחַכִּימֵ֣י בָבֶ֑ל אֲזַ֣ל| וְכֵ֣ן אֲמַר־לֵ֗הּ לְחַכִּימֵ֚י בָבֶל֙ אַל־תְּהוֹבֵ֔ד הָעֵ֙לְנִי֙ קֳדָ֣ם מַלְכָּ֔א וּפִשְׁרָ֖א לְמַלְכָּ֥א אֲחַוֵּֽא:
In view of this: in view of this, that the secret was revealed to him.  
Daniel came in to Arioch: He entered Arioch’s premises.  
had appointed: [as translated,] had appointed.  
Do not destroy: [as translated,] Do not destroy.  
bring me in: [as translated,] bring me in.  
25Then Arioch brought Daniel in before the king in haste, and so he said to him, that "I have found a man of the exiles of Judea who will let the king know the interpretation."   כהאֱדַ֚יִן אַרְיוֹךְ֙ בְּהִתְבְּהָלָ֔ה הַנְעֵ֥ל לְדָֽנִיֵּ֖אל קֳדָ֣ם מַלְכָּ֑א וְכֵ֣ן אֲמַר־לֵ֗הּ דִּֽי־הַשְׁכַּ֚חַת גְּבַר֙ מִן־בְּנֵ֚י גָֽלוּתָא֙ דִּ֣י יְה֔וּד דִּ֥י פִשְׁרָ֖א לְמַלְכָּ֥א יְהוֹדַֽע:
Then: Aram. אֶדַיִן, [the equivalent of] אָז.  
in haste: Aram. בְּהִתְבְּהָלָה, in haste, i. e., quickly.  
brought… in: brought Daniel in.  
that “I have found a man: [as translated,] that” I have found a man.  
the exiles of Judea: [as translated,] the exiles of Judea.  
26The king spoke up and said to Daniel, whose name was Belteshazzar, "Do you have the ability to tell me the dream that I have seen and its interpretation?"   כועָנֵ֚ה מַלְכָּא֙ וְאָמַ֣ר לְדָֽנִיֵּ֔אל דִּ֥י שְׁמֵ֖הּ בֵּלְטְשַׁאצַּ֑ר הַאִיתָ֣ךְ (כתיב הַאִיתָ֣יךְ) כָּהֵ֗ל לְהֽוֹדָעֻתַ֛נִי חֶלְמָ֥א דִֽי־חֲזֵ֖ית וּפִשְׁרֵֽהּ:
Do you have the ability: Are you able?  
that I have seen: [as translated,] that I have seen.  
27Daniel answered the king and said, "The secret that the king asks, no wise men, astrologers, necromancers, or demonologists can tell the king.   כזעָנֵ֧ה דָֽנִיֵּ֛אל קֳדָ֥ם מַלְכָּ֖א וְאָמַ֑ר רָזָא֙ דִּֽי־מַלְכָּ֣א שָׁאֵ֔ל לָ֧א חַכִּימִ֣ין אָֽשְׁפִ֗ין חַרְטֻמִּין֙ גָּֽזְרִ֔ין יָֽכְלִ֖ין לְהַֽחֲוָיָ֥ה לְמַלְכָּֽא:
demonologists: Aram. גָזְרִין, the name of a type of ruler over demons.  
28But there is a God in heaven Who reveals secrets, and He lets King Nebuchadnezzar know what will be at the end of days; that is your dream and the visions of your head on your bed.   כחבְּרַ֡ם אִיתַ֞י אֱלָ֚הּ בִּשְׁמַיָּא֙ גָּלֵ֣א רָזִ֔ין וְהוֹדַ֗ע לְמַלְכָּא֙ נְבֽוּכַדְנֶצַּ֔ר מָ֛ה דִּ֥י לֶֽהֱוֵ֖א בְּאַֽחֲרִ֣ית יוֹמַיָּ֑א חֶלְמָ֨ךְ וְחֶזְוֵ֥י רֵאשָׁ֛ךְ עַֽל־מִשְׁכְּבָ֖ךְ דְּנָ֥ה הֽוּא:
But there is… and He lets Nebuchadnezzar know: He revealed this secret to me, and through me let the king know that his dream refers to future events.  
your dream and the visions of your head on your bed: which are on your bed.  
29You, O king, your thoughts came while on your bed, what will be after this, and the Revealer of secrets lets you know what will be.   כטאַ֣נְתְּ (כתיב אַ֣נְתְּה) מַלְכָּ֗א רַעְיוֹנָךְ֙ (כתיב רַעְיוֹנָיךְ֙) עַל־מִשְׁכְּבָ֣ךְ סְלִ֔קוּ מָ֛ה דִּ֥י לֶֽהֱוֵ֖א אַֽחֲרֵ֣י דְנָ֑ה וְגָלֵ֧א רָֽזַיָּ֛א הֽוֹדְעָ֖ךְ מָה־דִ֥י לֶֽהֱוֵֽא:
your thoughts: Aram. רַעְיוֹנָי.  
came while on your bed: What you were thinking of during the day, what would be after you, came [to you] on your bed.  
and the Revealer of secrets: and the Holy One, blessed be He, Who reveals secrets, let you know what will come about.  
30And I-not with wisdom that I possess more than all living, did He reveal this secret to me, but in order that they should let the king know the interpretation, and you should know the thoughts of your heart.   לוַֽאֲנָ֗ה לָ֚א בְחָכְמָה֙ דִּֽי־אִיתַ֥י בִּי֙ מִן־כָּל־חַיַּיָּ֔א רָזָ֥א דְנָ֖ה גֱּלִ֣י לִ֑י לָהֵ֗ן עַל־דִּבְרַת֙ דִּ֚י פִשְׁרָא֙ לְמַלְכָּ֣א יְהֽוֹדְע֔וּן וְרַעְיוֹנֵ֥י לִבְבָ֖ךְ תִּנְדָּֽע:
And I, not with wisdom: And I, not with superior wisdom that I have, more than other creatures, was this secret revealed to me.  
but in order that they should let the king know the interpretation: They should let you know from heaven.  
and you should know the thoughts of your heart: and the thoughts of your heart about which you are constantly thinking, [which are] to know who will rise after you.  
you should know: [as translated,] you should know.  
31O King, you were watching, and behold, one great image, an image which had a large base and with unusual splendor, was standing opposite you, and its form was frightening.   לאאַ֣נְתְּ (כתיב אַ֣נְתְּה) מַלְכָּ֗א חָזֵ֚ה הֲוַ֙יְתָ֙ וַֽאֲל֨וּ צְלֵ֥ם חַד֙ שַׂגִּ֔יא צַלְמָ֨א דִּכֵּ֥ן רַ֛ב וְזִיוֵ֥הּ יַתִּ֖יר קָאֵ֣ם לְקָבְלָ֑ךְ וְרֵוֵ֖הּ דְּחִֽיל:
you were watching: [as translated,] you were watching.  
and behold: Aram. וַאֲלוּ, an expression of “behold.”  
an image which had a large base: [as translated,] an image which had a large base.  
with unusual splendor, was standing opposite you: [as translated,] standing opposite you.  
and its form was frightening: [as translated,] and its form was frightening.  
32That image had a head of fine gold, its breast and its arms were of silver, its belly and thighs were of copper.   לבה֣וּא צַלְמָ֗א רֵאשֵׁהּ֙ דִּֽי־דְהַ֣ב טָ֔ב חֲד֥וֹהִי וּדְרָע֖וֹהִי דִּ֣י כְסָ֑ף מְע֥וֹהִי וְיַרְכָתֵ֖הּ דִּ֥י נְחָֽשׁ:
of fine gold: [as translated,] of fine gold.  
its breast: [as translated,] its breast.  
and its arms: [as translated,] and its arms.  
its belly and thighs: [as translated,] its belly and thighs.  
33Its legs were of iron, and its feet were partly of iron and partly of clay.   לגשָׁק֖וֹהִי דִּ֣י פַרְזֶ֑ל רַגְל֕וֹהִי מִנְּהֵין֙ (כתיב מִנְּהֵון֙) דִּ֣י פַרְזֶ֔ל וּמִנְּהֵ֖ין (כתיב וּמִנְּהֵ֖ון) דִּ֥י חֲסָֽף:
Its legs were of iron: [as translated,] Its legs were of iron.  
were partly of iron and partly of clay: [as translated,] were partly of iron and partly of clay [i.e., part of each foot was of iron and part of clay].  
34You were watching until one stone was hewn without hands, and it struck the image on its feet of iron and clay and crumbled them.   לדחָזֵ֣ה הֲוַ֗יְתָ עַ֠ד דִּ֣י הִתְגְּזֶ֚רֶת אֶ֙בֶן֙ דִּי־לָ֣א בִידַ֔יִן וּמְחָ֚ת לְצַלְמָא֙ עַל־רַגְל֔וֹהִי דִּ֥י פַרְזְלָ֖א וְחַסְפָּ֑א וְהַדֶּ֖קֶת הִמּֽוֹן:
until one stone was hewn: that one stone was cut and separated.  
without hands: not with hands, but by itself.  
and it struck the image: [as translated,] and it struck the image.  
and crumbled them: [as translated,] and crumbled them.  
35Then the iron, the clay, the copper, the silver, and the gold crumbled together, and they were like chaff from the threshing floors of the summer, and the wind carried them off, and no place was found for them, and the stone that struck the image became a huge mountain and filled the entire earth.   להבֵּאדַ֣יִן דָּ֣קוּ כַֽחֲדָ֡ה פַּרְזְלָא֩ חַסְפָּ֨א נְחָשָׁ֜א כַּסְפָּ֣א וְדַֽהֲבָ֗א וַֽהֲווֹ֙ כְּע֣וּר מִן־אִדְּרֵי־קַ֔יִט וּנְשָׂ֚א הִמּוֹן֙ רוּחָ֔א וְכָל־אֲתַ֖ר לָֽא־הִשְׁתְּכַ֣ח לְה֑וֹן וְאַבְנָ֣א| דִּֽי־מְחָ֣ת לְצַלְמָ֗א הֲוַ֛ת לְט֥וּר רַ֖ב וּמְלָ֥את כָּל־אַרְעָֽא:
Then… crumbled together: Then all the types of metals and the clay that were in it crumbled together.  
and they were like chaff from the threshing floors of the summer: [as translated,] and they were like chaff from the threshing floors of the summer.  
and the wind carried them off: [as translated,] and the wind carried them off.  
and no place was found for them: i.e., their original place was unknown, and it was unrecognizable that they were ever there.  
became a huge mountain: [as translated,] became a huge mountain.  
36This is the dream, and its interpretation we shall recite before the king.   לודְּנָ֣ה חֶלְמָ֔א וּפִשְׁרֵ֖הּ נֵאמַ֥ר קֳדָם־מַלְכָּֽא:
This is the dream: Behold this is the dream that you dreamed.  
and its interpretation we shall recite, etc.: and its interpretation we shall tell you.  
37You, O King, the King of kings, the God of heaven gave you a strong, powerful, and prominent kingdom.   לזאַ֣נְתְּ (כתיב אַ֣נְתְּה) מַלְכָּ֔א מֶ֖לֶךְ מַלְכַיָּ֑א דִּי אֱלָ֣הּ שְׁמַיָּ֔א מַלְכוּתָ֥א חִסְנָ֛א וְתָקְפָּ֥א וִֽיקָרָ֖א יְהַב־לָֽךְ:
The King of kings: Our Sages, of blessed memory, explained (Shev. 35b): Every mention of “king” in Daniel refers to an earthly king, except this one, which he said in reference to the Holy One, blessed be He, and this is what it means: The King of kings, Who is the God of heaven.  
a strong… kingdom: gave you a strong and prominent kingdom.  
38And wherever people, wild beasts, and birds of the sky dwell, He has given into your hand and has given you dominion over them all. You are the head of gold.   לחוּבְכָל־דִּ֣י דָֽיְרִ֣ין (כתיב דָֽאְרִ֣ין) בְּֽנֵי־אֲ֠נָשָׁא חֵיוַ֨ת בָּרָ֚א וְעֽוֹף־שְׁמַיָּא֙ יְהַ֣ב בִּידָ֔ךְ וְהַשְׁלְטָ֖ךְ בְּכָלְּה֑וֹן אַ֣נְתְּ־ (כתיב אַנְתְּה) ה֔וּא רֵאשָׁ֖ה דִּ֥י דַֽהֲבָֽא:
and has given you dominion over them all: And He gave you dominion over them all, so that even if you decree upon a horse, it will not whinny, or upon a bird, it will not fly, as it is said (Jer. 27:6): “and even the beasts of the field I have given to him to serve him.”  
You are the head of gold: You are the golden head of the image that you saw, for your kingdom is strong, and now it is in existence and is very prominent.  
39And after you will arise another kingdom lower than you, and another-a third kingdom- of copper, which will rule over the entire earth.   לטוּבַתְרָ֗ךְ תְּק֛וּם מַלְכ֥וּ אָֽחֳרִ֖י אֲרַ֣ע (כתיב אֲרַ֣עא) מִנָּ֑ךְ וּמַלְכ֨וּ תְלִיתָאָ֚ה (כתיב תְלִיתָיאָ֚) אָֽחֳרִי֙ דִּ֣י נְחָשָׁ֔א דִּ֥י תִשְׁלַ֖ט בְּכָל־אַרְעָֽא:
And after you will arise another kingdom lower than you: And after you, after the reign of your son, Belshazzar, will arise a kingdom that will take the ruling power from your seed, lower and humbler than your kingdom.  
lower: Aram. אֶרַע, lower, as silver is lower and humbler than gold, and you saw that the breast, which is after the head, was of silver; so will the kingdom of Media and Persia, which will follow the kingdom of Babylon, be humbler than the kingdom of Nebuchadnezzar.  
and another, a third kingdom: [as translated,] another.  
of copper: as strong as copper, and that is the kingdom of Alexander of Macedon.  
40And a fourth kingdom will be strong as iron, for iron crumbles and flattens everything, and like iron, which shatters all these, it will crumble and shatter.   מוּמַלְכוּ֙ רְבִ֣יעָאָ֔ה (כתיב רְבִ֣יעָיָ֔ה) תֶּֽהֱוֵ֥א תַקִּיפָ֖ה כְּפַרְזְלָ֑א כָּל־קֳבֵ֗ל דִּ֚י פַרְזְלָא֙ מְהַדֵּ֚ק וְחָשֵׁל֙ כֹּ֔לָּא וּכְפַרְזְלָ֛א דִּֽי־מְרָעַ֥ע כָּל־אִלֵּ֖ין תַּדִּ֥ק וְתֵרֹֽעַ:
And a fourth kingdom: will be as hard as iron, as you saw the thighs, which are the fourth from the head, the breast, and the belly, and they are of iron.  
crumbles and flattens everything: flattens and crumbles all kinds of metal, which are flattened with a hammer.  
and flattens: Aram. וְחָשֵּׁל, and flattens. There are many such [words] in the Talmud. Keth. 77a, “who thins copper for kettles (חַשְּׁלָא דוּדֵי) ” ; Hul. 93a: “crushed testicles (בֵּיעֵי חֳשִּׁלָתָא).”  
all these: all these kinds of metals that you saw in the image.  
it will crumble and shatter: It will crumble and shatter all the nations.  
41And what you saw, the feet and the toes-which were partly of potter's clay and partly of iron-so it will be a divided kingdom, and in it will be some of the strength of iron, in view of what you saw iron mixed with clay.   מאוְדִֽי־חֲזַ֜יְתָה רַגְלַיָּ֣א וְאֶצְבְּעָתָ֗א מִנְּהֵ֞ן (כתיב מִנְּהֵ֞ון) חֲסַ֚ף דִּֽי־פֶחָר֙ וּמִנְּהֵ֣ין (כתיב וּמִנְּהֵ֣ון) פַּרְזֶ֔ל מַלְכ֚וּ פְלִיגָה֙ תֶּֽהֱוֵ֔ה וּמִן־נִצְבְּתָ֥א דִֽי־פַרְזְלָ֖א לֶֽהֱוֵא־בָּ֑הּ כָּל־קֳבֵל֙ דִּ֣י חֲזַ֔יְתָה פַּ֨רְזְלָ֔א מְעָרַ֖ב בַּֽחֲסַ֥ף טִינָֽא:
potter’s clay: Aram. חֲסַף דִּי פֶחָר, a potter’s clay, and there are many instances of this in the Talmud (Taanith 7a): “vessels of a potter (מָאנֵי דְפַחְרָא).”  
it will be a divided kingdom: It will be a divided kingdom; two kings will rise from it at once, strong and weak, as explained below (verse 42): “part of the kingdom will be strong.”  
and in it will be some of the strength of iron: Even the weak one will be stronger than the other nations through the strength of his fellow, for they will fear him. And this is the meaning of וּמִן נִצְבְּתָא דִּי פַרְזְלָא לֶהֶוֵא בָהּ; some of the strength of the stability of iron will be in the weak king.  
in view of what you saw: in view of what you saw-iron mixed with clay.  
42And the toes of the feet were partly iron and partly clay, for part of the kingdom will be strong and part of it will be broken.   מבוְאֶצְבְּעָת֙ רַגְלַיָּ֔א מִנְּהֵ֥ין (כתיב מִנְּהֵ֥ון) פַּרְזֶ֖ל וּמִנְּהֵ֣ין (כתיב וּמִנְּהֵ֣ון) חֲסַ֑ף מִן־קְצָ֚ת מַלְכוּתָא֙ תֶּֽהֱוֵ֣ה תַקִּיפָ֔ה וּמִנָּ֖הּ תֶּֽהֱוֵ֥ה תְבִירָֽה:
43And what you saw, iron mixed with clay, [connotes] that they will mingle with the seed of men, but they will not cleave one to the other, as iron does not mix with clay.   מגוְדִ֣י (כתיב דִ֣י) חֲזַ֗יְתָ פַּרְזְלָא֙ מְעָרַב֙ בַּֽחֲסַ֣ף טִינָ֔א מִתְעָֽרְבִ֚ין לֶֽהֱו‍ֹן֙ בִּזְרַ֣ע אֲנָשָׁ֔א וְלָא־לֶֽהֱו‍ֹ֥ן דָּֽבְקִ֖ין דְּנָ֣ה עִם־דְּנָ֑ה הֵֽא־כְדִ֣י פַרְזְלָ֔א לָ֥א מִתְעָרַ֖ב עִם־חַסְפָּֽא:
that they will mingle with the seed of men: They will intermarry with the other nations but they will not be at peace and truly cleave to them wholeheartedly, and their laws will differ from the laws of the other nations.  
as iron does not mix with clay: Is it not just as iron does not stick well to clay?  
44And in the days of these kings, the God of heaven will set up a kingdom forever, it will not be destroyed, and the kingdom will not be left to another people; it will crumble and destroy all these kingdoms, and it will stand forever.   מדוּבְיֽוֹמֵיה֞וֹן דִּ֧י מַלְכַיָּ֣א אִנּ֗וּן יְקִים֩ אֱלָ֨הּ שְׁמַיָּ֚א מַלְכוּ֙ דִּ֚י לְעָֽלְמִין֙ לָ֣א תִתְחַבַּ֔ל וּמַ֨לְכוּתָ֔ה לְעַ֥ם אָֽחֳרָ֖ן לָ֣א תִשְׁתְּבִ֑ק תַּדִּ֚ק וְתָסֵף֙ כָּל־אִלֵּ֣ין מַלְכְּוָתָ֔א וְהִ֖יא תְּק֥וּם לְעָֽלְמַיָּֽא:
And in the days of these kings: in the days of these kings, when the kingdom of Rome is still in existence.  
the God Of heaven will set up a kingdom: The kingdom of the Holy One, blessed be He, which will never be destroyed, is the kingdom of the Messiah.  
it will crumble and destroy: It will crumble and destroy all these kingdoms.  
45Just as you saw that from the mountain a stone was hewn without hands, and it crumbled the iron, the copper, the clay, the silver, and the gold. The great God has let the king know what will be after this, and the dream is true, and its interpretation is reliable."   מהכָּל־קֳבֵ֣ל דִּֽי־חֲזַ֡יְתָ דִּ֣י מִטּוּרָא֩ אִתְגְּזֶ֨רֶת אֶ֜בֶן דִּי־לָ֣א בִידַ֗יִן וְ֠הַדֶּקֶת פַּרְזְלָ֨א נְחָשָׁ֚א חַסְפָּא֙ כַּסְפָּ֣א וְדַֽהֲבָ֔א אֱלָ֥הּ רַב֙ הוֹדַ֣ע לְמַלְכָּ֔א מָ֛ה דִּ֥י לֶֽהֱוֵ֖א אַֽחֲרֵ֣י דְנָ֑ה וְיַצִּ֥יב חֶלְמָ֖א וּמְהֵימַ֥ן פִּשְׁרֵֽהּ:
Just as you saw: just as you saw that a stone was broken off the mountain, which crumbled the entire image. This is the interpretation that the fifth kingdom will destroy and shatter them all.  
what will be after this: what will be after this, after this kingdom of yours.  
and its interpretation is reliable: for the Eternal of Israel neither lies nor repents.  
46Then King Nebuchadnezzar fell on his face and prostrated himself before Daniel, and he ordered to offer up a meal-offering and libations to bring him satisfaction.   מובֵּ֠אדַיִן מַלְכָּ֚א נְבֽוּכַדְנֶצַּר֙ נְפַ֣ל עַל־אַנְפּ֔וֹהִי וּלְדָֽנִיֵּ֖אל סְגִ֑ד וּמִנְחָה֙ וְנִ֣יחֹחִ֔ין אֲמַ֖ר לְנַסָּ֥כָה לֵֽהּ:
ordered to offer up… libations: He wished to deify him.  
47The king replied to Daniel and said, "Truly, your God is the God of the gods and the Master of the kings, and He reveals secrets, being that you were able to reveal this secret.   מזעָנֵה֩ מַלְכָּ֨א לְדָֽנִיֵּ֜אל וְאָמַ֗ר מִן־קְשֹׁט֙ דִּ֣י אֱלָֽהֲכ֗וֹן ה֣וּא אֱלָ֧הּ אֱלָהִ֛ין וּמָרֵ֥א מַלְכִ֖ין וְגָלֵ֣ה רָזִ֑ין דִּ֣י יְכֵ֔לְתָּ לְמִגְלֵ֖א רָזָ֥א דְנָֽה:
truly: [as translated,] in truth.  
and the Master of the kings: The Lord of lords.  
this secret: [as translated,] this secret.  
48Then the king elevated Daniel and gave him many great gifts and gave him dominion over all the capital cities of Babylon, and he was the chief prefect over all the wise men of Babylon.   מחאֱדַ֨יִן מַלְכָּ֜א לְדָֽנִיֵּ֣אל רַבִּ֗י וּמַתְּנָ֨ן רַבְרְבָ֚ן שַׂגִּיאָן֙ יְהַב־לֵ֔הּ וְהַ֨שְׁלְטֵ֔הּ עַ֖ל כָּל־מְדִינַ֣ת בָּבֶ֑ל וְרַב־סִגְנִ֔ין עַ֖ל כָּל־חַכִּימֵ֥י בָבֶֽל:
elevated Daniel: He elevated Daniel over all the princes.  
49And Daniel requested of the king, and he appointed, over the affairs of the capital cities of Babylon, Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego; and Daniel was in the king's gate.   מטוְדָֽנִיֵּאל֙ בְּעָ֣א מִן־מַלְכָּ֔א וּמַנִּ֗י עַ֚ל עֲבִֽידְתָּא֙ דִּי מְדִינַ֣ת בָּבֶ֔ל לְשַׁדְרַ֥ךְ מֵישַׁ֖ךְ וַֽעֲבֵ֣ד נְג֑וֹ וְדָֽנִיֵּ֖אל בִּתְרַ֥ע מַלְכָּֽא:
and he appointed, over the affairs of the capital cities of Babylon: He appointed, over all the necessities of the kingdom, Hananiah Mishael, and Azariah.  
 Email
The text on this page contains sacred literature. Please do not deface or discard.