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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Esther - Chapter 9

Esther - Chapter 9

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 9

1. And in the twelfth month-which is the month of Adar-on the thirteenth day thereof, when the king's order and his edict drew near to be put into execution, on the day that the Jews' enemies looked forward to ruling over them, it was reversed,the Jews should rule over their enemies.   א. וּבִשְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ הוּא חֹדֶשׁ אֲדָר בִּשְׁלוֹשָׁה עָשָׂר יוֹם בּוֹ אֲשֶׁר הִגִּיעַ דְּבַר הַמֶּלֶךְ וְדָתוֹ לְהֵעָשׂוֹת בַּיּוֹם אֲשֶׁר שִׂבְּרוּ אֹיְבֵי הַיְּהוּדִים לִשְׁלוֹט בָּהֶם וְנַהֲפוֹךְ הוּא אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁלְטוּ הַיְּהוּדִים הֵמָּה בְּשֹׂנְאֵיהֶם:
2. The Jews assembled in their cities, in all the provinces of King Ahasuerus, to lay hand on those who sought to harm them, and no one stood up before them, for their fear had fallen upon all the peoples.   ב. נִקְהֲלוּ הַיְּהוּדִים בְּעָרֵיהֶם בְּכָל מְדִינוֹת הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ לִשְׁלֹחַ יָד בִּמְבַקְשֵׁי רָעָתָם וְאִישׁ לֹא עָמַד לִפְנֵיהֶם כִּי נָפַל פַּחְדָּם עַל כָּל הָעַמִּים:
3. And all the princes of the provinces and the satraps and the governors and those that conduct the king's affairs elevated the Jews, for the fear of Mordecai fell upon them.   ג. וְכָל שָׂרֵי הַמְּדִינוֹת וְהָאֲחַשְׁדַּרְפְּנִים וְהַפַּחוֹת וְעֹשֵׂי הַמְּלָאכָה אֲשֶׁר לַמֶּלֶךְ מְנְַאִים אֶת הַיְּהוּדִים כִּי נָפַל פַּחַד מָרְדֳּכַי עֲלֵיהֶם:
and those that conduct the king’s affairs: those who were appointed to conduct the king’s affairs.  
4. For Mordecai was great in the king's house, and his fame went forth throughout all the provinces, for the man Mordecai waxed greater and greater.   ד. כִּי גָדוֹל מָרְדֳּכַי בְּבֵית הַמֶּלֶךְ וְשָׁמְעוֹ הוֹלֵךְ בְּכָל הַמְּדִינוֹת כִּי הָאִישׁ מָרְדֳּכַי הוֹלֵךְ וְגָדוֹל:
5. And the Jews smote all their enemies with the stroke of the sword and with slaying and destruction, and they did to their enemies as they wished.   ה. וַיַּכּוּ הַיְּהוּדִים בְּכָל אֹיְבֵיהֶם מַכַּת חֶרֶב וְהֶרֶג וְאַבְדָן וַיַּעֲשׂוּ בְשֹׂנְאֵיהֶם כִּרְצוֹנָם:
6. And in Shushan the capital, the Jews slew and destroyed five hundred men.   ו. וּבְשׁוּשַׁן הַבִּירָה הָרְגוּ הַיְּהוּדִים וְאַבֵּד חֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת אִישׁ:
7. And Parshandatha and Dalphon and Aspatha,   ז. וְאֵת | פַּרְשַׁנְדָּתָא וְאֵת | דַּלְפוֹן וְאֵת | אַסְפָּתָא:
8. and Poratha and Adalia and Aridatha,   ח. וְאֵת | פּוֹרָתָא וְאֵת | אֲדַלְיָא וְאֵת | אֲרִידָתָא:
9. and Parmashta and Arisai and Aridai and Vaizatha:   ט. וְאֵת | פַּרְמַשְׁתָּא וְאֵת | אֲרִיסַי וְאֵת | אֲרִידַי וְאֵת | וַיְזָתָא:
10. The ten sons of Haman the son of Hammedatha, the adversary of the Jews, they slew, but on the spoil they did not lay their hands.   י. עֲשֶׂרֶת בְּנֵי הָמָן בֶּן הַמְּדָתָא צֹרֵר הַיְּהוּדִים הָרָגוּ וּבַבִּזָּה לֹא שָׁלְחוּ אֶת יָדָם:
The ten sons of Haman: I saw in Seder Olam (ch. 29): These are the ten who wrote a [false] accusation against Judea and Jerusalem, as it is written in the Book of Ezra (4:6): “And in the reign of Ahasuerus, at the beginning of his reign, they wrote an accusation against the dwellers of Judea and Jerusalem.” Now what was the accusation? To stop those who ascended from the exile during the days of Cyrus, who had commenced to build the Temple, and the Cutheans slandered them and stopped them, and when Cyrus died, and Ahasuerus reigned, and Haman was promoted, he feared that those in Jerusalem would engage in the construction, and they sent in the name of Ahasuerus to the princes of the other side of the river to stop them.  
but on the spoil they did not lay their hands: so that the king should not cast an envious eye on their money.  
11. On that day, the number of those slain in Shushan the capital came before the king.   יא. בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא בָּא מִסְפַּר הַהֲרוּגִים בְּשׁוּשַׁן הַבִּירָה לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ:
12. And the king said to Queen Esther, "In Shushan the capital the Jews slew and destroyed five hundred men, and the ten sons of Haman; in the rest of the king's provinces what have they done! Now what is your petition, and it shall be granted you, and what is your request, and it shall be done."   יב. וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ לְאֶסְתֵּר הַמַּלְכָּה בְּשׁוּשַׁן הַבִּירָה הָרְגוּ הַיְּהוּדִים וְאַבֵּד חֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת אִישׁ וְאֵת עֲשֶׂרֶת בְּנֵי הָמָן בִּשְׁאָר מְדִינוֹת הַמֶּלֶךְ מֶה עָשׂוּ וּמַה שְּׁאֵלָתֵךְ וְיִנָּתֵן לָךְ וּמַה בַּקָּשָׁתֵךְ עוֹד וְתֵעָשׂ:
13. And Esther said, "If it please the king, let tomorrow too be granted to the Jews to do as today's decree, and let them hang Haman's ten sons on the gallows."   יג. וַתֹּאמֶר אֶסְתֵּר אִם עַל הַמֶּלֶךְ טוֹב יִנָּתֵן גַּם מָחָר לַיְּהוּדִים אֲשֶׁר בְּשׁוּשָׁן לַעֲשׂוֹת כְּדָת הַיּוֹם וְאֵת עֲשֶׂרֶת בְּנֵי הָמָן יִתְלוּ עַל הָעֵץ:
and let them hang Haman’s ten sons on the gallows: those who were slain.  
14. Now the king ordered that it be done so, and a decree was given in Shushan, and they hanged Haman's ten sons.   יד. וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ לְהֵעָשׂוֹת כֵּן וַתִּנָּתֵן דָּת בְּשׁוּשָׁן וְאֵת עֲשֶׂרֶת בְּנֵי הָמָן תָּלוּ:
and a decree was given: a statute was decreed.  
15. Now the Jews who were in Shushan assembled on the fourteenth day of Adar as well, and they slew in Shushan three hundred men, but upon the spoils they did not lay their hands.   טו. וַיִּקָּהֲלוּ הַיְּהוּדִים אֲשֶׁר בְּשׁוּשָׁן גַּם בְּיוֹם אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר לְחֹדֶשׁ אֲדָר וַיַּהַרְגוּ בְשׁוּשָׁן שְׁלשׁ מֵאוֹת אִישׁ וּבַבִּזָּה לֹא שָׁלְחוּ אֶת יָדָם:
16. And the rest of the Jews who were in the king's provinces assembled and protected themselves and had rest from their enemies and slew their foes, seventy-five thousand, but upon the spoil they did not lay their hands   טז. וּשְׁאָר הַיְּהוּדִים אֲשֶׁר בִּמְדִינוֹת הַמֶּלֶךְ נִקְהֲלוּ | וְעָמֹד עַל נַפְשָׁם וְנוֹחַ מֵאֹיְבֵיהֶם וְהָרוֹג בְּשֹׂנְאֵיהֶם חֲמִשָּׁה וְשִׁבְעִים אָלֶף וּבַבִּזָּה לֹא שָׁלְחוּ אֶת יָדָם:
17. on the thirteenth of the month of Adar, and they rested on the fourteenth thereof, and made it a day of feasting and joy.   יז. בְּיוֹם שְׁלוֹשָׁה עָשָׂר לְחֹדֶשׁ אֲדָר וְנוֹחַ בְּאַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר בּוֹ וְעָשֹׂה אֹתוֹ יוֹם מִשְׁתֶּה וְשִׂמְחָה:
18. And the Jews who were in Shushan assembled on the thirteenth thereof and on the fourteenth thereof, and rested on the fifteenth thereof, and made it a day of feasting and joy.   יח. וְהַיְּהוּדִים אֲשֶׁר בְּשׁוּשָׁן נִקְהֲלוּ בִּשְׁלוֹשָׁה עָשָׂר בּוֹ וּבְאַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר בּוֹ וְנוֹחַ בַּחֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר בּוֹ וְעָשׂה אֹתוֹ יוֹם מִשְׁתֶּה וְשִׂמְחָה:
19. Therefore, the Jewish villagers, who live in open towns, make the fourteenth day of the month of Adar [a day of] joy and feasting and a festive day, and of sending portions to one another.   יט. עַל כֵּן הַיְּהוּדִים הַפְּרָזִים (הפרוזים כתיב) הַיּשְׁבִים בְּעָרֵי הַפְּרָזוֹת עֹשִׂים אֵת יוֹם אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר לְחֹדֶשׁ אֲדָר שִׂמְחָה וּמִשְׁתֶּה וְיוֹם טוֹב וּמִשְׁלֹחַ מָנוֹת אִישׁ לְרֵעֵהוּ:
the… villagers: who do not dwell in walled cities, [celebrate] on the fourteenth, and those who dwell in walled cities [celebrate] on the fifteenth, like Shushan, and [these cities] must be surrounded [by walls] since the days of Joshua the son of Nun. So did our Sages expound and learn.  
and… sending: Heb. וּמִשְּׁלֹחַ. This is a noun, like מִשְּׁמָר, watch, מִשְּׁמָע hearing. Therefore, the “shin” is vowelized soft (without a “dagesh”).  
20. And Mordecai inscribed these things and sent letters to all the Jews who were in all the provinces of King Ahasuerus, both near and far,   כ. וַיִּכְתֹּב מָרְדֳּכַי אֶת הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה וַיִּשְׁלַח סְפָרִים אֶל כָּל הַיְּהוּדִים אֲשֶׁר בְּכָל מְדִינוֹת הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ הַקְּרוֹבִים וְהָרְחוֹקִים:
And Mordecai inscribed: this scroll, as it is. [i.e., in its present state.]  
21. to enjoin them to make the fourteenth day of the month of Adar and the fifteenth day thereof, every year,   כא. לְקַיֵּם עֲלֵיהֶם לִהְיוֹת עֹשִׂים אֵת יוֹם אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר לְחֹדֶשׁ אֲדָר וְאֵת יוֹם חֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר בּוֹ בְּכָל שָׁנָה וְשָׁנָה:
22. as the days when the Jews rested from their enemies, and the month that was reversed for them from grief to joy and from mourning to a festive day-to make them days of feasting and joy, and sending portions one to another, and gifts to the poor.   כב. כַּיָּמִים אֲשֶׁר נָחוּ בָהֶם הַיְּהוּדִים מֵאֹיְבֵיהֶם וְהַחֹדֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר נֶהְפַּךְ לָהֶם מִיָּגוֹן לְשִׂמְחָה וּמֵאֵבֶל לְיוֹם טוֹב לַעֲשׂוֹת אוֹתָם יְמֵי מִשְׁתֶּה וְשִׂמְחָה וּמִשְׁלֹחַ מָנוֹת אִישׁ לְרֵעֵהוּ וּמַתָּנוֹת לָאֶבְיֹנִים:
23. And the Jews took upon themselves what they had commenced to do and what Mordecai had written to them.   כג. וְקִבֵּל הַיְּהוּדִים אֵת אֲשֶׁר הֵחֵלּוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת וְאֵת אֲשֶׁר כָּתַב מָרְדֳּכַי אֲלֵיהֶם:
24. For Haman the son of Hammedatha the Agagite, the adversary of all the Jews, had devised to destroy the Jews, and he cast the pur-that is the lot-to terrify them and destroy them.   כד. כִּי הָמָן בֶּן הַמְּדָתָא הָאֲגָגִי צֹרֵר כָּל הַיְּהוּדִים חָשַׁב עַל הַיְּהוּדִים לְאַבְּדָם וְהִפִּיל פּוּר הוּא הַגּוֹרָל לְהֻמָּם וּלְאַבְּדָם:
For Haman the son of Hammedatha, the Agagite: devised to terrify them and destroy them.  
25. And when she came before the king, he commanded through letters that his evil device that he had devised against the Jews return upon his own head, and to destroy him and his sons on the gallows.   כה. וּבְבֹאָהּ לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ אָמַר עִם הַסֵּפֶר יָשׁוּב מַחֲשַׁבְתּוֹ הָרָעָה אֲשֶׁר חָשַׁב עַל הַיְּהוּדִים עַל רֹאשׁוֹ וְתָלוּ אֹתוֹ וְאֶת בָּנָיו עַל הָעֵץ:
And when she came: [when] Esther [came] to the king to beseech him.  
he commanded through letters: The king stated orally and commanded to write letters that his evil device return upon his own head.  
26. Therefore, they called these days Purim after the name pur; therefore, because of all the words of this letter, and what they saw concerning this matter, and what happened to them.   כו. עַל כֵּן קָרְאוּ לַיָּמִים הָאֵלֶּה פוּרִים עַל שֵׁם הַפּוּר עַל כֵּן עַל כָּל דִּבְרֵי הָאִגֶּרֶת הַזֹּאת וּמָה רָאוּ עַל כָּכָה וּמָה הִגִּיעַ אֲלֵיהֶם:
therefore, because of all the words of this letter: these days were established, and therefore it was written for future generations to know.  
and what they saw: those who did these deeds, that they did them.  
and what happened to them: What did Ahasuerus see that he used the sacred vessels, and what happened to them? That Satan came and danced among them and slew Vashti. And what did Haman see that he became envious of Mordecai, and what happened to him? They hanged him and his sons. And what did Mordecai see that he did not kneel or prostrate himself, and what did Esther see that she invited Haman?  
27. The Jews ordained and took upon themselves and upon their seed and upon all those who join them, that it is not to be revoked to make these two days according to their script and according to their appointed time, every year.   כז. קִיְּמוּ וְקִבְּלֻ הַיְּהוּדִים | עֲלֵיהֶם | וְעַל זַרְעָם וְעַל כָּל הַנִּלְוִים עֲלֵיהֶם וְלֹא יַעֲבוֹר לִהְיוֹת עֹשִׂים אֶת שְׁנֵי הַיָּמִים הָאֵלֶּה כִּכְתָבָם וְכִזְמַנָּם בְּכָל שָׁנָה וְשָׁנָה:
who join them: proselytes who were destined to convert.  
according to their script: that the Scroll [of Esther] should be written in the Ashuri script.  
28. And these days shall be remembered and celebrated throughout every generation, in every family, every province, and every city, and these days of Purim shall not be revoked from amidst the Jews, and their memory shall not cease from their seed.   כח. וְהַיָּמִים הָאֵלֶּה נִזְכָּרִים וְנַעֲשִׂים בְּכָל דּוֹר וָדוֹר מִשְׁפָּחָה וּמִשְׁפָּחָה מְדִינָה וּמְדִינָה וְעִיר וָעִיר וִימֵי הַפּוּרִים הָאֵלֶּה לֹא יַעַבְרוּ מִתּוֹךְ הַיְּהוּדִים וְזִכְרָם לֹא יָסוּף מִזַּרְעָם:
remembered: with the reading of the Scroll [of Esther].  
and celebrated: feasting and rejoicing and a festive day, to give portions [of food to friends] and gifts [to the poor].  
every family: gather together and feast and drink together, and so they took upon themselves that the Purim days would not be revoked.  
shall not cease: Heb. לֹא יָסוּף. This is the Aramaic translation of יִתֹּם, will end, for the Targum of (Deut. 2:14) “ עַד תֹּם” is עַד דְסַף, until it finished, and it is impossible to say that it is derived from the same root as (Gen. 19:15): “lest you perish (תִּסָפֶה) ,” or from the same root as (I Sam. 27:1): “Now I shall perish (אֶסָפֶה) one day,” for if that were so, Scripture should have written: לֹא יִסָפֶה מִזַרְעָם.  
29. Now, Queen Esther, the daughter of Abihail, and Mordecai the Jew wrote down all [the acts of] power, to confirm the second Purim letter.   כט. וַתִּכְתֹּב אֶסְתֵּר הַמַּלְכָּה בַת אֲבִיחַיִל וּמָרְדֳּכַי הַיְּהוּדִי אֶת כָּל תֹּקֶף לְקַיֵּם אֵת אִגֶּרֶת הַפּוּרִים הַזֹּאת הַשֵּׁנִית:
all [acts of] power: the power of the miracle of Ahasuerus, of Alaman, of Mordecai, and of Esther.  
the second: In the second year they again sent letters that they should celebrate Purim.  
30. And he sent letters to all the Jews, to one hundred twenty-seven provinces, the realm of Ahasuerus, words of peace and truth,   ל. וַיִּשְׁלַח סְפָרִים אֶל כָּל הַיְּהוּדִים אֶל שֶׁבַע וְעֶשְׂרִים וּמֵאָה מְדִינָה מַלְכוּת אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ דִּבְרֵי שָׁלוֹם וֶאֱמֶת:
31. to confirm these days of Purim in their appointed times, as Mordecai the Jew and Esther the queen had enjoined them, and as they had ordained for themselves and for their seed, the matters of the fasts and their cry.   לא. לְקַיֵּם אֵת יְמֵי הַפֻּרִים הָאֵלֶּה בִּזְמַנֵּיהֶם כַּאֲשֶׁר קִיַּם עֲלֵיהֶם מָרְדֳּכַי הַיְּהוּדִי וְאֶסְתֵּר הַמַּלְכָּה וְכַאֲשֶׁר קִיְּמוּ עַל נַפְשָׁם וְעַל זַרְעָם דִּבְרֵי הַצּוֹמוֹת וְזַעֲקָתָם:
32. Now Esther's order confirmed these matters of Purim, and it was inscribed in the book.   לב. וּמַאֲמַר אֶסְתֵּר קִיַּם דִּבְרֵי הַפֻּרִים הָאֵלֶּה וְנִכְתָּב בַּסֵּפֶר:
Now Esther’s order confirmed, etc.: Esther requested of the sages of the generation to commemorate her and to write this book with the rest of the Holy Writings, and that is the meaning of “and it was inscribed in the book.”  
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