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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Esther - Chapter 9

Esther - Chapter 9

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 9

1And in the twelfth month-which is the month of Adar-on the thirteenth day thereof, when the king's order and his edict drew near to be put into execution, on the day that the Jews' enemies looked forward to ruling over them, it was reversed,the Jews should rule over their enemies.   אוּבִשְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ הוּא חֹדֶשׁ אֲדָר בִּשְׁלוֹשָׁה עָשָׂר יוֹם בּוֹ אֲשֶׁר הִגִּיעַ דְּבַר הַמֶּלֶךְ וְדָתוֹ לְהֵעָשׂוֹת בַּיּוֹם אֲשֶׁר שִׂבְּרוּ אֹיְבֵי הַיְּהוּדִים לִשְׁלוֹט בָּהֶם וְנַהֲפוֹךְ הוּא אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁלְטוּ הַיְּהוּדִים הֵמָּה בְּשֹׂנְאֵיהֶם:
2The Jews assembled in their cities, in all the provinces of King Ahasuerus, to lay hand on those who sought to harm them, and no one stood up before them, for their fear had fallen upon all the peoples.   בנִקְהֲלוּ הַיְּהוּדִים בְּעָרֵיהֶם בְּכָל מְדִינוֹת הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ לִשְׁלֹחַ יָד בִּמְבַקְשֵׁי רָעָתָם וְאִישׁ לֹא עָמַד לִפְנֵיהֶם כִּי נָפַל פַּחְדָּם עַל כָּל הָעַמִּים:
3And all the princes of the provinces and the satraps and the governors and those that conduct the king's affairs elevated the Jews, for the fear of Mordecai fell upon them.   גוְכָל שָׂרֵי הַמְּדִינוֹת וְהָאֲחַשְׁדַּרְפְּנִים וְהַפַּחוֹת וְעֹשֵׂי הַמְּלָאכָה אֲשֶׁר לַמֶּלֶךְ מְנַשְׂאִים אֶת הַיְּהוּדִים כִּי נָפַל פַּחַד מָרְדֳּכַי עֲלֵיהֶם:
and those that conduct the king’s affairs: those who were appointed to conduct the king’s affairs.  
4For Mordecai was great in the king's house, and his fame went forth throughout all the provinces, for the man Mordecai waxed greater and greater.   דכִּי גָדוֹל מָרְדֳּכַי בְּבֵית הַמֶּלֶךְ וְשָׁמְעוֹ הוֹלֵךְ בְּכָל הַמְּדִינוֹת כִּי הָאִישׁ מָרְדֳּכַי הוֹלֵךְ וְגָדוֹל:
5And the Jews smote all their enemies with the stroke of the sword and with slaying and destruction, and they did to their enemies as they wished.   הוַיַּכּוּ הַיְּהוּדִים בְּכָל אֹיְבֵיהֶם מַכַּת חֶרֶב וְהֶרֶג וְאַבְדָן וַיַּעֲשׂוּ בְשֹׂנְאֵיהֶם כִּרְצוֹנָם:
6And in Shushan the capital, the Jews slew and destroyed five hundred men.   ווּבְשׁוּשַׁן הַבִּירָה הָרְגוּ הַיְּהוּדִים וְאַבֵּד חֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת אִישׁ:
7And Parshandatha and Dalphon and Aspatha,   זוְאֵת | פַּרְשַׁנְדָּתָא וְאֵת | דַּלְפוֹן וְאֵת | אַסְפָּתָא:
8and Poratha and Adalia and Aridatha,   חוְאֵת | פּוֹרָתָא וְאֵת | אֲדַלְיָא וְאֵת | אֲרִידָתָא:
9and Parmashta and Arisai and Aridai and Vaizatha:   טוְאֵת | פַּרְמַשְׁתָּא וְאֵת | אֲרִיסַי וְאֵת | אֲרִידַי וְאֵת | וַיְזָתָא:
10The ten sons of Haman the son of Hammedatha, the adversary of the Jews, they slew, but on the spoil they did not lay their hands.   יעֲשֶׂרֶת בְּנֵי הָמָן בֶּן הַמְּדָתָא צֹרֵר הַיְּהוּדִים הָרָגוּ וּבַבִּזָּה לֹא שָׁלְחוּ אֶת יָדָם:
The ten sons of Haman: I saw in Seder Olam (ch. 29): These are the ten who wrote a [false] accusation against Judea and Jerusalem, as it is written in the Book of Ezra (4:6): “And in the reign of Ahasuerus, at the beginning of his reign, they wrote an accusation against the dwellers of Judea and Jerusalem.” Now what was the accusation? To stop those who ascended from the exile during the days of Cyrus, who had commenced to build the Temple, and the Cutheans slandered them and stopped them, and when Cyrus died, and Ahasuerus reigned, and Haman was promoted, he feared that those in Jerusalem would engage in the construction, and they sent in the name of Ahasuerus to the princes of the other side of the river to stop them.  
but on the spoil they did not lay their hands: so that the king should not cast an envious eye on their money.  
11On that day, the number of those slain in Shushan the capital came before the king.   יאבַּיּוֹם הַהוּא בָּא מִסְפַּר הַהֲרוּגִים בְּשׁוּשַׁן הַבִּירָה לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ:
12And the king said to Queen Esther, "In Shushan the capital the Jews slew and destroyed five hundred men, and the ten sons of Haman; in the rest of the king's provinces what have they done! Now what is your petition, and it shall be granted you, and what is your request, and it shall be done."   יבוַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ לְאֶסְתֵּר הַמַּלְכָּה בְּשׁוּשַׁן הַבִּירָה הָרְגוּ הַיְּהוּדִים וְאַבֵּד חֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת אִישׁ וְאֵת עֲשֶׂרֶת בְּנֵי הָמָן בִּשְׁאָר מְדִינוֹת הַמֶּלֶךְ מֶה עָשׂוּ וּמַה שְּׁאֵלָתֵךְ וְיִנָּתֵן לָךְ וּמַה בַּקָּשָׁתֵךְ עוֹד וְתֵעָשׂ:
13And Esther said, "If it please the king, let tomorrow too be granted to the Jews to do as today's decree, and let them hang Haman's ten sons on the gallows."   יגוַתֹּאמֶר אֶסְתֵּר אִם עַל הַמֶּלֶךְ טוֹב יִנָּתֵן גַּם מָחָר לַיְּהוּדִים אֲשֶׁר בְּשׁוּשָׁן לַעֲשׂוֹת כְּדָת הַיּוֹם וְאֵת עֲשֶׂרֶת בְּנֵי הָמָן יִתְלוּ עַל הָעֵץ:
and let them hang Haman’s ten sons on the gallows: those who were slain.  
14Now the king ordered that it be done so, and a decree was given in Shushan, and they hanged Haman's ten sons.   ידוַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ לְהֵעָשׂוֹת כֵּן וַתִּנָּתֵן דָּת בְּשׁוּשָׁן וְאֵת עֲשֶׂרֶת בְּנֵי הָמָן תָּלוּ:
and a decree was given: a statute was decreed.  
15Now the Jews who were in Shushan assembled on the fourteenth day of Adar as well, and they slew in Shushan three hundred men, but upon the spoils they did not lay their hands.   טווַיִּקָּהֲלוּ הַיְּהוּדִים (כתיב היהודיים) אֲשֶׁר בְּשׁוּשָׁן גַּם בְּיוֹם אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר לְחֹדֶשׁ אֲדָר וַיַּהַרְגוּ בְשׁוּשָׁן שְׁלשׁ מֵאוֹת אִישׁ וּבַבִּזָּה לֹא שָׁלְחוּ אֶת יָדָם:
16And the rest of the Jews who were in the king's provinces assembled and protected themselves and had rest from their enemies and slew their foes, seventy-five thousand, but upon the spoil they did not lay their hands   טזוּשְׁאָר הַיְּהוּדִים אֲשֶׁר בִּמְדִינוֹת הַמֶּלֶךְ נִקְהֲלוּ | וְעָמֹד עַל נַפְשָׁם וְנוֹחַ מֵאֹיְבֵיהֶם וְהָרוֹג בְּשֹׂנְאֵיהֶם חֲמִשָּׁה וְשִׁבְעִים אָלֶף וּבַבִּזָּה לֹא שָׁלְחוּ אֶת יָדָם:
17on the thirteenth of the month of Adar, and they rested on the fourteenth thereof, and made it a day of feasting and joy.   יזבְּיוֹם שְׁלוֹשָׁה עָשָׂר לְחֹדֶשׁ אֲדָר וְנוֹחַ בְּאַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר בּוֹ וְעָשֹׂה אֹתוֹ יוֹם מִשְׁתֶּה וְשִׂמְחָה:
18And the Jews who were in Shushan assembled on the thirteenth thereof and on the fourteenth thereof, and rested on the fifteenth thereof, and made it a day of feasting and joy.   יחוְהַיְּהוּדִים (כתיב והיהודיים) אֲשֶׁר בְּשׁוּשָׁן נִקְהֲלוּ בִּשְׁלוֹשָׁה עָשָׂר בּוֹ וּבְאַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר בּוֹ וְנוֹחַ בַּחֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר בּוֹ וְעָשׂה אֹתוֹ יוֹם מִשְׁתֶּה וְשִׂמְחָה:
19Therefore, the Jewish villagers, who live in open towns, make the fourteenth day of the month of Adar [a day of] joy and feasting and a festive day, and of sending portions to one another.   יטעַל כֵּן הַיְּהוּדִים הַפְּרָזִים (הפרוזים כתיב) הַיּשְׁבִים בְּעָרֵי הַפְּרָזוֹת עֹשִׂים אֵת יוֹם אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר לְחֹדֶשׁ אֲדָר שִׂמְחָה וּמִשְׁתֶּה וְיוֹם טוֹב וּמִשְׁלֹחַ מָנוֹת אִישׁ לְרֵעֵהוּ:
the… villagers: who do not dwell in walled cities, [celebrate] on the fourteenth, and those who dwell in walled cities [celebrate] on the fifteenth, like Shushan, and [these cities] must be surrounded [by walls] since the days of Joshua the son of Nun. So did our Sages expound and learn.  
and… sending: Heb. וּמִשְּׁלֹחַ. This is a noun, like מִשְּׁמָר, watch, מִשְּׁמָע hearing. Therefore, the “shin” is vowelized soft (without a “dagesh”).  
20And Mordecai inscribed these things and sent letters to all the Jews who were in all the provinces of King Ahasuerus, both near and far,   כוַיִּכְתֹּב מָרְדֳּכַי אֶת הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה וַיִּשְׁלַח סְפָרִים אֶל כָּל הַיְּהוּדִים אֲשֶׁר בְּכָל מְדִינוֹת הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ הַקְּרוֹבִים וְהָרְחוֹקִים:
And Mordecai inscribed: this scroll, as it is. [i.e., in its present state.]  
21to enjoin them to make the fourteenth day of the month of Adar and the fifteenth day thereof, every year,   כאלְקַיֵּם עֲלֵיהֶם לִהְיוֹת עֹשִׂים אֵת יוֹם אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר לְחֹדֶשׁ אֲדָר וְאֵת יוֹם חֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר בּוֹ בְּכָל שָׁנָה וְשָׁנָה:
22as the days when the Jews rested from their enemies, and the month that was reversed for them from grief to joy and from mourning to a festive day-to make them days of feasting and joy, and sending portions one to another, and gifts to the poor.   כבכַּיָּמִים אֲשֶׁר נָחוּ בָהֶם הַיְּהוּדִים מֵאֹיְבֵיהֶם וְהַחֹדֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר נֶהְפַּךְ לָהֶם מִיָּגוֹן לְשִׂמְחָה וּמֵאֵבֶל לְיוֹם טוֹב לַעֲשׂוֹת אוֹתָם יְמֵי מִשְׁתֶּה וְשִׂמְחָה וּמִשְׁלֹחַ מָנוֹת אִישׁ לְרֵעֵהוּ וּמַתָּנוֹת לָאֶבְיֹנִים:
23And the Jews took upon themselves what they had commenced to do and what Mordecai had written to them.   כגוְקִבֵּל הַיְּהוּדִים אֵת אֲשֶׁר הֵחֵלּוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת וְאֵת אֲשֶׁר כָּתַב מָרְדֳּכַי אֲלֵיהֶם:
24For Haman the son of Hammedatha the Agagite, the adversary of all the Jews, had devised to destroy the Jews, and he cast the pur-that is the lot-to terrify them and destroy them.   כדכִּי הָמָן בֶּן הַמְּדָתָא הָאֲגָגִי צֹרֵר כָּל הַיְּהוּדִים חָשַׁב עַל הַיְּהוּדִים לְאַבְּדָם וְהִפִּיל פּוּר הוּא הַגּוֹרָל לְהֻמָּם וּלְאַבְּדָם:
For Haman the son of Hammedatha, the Agagite: devised to terrify them and destroy them.  
25And when she came before the king, he commanded through letters that his evil device that he had devised against the Jews return upon his own head, and to destroy him and his sons on the gallows.   כהוּבְבֹאָהּ לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ אָמַר עִם הַסֵּפֶר יָשׁוּב מַחֲשַׁבְתּוֹ הָרָעָה אֲשֶׁר חָשַׁב עַל הַיְּהוּדִים עַל רֹאשׁוֹ וְתָלוּ אֹתוֹ וְאֶת בָּנָיו עַל הָעֵץ:
And when she came: [when] Esther [came] to the king to beseech him.  
he commanded through letters: The king stated orally and commanded to write letters that his evil device return upon his own head.  
26Therefore, they called these days Purim after the name pur; therefore, because of all the words of this letter, and what they saw concerning this matter, and what happened to them.   כועַל כֵּן קָרְאוּ לַיָּמִים הָאֵלֶּה פוּרִים עַל שֵׁם הַפּוּר עַל כֵּן עַל כָּל דִּבְרֵי הָאִגֶּרֶת הַזֹּאת וּמָה רָאוּ עַל כָּכָה וּמָה הִגִּיעַ אֲלֵיהֶם:
therefore, because of all the words of this letter: these days were established, and therefore it was written for future generations to know.  
and what they saw: those who did these deeds, that they did them.  
and what happened to them: What did Ahasuerus see that he used the sacred vessels, and what happened to them? That Satan came and danced among them and slew Vashti. And what did Haman see that he became envious of Mordecai, and what happened to him? They hanged him and his sons. And what did Mordecai see that he did not kneel or prostrate himself, and what did Esther see that she invited Haman?  
27The Jews ordained and took upon themselves and upon their seed and upon all those who join them, that it is not to be revoked to make these two days according to their script and according to their appointed time, every year.   כזקִיְּמוּ וְקִבְּלֻ הַיְּהוּדִים | עֲלֵיהֶם | וְעַל זַרְעָם וְעַל כָּל הַנִּלְוִים עֲלֵיהֶם וְלֹא יַעֲבוֹר לִהְיוֹת עֹשִׂים אֶת שְׁנֵי הַיָּמִים הָאֵלֶּה כִּכְתָבָם וְכִזְמַנָּם בְּכָל שָׁנָה וְשָׁנָה:
who join them: proselytes who were destined to convert.  
according to their script: that the Scroll [of Esther] should be written in the Ashuri script.  
28And these days shall be remembered and celebrated throughout every generation, in every family, every province, and every city, and these days of Purim shall not be revoked from amidst the Jews, and their memory shall not cease from their seed.   כחוְהַיָּמִים הָאֵלֶּה נִזְכָּרִים וְנַעֲשִׂים בְּכָל דּוֹר וָדוֹר מִשְׁפָּחָה וּמִשְׁפָּחָה מְדִינָה וּמְדִינָה וְעִיר וָעִיר וִימֵי הַפּוּרִים הָאֵלֶּה לֹא יַעַבְרוּ מִתּוֹךְ הַיְּהוּדִים וְזִכְרָם לֹא יָסוּף מִזַּרְעָם:
remembered: with the reading of the Scroll [of Esther].  
and celebrated: feasting and rejoicing and a festive day, to give portions [of food to friends] and gifts [to the poor].  
every family: gather together and feast and drink together, and so they took upon themselves that the Purim days would not be revoked.  
shall not cease: Heb. לֹא יָסוּף. This is the Aramaic translation of יִתֹּם, will end, for the Targum of (Deut. 2:14) “ עַד תֹּם” is עַד דְסַף, until it finished, and it is impossible to say that it is derived from the same root as (Gen. 19:15): “lest you perish (תִּסָפֶה) ,” or from the same root as (I Sam. 27:1): “Now I shall perish (אֶסָפֶה) one day,” for if that were so, Scripture should have written: לֹא יִסָפֶה מִזַרְעָם.  
29Now, Queen Esther, the daughter of Abihail, and Mordecai the Jew wrote down all [the acts of] power, to confirm the second Purim letter.   כטוַתִּכְתֹּב (ת רבתי) אֶסְתֵּר הַמַּלְכָּה בַת אֲבִיחַיִל וּמָרְדֳּכַי הַיְּהוּדִי אֶת כָּל תֹּקֶף לְקַיֵּם אֵת אִגֶּרֶת הַפּוּרִים הַזֹּאת הַשֵּׁנִית:
all [acts of] power: the power of the miracle of Ahasuerus, of Alaman, of Mordecai, and of Esther.  
the second: In the second year they again sent letters that they should celebrate Purim.  
30And he sent letters to all the Jews, to one hundred twenty-seven provinces, the realm of Ahasuerus, words of peace and truth,   לוַיִּשְׁלַח סְפָרִים אֶל כָּל הַיְּהוּדִים אֶל שֶׁבַע וְעֶשְׂרִים וּמֵאָה מְדִינָה מַלְכוּת אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ דִּבְרֵי שָׁלוֹם וֶאֱמֶת:
31to confirm these days of Purim in their appointed times, as Mordecai the Jew and Esther the queen had enjoined them, and as they had ordained for themselves and for their seed, the matters of the fasts and their cry.   לאלְקַיֵּם אֵת יְמֵי הַפֻּרִים הָאֵלֶּה בִּזְמַנֵּיהֶם כַּאֲשֶׁר קִיַּם עֲלֵיהֶם מָרְדֳּכַי הַיְּהוּדִי וְאֶסְתֵּר הַמַּלְכָּה וְכַאֲשֶׁר קִיְּמוּ עַל נַפְשָׁם וְעַל זַרְעָם דִּבְרֵי הַצּוֹמוֹת וְזַעֲקָתָם:
32Now Esther's order confirmed these matters of Purim, and it was inscribed in the book.   לבוּמַאֲמַר אֶסְתֵּר קִיַּם דִּבְרֵי הַפֻּרִים הָאֵלֶּה וְנִכְתָּב בַּסֵּפֶר:
Now Esther’s order confirmed, etc.: Esther requested of the sages of the generation to commemorate her and to write this book with the rest of the Holy Writings, and that is the meaning of “and it was inscribed in the book.”  
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