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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Rut - Ruth - Chapter 3

Rut - Ruth - Chapter 3

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 3

1. And Naomi her mother-in-law said to her, "My daughter, shall I not seek rest for you, that it be good for you?   א. וַתֹּאמֶר לָהּ נָעֳמִי חֲמוֹתָהּ בִּתִּי הֲלֹא אֲבַקֶּשׁ לָךְ מָנוֹחַ אֲשֶׁר יִיטַב לָךְ:
2. And now, is not Boaz our kinsman, with whose maidens you were? Behold, he is winnowing the threshing-floor of the barley tonight.   ב. וְעַתָּה הֲלֹא בֹעַז מֹדַעְתָּנוּ אֲשֶׁר הָיִית אֶת נַעֲרוֹתָיו הִנֵּה הוּא זֹרֶה אֶת גֹּרֶן הַשְּׂעֹרִים הַלָּיְלָה:
our kinsman: Heb. מוֹדַעְתָּנוּ our kinsman.  
is winnowing: the chaff, vanner in French.  
tonight: because the generation was unrestrained in theft and robbery; and he would sleep in his threshing-floor to guard his threshing-floor.  
3. And you shall bathe and anoint yourself and put on your clothes and go down to the threshing-floor; do not make yourself known to the man until he has finished eating and drinking.   ג. וְרָחַצְתְּ | וָסַכְתְּ וְשַׂמְתְּי שִׂמְלֹתַ שִׂמְלֹתַיִךְ עָלַיִךְ וְיָרַדְתְּי הַגֹּרֶן אַל תִּוָּדְעִי לָאִישׁ עַד כַּלֹּתוֹ לֶאֱכֹל וְלִשְׁתּוֹת:
and you shall bathe: from the contamination of idolatry.  
and anoint yourself: These are the commandments.  
and put on your clothes: Sabbath garments.  
and go down to the threshing-floor: Heb. וְיָרַדְתְּ. It is written וְיָרַדְתִּי [and I will go down]; my merit will go down with you.  
do not make yourself known to man: to Boaz.  
4. And it shall be when he lies down, that you shall know where he will lie, and you shall come and uncover his feet and lie down, and he will tell you what you shall do. "   ד. וִיהִי בְשָׁכְבוֹ וְיָדַעַתְּ אֶת הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁכַּב שָׁם וּבָאת וְגִלִּית מַרְגְּלֹתָיו וְשָׁכָבְתְּ וְהוּא יַגִּיד לָךְ אֵת אֲשֶׁר תַּעֲשִׂין:
5. And she said to her, "All that you say to me I will do."   ה. וַתֹּאמֶר אֵלֶיהָ כֹּל אֲשֶׁר תֹּאמְרִי אֵלַי אֶעֱשֶׂה:
6. And she went down to the threshing-floor, and she did all that her mother-in-law had charged her.   ו. וַתֵּרֶד הַגֹּרֶן וַתַּעַשׂ כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר צִוַּתָּה חֲמוֹתָהּ:
And she went down to the threshing-floor, and she did: She said to her, “And you shall bathe and anoint yourself and get dressed and then you will go down to the threshing-floor,” but she did not do so, but she said, “If I go down when I am dressed up, whoever meets me or sees me will say that I am a harlot.” She therefore first went down to the threshing-floor and afterwards adorned herself, as her mother-in- law had charged her.  
7. And Boaz ate and drank, and his heart was merry, and he went to lie at the edge of the stack, and she came softly and uncovered his feet and lay down.   ז. וַיֹּאכַל בֹּעַז וַיֵּשְׁתְּ וַיִּיטַב לִבּוֹ וַיָּבֹא לִשְׁכַּב בִּקְצֵה הָעֲרֵמָה וַתָּבֹא בַלָּט וַתְּגַל מַרְגְּלֹתָיו וַתִּשְׁכָּב:
and his heart was merry: He engaged in the Torah.  
and she came softly: Heb. בַלָט silently.  
8. And it came to pass at midnight, and the man quaked and was taken around, and behold a woman was lying at his feet.   ח. וַיְהִי בַּחֲצִי הַלַּיְלָה וַיֶּחֱרַד הָאִישׁ וַיִּלָּפֵת וְהִנֵּה אִשָּׁה שֹׁכֶבֶת מַרְגְּלֹתָיו:
and the man quaked: He thought it was a demon and attempted to scream, but she held him and enveloped him with her arms.  
and was taken around: Heb. וַיִלָפֵת, and he was seized, like (Jud. 16:29): “And Samson seized (וַיִלָפֹת). ”  
and behold a woman: He placed his hand on her head and recognized that she was a woman.  
9. And he said, "Who are you? " And she said, "I am Ruth, your handmaid, and you shall spread your skirt over your handmaid, for you are a near kinsman."   ט. וַיֹּאמֶר מִי אָתְּ וַתֹּאמֶר אָנֹכִי רוּת אֲמָתֶךָ וּפָרַשְׂתָּ כְנָפֶךָ עַל אֲמָתְךָ כִּי גֹאֵל אָתָּה:
and you shall spread your skirt: the skirt of your garments to cover me with your cloak, and this is a term connoting marriage.  
for you are a near kinsman: to redeem my husband’s estate, as it is written (Lev. 25: 25): “then his near kinsman who is closest to him shall come and redeem, etc.” My mother-in-law and I must sell our estate, and now it is incumbent upon you to buy [it]. Acquire me also, along with it, so that the name of the deceased be remembered on his estate. When I come to the field, they will say: This is Mahlon’s wife.  
10. And he said, "May you be blessed of the Lord, my daughter; your latest act of kindness is greater than the first, not to follow the young men, whether poor or rich.   י. וַיֹּאמֶר בְּרוּכָה אַתְּ לַיהֹוָה בִּתִּי הֵיטַבְתְּ חַסְדֵּךְ הָאַחֲרוֹן מִן הָרִאשׁוֹן לְבִלְתִּי לֶכֶת אַחֲרֵי הַבַּחוּרִים אִם דַּל וְאִם עָשִׁיר:
than the first: that you did with your mother-in-law.  
11. And now, my daughter, do not fear, all that you say I will do for you, for the entire gate of my people know that you are a valiant woman.   יא. וְעַתָּה בִּתִּי אַל תִּירְאִי כֹּל אֲשֶׁר תֹּאמְרִי אֶעֱשֶׂה לָּךְ כִּי יוֹדֵעַ כָּל שַׁעַר עַמִּי כִּי אֵשֶׁת חַיִל אָתְּ:
12. And now, indeed, I am a near kinsman, but there is a kinsman closer than I.   יב. וְעַתָּה כִּי אָמְנָם כִּי גֹאֵל אָנֹכִי וְגַם יֵשׁ גֹּאֵל קָרוֹב מִמֶּנִּי:
And now indeed: “If” is written but it is not read, i.e., it conveys the idea of doubt. There is surely a redeemer closer than I. (Other editions: כִּי אִם means a doubt, but it is certain.) Said Rabbi Joshua the son of Levi: Salmon, Elimelech, and Tov were brothers. Now what is the meaning of “that belonged to our brother, to Elimelech” ? A person always calls his uncle his brother, as is stated (Gen. 14: 14): “And Abram heard that his brother was captured.” Now was not Abraham his (Lot’s) uncle? Similarly, Boaz was Elimelech’s nephew, a kinsman of Mahlon, but Tov was closer.  
closer than I: for he is a brother, and I am a nephew.  
13. Stay over tonight, and it will come to pass in the morning, that if he redeem you, well, let him redeem you, but if he does not wish to redeem you, I will redeem you, as the Lord lives; lie down until morning."   יג. לִינִי | הַלַּיְלָה וְהָיָה בַבֹּקֶר אִם יִגְאָלֵךְ טוֹב יִגְאָל וְאִם לֹא יַחְפֹּץ לְגָאֳלֵךְ וּגְאַלְתִּיךְ אָנֹכִי חַי יְהֹוָה שִׁכְבִי עַד הַבֹּקֶר:
Stay over tonight: stay over without a husband.  
as the Lord lives: She said to him, “You are dismissing me with words.” He jumped up and swore to her that he would not dismiss her with words. Some of our Rabbis said: He swore to his evil inclination, for his evil inclination was contending with him, “You are single, and she is single; be intimate with her” ; so he swore that he would be intimate with her only in marriage.  
14. And she lay at his feet until morning, and she rose before one could recognize his fellow, for he said, "Let it not be known that the woman came to the threshing-floor."   יד. וַתִּשְׁכַּב מַרְגְּלוֹתָו עַד הַבֹּקֶר וַתָּקָם בְּטֶרֶם יַכִּיר אִישׁ אֶת רֵעֵהוּ וַיֹּאמֶר אַל יִוָּדַע כִּי בָאָה הָאִשָּׁה הַגֹּרֶן:
for he said, “Let it not be known: This refers back to ” and she rose before one could recognize.“ He rushed her to get up because he said in his heart, ” It does not befit my honor that it should be known that the woman came to the threshing floor."  
15. And he said, "Ready the shawl you are wearing and hold it," and she held it, and he measured out six barleys and placed [them] upon her, and he came to the city.   טו. וַיֹּאמֶר הָבִי הַמִּטְפַּחַת אֲשֶׁר עָלַיִךְ וְאֶחֳזִי בָהּ וַתֹּאחֶז בָּהּ וַיָּמָד שֵׁשׁ שְׂעֹרִים וַיָּשֶׁת עָלֶיהָ וַיָּבֹא הָעִיר:
six barleys: It is impossible to say six seah, because it is not customary for a woman to carry such a load; it refers literally to six barleycorns, and he hinted to her that a son who would be blessed with six blessings was destined to emerge from her. [The blessings are:] (Isa. 11:2): “a spirit of wisdom and understanding, counsel and heroism, a spirit of knowledge and fear of the Lord,” [referring to the King Messiah].  
16. And she came to her mother-in-law, and she said, "Who are you, my daughter?" And she told her all that the man had done to her.   טז. וַתָּבוֹא אֶל חֲמוֹתָהּ וַתֹּאמֶר מִי אַתְּ בִּתִּי וַתַּגֶּד לָהּ אֵת כָּל אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה לָהּ הָאִישׁ:
17. And she said, "He gave me these six barleys, for he said to me: Do not come empty-handed to your mother-in-law."   יז. וַתֹּאמֶר שֵׁשׁ הַשְּׂעֹרִים הָאֵלֶּה נָתַן לִי כִּי אָמַר אֵלַי אַל תָּבוֹאִי רֵיקָם אֶל חֲמוֹתֵךְ:
18. And she said, "Sit still, my daughter, until you know how the matter will fall, for the man will not rest until he has resolved the matter today."   יח. וַתֹּאמֶר שְׁבִי בִתִּי עַד אֲשֶׁר תֵּדְעִין אֵיךְ יִפֹּל דָּבָר כִּי לֹא יִשְׁקֹט הָאִישׁ כִּי אִם כִּלָּה הַדָּבָר הַיּוֹם:
until he has resolved: [i. e., until] the man [has resolved] the matter today.  
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