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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Iyov - Job - Chapter 14

Iyov - Job - Chapter 14

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 14

1. Man, born of woman, short of days and full of fear.   א. אָדָם יְלוּד אִשָּׁה קְצַר יָמִים וּשְׂבַע רֹגֶז:
2. As a blossom, he emerges and is cut off; he flees like a shadow and does not stand.   ב. כְּצִיץ יָצָא וַיִּמָּל וַיִּבְרַח כַּצֵּל וְלֹא יַעֲמוֹד:
3. Do You open Your eyes also on this one and bring me into judgment with You?   ג. אַף עַל זֶה פָּקַחְתָּ עֵינֶךָ וְאֹתִי תָבִיא בְמִשְׁפָּט עִמָּךְ:
also on this one: [creature of] futility that decays have You opened Your eyes to be exact with his sins, and You bring me into judgment for my iniquities?  
4. Who can bring a clean thing out of an unclean one? Not one.   ד. מִי יִתֵּן טָהוֹר מִטָּמֵא לֹא אֶחָד:
Who can bring a clean thing: from a putrid drop, and semen, which is unclean? Not one of them is clean, that he should not sin.  
5. If his days are limited, and the number of his months is with You, You set his bounds and he cannot cross.   ה. אִם חֲרוּצִים | יָמָיו מִסְפַּר חֳדָשָׁיו אִתָּךְ חֻקָּיו עָשִׂיתָ וְלֹא יַעֲבֹר:
If his days are limited: If he is requited with this recompense-that his days are limited to a day set for death, and the number of months is set with You, and [that] You set this boundary-and he will no longer exist in the world, [then] this payment is sufficient for You.  
6. Turn away from him that he may rest, until, like a hireling, he desires his day.   ו. שְׁעֵה מֵעָלָיו וְיֶחְדָּל עַד יִרְצֶה כְּשָׂכִיר יוֹמוֹ:
Turn away from him: during those few limited days and let him rest from pain until he desires, in his old age and the weakness of his strength, the day of his death like a hireling who desires the completion of his day’s work; for his passing from the world is decided and more definite than all passings.  
7. For a tree has hope; if it is cut it will again renew itself, and its bough will not cease.   ז. כִּי יֵשׁ לָעֵץ תִּקְוָה אִם יִכָּרֵת וְעוֹד יַחֲלִיף וְיֹנַקְתּוֹ לֹא תֶחְדָּל:
a tree has: This [tree] has hope that it will renew itself and its bough will not cease from being a branch.  
8. If its root ages in the earth, and in the dust its trunk dies,   ח. אִם יַזְקִין בָּאָרֶץ שָׁרְשׁוֹ וּבֶעָפָר יָמוּת גִּזְעוֹ:
9. from the smell of water it will blossom, and it will produce a branch like a sapling.   ט. מֵרֵיחַ מַיִם יַפְרִחַ וְעָשָׂה קָצִיר כְּמוֹ נָטַע:
and it will produce a branch: Heb. קציר. This is a branch, as (Ps. 80:12), “She sent out her boughs (קצירה) to the sea.”  
a sapling: Heb. נטע. This is a noun. It is accented on the first syllable, and is punctuated completely with a “kamatz” because it is the end of the verse, but it is derived from נֶטַע, a sapling.  
10. But a man will die and he is weakened; man perishes and where is he?   י. וְגֶבֶר יָמוּת וַיֶּחֱלָשׁ וַיִּגְוַע אָדָם וְאַיּוֹ:
11. As the waters fail from the sea, and the river is drained dry.   יא. אָזְלוּ מַיִם מִנִּי יָם וְנָהָר יֶחֱרַב וְיָבֵשׁ:
As the waters fail from the sea: From the place whence the river comes and emerges, from its source that comes to it from the sea. [Alternative explanation of Rashi: From the place whence the river comes, and they went away from its source (from) which (the water) comes to it.]  
and the river: that comes from there is drained dry forever. So does a man lie down and not rise.  
12. So does a man lie down and not rise; until the heavens are no more, they will not awaken, nor will they be aroused from their sleep.   יב. וְאִישׁ שָׁכַב וְלֹא יָקוּם עַד בִּלְתִּי שָׁמַיִם לֹא יָקִיצוּ וְלֹא יֵעֹרוּ מִשְּׁנָתָם:
13. Would that You hide me in the grave, that You would keep me secret, until Your wrath has subsided; give me a set time and remember me.   יג. מִי יִתֵּן | בִּשְׁאוֹל תַּצְפִּנֵנִי תַּסְתִּירֵנִי עַד שׁוּב אַפֶּךָ תָּשִׁית לִי חֹק וְתִזְכְּרֵנִי:
14. If a man dies, will he live? All the days of my lifespan, I will hope, until the coming of my passing.   יד. אִם יָמוּת גֶּבֶר הֲיִחְיֶה כָּל יְמֵי צְבָאִי אֲיַחֵל עַד בּוֹא חֲלִיפָתִי:
All the days of my lifespan, I will hope: for life.  
15. Call and I will answer You; You desire the work of Your hands.   טו. תִּקְרָא וְאָנֹכִי אֶעֱנֶךָּ לְמַעֲשֵׂה יָדֶיךָ תִכְסֹף:
Call: This is a supplication. Call to me and I will answer you to prove my case.  
You desire: Heb. תִכְסֹף, You desire.  
16. But now, You count my steps; You do not wait for my sin.   טז. כִּי עַתָּה צְעָדַי תִּסְפּוֹר לֹא תִשְׁמוֹר עַל חַטָּאתִי:
But now: You are harming me.  
my steps: You are counting.  
You do not wait: Heb. תשמר. You do not wait for my sin to requite me, as (Gen. 37:11), “but his father awaited (שמר) the matter,” and in the language of the Mishnah (Sanh. 63b): “A person may not say to his companion, ‘Wait (שמר) for me beside such and such a pagan deity.’” [It is] an expression of waiting.  
17. My transgression is sealed up in a bundle, and You have attached Yourself to my iniquity.   יז. חָתֻם בִּצְרוֹר פִּשְׁעִי וַתִּטְפֹּל עַל עֲו‍ֹנִי:
sealed up in a bundle: Sealed and preserved in a cloth bundle like silver and pearls, lest it be lost.  
and You have attached Yourself to my iniquity: Heb. ותטפל, You have attached Yourself to my iniquity.  
18. And surely the falling mountain gives forth produce and the rock that moves from its place.   יח. וְאוּלָם הַר נוֹפֵל יִבּוֹל וְצוּר יֶעְתַּק מִמְּקֹמוֹ:
And surely the falling mountain gives forth produce: The height of a falling mountain will give forth produce. It will produce dust, and there will be hope of deriving benefit from it.  
and the rock: that moves from its place will also give forth produce. This is an expression of grain.  
19. Stones [which] the water eroded; it washes away into dust its aftergrowth, but the hope of man You have destroyed.   יט. אֲבָנִים | שָׁחֲקוּ מַיִם תִּשְׁטֹף סְפִיחֶיהָ עֲפַר אָרֶץ וְתִקְוַת אֱנוֹשׁ הֶאֱבָדְתָּ:
Stones: which  
the water eroded: by constantly passing over them.  
it washes away: i.e., the flood.  
its aftergrowth: of the stone, to be transformed into dust so that something should grow in it. As the aftergrowths of the harvest grow, so will the aftergrowths of this earth be transformed to stone.  
but the hope of man: is not so, because as soon as he dies, it is lost forever.  
20. You overpower him to eternity and he goes away, [You] change his countenance and You send him away.   כ. תִּתְקְפֵהוּ לָנֶצַח וַיַּהֲלֹךְ מְשַׁנֶּה פָנָיו וַתְּשַׁלְּחֵהוּ:
You overpower him: You are stronger than he; You overcome him with Your power, and he goes away from the world.  
21. His sons become wealthy but he does not know it; and they become poor but he does not understand.   כא. יִכְבְּדוּ בָנָיו וְלֹא יֵדָע וְיִצְעֲרוּ וְלֹא יָבִין לָמוֹ:
become wealthy: Heb. יכבדו, lit. they will become heavy. They will become heavy with silver and gold, but he will not know.  
and they become poor: And they have little of any good, but he will not understand it.  
22. But his flesh causes him pain, and his soul mourns for him."   כב. אַךְ בְּשָׂרוֹ עָלָיו יִכְאָב וְנַפְשׁוֹ עָלָיו תֶּאֱבָל:
But his flesh causes him pain: A worm is as painful to the dead as a needle in the flesh of the living.  
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