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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Iyov - Job - Chapter 3

Iyov - Job - Chapter 3

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 3

1. Now Job raised his voice and said,   א. וַיַּעַן אִיּוֹב וַיֹּאמַר:
Now Job raised his voice: Heb. ויען, he cried out, for every expression of עניה in the Torah is only an expression of raising the voice, and the “father” of them all is (Deut. 27:14): “The Levites shall raise their voices (וענו) etc. with a loud voice.”  
2. "Would the day in which I was to be born be lost, and the night when one said, 'A man has impregnated.'   ב. יֹאבַד יוֹם אִוָּלֶד בּוֹ וְהַלַּיְלָה אָמַר הֹרָה גָבֶר:
in which I was to be born: This is a future expression, that he was saying, “Would that the day in which I was destined to be born be lost, and then I would not have been born.”  
and the night: That too should have been lost.  
when one said: that the reporter, upon whom it was incumbent [to report] would say.  
“A man has impregnated.”: That my father impregnated my mother. Concerning a female, it is customary to say הרתה, she conceived, and concerning a male, it is customary to say, הורה, he impregnated the female.  
and the night when one said: This is one of the places where Scripture abbreviates its words because it is unnecessary to explain who [the subject] is, and the expression means, “the sayer said.” [Similar to this is (Amos. 6:12), “Will horses run on the rock, or will one plow with cattle?” He should have said, “Will a man plow with cattle?”] However, our Sages said, “The angel appointed over conception is named Laylah.”  
3. May that day be dark; let God not seek it from above, and let no light shine upon it.   ג. הַיּוֹם הַהוּא יְהִי חשֶׁךְ אַל יִדְרְשֵׁהוּ אֱלוֹהַּ מִמָּעַל וְאַל תּוֹפַע עָלָיו נְהָרָה:
May that day be dark: constantly; every year, when that day arrives.  
let God not seek it from above: for good.  
and let no light shine upon it: Heb. נהרה,light, like צהר, which is translated נהור.  
4. May darkness and the shadow of death defile it; let pitch darkness dwell upon it; let them frighten it like demons of the day.   ד. יִגְאָלֻהוּ חשֶׁךְ וְצַלְמָוֶת תִּשְׁכָּן עָלָיו עֲנָנָה יְבַעֲתֻהוּ כִּמְרִירֵי יוֹם:
defile it: Heb. יגאלהו, like (Malachi 1:7), “defiled (מגאל) bread”; “How have we defiled You (גאלנוך) ?” an expression of contamination.  
the shadow of death: Heb. צלמות, the shadow of death, darkness that never lights up.  
like demons of the day: Heb. כמרירי, demons who rule at noon, like (Deut. 32:34), “Ketev Meriri,” who rules at noon; as it is stated (Ps. 91:6): “from Ketev, who rules at noontime.”  
5. That night-may pitch darkness take it; it shall not rejoice among the days of the year; in the number of months it shall not come.   ה. הַלַּיְלָה הַהוּא יִקָּחֵהוּ אֹפֶל אַל יִחַדְּ בִּימֵי שָׁנָה בְּמִסְפַּר יְרָחִים אַל יָבֹא:
it shall not rejoice among the days: Heb. אל יחד, it shall not rejoice, as in (Exod. 18:9), “And Jethro rejoiced (וַיִחַד).” (Another explanation is: It shall not join. This does not appear in certain editions.)  
6. Behold that night shall be lonely; no joyful singing shall come therein.   ו. הִנֵּה הַלַּיְלָה הַהוּא יְהִי גַלְמוּד אַל תָּבוֹא רְנָנָה בוֹ:
lonely: Alone and lacking any man or creature.  
7. May those who curse the day, curse it-those destined to be childless in their union.   ז. יִקְּבֻהוּ אֹרְרֵי יוֹם הָעֲתִידִים עֹרֵר לִוְיָתָן:
curse it: Heb. יקבהו, curse it, as in (Num. 22:17), “curse (קבה) for me.”  
those who curse the day: Those who curse their days, since they intend to pronounce a curse because of their anguish.  
those destined to be childless in their union: Heb. ערר לויתן, to be childless (ערירים) in their union; to join their mate in the union of man and wife, without children. And I saw in the Jerusalem Talmud (Moed Katan 1:5) that עֹרֵר means, to lament their mate when he dies, as in (Moed Katan 1:6): A person may not inspire lamentations (יערער) for his dead relative.  
8. May the stars of its evening be darkened; it shall hope for light but have none, neither shall it see the rays of dawn.   ח. יֶחְשְׁכוּ כּוֹכְבֵי נִשְׁפּוֹ יְקַו לְאוֹר וָאַיִן וְאַל יִרְאֶה בְּעַפְעַפֵּי שָׁחַר:
its evening: Heb. נשפו, the darkness of its night.  
the rays of: Heb. עפעפי, rays of, like (Jer. 9:17), “and our eyelids (or pupils) (ועפעפינו) gush water.”  
9. For He did not shut the doors of my womb, neither did He hide trouble from my eyes.   ט. כִּי לֹא סָגַר דַּלְתֵי בִטְנִי וַיַּסְתֵּר עָמָל מֵעֵינָי:
For He did not shut: He Who was able to shut. This too is one of the verses that resemble “the night when one said” (verse 2).  
the doors of my womb: from which I emerged, for had He done so, He would have hidden trouble from my eyes.  
10. Why did I not die from the womb? [Why did I not] emerge from the belly and perish?   י. לָמָּה לֹּא מֵרֶחֶם אָמוּת מִבֶּטֶן יָצָאתִי וְאֶגְוָע:
Why did I not die from the womb?: why was I not ready to die immediately upon my emergence from the womb? He speaks in the future tense, as though he were standing now on the day of his emergence from the womb and saying,"Why will I not die now, and why did I not…  
emerge from the belly and perish?": Why was my death not imminent?  
11. Why did knees receive me and why [were there] breasts that I should suck?   יא. מַדּוּעַ קִדְּמוּנִי בִרְכָּיִם וּמַה שָּׁדַיִם כִּי אִינָק:
Why did knees receive me: Why did the knees of my mother receive me before my death?  
that I should suck: [Why] was it decreed upon me to suck them? As he is speaking on the day of his birth, he mentions those subsequent events in the future tense.  
12. For now, I would be lying tranquilly; I would sleep, then it would be restful for me.   יב. כִּי עַתָּה שָׁכַבְתִּי וְאֶשְׁקוֹט יָשַׁנְתִּי אָז | יָנוּחַ לִי:
I would be lying: Heb. ושכבתי, I would be lying in the grave.  
13. With kings and counselors of the earth, who build ruins for themselves,   יג. עִם מְלָכִים וְיֹעֲצֵי אָרֶץ הַבֹּנִים חֳרָבוֹת לָמוֹ:
who build ruins for themselves: It is customary for those who seek fame to rebuild ruined cities as a memorial for themselves, as in (Isa. 58: 12), “And those coming from you shall be called the repairer of the breaches.” That is to say, with princes and famous people. Or, would that I was unknown, and I would be like a stillborn. What Scripture states: I was not like a hidden stillborn, is because it continues with the language with which it started to speak, viz. in the interrogative, and it refers to “Why did knees receive me… or why was I not like a hidden stillborn child?”  
14. Or with princes who have gold, who fill their houses with silver.   יד. אוֹ עִם שָׂרִים זָהָב לָהֶם הַמְמַלְאִים בָּתֵּיהֶם כָּסֶף:
15. Or [why] was I not like a hidden stillborn child, like infants who did not see the light?   טו. אוֹ כְנֶפֶל טָמוּן לֹא אֶהְיֶה כְּעֹלְלִים לֹא רָאוּ אוֹר:
like infants: Heb. כעוללים, infants. He calls them עוללים because they are all play and dirt, like (below 16:15), “And I sullied (ועללתי) with dust,” and like (Jud. 19:25), “and abused (ויתעללו) her the entire night.”  
16. There the wicked cease from anger, and there the weary rest.   טז. שָׁם רְשָׁעִים חָדְלוּ רֹגֶז וְשָׁם יָנוּחוּ יְגִיעֵי כֹחַ:
cease from anger: They restrain their anger, with which they were accustomed and wont to cause anger in the earth.  
and there… rest: Heb. ינוחו, and there rested. Something that occurs regularly is written in the future tense.  
17. Together prisoners are tranquil; they hear not the voice of the taskmaster.   יז. יַחַד אֲסִירִים שַׁאֲנָנוּ לֹא שָׁמְעוּ קוֹל נֹגֵשׂ:
18. Small and great are there, and a slave is free from his master.   יח. קָטֹן וְגָדוֹל שָׁם הוּא וְעֶבֶד חָפְשִׁי מֵאֲדֹנָיו:
Small and great are there: There it is obvious who is esteemed and who is humble, and since that greatness is perpetual greatness, and that humility is perpetual humility…  
19. Why does He give the toiler light and life to those of bitter spirit?   יט. לָמָּה יִתֵּן לְעָמֵל אוֹר וְחַיִּים לְמָרֵי נָפֶשׁ:
Why does He give: (the giver, i.e., the Holy One, blessed be He.)  
the toiler light: He who grew up with toil and trouble-why did He give him perpetual light and not slay him at birth?  
20. Who await death and it is not here, and they spy after it more than after hidden treasures.   כ. הַמְחַכִּים לַמָּוֶת וְאֵינֶנּוּ וַיַּחְפְּרֻהוּ מִמַּטְמוֹנִים:
Who await death: to those of bitter spirit, who long for and desire death and complain, saying, “it is not here.”  
and they spy after it: Heb. ויתפרהו, and they spy after it.  
more than after hidden treasures: More than people spy after hidden treasures.  
21. Those who are happy over joyous occurrences, rejoice when they find a grave   כא. הַשְּׂמֵחִים אֱלֵי גִיל יָשִׂישׂוּ כִּי יִמְצְאוּ קָבֶר:
Those who are happy over joyous occurrences: and rejoice if they find a grave.  
over joyous occurrences: Because of the joy and the happiness of finding a grave.  
22. for a man whose way is hidden, and God hedged him in.   כב. לְגֶבֶר אֲשֶׁר דַּרְכּוֹ נִסְתָּרָה וַיָּסֶךְ אֱלוֹהַּ בַּעֲדוֹ:
for a man whose way is hidden: All the good deeds that he performed were hidden from the Great Recompenser, and He did not look at them.  
and God hedged him in: He made a wall in front of him to shut him up in a prison, as in (Hos. 2:8) “Behold I will close off your way.”  
23. For before my meal comes my sigh, and my moans pour like water.   כג. כִּי לִפְנֵי לַחְמִי אַנְחָתִי תָבֹא וַיִּתְּכוּ כַמַּיִם שַׁאֲגֹתָי:
comes: Heb. תבא, lit. shall come.  
pour: An expression of (Exod. 9:33) “pour (נתך) to the ground.” They run and descend like water. The word ויתכו may also be interpreted as an expression denoting abundance.  
24. For the thing I feared has befallen me, and what I dreaded is coming upon me.   כד. כִּי פַחַד פָּחַדְתִּי וַיֶּאֱתָיֵנִי וַאֲשֶׁר יָגֹרְתִּי יָבֹא לִי:
the thing I feared: All my life, I stood in fear of this, as I said (1:5): “Now it would come about, when the cycle of the feasting would days be over, etc.” What I dreaded-Behold!  
25. I was not at ease, neither was I quiet, and I did not rest, yet trouble came.   כה. לֹא שָׁלַוְתִּי | וְלֹא שָׁקַטְתִּי וְלֹא נַחְתִּי וַיָּבֹא רֹגֶז:
I was not at ease: from this worry, and behold, trouble has come.  
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