Here's a great tip:
Enter your email address and we'll send you our weekly magazine by email with fresh, exciting and thoughtful content that will enrich your inbox and your life, week after week. And it's free.
Oh, and don't forget to like our facebook page too!
Printed from chabad.org
All Departments
Jewish Holidays
TheRebbe.org
Jewish.TV - Video
Jewish Audio
News
Kabbalah Online
JewishWoman.org
Kids Zone
Contact Us
Visit us on Facebook
The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Mishlei - Proverbs - Chapter 22

Mishlei - Proverbs - Chapter 22

Print
E-mail
Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 22

1. A name is chosen above great wealth; good favor over silver and gold.   א. נִבְחָר שֵׁם מֵעשֶׁר רָב מִכֶּסֶף וּמִזָּהָב חֵן טוֹב:
A name is chosen: A good name above great wealth.  
good favor over silver and gold: Good favor is chosen.  
2. A rich man and a poor man were visited upon; the Lord is the Maker of them all.   ב. עָשִׁיר וָרָשׁ נִפְגָּשׁוּ עֹשֵֹה כֻלָּם יְהוָה:
the Lord is the Maker of them all: When the poor man says to the rich man, “Sustain me,” and he answers him harshly, the Holy One, blessed be He, makes them new: this one poor and this one rich.  
3. A cunning man saw harm and hid, but fools transgressed and were punished.   ג. עָרוּם רָאָה רָעָה וְיִסְתָּר וְנִסְתָּר וּפְתָיִים עָבְרוּ וְנֶעֱנָשׁוּ:
A cunning man saw harm: The punishment for a sin, and hid, not committing the sin.  
4. In the wake of humility comes fear of the Lord, riches, honor, and life.   ד. עֵקֶב עֲנָוָה יִרְאַת יְהוָה עשֶׁר וְכָבוֹד וְחַיִּים:
In the wake of humility: Because of humility, fear of the Lord comes. Another explanation: Humility is the main attribute, and fear is secondary to it and a “heel” to it, a mat for its feet.  
5. Troops [and] snares are in the way of the perverse; he who preserves his soul will distance himself from them.   ה. צִנִּים פַּחִים בְּדֶרֶךְ עִקֵּשׁ שׁוֹמֵר נַפְשׁוֹ יִרְחַק מֵהֶם:
Troops [and] snares: Heb. צנים, as in (Num. 33: 55) “troops (לצנינים) in your sides” ; (Ezek. 23:24) “And they will come upon you, a band (הצן),” an expression of bands and brigands.  
Troops and snares: are hidden on the ways of the one who perverts his ways; i.e., torments are prepared for him.  
he who preserves his soul will distance himself from them: He who is upright in his deeds will be saved from them.  
6. Train a child according to his way; even when he grows old, he will not turn away from it.   ו. חֲנֹךְ לַנַּעַר עַל פִּי דַרְכּוֹ גַּם כִּי יַזְקִין לֹא יָסוּר מִמֶּנָּה:
Train a child: According to what you teach a child and train him in matters, either for good or bad, even when he grows old, he will not turn away from it.  
7. A rich man will rule over the poor, and a borrower is a slave to a lender.   ז. עָשִׁיר בְּרָשִׁים יִמְשׁוֹל וְעֶבֶד לוֶֹה לְאִישׁ מַלְוֶה:
A rich man will rule over the poor: An ignoramus always needs a Torah scholar.  
8. He who sows injustice will reap violence, and the rod of his wrath will fail.   ח. זוֹרֵעַ עַוְלָה יִקְצָור יִקְצָר אָוֶן וְשֵׁבֶט עֶבְרָתוֹ יִכְלֶה:
He who sows injustice will reap violence: According to his sowing will be his reaping; according to his deed will be the reception of his reward.  
and the rod of his wrath will fail: The rod of his ear of grain will fail more and more [interpreting עברתו as עבור, grain]. Some say: The rod of his wrath with which he rules over people will become progressively lessened because he impairs his ability.  
9. He who has a generous eye will be blessed, for he gave of his bread to the poor.   ט. טוֹב עַיִן הוּא יְבֹרָךְ כִּי נָתַן מִלַּחְמוֹ לַדָּל:
10. Banish a scorner, and quarrel will depart, and litigation and disgrace will cease.   י. גָּרֵשׁ לֵץ וְיֵצֵא מָדוֹן וְיִשְׁבֹּת דִּין וְקָלוֹן:
Banish a scorner: The evil inclination.  
11. He who loves one pure of heart with charm on his lips-the King is his friend.   יא. אֹהֵב טְהָור טְהָר לֵב חֵן שְׂפָתָיו רֵעֵהוּ מֶלֶךְ:
He who loves one pure of heart with charm on his lips: One whose lips have grace.  
the King is his friend: The Holy One, blessed be He, loves him and endears him.  
12. The eyes of the Lord preserve knowledge and He will frustrate the words of a treacherous man.   יב. עֵינֵי יְהוָה נָצְרוּ דָעַת וַיְסַלֵּף דִּבְרֵי בֹגֵד:
13. The lazy man says, "There is a lion outside; I will be murdered in the middle of the streets."   יג. אָמַר עָצֵל אֲרִי בַחוּץ בְּתוֹךְ רְחֹבוֹת אֵרָצֵחַ:
The lazy man says, “There is a lion outside…”: How will I go out to learn Torah?  
14. The mouth of strange women is [like] a deep pit; the one abhorred by the Lord will fall therein.   יד. שׁוּחָה עֲמֻקָּה פִּי זָרוֹת זְעוּם יְהוָה יִפָּול יִפָּל שָׁם:
The mouth of strange women is [like] a deep pit: An idolatress.  
the one abhorred by the Lord: Heb. זעום. He whom the Holy One, blessed be He, hates, falls and stumbles upon her.  
the one abhorred: rebuked from before Him.  
15. Foolishness is bound in a child's heart; the rod of discipline will drive it far from him.   טו. אִוֶּלֶת קְשׁוּרָה בְלֶב נָעַר שֵׁבֶט מוּסָר יַרְחִיקֶנָּה מִמֶּנּוּ:
16. He who exploits a poor man to increase for himself will give to a rich man only to want.   טז. עשֵׁק דָּל לְהַרְבּוֹת לוֹ נֹתֵן לְעָשִׁיר אַךְ לְמַחְסוֹר:
He who exploits a poor man to increase for himself: money.  
will give to a rich man: He will ultimately give his money to the rich pagan kings, and it will be only to want.  
17. Incline your ear and hearken to the words of the wise, and put your heart to my knowledge,   יז. הַט אָזְנְךָ וּשְׁמַע דִּבְרֵי חֲכָמִים וְלִבְּךָ תָּשִׁית לְדַעְתִּי:
Incline your ear and hearken to the words of the wise: to learn the Torah from a sage of any stature.  
and put your heart to my knowledge: But if your teacher is wicked, do not learn from his deeds.  
18. for it is pleasant that you guard them in your innards; they will be established together on your lips.   יח. כִּי נָעִים כִּי תִשְׁמְרֵם בְּבִטְנֶךָ יִכֹּנוּ יַחְדָּו עַל שְׂפָתֶיךָ:
for it is pleasant: It will be [pleasant] for you at a later time if you preserve them and hide them in your innards lest you forget them. Now when will they be preserved in your heart? When they are established on your lips, when you utter them with your mouth.  
19. That your trust shall be in the Lord, I have made known to you this day, even you.   יט. לִהְיוֹת בַּיהוָה מִבְטַחֶךָ הוֹדַעְתִּיךָ הַיּוֹם אַף אָתָּה:
That your trust shall be in the Lord, I have made known to you: I make known to you that you should trust in the Lord and engage in the Torah, and you shall not say, “How will I be idle from my work, and how will I earn a livelihood?”  
20. Have I not written to you thirds with counsels and knowledge,   כ. הֲלֹא כָתַבְתִּי לְךָ שָׁלִשִׁום שָׁלִישִׁים בְּמוֹעֵצֹת וָדָעַת:
Have I not written to you thirds: The Torah, the Prophets, and the Hagiographa.  
21. to make known to you the certainty of the true words, to respond with words of truth to those who send you?   כא. לְהוֹדִיעֲךָ קשְׁטְ אִמְרֵי אֱמֶת לְהָשִׁיב אֲמָרִים אֱמֶת לְשֹׁלְחֶיךָ:
to make known to you the certainty: I wrote thirds for you in order that you should understand from them the certainty of the true words.  
to respond with words of truth to those who send you: To those who ask you for instruction.  
22. Do not rob a poor man because he is poor, and do not crush the poor man in the gate.   כב. אַל תִּגְזָל דָּל כִּי דַל הוּא וְאַל תְּדַכֵּא עָנִי בַשָּׁעַר:
Do not rob a poor man: Do not rob him because you see that he is poor and has no strength to resist you.  
23. For the Lord will plead their cause and rob those who rob them, of life.   כג. כִּי יְהוָה יָרִיב רִיבָם וְקָבַע אֶת קֹבְעֵיהֶם נָפֶשׁ:
For the Lord will plead their cause and rob: Heb. וקבע. And will rob the life.  
those who rob them: Heb. קבעים, those who rob them; in Aramaic קביעה means robbery. In tractate Rosh Hashanah (26b): A certain man came before him and said to him, “So-and-so robbed me (קבען)” etc.  
24. Do not befriend a quick-tempered person, neither shall you go with a wrathful man;   כד. אַל תִּתְרַע אֶת בַּעַל אָף וְאֶת אִישׁ חֵמוֹת לֹא תָבוֹא:
Do not befriend: Heb. תתרע, do not befriend, an expression of friendship (רעות)  
25. lest you learn his ways and take a snare for your soul.   כה. פֶּן תֶּאֱלַף אֹרְחֹתָו אֹרְחֹתָיו וְלָקַחְתָּ מוֹקֵשׁ לְנַפְשֶׁךָ:
lest you learn: Heb. תאלף.  
26. Do not be one of those who give their hands, who stand surety for debts.   כו. אַל תְּהִי בְתֹקְעֵי כָף בַּעֹרְבִים מַשָּׁאוֹת:
Do not be one of those who give their hands, who stand surety for debts: Loans, as in (Deut. 24:10), “When you lend you fellow [Jew] any item.”  
27. If you do not have what to pay, why should he take your bed from under you?   כז. אִם אֵין לְךָ לְשַׁלֵּם לָמָּה יִקַּח מִשְׁכָּבְךָ מִתַּחְתֶּיךָ:
28. Do not remove an ancient boundary that your forefathers set.   כח. אַל תַּסֵּג גְּבוּל עוֹלָם אֲשֶׁר עָשֹוּ אֲבוֹתֶיךָ:
Do not remove an ancient boundary: Do not turn away from the custom of your forefathers. Our Sages of blessed memory said: If one places a basket under a vine at the time of vintage so that the fallen grapes should fall into it, concerning this was stated: “Do not remove an ancient boundary, etc.”  
remove: Heb. תסג, as in (Ps. 129:5) “and shall draw backwards (ויסגו).”  
29. Have you seen a man quick in his work? He will stand before kings; he will not stand before poor men.   כט. חָזִיתָ אִישׁ מָהִיר בִּמְלַאכְתּוֹ לִפְנֵי מְלָכִים יִתְיַצָּב בַּל יִתְיַצֵּב לִפְנֵי חֲשֻׁכִּים:
Print
E-mail
The text on this page contains sacred literature. Please do not deface or discard.
FEATURED ON CHABAD.ORG