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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Tehillim - Psalms - Chapter 114

Tehillim - Psalms - Chapter 114

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 114

1. When Israel left Egypt, the house of Jacob [left] a people of a strange tongue,   א. בְּצֵאת יִשְׂרָאֵל מִמִּצְרָיִם בֵּית יַעֲקֹב מֵעַם לֹעֵז:
a people of a strange tongue: With another language, which is not the Holy Tongue. A similar expression is (Isa. 33:19): “A people of a strange tongue you shall not see, a people of speech too obscure, etc.” The “nun” and the “lammed” are interchangeable, like נִשְׁכָּה, chamber, which is [equivalent to] לִשְׁכָּה, in the Book of Ezra (Neh. 13:7).  
2. Judah became His holy nation, Israel His dominion.   ב. הָיְתָה יְהוּדָה לְקָדְשׁוֹ יִשְׂרָאֵל מַמְשְׁלוֹתָיו:
Judah became His holy nation: He took Judah as the lot of His portion and His sanctity, and even they sanctified His name when they descended into the sea, as the matter that is stated (above 68: 28): “the princes of Judah pelt them with stones.” Similarly, this verse is explained in the Aggadah (Mid. Ps. 114:8): Judah became His holy people, for Nahshon sprang into the sea and said, “I shall descend first,” and that is what [the Psalmist] says: Judah became His holy people.  
3. The sea saw and fled; the Jordan turned backward.   ג. הַיָּם רָאָה וַיָּנֹס הַיַּרְדֵּן יִסֹּב לְאָחוֹר:
the Jordan turned backward: because all the water of Creation split.  
4. The mountains danced like rams, hills like young sheep.   ד. הֶהָרִים רָקְדוּ כְאֵילִים גְּבָעוֹת כִּבְנֵי צֹאן:
5. What frightens you, O sea, that you flee? O Jordan, that you turn backward?   ה. מַה לְּךָ הַיָּם כִּי תָנוּס הַיַּרְדֵּן תִּסֹּב לְאָחוֹר:
6. You mountains, that you dance like rams; you hills, like young sheep?   ו. הֶהָרִים תִּרְקְדוּ כְאֵילִים גְּבָעוֹת כִּבְנֵי צֹאן:
7. From before the Master, Who created the earth, from before the God of Jacob,   ז. מִלִּפְנֵי אָדוֹן חוּלִי אָרֶץ מִלִּפְנֵי אֱלוֹהַּ יַעֲקֹב:
Who created the earth: Heb. חולי, Who created the earth. The “yud” is superfluous as מגביהי, משפילי and ההוֹפכי.  
8. Who transforms the rock into a pond of water, the flint into a fountain of water.   ח. הַהֹפְכִי הַצּוּר אֲגַם מָיִם חַלָּמִישׁ לְמַעְיְנוֹ מָיִם:
into a fountain of water: Heb. למעינו. The “vav” is superfluous, as the “vav” in (above 104:11, 20) “the beasts (חיתו) of the forest.”  
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