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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Tehillim - Psalms - Chapter 104

Tehillim - Psalms - Chapter 104

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 104

1. My soul, bless the Lord. My God, You are very great, You are attired with majesty and beauty.   א. בָּרְכִי נַפְשִׁי אֶת יְהֹוָה יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהַי גָּדַלְתָּ מְּאֹד הוֹד וְהָדָר לָבָשְׁתָּ:
2. [You] enwrap Yourself with light like a garment; [You] extend the heavens like a curtain.   ב. עֹטֶה אוֹר כַּשַּׂלְמָה נוֹטֶה שָׁמַיִם כַּיְרִיעָה:
[You] enwrap Yourself with light: in the sky like a garment.  
3. Who roofs His upper chambers with water; Who makes clouds His chariot, which goes on the wings of the wind.   ג. הַמְקָרֶה בַמַּיִם עֲלִיּוֹתָיו הַשָּׂם עָבִים רְכוּבוֹ הַמְהַלֵּךְ עַל כַּנְפֵי רוּחַ:
4. He makes winds His messengers, burning fire His ministers.   ד. עֹשֶׂה מַלְאָכָיו רוּחוֹת מְשָׁרֲתָיו אֵשׁ לֹהֵט:
He makes winds His messengers: lit. He makes His messengers winds. He makes the wind His messengers.  
5. He founded the earth on its foundations that it not falter to eternity.   ה. יָסַד אֶרֶץ עַל מְכוֹנֶיהָ בַּל תִּמּוֹט עוֹלָם וָעֶד:
6. You covered the deep as [with] a garment; the waters stand on the mountains.   ו. תְּהוֹם כַּלְּבוּשׁ כִּסִּיתוֹ עַל הָרִים יַעַמְדוּ מָיִם:
You covered the deep as [with] a garment: This is similar to what is said elsewhere (Job 38:9): “When I made the cloud its raiment, etc.”  
the deep: That is the sea.  
the waters stand on the mountains: The waters of the ocean are higher than the whole world. They stand on the mountains, and so Scripture states (Amos 5:8, 9:6): “He who calls the water of the sea and pours it upon the face of the earth.” Pouring denotes only [pouring] from above downward.  
7. From Your rebuke they fled; from the sound of Your thunder they hastened away.   ז. מִן גַּעֲרָתְךָ יְנוּסוּן מִן קוֹל רַעַמְךָ יֵחָפֵזוּן:
From Your rebuke they fled: When You said (Gen. 1:9): “Let the waters gather.” And from that voice they hastened away and gathered in the place that You founded for them.  
8. They ascended mountains, they descended into valleys to this place, which You had founded for them.   ח. יַעֲלוּ הָרִים יֵרְדוּ בְקָעוֹת אֶל מְקוֹם זֶה | יָסַדְתָּ לָהֶם:
9. You set a boundary that they should not cross, that they should not return to cover the earth.   ט. גְּבוּל שַׂמְתָּ בַּל יַעֲבֹרוּן בַּל יְשֻׁבוּן לְכַסּוֹת הָאָרֶץ:
You set a boundary: for them, viz. the sand that is around its shore.  
10. He sends the springs into the streams; they go between the mountains.   י. הַמְשַׁלֵּחַ מַעְיָנִים בַּנְּחָלִים בֵּין הָרִים יְהַלֵּכוּן:
11. They water every beast of the field; the wild donkeys quench their thirst.   יא. יַשְׁקוּ כָּל חַיְתוֹ שָׂדָי יִשְׁבְּרוּ פְרָאִים צְמָאָם:
12. Beside them the fowl of the heavens dwell; from between the branches they let out their voices.   יב. עֲלֵיהֶם עוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם יִשְׁכּוֹן מִבֵּין עֳפָאיִם יִתְּנוּ קוֹל:
Beside them the fowl of the heavens dwell: Beside the springs.  
from between the branches: Heb. עפאים, the branches of the trees, and so (Dan. 4:11): “its branches were (עפיה) beautiful.”  
13. He waters the mountains from His upper chambers; from the fruit of Your works the earth is sated.   יג. מַשְׁקֶה הָרִים מֵעֲלִיּוֹתָיו מִפְּרִי מַעֲשֶׂיךָ תִּשְׂבַּע הָאָרֶץ:
14. He causes grass to sprout for the animals and vegetation for the work of man, to bring forth bread from the earth.   יד. מַצְמִיחַ חָצִיר | לַבְּהֵמָה וְעֵשֶׂב לַעֲבֹדַת הָאָדָם לְהוֹצִיא לֶחֶם מִן הָאָרֶץ:
15. And wine, which cheers man's heart, to make the face shine from oil, and bread, which sustains man's heart.   טו. וְיַיִן | יְשַׂמַּח לְבַב אֱנוֹשׁ לְהַצְהִיל פָּנִים מִשָּׁמֶן וְלֶחֶם לְבַב אֱנוֹשׁ יִסְעָד:
And wine: which cheers man’s heart, that too He brings forth from the earth, and oil to cause the face to radiate.  
and bread: which sustains man’s heart.  
16. The Lord's trees are sated, the cedars of Lebanon, which He planted.   טז. יִשְׂבְּעוּ עֲצֵי יְהֹוָה אַרְזֵי לְבָנוֹן אֲשֶׁר נָטָע:
The Lord’s trees: in the Garden of Eden.  
17. Where birds nest; as for the stork-the high junipers are its home.   יז. אֲשֶׁר שָׁם צִפֳּרִים יְקַנֵּנוּ חֲסִידָה בְּרוֹשִׁים בֵּיתָהּ:
birds nest: Israel will dwell there. יְקַנֵנוּ is an expression of a bird’s nest (קן צפור).  
18. The lofty mountains for the ibexes; the rocks a shelter for the hyraxes.   יח. הָרִים הַגְּבֹהִים לַיְּעֵלִים סְלָעִים מַחְסֶּה לַשְׁפַנִּים:
The lofty mountains: He created for the ibexes.  
shelter: Every expression of מַחְסֶה is an expression of a shadow and a hiding place, where a person covers himself from flood and rain.  
19. He made the moon for the appointed seasons; the sun knows its setting.   יט. עָשָׂה יָרֵחַ לְמוֹעֲדִים שֶׁמֶשׁ יָדַע מְבוֹאוֹ:
He made the moon for the appointed seasons: To count with it the times and the festivals.  
the sun knows its setting: But the moon does not know its setting, because sometimes it comes through a long way and sometimes it comes through a short way.  
20. You make darkness and it is night, in which every beast of the forest moves about.   כ. תָּשֶׁת חֹשֶׁךְ וִיהִי לָיְלָה בּוֹ תִרְמֹשׂ כָּל חַיְתוֹ יָעַר:
You make darkness and it is night: Every day You darken and block out the sun and it becomes night, when all the beasts of the forest move about.  
21. The young lions roar for prey and to beg their food from God.   כא. הַכְּפִירִים שֹׁאֲגִים לַטָּרֶף וּלְבַקֵּשׁ מֵאֵל אָכְלָם:
22. When the sun rises they gather in and couch in their dens.   כב. תִּזְרַח הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ יֵאָסֵפוּן וְאֶל מְעוֹנֹתָם יִרְבָּצוּן:
When the sun rises they gather in: into the secret places and hide there from the sons of men; then every man goes forth to his work.  
23. Man goes out to his work, to his labor until evening.   כג. יֵצֵא אָדָם לְפָעֳלוֹ וְלַעֲבֹדָתוֹ עֲדֵי עָרֶב:
24. How great are Your works, O Lord! You have made them all with wisdom; the earth is full of Your possessions!   כד. מָה רַבּוּ מַעֲשֶׂיךָ | יְהֹוָה כֻּלָּם בְּחָכְמָה עָשִׂיתָ מָלְאָה הָאָרֶץ קִנְיָנֶךָ:
Your possessions: Heb. קנינך, the acquisition that you have acquired, like (Gen. 14:19): “Owner (קנה) of heaven and earth.” All is acquired by You.  
25. This sea-great and wide; there are creeping things and innumerable beasts, both small and large.   כה. זֶה | הַיָּם גָּדוֹל וּרְחַב יָדָיִם שָׁם רֶמֶשׂ וְאֵין מִסְפָּר חַיּוֹת קְטַנּוֹת עִם גְּדֹלוֹת:
and wide: Heb. ורחב ידים. Wide of place, large in French, broad.  
26. There the ships go; You formed this leviathan with which to sport.   כו. שָׁם אֳנִיּוֹת יְהַלֵּכוּן לִוְיָתָן זֶה | יָצַרְתָּ לְשַׂחֶק בּוֹ:
with which to sport: three hours during the day. So did our Sages say in tractate Avodah Zarah (3b), and so it is written explicitly in the Book of Job (40:29): “Will you play with him like a bird?”  
27. They all look to You with hope, to give their food in its time.   כז. כֻּלָּם אֵלֶיךָ יְשַׂבֵּרוּן לָתֵת אָכְלָם בְּעִתּוֹ:
28. You give them that they may gather; You open Your hand that they may be sated with goodness.   כח. תִּתֵּן לָהֶם יִלְקֹטוּן תִּפְתַּח יָדְךָ יִשְׂבְּעוּן טוֹב:
29. You hide Your countenance and they are frightened; You gather in their spirit and they perish and return to their dust.   כט. תַּסְתִּיר פָּנֶיךָ יִבָּהֵלוּן תֹּסֵף רוּחָם יִגְוָעוּן וְאֶל עֲפָרָם יְשׁוּבוּן:
You gather in their spirit: Heb. תסף, an expression of destruction, as (above 73:19): “They were completely consumed (ספו).”  
30. You will send forth Your spirit and they will be created, and You will renew the surface of the ground.   ל. תְּשַׁלַּח רוּחֲךָ יִבָּרֵאוּן וּתְחַדֵּשׁ פְּנֵי אֲדָמָה:
You will send forth Your spirit: with the resurrection of the dead.  
31. The glory of the Lord will be forever; the Lord will rejoice with His works.   לא. יְהִי כְבוֹד יְהֹוָה לְעוֹלָם יִשְׂמַח יְהֹוָה בְּמַעֲשָׂיו:
32. He Who looks at the earth and it quakes; He touches the mountains and they emit smoke.   לב. הַמַּבִּיט לָאָרֶץ וַתִּרְעָד יִגַּע בֶּהָרִים וְיֶעֱשָׁנוּ:
He touches the mountains and they emit smoke: as is depicted of Sinai (Exod. 19:18): “And Mount Sinai was all in smoke.”  
33. I shall sing to the Lord while I am alive; I shall sing praises to my God as long as I exist.   לג. אָשִׁירָה לַיהֹוָה בְּחַיָּי אֲזַמְּרָה לֵאלֹהַי בְּעוֹדִי:
as long as I exist: Heb. בעדי, like (Deut. 31:27): “When I am still (בעודני) alive.”  
34. May my speech be pleasing to Him; I shall rejoice with the Lord.   לד. יֶעֱרַב עָלָיו שִׂיחִי אָנֹכִי אֶשְׂמַח בַּיהֹוָה:
35. Sinners will be destroyed from the earth and the wicked will be no more; my soul, bless the Lord. Hallelujah.   לה. יִתַּמּוּ חַטָּאִים | מִן הָאָרֶץ וּרְשָׁעִים | עוֹד אֵינָם בָּרְכִי נַפְשִׁי אֶת יְהֹוָה הַלְלוּיָהּ:
Sinners will be destroyed: Heb. חטאים, sinners [rather than sins, but see Tal. Ber. 10a].  
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