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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Tehillim - Psalms - Chapter 104

Tehillim - Psalms - Chapter 104

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 104

1My soul, bless the Lord. My God, You are very great, You are attired with majesty and beauty.   אבָּרְכִי נַפְשִׁי אֶת יְהֹוָה יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהַי גָּדַלְתָּ מְּאֹד הוֹד וְהָדָר לָבָשְׁתָּ:
2[You] enwrap Yourself with light like a garment; [You] extend the heavens like a curtain.   בעֹטֶה אוֹר כַּשַּׂלְמָה נוֹטֶה שָׁמַיִם כַּיְרִיעָה:
[You] enwrap Yourself with light: in the sky like a garment.  
3Who roofs His upper chambers with water; Who makes clouds His chariot, which goes on the wings of the wind.   גהַמְקָרֶה בַמַּיִם עֲלִיּוֹתָיו הַשָּׂם עָבִים רְכוּבוֹ הַמְהַלֵּךְ עַל כַּנְפֵי רוּחַ:
4He makes winds His messengers, burning fire His ministers.   דעֹשֶׂה מַלְאָכָיו רוּחוֹת מְשָׁרֲתָיו אֵשׁ לֹהֵט:
He makes winds His messengers: lit. He makes His messengers winds. He makes the wind His messengers.  
5He founded the earth on its foundations that it not falter to eternity.   היָסַד אֶרֶץ עַל מְכוֹנֶיהָ בַּל תִּמּוֹט עוֹלָם וָעֶד:
6You covered the deep as [with] a garment; the waters stand on the mountains.   ותְּהוֹם כַּלְּבוּשׁ כִּסִּיתוֹ עַל הָרִים יַעַמְדוּ מָיִם:
You covered the deep as [with] a garment: This is similar to what is said elsewhere (Job 38:9): “When I made the cloud its raiment, etc.”  
the deep: That is the sea.  
the waters stand on the mountains: The waters of the ocean are higher than the whole world. They stand on the mountains, and so Scripture states (Amos 5:8, 9:6): “He who calls the water of the sea and pours it upon the face of the earth.” Pouring denotes only [pouring] from above downward.  
7From Your rebuke they fled; from the sound of Your thunder they hastened away.   זמִן גַּעֲרָתְךָ יְנוּסוּן מִן קוֹל רַעַמְךָ יֵחָפֵזוּן:
From Your rebuke they fled: When You said (Gen. 1:9): “Let the waters gather.” And from that voice they hastened away and gathered in the place that You founded for them.  
8They ascended mountains, they descended into valleys to this place, which You had founded for them.   חיַעֲלוּ הָרִים יֵרְדוּ בְקָעוֹת אֶל מְקוֹם זֶה | יָסַדְתָּ לָהֶם:
9You set a boundary that they should not cross, that they should not return to cover the earth.   טגְּבוּל שַׂמְתָּ בַּל יַעֲבֹרוּן בַּל יְשֻׁבוּן לְכַסּוֹת הָאָרֶץ:
You set a boundary: for them, viz. the sand that is around its shore.  
10He sends the springs into the streams; they go between the mountains.   יהַמְשַׁלֵּחַ מַעְיָנִים בַּנְּחָלִים בֵּין הָרִים יְהַלֵּכוּן:
11They water every beast of the field; the wild donkeys quench their thirst.   יאיַשְׁקוּ כָּל חַיְתוֹ שָׂדָי יִשְׁבְּרוּ פְרָאִים צְמָאָם:
12Beside them the fowl of the heavens dwell; from between the branches they let out their voices.   יבעֲלֵיהֶם עוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם יִשְׁכּוֹן מִבֵּין עֳפָאיִם יִתְּנוּ קוֹל:
Beside them the fowl of the heavens dwell: Beside the springs.  
from between the branches: Heb. עפאים, the branches of the trees, and so (Dan. 4:11): “its branches were (עפיה) beautiful.”  
13He waters the mountains from His upper chambers; from the fruit of Your works the earth is sated.   יגמַשְׁקֶה הָרִים מֵעֲלִיּוֹתָיו מִפְּרִי מַעֲשֶׂיךָ תִּשְׂבַּע הָאָרֶץ:
14He causes grass to sprout for the animals and vegetation for the work of man, to bring forth bread from the earth.   ידמַצְמִיחַ חָצִיר | לַבְּהֵמָה וְעֵשֶׂב לַעֲבֹדַת הָאָדָם לְהוֹצִיא לֶחֶם מִן הָאָרֶץ:
15And wine, which cheers man's heart, to make the face shine from oil, and bread, which sustains man's heart.   טווְיַיִן | יְשַׂמַּח לְבַב אֱנוֹשׁ לְהַצְהִיל פָּנִים מִשָּׁמֶן וְלֶחֶם לְבַב אֱנוֹשׁ יִסְעָד:
And wine: which cheers man’s heart, that too He brings forth from the earth, and oil to cause the face to radiate.  
and bread: which sustains man’s heart.  
16The Lord's trees are sated, the cedars of Lebanon, which He planted.   טזיִשְׂבְּעוּ עֲצֵי יְהֹוָה אַרְזֵי לְבָנוֹן אֲשֶׁר נָטָע:
The Lord’s trees: in the Garden of Eden.  
17Where birds nest; as for the stork-the high junipers are its home.   יזאֲשֶׁר שָׁם צִפֳּרִים יְקַנֵּנוּ חֲסִידָה בְּרוֹשִׁים בֵּיתָהּ:
birds nest: Israel will dwell there. יְקַנֵנוּ is an expression of a bird’s nest (קן צפור).  
18The lofty mountains for the ibexes; the rocks a shelter for the hyraxes.   יחהָרִים הַגְּבֹהִים לַיְּעֵלִים סְלָעִים מַחְסֶּה לַשְׁפַנִּים:
The lofty mountains: He created for the ibexes.  
shelter: Every expression of מַחְסֶה is an expression of a shadow and a hiding place, where a person covers himself from flood and rain.  
19He made the moon for the appointed seasons; the sun knows its setting.   יטעָשָׂה יָרֵחַ לְמוֹעֲדִים שֶׁמֶשׁ יָדַע מְבוֹאוֹ:
He made the moon for the appointed seasons: To count with it the times and the festivals.  
the sun knows its setting: But the moon does not know its setting, because sometimes it comes through a long way and sometimes it comes through a short way.  
20You make darkness and it is night, in which every beast of the forest moves about.   כתָּשֶׁת חֹשֶׁךְ וִיהִי לָיְלָה בּוֹ תִרְמֹשׂ כָּל חַיְתוֹ יָעַר:
You make darkness and it is night: Every day You darken and block out the sun and it becomes night, when all the beasts of the forest move about.  
21The young lions roar for prey and to beg their food from God.   כאהַכְּפִירִים שֹׁאֲגִים לַטָּרֶף וּלְבַקֵּשׁ מֵאֵל אָכְלָם:
22When the sun rises they gather in and couch in their dens.   כבתִּזְרַח הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ יֵאָסֵפוּן וְאֶל מְעוֹנֹתָם יִרְבָּצוּן:
When the sun rises they gather in: into the secret places and hide there from the sons of men; then every man goes forth to his work.  
23Man goes out to his work, to his labor until evening.   כגיֵצֵא אָדָם לְפָעֳלוֹ וְלַעֲבֹדָתוֹ עֲדֵי עָרֶב:
24How great are Your works, O Lord! You have made them all with wisdom; the earth is full of Your possessions!   כדמָה רַבּוּ מַעֲשֶׂיךָ | יְהֹוָה כֻּלָּם בְּחָכְמָה עָשִׂיתָ מָלְאָה הָאָרֶץ קִנְיָנֶךָ:
Your possessions: Heb. קנינך, the acquisition that you have acquired, like (Gen. 14:19): “Owner (קנה) of heaven and earth.” All is acquired by You.  
25This sea-great and wide; there are creeping things and innumerable beasts, both small and large.   כהזֶה | הַיָּם גָּדוֹל וּרְחַב יָדָיִם שָׁם רֶמֶשׂ וְאֵין מִסְפָּר חַיּוֹת קְטַנּוֹת עִם גְּדֹלוֹת:
and wide: Heb. ורחב ידים. Wide of place, large in French, broad.  
26There the ships go; You formed this leviathan with which to sport.   כושָׁם אֳנִיּוֹת יְהַלֵּכוּן לִוְיָתָן זֶה | יָצַרְתָּ לְשַׂחֶק בּוֹ:
with which to sport: three hours during the day. So did our Sages say in tractate Avodah Zarah (3b), and so it is written explicitly in the Book of Job (40:29): “Will you play with him like a bird?”  
27They all look to You with hope, to give their food in its time.   כזכֻּלָּם אֵלֶיךָ יְשַׂבֵּרוּן לָתֵת אָכְלָם בְּעִתּוֹ:
28You give them that they may gather; You open Your hand that they may be sated with goodness.   כחתִּתֵּן לָהֶם יִלְקֹטוּן תִּפְתַּח יָדְךָ יִשְׂבְּעוּן טוֹב:
29You hide Your countenance and they are frightened; You gather in their spirit and they perish and return to their dust.   כטתַּסְתִּיר פָּנֶיךָ יִבָּהֵלוּן תֹּסֵף רוּחָם יִגְוָעוּן וְאֶל עֲפָרָם יְשׁוּבוּן:
You gather in their spirit: Heb. תסף, an expression of destruction, as (above 73:19): “They were completely consumed (ספו).”  
30You will send forth Your spirit and they will be created, and You will renew the surface of the ground.   לתְּשַׁלַּח רוּחֲךָ יִבָּרֵאוּן וּתְחַדֵּשׁ פְּנֵי אֲדָמָה:
You will send forth Your spirit: with the resurrection of the dead.  
31The glory of the Lord will be forever; the Lord will rejoice with His works.   לאיְהִי כְבוֹד יְהֹוָה לְעוֹלָם יִשְׂמַח יְהֹוָה בְּמַעֲשָׂיו:
32He Who looks at the earth and it quakes; He touches the mountains and they emit smoke.   לבהַמַּבִּיט לָאָרֶץ וַתִּרְעָד יִגַּע בֶּהָרִים וְיֶעֱשָׁנוּ:
He touches the mountains and they emit smoke: as is depicted of Sinai (Exod. 19:18): “And Mount Sinai was all in smoke.”  
33I shall sing to the Lord while I am alive; I shall sing praises to my God as long as I exist.   לגאָשִׁירָה לַיהֹוָה בְּחַיָּי אֲזַמְּרָה לֵאלֹהַי בְּעוֹדִי:
as long as I exist: Heb. בעדי, like (Deut. 31:27): “When I am still (בעודני) alive.”  
34May my speech be pleasing to Him; I shall rejoice with the Lord.   לדיֶעֱרַב עָלָיו שִׂיחִי אָנֹכִי אֶשְׂמַח בַּיהֹוָה:
35Sinners will be destroyed from the earth and the wicked will be no more; my soul, bless the Lord. Hallelujah.   להיִתַּמּוּ חַטָּאִים | מִן הָאָרֶץ וּרְשָׁעִים | עוֹד אֵינָם בָּרְכִי נַפְשִׁי אֶת יְהֹוָה הַלְלוּיָהּ:
Sinners will be destroyed: Heb. חטאים, sinners [rather than sins, but see Tal. Ber. 10a].  
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