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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Tehillim - Psalms - Chapter 45

Tehillim - Psalms - Chapter 45

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 45

1. For the conductor on shoshannim, of the sons of Korah, a maskil a song of loves.   א. לַמְנַצֵּחַ עַל שׁשַֹׁנִּים לִבְנֵי קֹרַח מַשְׂכִּיל שִׁיר יְדִידֹת:
on shoshannim: They founded this psalm in honor of the Torah scholars, who are as tender as roses and as beautiful as roses, and perform good deeds as fresh as roses.  
a maskil: Through an interpreter.  
a song of loves: Heb. שיר ידידות, a song of loves, a song of praise for them [the Torah scholars] to endear them to the people and to endear their Torah to them [the people].  
2. My heart is astir with a good theme; I say, "My works are for a king; my tongue is a pen of an expert scribe."   ב. רָחַשׁ לִבִּי | דָּבָר טוֹב אֹמֵר אָנִי מַעֲשַׂי לְמֶלֶךְ לְשׁוֹנִי עֵט | סוֹפֵר מָהִיר:
My heart is astir: In this manner, the Psalmist commenced his song: My heart caused a good theme to swarm within me in your praise, O Torah scholar.  
is astir: Heb. רחש, an expression of moving, and so is every expression of swarming and crawling.  
I say, “My works are for a king”: This song, which I have founded and composed, I say to one who is fit to be a king, as it is stated (Prov. 8:15): “Kings reign with me.”  
my tongue is: as poetic as the pen of an expert scribe. I saw in the commentary of Rabbi Moses the Preacher: מָהִיר in Arabic means expert.  
3. You are more handsome than [other] men; charm is poured into your lips. Therefore, God blessed you forever.   ג. יָפְיָפִיתָ מִבְּנֵי אָדָם הוּצַק חֵן בְּשִׂפְתוֹתֶיךָ עַל כֵּן בֵּרַכְךָ אֱלֹהִים לְעוֹלָם:
You are more handsome than [other] men: who engage in the work of transitory life. Why? Because charm is poured into your lips to instruct according to the halachah. הוּצַק means “poured,” as (Exod. 38:27): “to cast (לצקת) ” ; (Gen. 28:18), “and he poured (ויצק) oil.”  
Therefore… blessed you: as it is stated (below 29:11): “The Lord shall grant strength to His people.” And what is their reward?“The Lord shall bless His people with peace.”  
4. Gird a sword on your thigh, O mighty one, your majesty and your glory.   ד. חֲגוֹר חַרְבְּךָ עַל יָרֵךְ גִּבּוֹר הוֹדְךָ וַהֲדָרֶךָ:
Gird a sword on your thigh: to wage the war of Torah, and that is your majesty and that is your glory.  
5. And your glory is that you will pass and ride for the sake of truth and righteous humility, and it shall instruct you so that your right hand shall perform awesome things.   ה. וַהֲדָרְךָ | צְלַח רְכַב עַל דְּבַר אֱמֶת וְעַנְוָה צֶּדֶק וְתוֹרְךָ נוֹרָאוֹת יְמִינֶךָ:
for the sake of truth: To instruct according to the law and to behave with righteous humility.  
and it shall instruct you: The Torah and the matter of truth in which you shall engage shall teach you tactics of war so that your right should perform awesome things. Since he mentions the study of Torah in an expression of war, the expression of the right hand, prepared to fight, is appropriate (i.e., it is customary to fight with the right hand).  
6. Your arrows are sharpened, nations shall fall under you, in the heart of the king's enemies.   ו. חִצֶּיךָ שְׁנוּנִים עַמִּים תַּחְתֶּיךָ יִפְּלוּ בְּלֵב אוֹיְבֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ:
Your arrows are sharpened, etc., in the heart of the king’s enemies: Heb. שְּׁנוּנִים, is aiguises in French, sharpened. This is a transposed verse. We find that the disciples are called arrows, as it is stated (above 127: 4): “As arrows in the hand of a mighty man, so are the children of youth.” And Torah scholars who argue with each other about halachah are called enemies to each other for the time, as it is stated: “they will not be ashamed when they speak with the enemies in the gate.”  
nations shall fall under you: As a reward for Torah, nations shall fall under Israel.  
7. Your throne, O judge, [will exist] forever and ever; the scepter of equity is the scepter of your kingdom.   ז. כִּסְאֲךָ אֱלֹהִים עוֹלָם וָעֶד שֵׁבֶט מִישֹׁר שֵׁבֶט מַלְכוּתֶךָ:
Your throne, O judge: Your throne, O prince and judge, shall exist forever and ever, as the matter that is stated (Exod. 7:1): “I have made you a judge אלהים) (נתתיך over Pharaoh.” And why? Because “a scepter of equity is the scepter of your kingdom,” that your judgments are true, and you are fit to govern.  
8. You loved righteousness and you hated wickedness; therefore God, your God, anointed you with oil of joy from among your peers.   ח. אָהַבְתָּ צֶּדֶק וַתִּשְׂנָא רֶשַׁע עַל כֵּן | מְשָׁחֲךָ אֱלֹהִים אֱלֹהֶיךָ שֶׁמֶן שָׂשׂוֹן מֵחֲבֵרֶךָ:
anointed you… with oil of joy: Every expression of greatness is depicted by the anointment of oil, as is the custom of the kings.  
9. Myrrh and aloes and cassia are all your garments; more than ivory palaces, those that are Mine will cause you to rejoice.   ט. מֹר וַאֲהָלוֹת קְצִיעוֹת כָּל בִּגְדֹתֶיךָ מִן הֵיכְלֵי שֵׁן מִנִּי שִׂמְּחוּךָ:
Myrrh and aloes and cassia: Heb. קדה (Exod. 30: 24) is translated קציעתא, cassia.  
all your garments: All your garments smell with the fragrance of spices. Its midrashic interpretation is: All your betrayals (בגידותיך) and sins are expiated and smell of a fragrant scent.  
more than ivory palaces, those that are Mine will cause you to rejoice: More than the best ivory palaces, are the palaces that are prepared for you in Paradise to cause you to rejoice with them. שֵּׁן is ivoire in French, ivory.  
those that are Mine will cause you to rejoice: The palaces that are Minethey will make you rejoice, those that give you your reward.  
10. The daughters of kings will visit you; the queen will stand at your right [bedecked] with golden jewelry from Ophir.   י. בְּנוֹת מְלָכִים בִּיקְּרוֹתֶיךָ נִצְּבָה שֵׁגָל לִימִינְךָ בְּכֶתֶם אוֹפִיר:
The daughters of kings: will visit you, as the matter that is stated (Isa. 49:23): “and their princesses your wet nurses.”  
will visit you: lit. your visitors. Heb. ביקרותיך. The “kaph” is punctuated with a “dagesh” because it is an expression of visiting, although it is preceded by a “yud.” I saw in Rav Saadia’s punctuation that this word is arranged with (Isa. 42:24), “Who subjected Jacob to plunder (למשיסה) ,” which is written with a “yud” although the “sammech” is punctuated with a “dagesh.” Menachem, however, associated it as an expression of value, as (Job 28: 16): "with precious (יקר) onyx.  
the queen: Heb. שגל, the queen, as (Neh. 2:6): “and the queen (השגל) was sitting beside him” ; (Dan. 5: 2), “and they shall drink with them, the king and his nobles, his queen (שגלתה) and his concubines.” Your wife will stand at your right.  
with golden jewelry from Ophir: with a collection of golden ornaments that comes from Ophir.  
11. Hearken, daughter, and see, and incline your ear, and forget your people and your father's house.   יא. שִׁמְעִי בַת וּרְאִי וְהַטִּי אָזְנֵךְ וְשִׁכְחִי עַמֵּךְ וּבֵית אָבִיךְ:
Hearken, daughter, and see: Hearken, O nation of Israel, and see the good way.  
and incline your ear: to the Torah.  
and forget your people: The nations among whom you were raised.  
and your father’s house: The idolatry that your fathers worshipped on the other side of the river.  
12. And the King shall desire your beauty, for He is your Lord, and prostrate yourself to Him.   יב. וְיִתְאָו הַמֶּלֶךְ יָפְיֵךְ כִּי הוּא אֲדֹנַיִךְ וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוִי לוֹ:
And the King shall desire your beauty: And if you do this, the King, the Holy One, blessed be He, will desire the beauty of your deeds.  
13. And the daughter of Tyre shall seek your presence with tribute, those who are the richest of the people.   יג. וּבַת צֹר | בְּמִנְחָה פָּנַיִךְ יְחַלּוּ עֲשִׁירֵי עָם:
And the daughter of Tyre shall seek your presence with tribute: Heb. יחלו, as (Exod. 32:11): “And Moses prayed (ויחל).” And as reward for this, you will merit that those who are now the richest of the people will bring you tribute and gifts.  
14. All honor [awaits] the King's daughter who is within; her raiment is superior to settings of gold.   יד. כָּל כְּבוּדָּה בַת מֶלֶךְ פְּנִימָה מִמִּשְׁבְּצוֹת זָהָב לְבוּשָׁהּ:
All honor [awaits] the King’s daughter who is within, etc.: Those who deserve all honor, and they are the nation of the King, who behaved with modesty now their garments will be more esteemed than the settings of gold of the High Priests. משבצוֹת is chatons in French, settings.  
15. With embroidered garments, she will be brought to the King; and virgins in her train who are her companions will be brought to You.   טו. לִרְקָמוֹת תּוּבַל לַמֶּלֶךְ בְּתוּלוֹת אַחֲרֶיהָ רֵעוֹתֶיהָ מוּבָאוֹת לָךְ:
With embroidered garments, she will be brought to the King: In embroidered garments, they will bring her as a gift to the King of all the earth. רקמוֹת is a broderies in French. This is what is stated (Isa. 66:20): “And they shall bring all your brethren from all the nations as a tribute, etc.”  
virgins in her train who are her companions: Some of the idolatrous nations will follow them, as the matter that is stated (Zech. 8:23): “shall take hold of the skirt of a Jewish man, saying, ‘Let us go with you, for we have heard that God is with you.’”  
will be brought to You: The Psalmist addresses the Holy One, blessed be He.  
16. They shall be brought with joy and exultation; they shall come forth into the King's palace.   טז. תּוּבַלְנָה בִּשְׂמָחֹת וָגִיל תְּבוֹאֶינָה בְּהֵיכַל מֶלֶךְ:
17. Instead of your forefathers will be your sons; you shall appoint them as princes throughout the land.   יז. תַּחַת אֲבֹתֶיךָ יִהְיוּ בָנֶיךָ תְּשִׁיתֵמוֹ לְשָׂרִים בְּכָל הָאָרֶץ:
Instead of your forefathers, etc.: He addresses each Israelite.  
18. I will mention Your name in every generation; therefore peoples shall thank You forever and ever.   יח. אַזְכִּירָה שִׁמְךָ בְּכָל דֹּר וָדֹר עַל כֵּן עַמִּים יְהוֹדוּךָ לְעֹלָם וָעֶד:
I will mention Your name: The Psalmist addresses the Holy One, blessed be He.  
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