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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Tehillim - Psalms - Chapter 37

Tehillim - Psalms - Chapter 37

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 37

1. Of David. Do not compete with the evildoers; do not envy those who commit injustice.   א. לְדָוִד | אַל תִּתְחַר בַּמְּרֵעִים אַל תְּקַנֵּא בְּעֹשֵׂי עַוְלָה:
Do not compete with the evildoers: He reproves Israel that they should not compete with the success of the evildoers to do as their deeds, as (in Jer. 12:5): “how will you compete (תתחרה) with horses,” to run as they run, a atir in Old French, to compete.  
do not envy those who commit injustice: to commit injustice like them.  
2. For they will be speedily cut off like grass and wither like green vegetation.   ב. כִּי כֶחָצִיר מְהֵרָה יִמָּלוּ וּכְיֶרֶק דֶּשֶׁא יִבּוֹלוּן:
they will be… cut off: Heb. ימלו, seront tronke in Old French, they will be cut off, an expression of cutting off.  
3. Trust in the Lord and do good; dwell in the land and be nourished by faith.   ג. בְּטַח בַּיהֹוָה וַעֲשֵׂה טוֹב שְׁכָן אֶרֶץ וּרְעֵה אֱמוּנָה:
Trust in the Lord: and do not say, “If I do not rob and steal,” or “If I give charity to a poor man, how will I sustain myself?”  
and do good: Then you will dwell in the land for a long time.  
and be nourished by faith: You will eat and be sustained from the reward of [your] faith, that you believed in the Holy One, blessed be He, to rely on Him and do good.  
4. So shall you delight in the Lord, and He will give you what your heart desires.   ד. וְהִתְעַנַּג עַל יְהֹוָה וְיִתֶּן לְךָ מִשְׁאֲלֹת לִבֶּךָ:
So shall you delight in the Lord: Enjoy delights by being supported by the Holy One, blessed be He.  
5. Commit your way to the Lord, and trust in Him and He will act.   ה. גּוֹל עַל יְהֹוָה דַּרְכֶּךָ וּבְטַח עָלָיו וְהוּא יַעֲשֶׂה:
Commit your way to the Lord: Commit all your needs to Him.  
6. And He will reveal your righteousness like the light, and your judgments like noon.   ו. וְהוֹצִיא כָאוֹר צִדְקֶךָ וּמִשְׁפָּטֶךָ כַּצָּהֳרָיִם:
7. Wait for the Lord and hope for Him; do not compete with one whose way prospers, with a man who executes malicious plans.   ז. דּוֹם | לַיהֹוָה וְהִתְחוֹלֵל לוֹ אַל תִּתְחַר בְּמַצְלִיחַ דַּרְכּוֹ בְּאִישׁ עֹשֶׂה מְזִמּוֹת:
Wait for the Lord: Heb. דום. Wait for His salvation, as (in I Sam. 14:9): “If they say thus to us, ‘Wait (דמו) !’ ” mentioned regarding Jonathan. Menachem (p. 64), however, associates it as an expression of silence, as (in Lev. 10:3): “and Aaron was silent (וידם).” He likewise interpreted (Lam. 3:26): "It is good that one should wait quietly (ודומם) in this manner, and Dunash (p. 27) concurs with him.  
and hope: Heb. והתחולל, an expression of hope (תוחלת).  
do not compete: saying, “I will be as wicked as he, and I will prosper as he does.”  
8. Desist from anger and forsake wrath; do not compete only to do evil.   ח. הֶרֶף מֵאַף וַעֲזֹב חֵמָה אַל תִּתְחַר אַךְ לְהָרֵעַ:
Desist from anger: Desist from being wicked so that anger does not come upon you.  
and forsake: a matter that will bring upon you the wrath of the Holy One, blessed be He.  
9. For evildoers shall be cut off, and those who hope for the Lord-they will inherit the land.   ט. כִּי מְרֵעִים יִכָּרֵתוּן וְקוֵֹי יְהֹוָה הֵמָּה יִירְשׁוּ אָרֶץ:
For evildoers: whom you now see prosperingthey will be cut off.  
10. A short while longer and the wicked man is not here, and you shall look at his place and he is not there.   י. וְעוֹד מְעַט וְאֵין רָשָׁע וְהִתְבּוֹנַנְתָּ עַל מְקוֹמוֹ וְאֵינֶנּוּ:
A short while longer: When you wait a little longer, you will see that the wicked man is not here.  
and you shall look at his place: and you shall look at the place where he was, and he is not there, because he has died and has perished.  
11. But the humble shall inherit the land, and they shall delight in much peace.   יא. וַעֲנָוִים יִירְשׁוּ אָרֶץ וְהִתְעַנְּגוּ עַל רֹב שָׁלוֹם:
12. The wicked man plots against the righteous and gnashes his teeth at him.   יב. זֹמֵם רָשָׁע לַצַּדִּיק וְחֹרֵק עָלָיו שִׁנָּיו:
and gnashes: Heb. וחרק, as (in Lam. 2:16): “and gnashed (ויחרקו) their teeth”; e rechineynt in Old French.  
13. The Lord will scoff at him because He saw that his day will come.   יג. אֲדֹנָי יִשְׂחַק לוֹ כִּי רָאָה כִּי יָבֹא יוֹמוֹ:
14. The wicked initiated war and bent their bow to cast down the poor and the needy, to slay those who walk on a straight path.   יד. חֶרֶב | פָּתְחוּ רְשָׁעִים וְדָרְכוּ קַשְׁתָּם לְהַפִּיל עָנִי וְאֶבְיוֹן לִטְבוֹחַ יִשְׁרֵי דָרֶךְ:
initiated war: the wicked initiated quarrel and strife without previous provocation.  
15. Their sword shall enter their heart, and their bows shall be broken.   טו. חַרְבָּם תָּבוֹא בְלִבָּם וְקַשְּׁתוֹתָם תִּשָּׁבַרְנָה:
16. The few of the righteous are better than the multitude of many wicked men.   טז. טוֹב מְעַט לַצַּדִּיק מֵהֲמוֹן רְשָׁעִים רַבִּים:
The few of the righteous are better: The few men who go to the aid of the righteous are better.  
than the multitude of many wicked men: Amraphel and his allies initiated a war in the world for the purpose of capturing Lot and provoking Abraham, but the few who were with Abraham succeeded and wiped out all those armies.  
17. For the arms of the wicked shall be broken, but the Lord supports the righteous.   יז. כִּי זְרוֹעוֹת רְשָׁעִים תִּשָּׁבַרְנָה וְסוֹמֵךְ צַדִּיקִים יְהֹוָה:
18. The Lord knows the days of the innocent, and their inheritance will be forever.   יח. יוֹדֵעַ יְהֹוָה יְמֵי תְמִימִם וְנַחֲלָתָם לְעוֹלָם תִּהְיֶה:
The Lord knows the days of the innocent: He recognizes the deeds of their days, and their inheritance and the reception of their reward from Him shall be forever.  
19. They will not be ashamed in time of calamity, and in days of famine they shall still be satisfied.   יט. לֹא יֵבֹשׁוּ בְּעֵת רָעָה וּבִימֵי רְעָבוֹן יִשְׂבָּעוּ:
20. For the wicked will perish, and the enemies of the Lord are like disappearing light on the plains; they are consumed in smoke, yea they are consumed.   כ. כִּי רְשָׁעִים | יֹאבֵדוּ וְאֹיְבֵי יְהֹוָה כִּיקַר כָּרִים כָּלוּ בֶעָשָׁן כָּלוּ:
like disappearing light on the plains: Heb. כרים כיקר, like the light of the morning cloud, which appears at dawn and glistens on the broad plains, which does not last. כרים means a plain, as (in Isa. 30:23): “a wide plain (כר נרחב).” כיקר is an expression of “disappearing light (אור יקרות)” (as in Zech. 14:6). Others interpret כיקר כרים : like the glory of lambs that are fattened for the slaughter.  
21. A wicked man borrows and does not pay, but the Righteous one is gracious and gives.   כא. לוֶֹה רָשָׁע וְלֹא יְשַׁלֵּם וְצַדִּיק חוֹנֵן וְנוֹתֵן:
A wicked man borrows and does not pay, but the Righteous is gracious and gives: The Holy One, blessed be He, Who is the Righteous One of the world, is gracious with His own and gives it to the one who lent what he [the borrower] stole from him.  
22. For those blessed by Him will inherit the land, and those cursed by Him will be cut off.   כב. כִּי מְבֹרָכָיו יִירְשׁוּ אָרֶץ וּמְקֻלָּלָיו יִכָּרֵתוּ:
For those blessed by Him: By the Righteous One of the world, shall inherit the land.  
23. From the Lord a mighty man's steps are established, for He delights in his way.   כג. מֵיְהֹוָה מִצְעֲדֵי גֶבֶר כּוֹנָנוּ וְדַרְכּוֹ יֶחְפָּץ:
a mighty man’s steps: He who is mighty in the fear of the Holy One, blessed be He; les pas du fort in French, the steps of the strong one.  
are established: Fureut afettetes in French, are prepared for reality.  
24. If he falls, he will not be cast down, for the Lord supports his hand.   כד. כִּי יִפֹּל לֹא יוּטָל כִּי יְהֹוָה סוֹמֵךְ יָדוֹ:
If he falls: Heb. יפל, aluverjera in Old French, falters, an expression of (Gen. 24: 64): “and she fell off the camel.”  
If: Heb. כי, like אם.  
he will not be cast down: He will not be cast away to be forsaken.  
25. I was young, I also aged, and I have not seen a righteous man forsaken and his seed seeking bread.   כה. נַעַר | הָיִיתִי גַּם זָקַנְתִּי וְלֹא רָאִיתִי צַדִּיק נֶעֱזָב וְזַרְעוֹ מְבַקֶּשׁ לָחֶם:
I was young: This verse was recited by the Prince of the World (the chief angel), for if it was David, he was not so old.  
26. All day long he is gracious and lends, and his seed is due for a blessing.   כו. כָּל הַיּוֹם חוֹנֵן וּמַלְוֶה וְזַרְעוֹ לִבְרָכָה:
All day long: the righteous man is gracious to the poor and lends to them.  
and his seed: This seed that he sows with his charity will ultimately be blessed.  
27. Shun evil and do good, and dwell forever.   כז. סוּר מֵרָע וַעֲשֵׂה טוֹב וּשְׁכֹן לְעוֹלָם:
28. For the Lord loves justice, and He shall not forsake His pious ones; they will be guarded forever, but the seed of the wicked shall be cut off.   כח. כִּי יְהֹוָה | אֹהֵב מִשְׁפָּט וְלֹא יַעֲזֹב אֶת חֲסִידָיו לְעוֹלָם נִשְׁמָרוּ וְזֶרַע רְשָׁעִים נִכְרָת:
29. The righteous shall inherit the land and dwell forever in it.   כט. צַדִּיקִים יִירְשׁוּ אָרֶץ וְיִשְׁכְּנוּ לָעַד עָלֶיהָ:
30. The righteous man's mouth utters wisdom, and his tongue speaks judgment.   ל. פִּי צַדִּיק יֶהְגֶּה חָכְמָה וּלְשׁוֹנוֹ תְּדַבֵּר מִשְׁפָּט:
The righteous man’s mouth utters: at first words of wisdom in his heart to see the law that the Torah decided for each thing, and afterwards his tongue speaks judgment.  
31. The law of his God is in his heart; his feet do not falter.   לא. תּוֹרַת אֱלֹהָיו בְּלִבּוֹ לֹא תִמְעַד אֲשֻׁרָיו:
his feet do not falter: His steps do not slip.  
32. The wicked man watches for the righteous man and seeks to put him to death.   לב. צוֹפֶה רָשָׁע לַצַּדִּיק וּמְבַקֵּשׁ לַהֲמִיתוֹ:
33. The Lord shall not leave him in his hands, and He shall not condemn him [the righteous] when he [the wicked] is judged.   לג. יְהֹוָה לֹא יַעַזְבֶנּוּ בְיָדוֹ וְלֹא יַרְשִׁיעֶנּוּ בְּהִשָּׁפְטוֹ:
34. Hope to the Lord and keep His way; He will exalt you to inherit the land, and you will witness the destruction of the wicked.   לד. קַוֵּה אֶל יְהֹוָה | וּשְׁמֹר דַּרְכּוֹ וִירוֹמִמְךָ לָרֶשֶׁת אָרֶץ בְּהִכָּרֵת רְשָׁעִים תִּרְאֶה:
35. I saw a wicked man, powerful, well-rooted as a native who is fresh.   לה. רָאִיתִי רָשָׁע עָרִיץ וּמִתְעָרֶה כְּאֶזְרָח רַעֲנָן:
well-rooted: Heb. ומתערה, rooted, as (in Isa. 19:7): “the well-rooted plants (ערות) by the stream.” In the language of the Mishnah there are many [examples]: e.g. (Oktzin 3:8): “A tree that was cut off but is yet rooted by its bark.”  
as a native who is fresh: As one of the natives of the land who are well-rooted and abounding with property. And so did Menachem (p. 20) explain it: כאזרח רענן moist and growing like a well-rooted tree, and the native (אזרח) of the natives (מאזרחי) of humans are men of roots.  
36. And he passed away and behold! he is not here, and I sought him and he was not found.   לו. וַיַּעֲבֹר וְהִנֵּה אֵינֶנּוּ וָאֲבַקְשֵׁהוּ וְלֹא נִמְצָא:
37. Observe the innocent and see the upright, for there is a future for the man of peace.   לז. שְׁמָר תָּם וּרְאֵה יָשָׁר כִּי אַחֲרִית לְאִישׁ שָׁלוֹם:
Observe the innocent: Scrutinize the ways of the innocent to learn from their deeds.  
for there is a future for the man of peace: If he has no beginning, he has a future, but the transgressors, the sinners and the wicked their future has been cut off and they have been destroyed together.  
38. But transgressors were destroyed together; the future of the wicked was cut off.   לח. וּפֹשְׁעִים נִשְׁמְדוּ יַחְדָּו אַחֲרִית רְשָׁעִים נִכְרָתָה:
39. But the salvation of the righteous is from the Lord, their stronghold in time of distress.   לט. וּתְשׁוּעַת צַדִּיקִים מֵיְהֹוָה מָעוּזָּם בְּעֵת צָרָה:
40. The Lord helped them and rescued them; He rescued them from the wicked and saved them because they took refuge in Him.   מ. וַיַּעְזְרֵם יְהֹוָה וַיְפַלְּטֵם יְפַלְּטֵם מֵרְשָׁעִים וְיוֹשִׁיעֵם כִּי חָסוּ בוֹ:
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