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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Tehillim - Psalms - Chapter 32

Tehillim - Psalms - Chapter 32

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 32

1. Of David, a maskil Praiseworthy is he whose transgression is forgiven, whose sin is concealed.   א. לְדָוִד מַשְׂכִּיל אַשְׁרֵי נְשׂוּי פֶּשַׁע כְּסוּי חֲטָאָה:
Of David, a maskil: The Sages said (Pes. 117a): Every Psalm in which “maskil” is mentioned was said through an interpreter.  
Praiseworthy is he whose transgression is forgiven: Whose transgression the Holy One, Blessed Be He, forgives, and He conceals his sins. (נשוי is anpardone in Old French, pardoned. The implication is forgiveness, because the forgiveness of iniquity represents [the sin] being lifted up and withdrawn from upon a person.)  
2. Praiseworthy is the man to whom the Lord ascribes no iniquity and in whose spirit there is no guile.   ב. אַשְׁרֵי אָדָם לֹא יַחְשֹׁב יְהֹוָה לוֹ עָו‍ֹן וְאֵין בְּרוּחוֹ רְמִיָּה:
to whom the Lord ascribes no iniquity: provided that in his spirit there is no guile, thinking to revert to his “vomit.”  
3. When I was silent, my bones decayed with my moaning all day long.   ג. כִּי הֶחֱרַשְׁתִּי בָּלוּ עֲצָמָי בְּשַׁאֲגָתִי כָּל הַיּוֹם:
When I was silent: When I was silent, [when I refrained] from confessing my transgressions before You.  
my bones decayed: because of my many sighs and my worries all day, that I was worrying about the punishment.  
4. For [both] day and night Your hand is heavy upon me; my freshness was transformed as in the droughts of summer, forever.   ד. כִּי | יוֹמָם וָלַיְלָה | תִּכְבַּד עָלַי יָדֶךָ נֶהְפַּךְ לְשַׁדִּי בְּחַרְבֹנֵי קַיִץ סֶלָה:
For [both] day and night: the fear of Your hand and Your decrees was heavy upon me.  
my freshness was transformed: Heb. לשדי, my moisture, and so (in Num. 11:8): “the moisture (לשד) of oil,” the moisture of oil. This is how Dunash explained it (p. 14). Menachem (p. 171) associates [it with] an expression of plunder as (above 12:6): “from the plunder (משד) of the poor” ; (above 17:9) “Because of the wicked who have robbed me (שדוני).”  
as in the droughts of summer: Until it dries up as the drought of summer out of my worry of the heaviness of Your hand, that I was worrying about my sins; therefore…  
5. I would inform You of my sin, and I did not conceal my iniquity; I said, "I will confess my transgressions to the Lord," and You forgave the iniquity of my sin forever.   ה. חַטָּאתִי אוֹדִיעֲךָ וַעֲו‍ֹנִי לֹא כִסִּיתִי אָמַרְתִּי אוֹדֶה עֲלֵי פְשָׁעַי לַיהֹוָה וְאַתָּה נָשָׂאתָ עֲו‍ֹן חַטָּאתִי סֶלָה:
I would inform You of my sin: always. This is a present tense. For I said, It is good that I should confess my transgressions to the Lord, and now that I confessed and said to Nathan the prophet, “I have sinned,” (as in II Samuel 12:13)…  
You forgave the iniquity of my sin: as the matter that is stated there (verse 13): “Also the Lord has removed your sin, etc.”  
6. For this let every pious man pray to You at the time that You are found, only about a flood of vast waters [that] should not reach him.   ו. עַל זֹאת יִתְפַּלֵּל כָּל חָסִיד | אֵלֶיךָ לְעֵת מְצֹא רַק לְשֵׁטֶף מַיִם רַבִּים אֵלָיו לֹא יַגִּיעוּ:
at the time that You are found: When You are found to accept his prayer, and what is this?…  
only about a flood of vast waters: that they should not reach him, that he should not fall into the hands of enemies, who are like flooding waters. And so we find that David prayed for this and said (II Sam. 24:14): “Let us fall now into the hand of the Lord, for His mercies are great; but into the hand of man let me not fall.”  
7. You are a shelter for me, from an adversary You guard me; with songs of deliverance You encompass me forever,   ז. אַתָּה | סֵתֶר לִי מִצַּר תִּצְּרֵנִי רָנֵּי פַלֵּט תְּסוֹבְבֵנִי סֶלָה:
You are a shelter for me: to hide in Your shadow from before the enemy.  
You guard me: Heb. תצרני, like תשמרני.  
songs of deliverance: A song of rescue.  
You encompass me: Heb. תסובבני. This is the present tense. You always encompassed me with songs of deliverance. And so You said to me…  
8. "I will enlighten you and instruct you which way [to go]; I will wink My eye to you."   ח. אַשְׂכִּילְךָ | וְאוֹרְךָ בְּדֶרֶךְ זוּ תֵלֵךְ אִיעֲצָה עָלֶיךָ עֵינִי:
I will enlighten you and instruct you which way: to go.  
I will wink: With My eye; I will hint to you what to do. איעצה is an expression of winking the eye, as (in Prov. 16:30): “He winks (עצה) his eyes to think perverse thoughts.”  
9. Be not like a horse, like a mule that does not discern; whose mouth must be held with bit and bridle, so that when he is being groomed, he does not come near you.   ט. אַל תִּהְיוּ | כְּסוּס כְּפֶרֶד אֵין הָבִין בְּמֶתֶג וָרֶסֶן עֶדְיוֹ לִבְלוֹם בַּל קְרוֹב אֵלֶיךָ:
Be not like a horse, like a mule: which does not discern between one who benefits him and one who does him harm, for when you insert a bit into his mouth, he closes his mouth and shakes his bridle, and when you curry him and brush him, you must close his mouth and chastise him with a bit and bridle while you adorn him and groom him.  
so that… he does not come near you: So that he should not come near you to hurt you while you groom him, with bit and bridle (when he is being groomed, to close his mouth. When he is being groomedwhile you curry him and brush himyou must close his mouth with a bit and bridle so that he does not come near you.) בלימה is an expression of closing in the language of the Mishnah: Its mouth is closed (בלום), its feet are closed (מבלמות), in Tractate Bechoroth (40b). (Menachem associated לבלום, and also בלימה [Job 26:7] as an expression of regulating [p. 45].)  
10. Many are the pains of the wicked, but as for him who trusts in the Lord- kindness will encompass him.   י. רַבִּים מַכְאוֹבִים לָרָשָׁע וְהַבּוֹטֵחַ בַּיהֹוָה חֶסֶד יְסוֹבְבֶנּוּ:
11. Rejoice with the Lord and exult, You righteous, and cause all those of upright hearts to sing praises.   יא. שִׂמְחוּ בַיהֹוָה וְגִילוּ צַדִּיקִים וְהַרְנִינוּ כָּל יִשְׁרֵי לֵב:
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